Around 1051 Edgar Ætheling II King England was born to Edward "The Exile" Wessex (age 35) and Agatha at Hungary. His sobriquet Ætheling means Prince.
Flowers of History 1057. 1057. Eadward king of England (age 54), being advanced in years, sent Aldred bishop of Worcester into Hungary, and recalled thence [his father] Eadward (age 41), son of king Eadmund his brother, with the intention of making him his successor. Eadward came accordingly, with his son Eadgar (age 6) and his daughters [his sister] Margaret (age 12) and [his sister] Christina, but died not long after his arrival in the city of London, leaving the king the charge of his son Eadgar and his daughters before mentioned.
On 19 Apr 1057 [his father] Edward "The Exile" Wessex (age 41) died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. Meantime Earl William (age 38) came up from Normandy into Pevensey [Map] on the eve of St. Michael's mass; and soon after his landing was effected, they constructed a castle at the port of Hastings. This was then told to King Harold (age 44); and he gathered a large force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore. William, however, came against him unawares, ere his army was collected; but the king, nevertheless, very hardly encountered him with the men that would support him: and there was a great slaughter made on either side. There was slain King Harold (age 44), and Leofwin (age 31) his brother, and Earl Girth (age 34) his brother, with many good men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted them for the sins of the nation. Archbishop Aldred and the corporation of London were then desirous of having child Edgar (age 15) to king, as he was quite natural to them; and Edwin and Morkar promised them that they would fight with them. But the more prompt the business should ever be, so was it from day to day the later and worse; as in the end it all fared. This battle was fought on the day of Pope Calixtus: and Earl William returned to Hastings, and waited there to know whether the people would submit to him. But when he found that they would not come to him, he went up with all his force that was left and that came since to him from over sea, and ravaged all the country that he overran, until he came to Berkhampstead; where Archbishop Aldred came to meet him, with child Edgar, and Earls (age 15) Edwin and Morkar, and all the best men from London; who submitted then for need, when the most harm was done. It was very ill-advised that they did not so before, seeing that God would not better things for our sins. And they gave him hostages and took oaths: and he promised them that he would be a faithful lord to them; though in the midst of this they plundered wherever they went.
John of Worcester. Sep 1066. Harold (age 44) reigned nine months and as many days. The earls Edwin and Morcar, who had withdrawn with their troops from the battle on hearing that he was dead, went to London, and sent off their sister, queen Elgitha (age 42), to Chester; but Aldred, archbishop of York, and the earls just mentioned, with the citizens of London and the seamen, were desirous to proclaim Edgar (age 15) the etheling king, he being nephew of king Edmund Ironside; and promised that they would renew the war under his banner. But while many were preparing to go forth to battle, the earls withdrew their support, and returned home with their army.
John of Worcester. Sep 1066. Meanwhile, earl William (age 38) was laying waste Sussex, Kent, Hampshire, Surrey, Middlesex, and Herefordshire, and ceased not from burning vills and slaughtering the inhabitants, until he came to a vill called Beorcham, where Aldred, the archbishop, Wulfstan (age 58), bishop of Worcester, Walter, bishop of Hereford, Edgar (age 15) the etheling, the earls Edwin and Morcar, and some Londoners of the better sort, with many others, met him, and, giving hostages, made their submission, and swore fealty to him; but, although he concluded a treaty with them, he still allowed his troops to burn and pillage the vills. The feast of our Lord's Nativity approaching, he marched the whole army to London that he might be proclaimed king there; and as Stigand, the primate of all England, lay under the censure of the apostolical pope for not having obtained the pall canonically, he was anointed by Aldred, archbishop of York, with great ceremony, at Westminster, on Christmas-day, which that year fell on a Monday; having first, as the archbishop required, sworn before the altar of St. Peter the apostle, in the presence of the clergy and people, to protect the holy churches of God and their governors, and to rule the whole nation subject to him with justice and kingly providence, to make and maintain just laws, and straitly to forbid every sort of rapine and all unrighteous judgements.
On 15 Oct 1066 Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 15) was appointed II King England.
Flowers of History. Before 25 Dec 1066. And as they all fled to Malcolm, king of Scotland (age 35), they were all honorably received by him. Then also, Edgar Atheling (age 15), the legitimate heir of the kingdom of England, seeing his country plundered and disturbed on all sides, embarked on board ship with his mother [his mother] Agatha, and his sisters [his sister] Margaret (age 21) and [his sister] Christina (age 9), and endeavoured to return into Hungary, where he had been born; but, a tempest arising, he was compelled to land on the coast of Scotland. And, in consequence of the occasion thus offered, it came to pass that Margaret (age 21) was given as a bride to King Malcolm (age 35), whose exemplary life and virtuous death are plainly set forth in a book specially composed on that subject. But his sister Christina (age 9) became a nun, and deserves our benediction as one who was married for ever to a heavenly bridegroom.
John of Worcester. 1067. Lent drawing near [21st February], king William (age 39) returned to Normandy, taking with him Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, Athelnoth, abbot of Glastonbury, Edgar (age 16) the etheling, the earls Edwin and Morcar, Waltheof, son of earl Siward, the noble Ethelnoth, reeve of Kent, and many others of the chief men of England; leaving his brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and William Fitz-Osborne, whom he had created earl of Hereford, governors of England, with orders to build strong castles in suitable places.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1067. This summer the child Edgar (age 16) departed, with his mother [his mother] Agatha, and his two sisters, [his sister] Margaret (age 22) and [his sister] Christina (age 10), and Merle-Sweyne, and many good men with them; and came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm (age 35), who entertained them all. Then began King Malcolm (age 35) to yearn after the child's sister, Margaret (age 22), to wife; but he and all his men long refused; and she also herself was averse, and said that she would neither have him nor any one else, if the Supreme Power would grant, that she in her maidenhood might please the mighty Lord with a carnal heart, in this short life, in pure continence. The king (age 35), however, earnestly urged her brother (age 16), until he answered Yea. And indeed he durst not otherwise; for they were come into his kingdom. So that then it was fulfilled, as God had long ere foreshowed; and else it could not be; as he himself saith in his gospel: that "not even a sparrow on the ground may fall, without his foreshowing." The prescient Creator wist long before what he of her would have done; for that she should increase the glory of God in this land, lead the king aright from the path of error, bend him and his people together to a better way, and suppress the bad customs which the nation formerly followed: all which she afterwards did. The king (age 35) therefore received her, though it was against her will, and was pleased with her manners, and thanked God, who in his might had given him such a match. He wisely bethought himself, as he was a prudent man, and turned himself to God, and renounced all impurity; accordingly, as the apostle Paul, the teacher of all the gentries, saith: "Salvabitur vir infidelis per mulierem fidelem; sic et mulier infidelis per virum fidelem," etc.: that is in our language, "Full oft the unbelieving husband is sanctified and healed through the believing wife, and so belike the wife through the believing husband." This queen (age 22) aforesaid performed afterwards many useful deeds in this land to the glory of God, and also in her royal estate she well conducted herself, as her nature was. Of a faithful and noble kin was she sprung. Her father was [his father] Edward Etheling, son of King Edmund. Edmund was the son of Ethelred; Ethelred the son of Edgar; Edgar the son of Edred; and so forth in that royal line: and her maternal kindred goeth to the Emperor Henry, who had the sovereignty over Rome. This year went out Githa, Harold's mother, and the wives of many good men with her, to the Flat-Holm, and there abode some time; and so departed thence over sea to St. Omer's.
John of Worcester. 1068. After Easter [23rd March], the countess Matilda (age 37) came to England from Normandy, and was crowned queen by Aldred, archbishop of York, on Whitsunday [1lth May]. After this, Mariesweyn and Cospatric, and some of the most noble of the Northumbrian nation, in order to escape the king's tyranny, and fearing that, like others, they might be thrown into prison, took with them Edgar (age 17) the etheling, with his mother [his mother] Agatha and his two sisters, [his sister] Margaret (age 23) and [his sister] Christina (age 11), and, embarking for Scotland, wintered there under favour of Malcolm (age 36), king of Scots. Meanwhile, king William (age 40) marched his army to Nottingham [Map], and, having fortified the castle there, proceeded to York [Map], where he erected two strong forts, and having stationed in them five hundred men, he gave orders that strong castles should be built at Lincoln [Map] and other places.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1068. This year King William (age 40) gave Earl Robert the earldom over Northumberland; but the landsmen attacked him in the town of Durham [Map], and slew him, and nine hundred men with him. Soon afterwards Edgar Etheling (age 17) came with all the Northumbrians to York; and the townsmen made a treaty with him: but King William (age 40) came from the South unawares on them with a large army, and put them to flight, and slew on the spot those who could not escape; which were many hundred men; and plundered the town. St. Peter's minster [Map] he made a profanation, and all other places also he despoiled and trampled upon; and the etheling (age 17) went back again to Scotland. After this came Harold's sons from Ireland, about midsummer, with sixty-four ships into the mouth of the Taft, where they unwarily landed: and Earl Breon came unawares against them with a large army, and fought with them, and slew there all the best men that were in the fleet; and the others, being small forces, escaped to the ships: and Harold's sons went back to Ireland again.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1069. This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is there buried, at his see [Map]. He died on the day of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years wanting only fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark three of the sons of King Sweyne (age 50) with two hundred and forty ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar (age 18), and Earl Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also the holy minster of St. Peter [Map] had they entirely plundered, and destroyed with fire. When the king heard this, then went he northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them. The king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land, and came to Winchester at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and his brother Egelwine was outlawed. This year also died Brand, Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of December.
John of Worcester. 08 Sep 1069. Before the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September] Harold (age 29) and Canute (age 27), sons of Sweyn (age 50), king of Denmark, and their uncle, earl Asbiorn, with earl Thurkill, arriving from Denmark with two hundred and forty ships, landed at the mouth of the river Humber, where they were met by Edgar (age 18) the etheling, earl Waltheof, Marlesweyn, and many others, with a fleet they had assembled. Aldred, archbishop of York, was so distressed at their arrival, that he fell dangerously sick, and departed this life, as he besought of God, on Friday the third of the ides [the 11th] of September, in the tenth year after he became archbishop, and was buried in the church of St. Peter on the eighth day afterwards, namely, on Saturday the thirteenth of the calends of October [19th September]. The Normans, who garrisoned the forts, set fire to the adjacent houses, fearing that they might be of service to the Danes in filling up the trenches; and the flames spreading, destroyed the whole city, together with the monastery of St. Peter. But they were speedily punished for this by an infliction of the divine vengeance; for on Monday the Danish fleet arrived before the city was entirely consumed, and the forts being stormed the same day, and more than three thousand of the Normans killed (the lives of William Malet and his wife and two children, with very few others, being spared), the ships drew off laden with plunder.
John of Worcester. 1073. William (age 45), king of England, reduced to subjection the city of Mans [Map], and the province belonging to it, chiefly by the aid of the English whom he had taken over with him. Edgar (age 22) the etheling came from Scotland to Normandy, passing through England; and was reconciled to the king (age 45).
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1074. This year King William (age 46) went over sea to Normandy; and child Edgar (age 23) came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's mass-day; where King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister [his sister] Margaret (age 29) received him with much pomp. At the same time sent Philip, the King of France (age 21), a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would give him the castle of Montreuil [Map]; that he might afterwards daily annoy his enemies. What then? King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister Margaret (age 29) gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures; in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with great pomp from his territory. But in their voyage evil befel them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they also themselves came with difficulty to the land. Their treasure was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the French; but he himself and his best men returned again to Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably mounted. Then King Malcolm (age 42) advised him to send to King William (age 46) over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king gave it him, and sent after him. Again, therefore, King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and again conducted him very magnificently from their territory. The sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king. Then King William (age 46) received him with much pomp; and he was there afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to him by law.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1086. Then he went into Normandy; and Edgar Etheling (age 35), the relation of King Edward, revolted from him, for he received not much honour from him; but may the Almighty God give him honour hereafter. And [his sister] Christina (age 29), the sister of the etheling (age 35), went into the monastery of Rumsey [Map], and received the holy veil.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1091. In this year the King William (age 35) held his court at Christmas in Westminster, and thereafter at Candlemas he went, for the annoyance of his brother, out of England into Normandy. Whilst he was there, their reconciliation took place, on the condition, that the earl put into his hands Feschamp, and the earldom of Ou, and Cherbourg; and in addition to this, that the king's (age 35) men should be secure in the castles that they had won against the will of the earl. And the king (age 35) in return promised him those many [castles] that their father had formerly won, and also to reduce those that had revolted from the earl, also all that his father had there beyond, except those that he had then given the king (age 35), and that all those, that in England before for the earl had lost their land, should have it again by this treaty, and that the earl should have in England just so much as was specified in this agreement. And if the earl died without a son by lawful wedlock, the king (age 35) should be heir of all Normandy; and by virtue of this same treaty, if the king (age 35) died, the earl should be heir of all England. To this treaty swore twelve of the best men of the king's (age 35) side, and twelve of the earl's, though it stood but a little while afterwards. In the midst of this treaty was Edgar Etheling (age 40) deprived of the land that the earl had before permitted him to keep in hand; and he went out of Normandy to the king (age 35), his sister's husband, in Scotland, and to his sister. Whilst the King William (age 35) was out of England, the King Malcolm (age 59) of Scotland came hither into England, and overran a great deal of it, until the good men that governed this land sent an army against him and repulsed him. When the King William (age 35) in Normandy [Map] heard this, then prepared he his departure, and came to England, and his brother, the Earl Robert (age 40), with him; and he soon issued an order to collect a force both naval and military; but the naval force, ere it could come to Scotland, perished almost miserably, a few days before St. Michael's mass. And the king (age 35) and his brother proceeded with the land-force; but when the King Malcolm (age 59) heard that they were resolved to seek him with an army, he went with his force out of Scotland into Lothaine in England, and there abode. When the King William (age 35) came near with his army, then interceded between them Earl Robert (age 40), and Edgar Etheling (age 40), and so made the peace of the king (age 35)s, that the King Malcolm (age 59) came to our king (age 35), and did homage114, promising all such obedience as he formerly paid to his father; and that he confirmed with an oath. And the King William (age 35) promised him in land and in all things whatever he formerly had under his father. In this settlement was also Edgar Etheling (age 40) united with the king (age 35). And the king (age 35)s then with much satisfaction departed; yet that stood but a little while. And the Earl Robert (age 40) tarried here full nigh until Christmas with the king (age 35), and during this time found but little of the truth of their agreement; and two days before that tide he took ship in the Isle of Wight, and went into Normandy, and Edgar Etheling (age 40) with him.
Note 114. Literally "became his man"—"Ic becom eowr man" was the formula of doing homage.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1093. In this year, during Lent, was the King William (age 37) at Glocester so sick, that he was by all reported dead. And in his illness he made many good promises to lead his own life aright; to grant peace and protection to the churches of God, and never more again with fee to sell; to have none but righteous laws amongst his people. The archbishopric of Canterbury, that before remained in his own hand, he transferred to Anselm (age 60), who was before Abbot of Bec; to Robert his chancellor the bishopric of Lincoln; and to many minsters he gave land; but that he afterwards took away, when he was better, and annulled all the good laws that he promised us before. Then after this sent the King of Scotland, and demanded the fulfilment of the treaty that was promised him. And the King William (age 37) cited him to Glocester, and sent him hostages to Scotland; and Edgar Etheling (age 42), afterwards, and the men returned, that brought him with great dignity to the king (age 37). But when he came to the king (age 37), he could not be considered worthy either of our king's (age 37) speech, or of the conditions that were formerly promised him. For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm (age 61) returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him; and Robert, the Earl of Northumberland, surrounded him unawares with his men, and slew him. Morel of Barnborough slew him, who was the earl's steward, and a baptismal friend115 of King Malcolm (age 61). With him was also slain Edward his son; who after him should have been king (age 37), if he had lived. When the good Queen [his sister] Margaret (age 48) heard this-her most beloved lord and son thus betrayed she was in her mind almost distracted to death. She with her priests went to church, and performed her rites, and prayed before God, that she might give up the ghost. And the Scots then chose116 Dufenal to king, Malcolm's brother, and drove out all the English that formerly were with the King Malcolm (age 61). When Duncan, King Malcolm's (age 61) son, heard all that had thus taken place (he was then in the King William's (age 37) court, because his father had given him as a hostage to our king's (age 37) father, and so he lived here afterwards), he came to the king (age 37), and did such fealty as the king (age 37) required at his hands; and so with his permission went to Scotland, with all the support that he could get of English and French, and deprived his uncle Dufenal of the kingdom, and was received as king. But the Scots afterwards gathered some force together, and slew full nigh all his men; and he himself with a few made his escape.117 Afterwards they were reconciled, on the condition that he never again brought into the land English or French.
Note 115. Literally a "gossip"; but such are the changes which words undergo in their meaning as well as in their form, that a title of honour formerly implying a spiritual relationship in God, is now applied only to those whose conversation resembles the contemptible tittle-tattle of a Christening.
Note 116. From this expression it is evident, that though preference was naturally and properly given to hereditary claims, the monarchy of Scotland, as well as of England, was in principle "elective". The doctrine of hereditary, of divine, of indefeasible "right", is of modern growth.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1097. In this year was the King William (age 41) at Christmas in Normandy; and afterwards against Easter he embarked for this land; for that he thought to hold his court at Winchester; but he was weather-bound until Easter-eve, when he first landed at Arundel; and for this reason held his court at Windsor. And thereafter with a great army he went into Wales, and quickly penetrated that land with his forces, through some of the Welsh who were come to him, and were his guides; and he remained in that country from midsummer nearly until August, and suffered much loss there in men and in horses, and also in many other things. The Welshmen, after they had revolted from the king (age 41), chose them many elders from themselves; one of whom was called Cadwgan124, who was the worthiest of them, being brother's son to King Griffin. And when the king (age 41) saw that he could do nothing in furtherance of his will, he returned again into this land; and soon after that he let his men build castles on the borders. Then upon the feast of St. Michael, the fourth day before the nones of October125, appeared an uncommon star, shining in the evening, and soon hastening to set. It126 was seen south-west, and the ray that stood off from it was thought very long, shining south-east. And it appeared on this wise nearly all the week. Many men supposed that it was a comet. Soon after this Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury (age 64) obtained leave127 of the king (age 41) (though it was contrary to the wishes of the king (age 41), as men supposed), and went over sea; because he thought that men in this country did little according to right and after his instruction. And the king (age 41) thereafter upon St. Martin's mass went over sea into Normandy; but whilst he was waiting for fair weather, his court in the county where they lay, did the most harm that ever court or army could do in a friendly and peaceable land. This was in all things a very heavy-timed year, and beyond measure laborious from badness of weather, both when men attempted to till the land, and afterwards to gather the fruits of their tilth; and from unjust contributions they never rested. Many counties also that were confined to London by work, were grievously oppressed on account of the wall that they were building about the tower, and the bridge that was nearly all afloat, and the work of the king's (age 41) hall that they were building at Westminster; and many men perished thereby. Also in this same year soon after Michaelmas went Edgar Etheling (age 46) with an army through the king's (age 41) assistance into Scotland, and with hard fighting won that land, and drove out the King Dufnal; and his nephew Edgar, who was son of King Malcolm and of Margaret the queen, he there appointed king in fealty to the King William (age 41); and afterwards again returned to England.
Note 124. This name is now written, improperly, Cadogan; though the ancient pronunciation continues. "Cadung", "Ann. Wav." erroneously, perhaps, for "Cadugn".
Note 125. It was evidently, therefore, not on Michaelmas day, but during the continuance of the mass or festival which was celebrated till the octave following.
Note 126. In the original "he"; so that the Saxons agreed with the Greeks and Romans with respect to the gender of a comet.
Note 127. Literally "took leave": hence the modern phrase to signify the departure of one person from another, which in feudal times could not be done without leave or permission formally obtained.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1106. After this, and before August, went the king (age 38) over sea into Normandy; and almost all that were in that land submitted to his will, except Robert de Belesme (age 50) and the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and a few others of the principal persons who yet held with the Earl of Normandy (age 55). For this reason the king (age 38) afterwards advanced with an army, and beset a castle of the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), called Tenerchebrai.136 Whilst the king (age 38) beset the castle, came the Earl Robert (age 55) of Normandy on Michaelmas eve against the king (age 38) with his army, and with him Robert of Belesme (age 50), and William, Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and all that would be with them; but the strength and the victory were the king's (age 38). There was the Earl of Normandy (age 55) taken, and the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and Robert of Stutteville, and afterwards sent to England, and put into custody. Robert of Belesme (age 50) was there put to flight, and William Crispin was taken, and many others forthwith. Edgar Etheling (age 55), who a little before had gone over from the king (age 38) to the earl, was also there taken, whom the king (age 38) afterwards let go unpunished. Then went the king (age 38) over all that was in Normandy, and settled it according to his will and discretion.
Note 136. Now Tinchebrai.
William Warenne 2nd Earl Surrey and Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan (age 66). Elias La Flèche De Baugency I Count Maine commanded the reserve. The following fought for Henry:
William "Brito aka Breton" D'Aubigny (age 20).
Alan Canhiart IV Duke Brittany (age 43).
Raoul Tosny (age 26).
William "Pincerna aka Butler" D'Aubigny (age 42).
Robert Grandesmil (age 28), and.
Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 55) was captured and spent the next twenty-eight years in prison; never released.
Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 55) was captured and subsequently released; Henry had married to Edgar's niece Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 26) in 1100.
Robert II Belleme 2nd Count Ponthieu 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 50) escaped.
Robert Stuteville was captured.
Around 1126 Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 75) died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Then on midwinter's day Archbishop Aldred hallowed him to king at Westminster, and gave him possession with the books of Christ, and also swore him, ere that he would set the crown on his head, that he would so well govern this nation as any before him best did, if they would be faithful to him. Nevertheless he laid very heavy tribute on men, and in Lent went over sea to Normandy, taking with him Archbishop Stigand, and Abbot Aylnoth of Glastonbury, and the child Edgar, and the Earls Edwin, Morkar, and Waltheof, and many other good men of England. Bishop Odo and Earl William lived here afterwards, and wrought castles widely through this country, and harassed the miserable people; and ever since has evil increased very much. May the end be good, when God will! In that same expedition92 was Leofric, Abbot of Peterborough; who sickened there, and came home, and died soon after, on the night of Allhallow-mass. God honour his soul! In his day was all bliss and all good at Peterborough. He was beloved by all; so that the king gave to St. Peter and him the abbey at Burton, and that at Coventry, which the Earl Leofric, who was his uncle, had formerly made; with that of Croyland, and that of Thorney. He did so much good to the minster of Peterborough [Map], in gold, and in silver, and in shroud, and in land, as no other ever did before him, nor any one after him. But now was Gilden-borough become a wretched borough. The monks then chose for abbot Provost Brand, because he was a very good man, and very wise; and sent him to Edgar Etheling, for that the land-folk supposed that he should be king: and the etheling received him gladly. When King William heard say that, he was very wroth, and said that the abbot had renounced him: but good men went between them, and reconciled them; because the abbot was a good man. He gave the king forty marks of gold for his reconciliation; and he lived but a little while after-only three years. Afterwards came all wretchedness and all evil to the minster. God have mercy on it!
Note 92. i.e. in the expedition against the usurper William.
Kings Wessex: Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England