Biography of John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555

Paternal Family Tree: Russell

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1536 Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Coronation of Edward VI

1549 Prayer Book Rebellion

1549 Prayer Book Rebellion

Around 1485 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford was born to James Russell (age 30) and Alice Wise.

In 1505 [his father] James Russell (age 50) died.

In 1510 John Broughton of Toddington, Bedfordshire and [his future wife] Anne Sapcote Countess Bedford (age 31) were married.

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 3: Parishes: Chenies. John Broughton died in 151842, and by 1523 [his future wife] Anne (age 39) was the wife of Richard Jermingham43. He died before 1526, in which year Anne (age 39) married John Lord Russell (age 33)44, the favourite of Henry VIII (age 26), who stayed at Chenies [Map] in 153445. Lord Russell was made lord high admiral in 154046, and in 1541 the privy council met at Chenies47. In 1550 Russell was created Earl of Bedford, and on his death in 1555 he was buried in the mausoleum in Chenies Church built by his widow Anne48, and in which all the succeeding Earls and Dukes of Bedford lie buried.

Note 42. Ibid. xxxiii, 108.

Note 43. Feet of F. Div. Co. East. 15 Hen. VIII; Bucks. East. 15 Hen. VIII.

Note 44. Dict. Nat. Biog.; Feet of F. Bucks Trin. and Mich. 20 Hen. VIII.

Note 45. L. and P. Hen. VIII, vii, 965.

Note 46. Ibid. xvi, 1339; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Note 47. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, 1287.

Note 48. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.

Before 1523 Richard Jerningham and [his future wife] Anne Sapcote Countess Bedford (age 43) were married.

Around Apr 1526 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 41) and Anne Sapcote Countess Bedford (age 47) were married.

Around 1527 [his son] Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford was born to John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 42) and [his wife] Anne Sapcote Countess Bedford (age 48).

In 1528 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 43) was appointed High Sheriff of Dorset.

In 1528 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 43) was appointed High Sheriff of Somerset.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 26 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 301. 4422. Sir J. Russell (age 43) To Wolsey.

Sends letters received by the King, from my lord of Ossory, concerning the taking of the Vice-deputy and the misrule in Ireland. The King thinks none so meet for the government as my lord of Ossory, or Master Butler, his son, and wishes Wolsey to dispatch them as soon as possible. Wolsey knows the son's activity. The father is an honorable man, wise and hardy, but stricken in age, and not so able to follow the wars. The King is much troubled with this disease of sweat. Tonight there have fallen sick my lord and Lady Marques, Sir Thos. Cheyney (age 43), and Mrs. Croke. Norres and Wallop are recovered. Poynes (deceased) is dead. Today the King removes to Bishop's Hatfield, accompanied only by the Privy Chamber and Master Kyngeston. Last night he took Master Bryan into the Privy Chamber. Hartford, 26 June. Signed.

In 1529 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 44) was elected MP Buckinghamshire.

In 1536 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 51) was appointed Privy Council.

Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

Letters 1536. 12 May 1536. R. O. 854. Sir John Russell (age 51) to Lord Lisle (age 72).

On behalf of the bearer, who has been sore troubled to his utter undoing unless Lisle will make him a victualler in his retinue. Today Mr. Norres (age 54) and such other as you know are cast, and the Queen (age 35) shall go to her judgment on Monday next. I have delivered the King your letters. I wonder your Lordship did not write to me that I might have made suit for you. Westm., 12 May. Signed. P. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.

Letters 1536. [3 Jun 1536]. R. O. 1047. Sir John Russell (age 51) to Lord Lisle (age 72).

I presented the King with the cherries in my lady's name, and he thanks both you and her. I also delivered your letter to the King, who commanded Mr. Secretary to read it. Mr. Secretary said he would do anything for your Lordship that he could, and I think you are much bound to him. I cannot tell what will be the effect of your letter. I told the King the news of what was between the French and the Flemings, and how the captain of Gralyng took two Gascon merchants. Word came by Rokewood to Robert Semer that war was proclaimed between Flanders and France, but I informed the King that it was not true, as I was sure you would write me that with other news. On Friday last the Queen (age 27) sat abroad as Queen, and was served by her own servants, who were sworn that same day. The King came in his great boat to Greenwich that day with his privy chamber, and the Queen (age 27) and the ladies in the great barge. I assure you she is as gentle a lady as ever I knew, and as fair a Queen as any in Christendom. "The King hath come out of hell into heaven for the gentleness in this and the cursedness and the unhappiness in the other." You would do well to write to the King again that you rejoice he is so well matched with so gracious a woman as is reported. This will please the King. I thank you for your present. Greenwich, Whitsun even. Signed.

Pp. 2. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.

Birth and Christening Edward VI

On 15 Oct 1537 the future Edward VI was christened by Bishop John Stokesley (age 62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 21) were Godparents.

King Edward VI of England and Ireland was created Duke Cornwall, 1st Earl Chester.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long (age 43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 52), Philip Boteler (age 45), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 66) and John Gage (age 57) attended. Mary Scrope (age 61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried the canopy.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton (age 48) attended.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) was created 1st Earl Hertford.

Nicholas Carew (age 41), Francis Bryan (age 47), Anthony Browne (age 37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 52) surrounded the font.

Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire (age 27), Edward Neville (age 66), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 29), Richard Long (age 43) and John Wallop (age 47) carried the canopy.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton and Bishop John Bell attended.

William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 47) was created 1st Earl of Southampton. Mabel Clifford Countess Southampton (age 55) by marriage Countess of Southampton.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 18 Oct 1837. Also, on Saint Lukes daiec, being Thursdaie, the Prince was proclaymed at the court "Edward, sonne and heire to King Henrie the Eight, Prince of Wales, Duke of Comewall, and Earle of Chesterd." Also the King made that daie tow earles and six knightes, that is to saie: Mr. Fittes Williams, Lord Admirall and Vice-Treasorer, was made Earle of Hamptone, and the Queenes brother, Viscount Beawchamp, was made Earle of Hertfordef and Mr. Powlett was made Vice-Treasorer,a and Sir John Russell, Controler of the Kinges howse, Mr. Henageb, Mr. Longc, and Mr. Knevett of the Kinges Privie Chamber, knightes, and Mr. Coffin, and Mr. Listred, knightes and Mr. Semere, the Queenes brother, knight..

Note c. October 18th.

Note d. This passage would seem to countenance the common account that the infant prince was almost immediately invested with these titles, whereas he himself tells us in his journal that he was only about to be created so when his father died, in which he is confirmed by Burnet, who says that Edward was called Prince of Wales, as the heirs to this crown are, yet he was not invested with that dignity by a formal creation.

Note e. William Fitzwilliam, descended from the ancestor of the present Earl Fitswilliam, was created Earl of Southampton, October 18th, 1537.

Note f. By which title he is known until the accession, in 1547, of his nephew Edward VI. when he was created Duke of Somerset, and was made Lord Protector of the Kingdom.

Note a. Sir William Poulet, Comptroller of the Household, was made Treasurer of the Household in 1587, when the Comptrollership was conferred on Sir John Russell, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, who eventually became first Earl of Bedford.

Note b. Thomas Hennage.

Note c. Richard Long, Master of the Buckhonnds.

Note d. Richard Lister, Chief Baron of the Exchequer.

Note e. The Queen's younger brother, Thomas Seymour.

On 09 Mar 1539 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 54) was created 1st Baron Russell of Cheneys.

On 18 May 1539 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 54) was appointed 301st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 47).

On 09 May 1546 George Blagge (age 34) was induced to deny the efficacy of the Mass, by trickery he alleged, while walking home after church. He was immediately summoned by Thomas Wriothesley (age 40), the Lord Chancellor, and sent to Newgate Prison [Map]. At his trial at the Guildhall [Map], the main witnesses for the prosecution were Littleton (age 41) and Sir Hugh Calverley (age 42), MP for Cheshire. On their evidence, Blagge (age 34) was sentenced to be burned for heresy the following Wednesday. Fortunately for him, the Lord Privy Seal, John Russell (age 61), appealed on his behalf to the king (age 54), who had not heard of the proceedings to that point. Henry (age 54) immediately pardoned Blagge and ordered Wriothesley to release him.

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 Henry VIII (age 55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9), Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 30) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 13).

The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne (age 46), Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 57), Anthony Denny (age 45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 45), Edward Montagu (age 61), Edward North 1st Baron North (age 50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 61), Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 46), Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall (age 72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton (age 41).

Coronation of Edward VI

On 20 Feb 1547 King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) was crowned VI King England at Westminster Abbey [Map].

John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 62) was appointed Lord High Steward. Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl of Arundel (age 34) was appointed Constable of England.

Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montagu (age 18), George Vernon "King of the Peak" (age 39), Richard Devereux (age 34) and William Sharington (age 52) were created Knight of the Bath.

Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 33), Edward Courtenay, William Sharington (age 52), John Shelton (age 44) and Walter Buckler were knighted.

Edward Dymoke (age 39) attended as the King's Champion.

Alexander Unton (age 53) and Edward Rogers (age 49) were knighted.

Before 1548 [his son] Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 21) and [his daughter-in-law] Margaret St John Countess Bedford (age 14) were married. He the son of John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 62) and Anne Sapcote Countess Bedford (age 68).

Prayer Book Rebellion

After Jun 1549 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 64) appointed Anthony Kingston (age 41) to bring the Prayer Book Rebellion rebels to justice. They included: Nicholas Boyer, the mayor of Bodmin and John Payne, portreeve of St Ives; Mayor Mayow of Gluvian in the parish of St Columb was hanged outside a tavern in St Columb. A number of priests were hanged, including Richard Bennett, vicar of St Veep and St Neot, Simon Morton, vicar of Poundstock, and the curate of Pillaton.

1549 Prayer Book Rebellion

Diary of Edward VI. Aug 1549. After that thei gathered at Launston, to whom the lord Prevy scale (age 64) and sir William Herbert (age 48)2 went, and overthrue them, taking their chief heades and executing them. Nevertheles some sayled to Brigewater [Map] and went about sedicion, but were quikely repressed. Hitherto of Devonshire.

Note 2. Sir William Herbert (age 48), then master of the King's horses, and afterwards earl of Pembroke, brought a thousand Welshmen, who, says Hooker, though they came too late to the fray, were yet soon enough to the play; for the whole country was then put to the spoil.

Diary of Edward VI. Aug 1549. To Devonshier the lord Previ-seal (age 64)1 was sent, who with his band, being but smal, lay at Honington whils the rebels besieged Exciter [Map], who did rise divers preaty feates of warre. For after divers skirmishes, when the gatis were burnt, thei in the cite did continew the fir(e), til thei had mad a ramper within. Also afterward, when they were underminded and pouder was laid in the mind, thei within drouned the pouder and the mind with water they cast in; wich the lord Previ-seal hearing, thought to a gone to renforce them a bie way; of wich the rebels having spial, cut al the trees betwixt St. Mary-Outrie and Exciter. For wich cause the lord Previ-seal burnt that toun, and thought to returne home. The rebels kept a brig behind his bake, and so compelled him with his smal band to set upon them, wich he did and overcam them, killing 600 of them, and returning hom without any loss of men. Then the lord Gray (age 40) and Spinula2 with their bandis came to him, and afterward Gray (age 40) (sic) with 200 of Reding, with wich bands he being renforcid came to raise the sieg at Exciter, for bicaus thei had scarcety of vitel; and as he passed from Hunniagton, he cam to a little towne of his owne, whether cam but only tow waies, wich thei had ranforced with tow bulwarkes mad of earth, and had put to the defence of the same about 2000 men, and the rest the(y) had layed, some at a brige called Honnington brige, partly at a certein hedg in a hie way, and the most part at the sieg of Exciter. The rierward of the horsmen, of which Travers was captain, set upon the on(e) bulwark, the vauard and battail on the tother. Spiaula's band kept them occupied at their wale. At lenght Travers drove them into the towne, wich the lord Previ-seal burnt. Then thei rane to a bridg thereby; from whence being driven their were in a plain about 900 of them slain. The next day ther wer mete about other 2000 of them at the entrie of a hie way, who first desired to talk, and in the meane season fortified them selves, wich being perceived they ranne ther wayes, and that same night the cite of Exitter was delivered of the siege.1a

Note 1. John lord Russell (age 64), shortly after made earl of Bedford. Some of his despatches to the council on this occasion will be found in Strype's Memorials, vol. ii. Records, DD.; also in Wiffen's Memorials of the House of Eussell, i. 369.

Note 2. "Captaine Paule Baptist Spinola, an Italian, borne of a noble house in Genoa, with a band of Italian footmen" Holinshed, p. 1651.

Note 1a. A very full narrative of the Devonshire rebellion, written by John Vowell, alias Hooker, chamberlain of Exeter, accompanied by a "description of the citie," was first published in the edition of 1586 of Holinshed's Chronicle, and it occupies in the edition of 1808 pp. 926-963 of vol. iii. It was also printed distinctly in 4to. 1775. Great pains were taken to refute the religious doctrines advanced in their "supplication" or manifesto: and several drafts of "the King's answer" thereto are preserved in the State Paper office, which Mr. Tytler has partly printed, i. 178 — 182; but a much more elaborate reply was compiled by Cranmer, which will be found at length in his works (Parker Soc, edition), ii. 163—187.

Holinshed's Chronicle 1548. Aug 1549. For the pacifieng of these rebels, were appointed by the king and his councell, sir Iohn Russell (age 64) knight lord priuie seale, the lord Greie of Wilton (age 40), sir William Herbert (age 48) after earle of Penbroke, sir Iohn Paulet, sir Hugh Paulet, sir Thomas Speake, and others, with a conuenient power of men of warre both on horssebacke and foot. Amongst others, there were certeine strangers that came with my lord Greie, as capteine Germane an Hennower, with a band of horssemen, most part Albanoises and Italians. Also capteine Paule Baptist Spinola an Italian borne of a noble house in Genoa, with a band of Italian footmen. But now the lord priuie seale that was ordeined by the king and his councell, generall of that armie, vpon his first approching towards them, sent vnto them the kings maiesties proclamation: the effect whereof was, that all such persons as were vnlawfullie assembled, and did not within thrée daies next after the proclaming thereof, yéeld and submit themselues to the lord priuie seale (the kings lieutenant) they should from thenceforth be deemed, accepted, and taken for rebels against his roiall person, and his imperiall crowne and dignitie.

Diary of Edward VI. 06 Oct 1549. In the meane season in Englond rose great sturres, like to increase much if it had not been well forseen.1 The counsel, about 19 of them, were gathered in London, thinking to mete with the lord Protectour (age 49), and to make him amend some of his disordres. He, fearing his state, caused the secretary [Petre (age 44)] in my name to be sent to the lordes, to know for what cause they gathered their powres togethers, and, if they ment to talke with him, that they should come in peacable maner. The next morning, being the 6 of October, and Saturday [Sunday], he commaunded the armoure to be brought downe out of th'armury of Hampton court, about 600 harnesses, to arme both his and my men withal, the gates of the hous to be rempared; peple to be raysed. Peple came abundantly to the house. That night, with al the peple, at 9 or 10 a cloke at night, I went to Windsore [Map], and there was watch and ward kept every night. The lordis sat in open places of London, calling for gentlemen before them, and declaring the causes of accusation of the lord Protectour (age 49), and caused the same to be proclaimed. After wich time few came to Windsore, but only myn owne men of the garde, whom the lordes willed, fearing the rage of the peple so lately quietid. Then begane the Protectour (age 49) to treate by letters, sending Sir Philip Hobbey (age 44), lately cum from his ambassad in Flaundres to see to his famyly, who brought in his returne a letter to the Protectour (age 49) very gentle, wich he delivered to hime, another to me, another to my house, to declare his fautes, ambicion, vain glorie, entriag into rashe warres in mine youth, negligent loking on Newhaven, enriching of himself of my treasour, folowing his owne opinion, and doing al by his owne authorite, et [?]; wich lettres was openly redd, and immediately the lordes came to Windsore, toke him, and brought him through Holborn to the Tower. Afterward I came to Ampton court [Map], wheir they appointed by my consente six lordes of the counsel to be attendant on me, at lest tow, and fower knightes; lordes, the marches Northampton (age 37), th'erles of Warwike (age 45) and Arondel, lordes Russel (age 64), Seintjone, and Wentworth; knigh(tes) sir Andrew Dudely (age 42), sir Edward Rogers (age 51), sir Thomas Darcy, sir Thomas Wroth.1a After I came through London to Westmuster.2a The lord of Warwike made Admyral of England.3a Sir Thomas Cheiney sent to the em perour for relief4, wich he could not obteine. Mr. Wotton5 made secretary. The lord Protectour, by his owne agreement and submission, lost his protectourship, treasourirshipe, marchalshipe, al his moveables, and niere 2,000 pound lande, by acte of parliement.

Note 1. Under the influence of the earl of Warwick (age 45), seconded by the ex-chancellor Southampton and the Romanist party, a majority of the council now undertook to terminate the supreme dictatorship assumed by the Protector. It appears that Somerset's suspicions of his insecurity were first alarmed by learning that the councillors in London dined at each others' houses (see Tytler, p. 249); he consequently took measures on the 5th October, if not before (see the documents quoted in p. 285 hereafter), to strengthen his military resources. According to the record of the council, entered in their register, they had appointed on the morning of Sunday the 6th of October "to repayr to Hampton court, accompanied with their ordinary numbers of servants, to have had friendly communication with the lord Protectour about the reformation of the state;" when, "as they were booted and ready to have mounted upon their horses," they "were certainely advertised, as well as credible reportes of diverse gentlemen, as by letters subscribed by the hands of the said lord Protectour, that he, having some intelligence of their lordships' intents, and moved with the conscience of his ill-government, whereof he would abyde no reformation, had suddenly raised a power of the commons, to the intent, if their lordships had come to the court, to have destroyed them; which power he had levyed as well by letters whereunto he caused his Matie to set his most gracious hand, as by most sedicious bills, which he had devised for that purpose, the tenor whereof word for word foloweth. Good People," &c. (not entered in the Council Book, but preserved in the State Paper office, see hereafter, p. 242). Their lordships consequently determined to remain in London, assembling themselves at Ely Place, then the mansion of the earl of Warwick (age 45), in Holborn, where the following councillors were present: lord St. John, lord great master (who had been with the Protector at Hampton court only two days before), the earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), and Southampton, mr. secretary Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), sir Edward Wotton (age 59), and mr. doctor Wotton dean of Canterbury. Their first step was to unfold their views to the magistrates of London, who consequently held a court of aldermen at Guildhall that same afternoon, and their proceedings will be found detailed at full by Stowe. The council sent out various letters to countermand and counteract the orders issued by the Protector, and also to levy forces on their own party; and, sending for the lieutenant of the Tower of London sir John Markham, they "required him to suffer certain others to enter for the good keeping thereof to his Majesties use; whereunto the said lieutenant according, sir Edmund Peckham (age 54) knight and Leonard Chamberlayne esquire, with their servants, were commanded to enter into the Tower, as associates to the said lieutenant, for the better presidy and guard of the same."

The next morning, Monday Oct. 7, the council met at Mercers' hall in London, in number sixteen, there being present, in addition to those of the day before, the lord chancellor (age 52) (Rich), mr. treasurer (Cheyne), sir John Gage, sir Edward Mountagu, sir Ralph Sadler (age 42), and sir John Baker. They were informed that, during the previous night, the lord Protector had hastily conveyed the King from Hampton court to Windsor castle, and they directed to Windsor the letters hereafter noticed.

On the 8th, at 9 a.m. they met at Guildhall, with the further accession to their company of the marquess of Northampton (age 37) and the earl of Shrewsbury. The mayor, aldermen, and common council were ordered to attend them, and, the lord chancellor (age 52) and others (as Stowe relates) having declared divers abuses of the lord Protector, they persuaded the citizens to take their part. "The lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes, and in the afternoone proclamation was made in divers places of the cittie, with trumpets, heraults, and kings at armes, wherein was contained divers articles touching the evill government of the lord Protector."

On the 9th the council was held "at the house of mr. Yorke, sheriff of London" (this was the ancient mansion, then belonging to the Crown, called the Duke's Place in Southwark, the new sheriff being master of the mint then established there). The names of the lord privy seal (Russell), the master of the horses (Herbert (age 48)), the lord Wentworth, and the vice-chamberlain (Wingfield), are also entered as present in council; but the two former were certainly this day at Wilton, as shown by their autograph signatures to the letter mentioned hereafter, and none of the four signed the council's letters of this day.

"The tenth of October (says Stowe, but this certainly should be the 9th), by a common councell at the guild-hall, was granted five hundred men of the citie (one hundred to be horsemen) to be readie on the next morrow: and this day the lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes of London."

On the 10th, "the same appearance of the councell as before" assembled "at the house of the lord St. John, lord great master, being in London," when they were informed" that, through their former letters, and other means by them devised, and by the dihgent travail also of the archbishop of Canterbury and sir William Paget, then being at Windsor, the Kinges Matie owne servants were again restored to their places of attendance about his Matie person, and that the duke of Somerset's servants and others of the bands were sequestered from his Majtie Having received the private communication from Paget, noticed hereafter, they this day sent to Windsor sir Anthony Wingfield the vice-chamberlain, sir Anthony Sellenger one of the gentlemen of the privy chamber, and sir John Williams treasurer of the augmentations and revenues of the crown, with their servants, for the better guard of the King's person, and for the prevention of Somerset's escape. These officers effected the arrest of the duke the next morning; and, on Sunday the 12th, the lords in a body repaired to Windsor "and presented themselves forthwith before the King's Matie, most humbly on their knees, declaring to the same the occasion and order of their doings, the which his Matie did accept in most gratious part, giving to their lordships his Matie most hearty thanks." Calling before them sir Thomas Smith, sir Michael Stanhope, sir John Thynne (age 34), Edward Wolfe one of his Matie privy chamber, and William Gray esquire, of Reading, "adherents of the said duke, and the principal instruments and councellours that he did use, both at this time, and otherwise also in the affairs of his government," they charged them with their offences, and ordered them to the Tower of London, sir Thomas Smith being at the same time sequestered from the council, and deprived of his secretaryship.

On the 13th, the duke himself "being sent for t'appeare before their lordships, and charged by them with his faults, was with the others before named sent to the Tower of London, under the conduct of the earls of Sussex (not Southampton, as some of the chroniclers state) and Huntingdon, the lords Grey and Burgayny, sir John Gage constable of the Tower, and certain other gentlemen and their bands. This day also the King's Matie departed from Windsor to Hampton court."

Such is the account of this revolution which the privy council were pleased to place upon record. The course of these important events may be further traced by abundant documentary evidence, the greater part of which has been published, but scattered in various places. The two letters placed first in the annexed list may be regarded as a portion of the series — the first clouds that foreboded the coming storm: —

May 8, 1549. A letter of warning from sir William Paget to the lord Protector, remonstrating on his angry and snappish conduct towards those of the council who differed from him or ventured to express their own sentiments. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. Appendix GG.

July 7. A second, and very long, letter of expostulation and advice, written by Paget when abroad, upon hearing of the insurrection in the West. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; another in State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. viii. art. 4; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. App. HH.

Oct. 1 [or 5 ?] a letter, signed by the King and the Protector, summoning all the King's loving subjects with all haste to repair to Hampton Court, "in most defensible array, with harness and weapons, to defend his most royal person, and his most entirely beloved uncle the lord Protector, against whom certain hath attempted a most dangerous conspiracy." It is plainly dated "the furstoi October; "but was received (by a party unnamed) on "the vj of October, of George Dunstalle my lord of Canterbury's servant." In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. ix. art. 1; printed in Tytler's "England under Edward VI. and Mary," i. 205. Another (transcript) copy in the State Paper office, dated Oct. 5, is addressed "To all Justices of peace, mayers, shrives, balives, constables, hed boroughes, and all other the Kynges Matie officers and subjects."

Oct. 4. A letter from the lords at Hampton court to lord Cobham (age 52), deputy of Calais, directing him to select twenty gunners from Calais, and send them to lord Clinton (age 37) (at Boulogne), is signe.d by the Protector, archbishop Cranmer, W. St. John, Wm. Paget, and Wm. Petre (age 44). Original in MS. Harl. 284, fol. 46, printed by Tytler, i. 211.

Oct. 5. Letter of the Protector to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), then in command of the forces lately employed against the "Western rebels, requesting both of them to come to Hampton court, and the latter by post, and his servants to follow. In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI., vol. ix. art. 5; unpublished.

Letter signed by the Protector, the King's signature being prefixed by a stamp, to Sir Harry Seymour, to levy horse and foot. In State Paper office, art. 3, partly printed by Tytler, p. 213.

Oct. 6. Circular letter, of the like form, summoning those to whom it was sent to repair to Hampton court. In State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 214.

Letter under the King's signet, dated from Hampton court, addressed to the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, requiring them to levy men, to watch their gates, and to send one thousand, well harnessed, and with good and convenient weapons, to be at Hampton court that night, or at least on the morrow before noon. This was accompanied by a letter requiring credence to the bearer, Owen Claydon, signed EDWARD and SOMERSET; printed in Poxe's Actes and Monuments, under the head of "The troubles of the duke of Somerset;" and in Hollnshed's Chronicle.

Letter under the King's signet to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), announcing that "suche a henous and grevus conspiracye as never was seen, is attempted against us," &c. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 9.

Another like letter to the same parties, desiring them to assemble with all expedition as many men, both horse and foot, as they could, and bring them to Hampton court. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 8.

A third letter to the same, representing the matter more at fuU, and desiring them to repair "with such force as ye have" to Windsor castle. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, art. 6; printed by Foxe, Actes and Monuments.

A shorter letter of the same date desiring the same parties to give credence to lord Edward Seymour, the Protector's eldest son, who was the bearer of one or more of the preceding letters. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 7.

A letter from the Protector to the earl of Shrewsbury, requiring his aid; printed in Lodge's Illustrations of British History, i. 135.

Letter of certain of the council to the lord mayor, &c. denouncing the conduct of the Protector, and requiring that no harness, weapons, or munitions should be sent to him. It is signed by nine councillors — St. John, Northampton (age 37), Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Southampton, Petre (age 44), North, Gage, and Southwell; printed in Foxe and Holinshed.

Circular letter of the council in London, being a summons to arm in support of their side of the dispute. An original copy, undirected, but having the autograph signatures of R. Ryche, cane, W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Henry Sussex, T. Cheyne, Edward North, and John Gage: in the State Paper office, art. 10.

Oct. 7. Circular letters from the council to the sheriffs, forbidding the levies ordered to be raised by the Protector. One undirected is preserved in the State Paper office, art. 20, bearing the autograph signatures of the same councillors as above, except Cheyne.

Another letter nearly of the same import, addressed to certain commissioners: signed Kke the last, excepting that it wants the names of the earls of Arundel (age 37) and Shrewsbury, and has that of Edward Mountagu. Ibid. art. 21.

Letters under the signet, signed both by the King and Somerset, directing levies to be made by the bailiffs of Uxbridge, Hillington, and Cullam. Dated "at our castle of Windsor." Original in State Paper office, art. 15.

Letter of the lord Protector, now at Windsor, to the lords in London, declaring his intention, "if you will take no other way but violence, to defend us (as nature and our allegiance doth bind us) to extremity of death, and to put all to God's hand, who giveth the victory as it pleaseth him." He desires an answer either by secretary Petre (age 44), whom he had sent with a message, or, if they would not let him leave them, by the bearer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 16, signed only by the Protector's hand, printed by Tytler, p. 214; also previously pubHshed by Foxe, Holinshed, and Stowe.

The lords of the council in London to those at Windsor, requiring the duke of Somerset to absent himself from his Majesty, and to disperse the force which he had levied. "Consider, my lords, for God's sake, we heartely pray you, that we be almost the hole Councell," viz. the chancellor Eich, lord great master St. John, marquess of Northampton (age 37), earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Shrewsbury, and Southampton, sir Thomas Cheyne, sir William Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir John Gage, sir Ealph Sadleyr, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), and dr. Nicholas Wotton — in all fourteen. Sent by master Hunnings, a clerk of the council. Original in MS. Cotton. Calig. B. vn. fol. 404; printed in Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. ii. App. No. 44; Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 166. Draft copy in State Paper office, art. 22.

Letter to the King, signed by the same councillors, with the addition of sir Edward Mountagu. Original in MS. Cotton. Titus, B. ii. fol. 35; three draft copies in State Paper office, Nos. 17, 18, and 20; printed in Burnet's History of the Keformation, Part II. Book I. Eecords, No. 41.

To this day (Oct. 7) probably belongs a document which Mr. Tytler has edited, i. 207, with the date Oct. 4, from the State Paper office, art. 13, being suggestions for a letter to be written by the King strongly justifying the general conduct of the Protector. On the second leaf of the same sheet are various memoranda in the same handwriting, (but not copied by Tytler,) consisting partly of informations and partly of suggestions, apparently intended for the eye of the Protector. Among the latter are these: —

"Also that the Kinges matie wold make a letter unto the Maior, sherifes and aldremen of the citie, and to be delyvered unto the messenger by the Kinges own hande.

"Also lettre unto the lordes wylleng that asm any of them as are his treue honorable [subjects] shuld repayre unto him against his ennemys, or else they sought his blode aswell as his uncle's."

A previous paragraph states, "Also that upon sondaie [Oct. 6] my lorde grete m"^ [St. John] entered into the Tower of London to the Kinges use, and have made mr. Peckeham [sir Edward Peckham, treasurer of the mint,] lieutenant therof, and given him allowance for a table."

"Also the disobedyence of mr. Markham [the lieutenant of the Tower] in his office.

"Also that sir Thomas Darcy is laid in the Tower as a traytor."

Oct. 8. Circular letters to counties, countermanding the duke of Somerset's orders for levies, and charging all men to follow their vocations peaceably. Two copies (undirected), each bearing the autograph signatures of — E. Eyche, cane. W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Thomas' Southampton, William Petre (age 44), Nicholas Wotton, Edward Mountagu, Jo. Baker, are in the State Paper office, art. 28, 29.

Autograph letter of Harry lord Morley, acknowledging the council's summons, and expressing his readiness "with that pore power I have within one bower's warnyng, so ether to lyve or to dy." Dated from Mark hall. In State Paper office, art. 30.

Reply of the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), written from Andover, to the lord Protector: after having received other letters from the lords dated the same day (Oct. 6) as the Protector's letter to them. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 217: the substance given in Foxe's Actes and Monuments.

Letter from the lords at Windsor (Cranmer, Paget, and Smith) to those in London, in answer to theirs sent the day before. Original in the State Paper office, art. 26, printed by Tytler, p. 223; contemporary transcript in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 406; also printed in Stowe's Chronicle, and by Todd, in his Life of Cranmer, 1832, vol, iii. p. 57, Strype and Sharon Turner having considered the archbishop to have been the writer of it.

Letter from the King to the lords in London, entreating them to hold a moderate course; being accompanied by "certain articles exhibited unto us by our said uncle, signed with his own hand." Original in the State Paper office, art. 24; printed by Tytler, p. 220. Draft copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 405.

"Articles offered by me the lord Protector to the King's majestic, in the presence of his highnes counsail and other his majesties lordes and gentlemen at Wyndesor, to be declared in my behalf to the lordes and the reste of his highnes counsail remayning in London." Original in the State Paper office, marked 24 i. It is signed both at the beginning and end by the King, and at the foot by Somerset: contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 407; printed in Burnet, No. 42; Ellis, I. ii. 173.

Private letter from the duke of Somerset to the earl of Warwick (age 45), soliciting reconciliation. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Private letter from secretary Smith to secretary Petre (age 44), earnestly begging him to advocate moderation. Original in the State Paper office, art. 27, printed by Tytler, p. 228. There is also (art. 39) a second letter of Smith to Petre (age 44), which commences with thanking "my lords of Warwicke (age 45), Arondell, and yow, that my brother George had leave to come and visite me." It is written in a tone somewhat less anxious than the other, yet it is difficult to say whether a few hours before or a few hours after.

Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) was the bearer of these five documents. On the same day the council were actively proceeding in their prosecution of the Protector, by issuing a public proclamation. The charges it contained against him are given by Foxe and by Stowe.

Oct. 9. The following anecdote regarding this day is related on the authority of sir Thomas Smith, who remained faithful to the Protector: —

"Sir Phillip Hobby, [having] receaved an answere of the lordes in London by letter, came out of London, and by the way, faininge he had loste his letter out of his poquet, said to his man he would returne for a newe, and willed him to goe to the courte and tell the Counsell all should be well. This excuse was of purpose before devised by the lords, to the end they might winne tyme the better that they might doe their feates. The next daye he came to the courte with a letter to the Kinge from the lordes, and before he delivered said thus —

"Sir Phillip Hobby's saying or mesuage declared to the duke of Somerset, the archebishop of Canterbury, sir W. Pagett mr. comptrolor, sir Thomas Smithe secretary, in the presence of mr. Cecill, sir John Thinne, sir Richard Cotton, and divers others; reported by sir Thomas Smith.'" MS. Harl. 353, fol. 77; printed by Tytler, p. 238.

Letter from the lords in London, to the King. Printed from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 43. Draft copy in the State Paper office, art. 35.

Reply of the lords in London to those at Windsor, sent by sir Philip Hoby (age 44). Original, with fifteen autograph signatures, in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 408; draft copy in State Paper office, art. 37; printed from the former in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 169; and from the Council book by Burnet, No. 44.

Letter from the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48) to the lords of the council, dated from Wilton, they having retired farther with their military forces, instead of advancing. Original in State Paper office, art. 31, printed by Tytler, p. 231.

Letter of the lord privy seal and sir W. Herbert (age 48) to the sheriff of Gloucestershire. "The like letters are goone unto other shirrefes, not only to the sherrifes, but also to every justice of peace and gentleman privately." Summoning levies to repair to Wilton, from which town the letter is dated. Contemporary copy in the State Paper office, art. 31 i.

Letters, addressed to the lady Mary and the lady Elizabeth respectively, relating, on the part of the council, the events that had occurred, and denouncing the pride and ambition of the Protector. Original draft in the State Paper office, art. 33; printed by Tytler, p. 248.

Oct. 10. Letter of the archbishop of Canterbury, sir William Paget, and sir Thomas Smith, the lords at Windsor, acknowledging the receipt of the letter brought by sir Philip Hoby (age 44), and professing themselves ready to obey the directions of those in London. Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) returned with their submission. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. VII. fol. 412; printed in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 171; also printed, from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 45.

Letter from the lords in London to sir William Paget, acknowledging a credence sent them by his servant Bedill, and desiring him to give firm credence to the bearer mr. vicechamberlain sir Anthony Wingfield, who was also captain of the guard. In a postscript (to wliicli the council repeated their signatures), it was intimated to Paget that "if yow shall see any good oportunite for this purpose, and if it may be conveniently doon, as by your sei-vant's message it semed," the duke should be apprehended, and also secretary Smith, sir John Thynne, Richard Whalley, and William Cycill, who was then the duke's private secretary and master of his court of requests. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 410; printed by Ellis, I. ii. 173.

A Proclamacion, set furth by the body and state of the Kynges majesties privey counsayle, concernyng the devisers, writers and casters abrode of certain vile, slaunderous, and moste trayterous letters, billes, scrowes, and papers, tendyng to the seducement of the Kynges majesties good and lovyng subjectes: persons "whiche do labor now to maintain the trayterous doynges of the duke of Somerset," for that purpose "doon devise the moste vile, false, and traiterous billes, papers, and bokes that ever wer hard of, strawyng the same in the stretes, as well within the citie of London as in diverse tounes and other places in the country, wherein thei do falsely and traitorously travaile to slaunder the Kynges majesties oounsaill, thinkynge thereby to amase and abuse his majesties good subjects, whiche bee in areadinesse to joyne with the said counsaill for delivery of the Kyng our sovereigne lordes most royall persone, remainyng to his greate perill and daunger in the saied duke's custody." A reward of one hundred crounes is offered for the apprehension of every offender. This document, of which the draft is in the State Paper office, art. 40, is extant in an original broadside copy preserved in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries, It is subscribed by the names of all the following councillors:

The Lorde Riche (age 52), Lord Chancellor.

The Lorde Sainct Jhon, Lorde Great Master, and President of the Counsaill.

The Lorde Eussell, Lorde Privey Scale,

The Lorde Marques of Northampton (age 37).

The Erle of Warwicke (age 45), Lorde Greate Chamberlain.

The Erle of Arundell (age 37), Lorde Chamberlain.

The Erle of Shrewsbery,

The Erle of Southampton,

The Lorde Wentworth.

Sir Thomas Cheiney, Knight of the Order, and Threasaurer of the Kynges Maiesties house, and Lord Warden of the Cinque Portes.

Sir Willyam Herbert (age 48), Knight, Master of the Kynges Majesties horses.

Sir Anthony Wingfeld, Knight of the Order, the Kynges Majesties vice Chamberlein, and Capitain of the Garde.

Sir Jhon Gage, Knight of the Order, Constable of the Towre.

Sir Willyam Petre (age 44), Knight, Secretary.

Sir Edward North, Knight.

Sir Edward Montague, Knight, Chief Justice of the Comon Place.

Sir Raufe Sadler (age 42), Knight.

Sir Jhon Baker, Knight.

Sir Edward Wotton (age 59), Knight.

Master doctor Wotton, Deane of Cantorbury.

Sir Richard Southwell (age 46), Knight.

Sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), Knyght, high Threasaurer of all the Kynges Majesties Myntes.

Of the handbills mentioned in this proclamation, two are preserved in the State Paper office: one (art. 11 of the volume so often cited) commencing, "Moste loving and trew Ynglishmen," and signed, "By the Kynges true and loving subject to his poure, Henry A." This is supposed to have been "cast about" in the city of London (see before, p. 233), and it is indorsed. Rede itt and gyve itt furth. (Printed by Tytler, p. 209: the word "conspire" in p. 210, should be read serve?) The other (art. 12) is indorsed, "The copie of the bill sowed emongest the commons" (printed by Tytler, p. 210, where, for "the extortions of gentlemen," read "the extortiouse gentylmen"). There can be little doubt that this was the very bill which the lord privy seal found at Andover; where, he tells the council, "The gentlemen had received like letters from the King's majestie as we had done; and the commons had found bills that were sown abroad, to raise them in the Kinges name and the Protector's quarrel, as by a copy of one of the same bills, which ye shall also receive herewith, your Lordships may more plainly perceive." In his letter written to the duke of Somerset the day before, Russell had directly taxed him with the authorship of these papers: "Your Grace's proclamations and billets sent abroad for the raising of the commons we mishke very much." It is to be considered that the nobility, with great effort and much difficidty, had very recently succeeded in suppressing various insurrections, which they attributed in part to the Protector's former conduct towards the comnion people; they now detected him in acts calculated to provoke a repetition of such troubles. This indiscretion had the effect of arraying them against him, and throwing them into the hands of the more subtle and insidious Warwick (age 45).

Oct. 11. Letter written partly by Wingfield, and partly by Paget, signifying to the council the arrest of the duke, and describing the King's behaviour. It is signed also by Cranmer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 42; printed by Tytler, p. 241.

Minute of the whole discourse of the duke of Somerset's doings, addressed to the English ambassadors abroad. In the State Paper office, art. 41.

A circular letter from the council to counties, announcing the dispersal of the forces assembled by the duke of Somerset, and staying any further musters. Contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Titus, B, ir. fol. 30.

Another circular letter announcing the duke's arrest, and directing the parties addressed "to staye your nombres at home, without taking eny further traveile for this matter." One with the autograph signatures of eleven councillors in State Paper office, art. 44.

Oct. 14. Letter of the council to the lieutenant of the Tower, that he sujBfer no one to speak with the duke of Somerset or any other prisoner. Ibid. art. 45.

Articles objected to the duke of Somerset. These have never been edited accurately. The most perfect printed copy is that in Stowe's Chronicle (but in article 12 for Iniunction read Commission; in article 26 the 6 instead of "9 of October," and there are other errors.) In Foxe's Actes and Monuments, the 29 articles are reduced to 20, by the omission of the 10th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th. Hohnshed follows Foxe. Hay ward's copy (Life and Eeign of King Edward VI.) is imperfect, by the omission of the 28th article, as well as by a modernization of the language throughout; and Burnet copies Hayward. Strype in his Life of Cramner, p. 265, has pointed out the significance of the 10th article, which charged the Protector with having laid the blame of the insurrections on the nobility; and it is to be regretted that Strype did not print the draft copy which he had seen. It was, as he imagined, in the handwriting of bishop Gardiner: but this was a very bold surmise. Strype is in error in attributing these articles to the time of the duke's "second apprehension and trial." There is an old transcript of the whole 29 articles in MS. Addit. Brit. Mus. 9069; which is worth consulting if no other can be recovered.

Dec. 23. The duke of Somerset's submission, having read and considered the said 29 articles. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Feb. 2. His second submission, dated from the Tower. Also in Stowe.

Feb. 6. His recognizance in 1000/. to reside at the King's manor of Sheen or his own house at Syon, without passing the limit of four miles from either house. In the Eegister of the Privy Council.

The 6 of February the duke of Somerset was delivered out of the Tower, and that night he supped at sir John Yorke's, one of the sheriffes of London," (Stowe,) where, it appears from the council book, the lords assembled to welcome him.

Feb. 16. A pardon to the duke by letters patent under this date is printed in Rymer, Foedera, &c. xv. 205.

Note 1a. Of the "four principal gentlemen of his Highness' privy chambre" (the knights) it was also ordered that "two at the least should be continually attendants, .. to whom was advanced, above their accustomed fee of L li. by the yeare, the yearly fee of L li. more, in consideration of the singular care and travail that they should have about his Majesties person." (Council Book.) See further arrangements under the 20th April, 1550, hereafter.

On 19 Jan 1550 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 65) was created 1st Earl Bedford. [his wife] Anne Sapcote Countess Bedford (age 71) by marriage Countess Bedford.

Diary of Edward VI. 19 Jan 1550. Mr. Paget2 surrendring his controllership, Was made lord Paget of Beaudesert, and cited into the hier house by a writte of parliement.

Note 2. "The 19 of January sir John Russell (age 65), lord privie seale, was created Earl of Bedford; William Paulet (age 67), lord Saint John, lord great master, was created earle of Wiltshire; and sir William Paget (age 44), comptroller of the King's house, was made lord Paget." Stowe's Chronicle.

Annales of England by John Stow. 22 Jan 1550. The 22 of January John earle of Bedford (age 65), William L. Paget (age 44), Sir Wil. Peter Knight, one of the kings Secretaries, and Sir John Mason (age 47) knight, chiefe clearke of the Counfell, were sent into France Ambassadours to the French king.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Nov 1551. The ij day of November cam to Londun from Hamton courtte [Map] and landyd at Benard castyll [Map] the old Qwyne of Schottes (age 35), and cam rydyng to the bysshope('s) palles at Powlles with many lordes, the duke of Suffoke (age 34), my lord marqwes of Northamptun (age 39), my lord of Warwyke (age 24), the lord Welebe (age 34), my lord Haward (age 41), my lord Rosselle (age 66), lord Bray, and dyvers mo lords and knyghtes and gentyllmen, and then cam the Qwyne of Schottes and alle owre lades and her gentyll women and owre gentyll women to the nomber of a C. and ther was sent her mony grett gyftes by the mayre and aldermen, as beyffes, mottuns, velles, swines, bred, wylld ffulle, wyne, bere, spysys, and alle thyngs, and qwaylles, sturgeon, wod and colles, and samons, by dyver men.

Note. Visit of the old queen of Scots. The queen dowager of Scotland (Mary of Guise) embarked at Edinburgh to visit her daughter in France, Sept. 7, 1550. On her return she landed at Portsmouth on the 2d Nov. 1551. (Lettres de Marie Stuart, edited by the Prince Alexandre Labanoff, 8vo. 1844, vol. i. 5.) The privy council addressed, "25 Sept. 1551. A Letter to the lord chauncelor requiring him to passe under the greate seal a saulf-conduct graunted by the kinges majestie to the dowager of Scotlande, and to retayne with him for a record the originall thereof sent him signed by his highnes." The saulf-conduct itself is printed in Rymer's Collection, xv. 290: it bears an earlier date, viz. 17 Sept. Some subsequent minutes of the Privy Council relating to preparations for this visit are given by Strype. There are many particulars of it in king Edward's Diary, and a narrative of the queen's reception is in MS. Harl. 290, art. 2.

Note. Funeral of sir Michael Lyster. The name of the lord chief justice of the king's bench was sir Richard Lyster, but that of his eldest son, here recorded, was sir Michael. See the memoir on the monument of sir Richard Lyster at St. Michael's church, Southampton, by Sir F. Madden, in the Winchester volume of the Archæological Institute. There is a portrait of a lady Lyster among the Holbein Heads: it may be doubtful to which lady of the name it belongs (see the pedigree given by Sir F. Madden); but Mr. Lodge, in his accompanying memoir, supposed it to be that of lady Mary, daughter of the earl of Southampton, wife of sir Richard, grandson of the chief justice. (See her funeral afterwards, p. 273.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Dec 1551. The vij day of Desember at Hyd parke [Map] a gret muster of men of armes: the furst the kynges trumpeters; [then] my lord Bray, in gylt harnes, captayn of the pe[nsioners, and a] gret baner of the kynges armes; and then cam the pensyoners in caumplet harnes, and gret hars, in [white and] blake, v and v a ranke, and after them cam the[ir servants, in number] a C. with grett harse, and harnes in whyt and blake, [and speres]. The secound my lord Tresorer, a C. men of arms, broderyd cott, red and whyt, and ther spers, ys [standard] a faucon of gold. The iij was [the] duke of Northumberland (age 47), with [C. men] of armes in welvet in-brodery, trumpeters, [his standard] a lyon crounyd gold. The iiij my lord marqws Northamtun (age 39) a C. men of armes, in yelow and [black], spers and pensels and trumpeters. The yerlle of Bedford (age 66) a C. men of armes and [in] red and whyt, ys standard a gott whyt, and a trumpeter, and pensels and spers, cotes red and whyt and blake. The yerle of Rottland (age 25) a C. men of armes in yelow and bluw; ys standard a pekoke, and pensels. The yerle of Huntyntun (age 37) men of armes 1. in bluw, and speres, and standard, and pensels. The yerle of Penbroke (age 50) C. men of armes. My lord Cobam (age 54) 1. men of armes, in blak and whyt. My lord Chamburlayne l. men of armes, cote(s) of whyt [and] red, and speres cotes in-brodere, and pensels. M. tresorer Cheyney a C. men of armes, all blake, and speres and pensells, by-syd costerells and geton.... and armes a-pone the blake at ... pryche the Skott of saynt Peters in Cornhyll ... the morow dyd pryche doythur Bartelett a godly ... at the berehyng was the masters and compeny of the ...

Note. Muster in Hyde Park. This is described nearly in the same terms in the King's diary. Burnet has misprinted the date Dec. 4 instead of 7.

Note. The Scot of St. Peter's in Cornhill. This preacher has been before mentioned in p. 6 as "the Skott the curett" of St. Peter's. Whether he was the same as Richardson, whose popularity as a preacher is mentioned in p. 91, has not been ascertained.

In 1552 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 67) was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Devon.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1553. The x day of January [Note. Probably February] rod my lade Mare('s) (age 36) grasse from Saynt [John's] and thrugh Flettstrett unto the kyng at Westmynster, with a grett nombur of lords and knyghtes, and alle the [great] women lades, the duches of Suffoke (age 35) and Northumberland (age 44), my lade marqwes of Northamptun (age 26), and lade marqwes of Wynchester, and the [his wife] contes of Bedfford (age 74), and the contes of Shrowsbere (age 53), and the contes of Arundelle, my lade Clynton (age 26), my lade Browne (age 24) and Browne [sic in manuscript], and many mo lades and gentyllwomen; and at the oter gatt ther mett her my lord of Suffoke (age 36) and my lord of Northumberland (age 49), my lord of Wynchester (age 70), my lord of Bedfford (age 68), and therle of Shrusbery (age 53), the therle of Arundell (age 40), my lord Chamburlayn, my lord Admerolle, and a gret nomber of knyghtes and gentyllmen, and so up unto the chambur of pressens, and ther the Kynges (age 15) grace mett her and salutyd her.... owyn a-pon payne of presunmentt and a grett [penalty, as ye] shalle fynd in the actes in secund yere of kyng ... the perlementt tyme of the sayd yere, and nott to be ... plasse as taverns, alle-howses, ines, or wher ... for cummers and gestes, and has commandyd unto alle shreyffes and baylles, constabulls, justes of pesse, or any .. thay shall se truthe (and) justys as thay shalle [inform the] kyng and ys consell, and bryng them to pressun of ... sun or poyssuns as be the offenders ther off for ... her of odur.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1553. The sam tyme cam to the Flett [Map] the yerle of Ruttland (age 26) and my lord Russell (age 68), in hold. The qwen('s) (age 37) grace mad [sir Thomas] Jarnyngham [Note. Thomas a mistake for Henry] vyce-chamburlayn and captayne of the garde, and ser Edward Hastyngs (age 32) her grace mad ym the maister of the horsse the sam tym.

On 14 Mar 1555 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 70) died. His son [his son] Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 28) succeeded 2nd Earl Bedford, 2nd Baron Russell of Cheneys. [his daughter-in-law] Margaret St John Countess Bedford (age 22) by marriage Countess Bedford.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Mar 1555. [The xx day of March the earl of Bedford (deceased), lord privy-seal, who died at his house beside the Savoy, was carried to his buryingplace in the country, called Chenies, with three hundred horse all in black. He was carried with three crosses,] with mony clerkes and prestes, [till they came to the hill] a-boyffe sant James, and ther returnyd [certain of them] home; and thay had torchys and almes and money gyven them. And after evere man sett in aray on horssebake. First on red in blake bayryng a crosse of sylver, and serten prestes on horsebake wayryng ther surples; then cam the standard, and then all the gentyllmen and hed officers; and then cam haroldes, on beyryng ys elmet, and the mantylls, and the crest, and anodur ys baner of armes, and anodur ys target with the garter, and anodur ys cott armur; and anodur ys sword: and then master Garter in ys ryche cott armur and then cam the charett with vj banars rolles of armes, and a-bowt the charett iiij banars of ymages, and after the charet a gret horsse trapyd in cloth of gold with the sadyll of the sam; and then cam mornars, the cheyffe (of whom) my [his son] lord Russell (age 28) ys sune, and after my lord trayssorer (age 72), and the master of the horse (age 34), and dyver odur nobull men all in blake; and evere towne that he whent thrughe the clarkes and prestes mett ym with crosses; and they had in evere parryche iiij nobuls to gyffe to the pore, and the prest and clarke of evere parryche xs., tyll he cam to ys plasse at Cheynes; and the morowe after was he bered, and a grett doll of money; and ther the deyn of Powlles mad a godly sermon; and after a grett dener, and great plenty to all the contrey a-bowt that wold com thether.

Note. P. 83. Funeral of the earl of Bedford. John first earl of Bedford, K.G. created lord Russell 1539, and an earl in 1550. See a portrait with memoirs of him in Wiffen's House of Russell, vol. i.; another in Lodge's Illustrious Portraits; and his portrait is also in the collection by Houbraken, and in Chamberlain's Holbein Heads. The chapel at Chenies, which has ever since been the cemetery of the Russells, was built by his widow in 1556, in pursuance of his last will. His effigy at Chenies is described in Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire: but in the inscription, "Lord President of the Western Portes" is an error for Partes.

On 14 Mar 1559 [his former wife] Anne Sapcote Countess Bedford (age 80) died.

[his father] James Russell and [his mother] Alice Wise were married.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. Then began a certain grudge to arise between the French king and the Duke of Bourbon, in so much as the Duke, being vassal to the house of France, was constrained for the safeguard of his person to flee his dominions, and to forsake his territory and country, doubting the king's great malice and indignation. The cardinal, having thereof intelligence, compassed in his head, that if the king our sovereign lord (having an occasion of wars with the realm of France), might retain the duke to be his general in the wars there in as much as the duke was fled unto the emperor, to invite him also, to stir wars against the French king. The cardinal having all this imagination in his head thought it good to move the king in this matter. And after the king was once advertised hereof, and conceived the cardinal's imagination and invention, he dreamed of this matter more and more, until at the last it came in question among the council in consultation, so that it was there finally concluded that an embassy should be sent to the emperor about this matter; with whom it was concluded that the king and the emperor should join in these wars against the French king, and that the Duke of Bourbon should be our sovereign lord's cham pion and general in the field; who had appointed him a great number of good soldiers over and besides the emperor's army, which was not small, and led by one of his own noblemen; and also that the king should pay the duke his wages, and his retinue monthly. In so much as Sir John Russel, (who was after Earl of Bedford), lay continually beyond the seas in a secret place, assigned both for to receive the king's money and to pay the same monthly to the duke. So that the duke began fierce war with the French king in his own territory and dukedom, which the French king had confiscated and seized into his hands; yet not known to the duke's enemies that he had any aid of the king our sovereign lord. And thus he wrought the French king much trouble and displeasure; in so much as the French king was compelled of fine force to put harness on his back, and to prepare a puissant army royal, and in his own person to advance to defend and resist the duke's power and malice. The duke having understanding of the king's advancing was compelled of force to take Pavia, a strong town in Italy, with his host, for their security; where as the king besieged him, and encamped him wondrous strongly, intending to enclose the Duke within this town, that he should not issue. Yet notwithstanding the duke would and did many times issue and skirmish with the king's army.

Life and Reign of King Henry VIII. After which coming to her Devotions, her Head was stricken with a Sword.

And thus ended the Queen, lamented by many, both as she was desirous to advance Learned men, in which number Hugh Latimer Bishop of Worcestier, and Nicholas Saxton Bishop of Salisbury are recounted; and as she was a great Alms-giver ; insomuch, as she is, said in three quarters of a year to have bestowed fourteen or fifteen thousand pounds in this kind, besides moneys intended by her towards raising a Stock for poor Artificers in the Realm. Sanders saith her Father died shortly after for grief; but our Herolds affrm, it was not till about two years after, 1538. But that we may leave them both to their Grave and silence, I find by our Records, that the Princess Mary did about those times much endeavour to be restored to the King her Fathers good favour and opinion, as hoping now that the Princess Elizabeth was declared Illegitimate, she should be received as Heir to the Crown: Therefore by frequent and earnest Letters written with her own hand, she both acknowledgeth her fault of obstinacy heretofore, and craveth instantly from the King to write to her, or send some token as a sign of Reconciliation upon which submission, our King, by the Duke of Norfolk sent certain Articles for her to subscribe which were,

First, whether she doth Recognize the Kings Highness for her Sovereign Lord, and King, and will submit her self unto his Highness and all Laws of the Realm.

Secondly, whether she will with all her Power obey and maintain all the Statutes of the Realm.

Thirdly, whether she will Recognize the Kings Highness to be Supream Head in Earth of the Church of England, and utterly refute the Bishop of Romes pretended Power, or any Interest she hath or may have thereby.

Fourthly, whether she doth freely Recognize and knowledge both by Gods Law and mans law the Marriage heretofore had between his Majefty and her Mother, to be unlawful.

Fifthly, for what causes,and by whose motion and means she hath remained in her obstinacy so long.

Sixthly, what is the cause she at this time above all others submitteth, and who moved her hereunto.

In satisfaction to which she returned a subscription, signing with her own name the four first Articles, but concerning the other two, she demurr'd; some Persons being Interested therein, whom she would not discover. What efect followed hereupon appears not otherwice, than that notwithstanding this and other Submissions, the King proceeded to his intended Marriage; which also he so hastned, as some say the day following Queen Anne's death, others not till three days after, he caused it to be Solemniz'd; as not thinking it fit to mourn long, or much, for one the Law had declared Cryminal; concerning the Ceremony whereof, as well as the opinion held in there times of the different perfections Of the king, and his two Queens, I shall out of our Records produce the censure of Sir John Russell (afterwards Earl of Bedford) who having been at Church; observed the King to be the goodliest Perfon there; but of the Queens gave this note, that the Richer Queen Jane was in Cloaths, the fairer she appeared, but that the other, the Richer she was apparel'd, the worse she lookd; but this Queen certainly deserv'd all the Favour done her, as being reputed the Discreetest, Fairest; and Humblest of the Kings Wives; though both Queen Katharine in her younger days, and the late Queen, were not easily Parallel'd. But we will leave them a while, and come unto Foreign bufineffcs now a long time intermitted.

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 3: Parishes: Chenies. CHENIES

Isenhamstede (xii cent.); Iselhamstede Cheynes (xiii-xix cent.); Eastnamsted Cheynes (xvi-xix cent.); Chenies (xx cent.).

The parish of Chenies was originally known as Isenhampstead, but from the 13th century onwards1 was spoken of as Isenhampstead Chenies from its connexion with the Cheyne family, who resided here for nearly 300 years. During the 19th century the old name was gradually dropped, and to-day the parish is universally known as Chenies.

It covers an area of 1,759 acres, of which 1,056 acres are arable land, 474 acres are permanent grass, and the rest is covered by woods and plantations2, while there are 10 acres covered by water. The soil is gravel, flint and chalk and produces crops of wheat and barley.

In the south the land attains a height of 407 ft. above ordnance datum at the small hill on which the church is placed. It falls away to under 300 ft. in the west and to 270 ft. in the extreme south-east near Chorley Wood station, where the Metropolitan railway enters the parish.

The village stands near the northern boundary on the brow of a hill. In the centre is the green with its well, sheltered by rows of tall elms and surrounded by red brick cottages, solid and well built with pointed gables and tall chimneys and good-sized gardens round the cottages. A road leads to the church on the west, behind which is Great Home Farm, while opposite stands the old manorhouse of the Cheynes, which for a long time has been used as a farm. It was rebuilt probably about 1530 by the first Earl of Bedford, who had married Anne Sapcote in 1526. Leland, who visited Chenies a little later, says: 'The olde House of the Cheyneis is so translated by my Lorde Russel that litle or nothing of it yn a maner remaynith untranslated: and a great deale of the House in ben newly set up made of Bricke and Timber: and fair logginges be new erected in the gardein. The House is within diverse Places richely painted with antique Workes of White and Blak. And there be about the House 2 Parkes, as I remember.'3

Only one wing now remains, but it is in a state of good preservation, due to the solid material used and to the good work put into its construction. Its high-gabled roofs with clusters of quaintly twisted and ornamented chimneys form a striking feature, which has been copied in the architecture of the cottages in the village. Some original glass remains, including a shield with arms and quarterings of Russell within a garter with a coronet above, also some old tiles and three fireplaces of Totternhoe stone.

A few yards north of the house is a cellar of two chambers, dating apparently from the 15th century, and probably part of a former house. The walls are of flint and chalk and both chambers have vaulted roofs.

In a field in front of the manor-house stands an oak said to have been planted by Queen Elizabeth on her visit in 1570.

Chenies House, the residence of Miss Russell, stands in pretty grounds north of the church, from whence a fine view can be obtained of the woods at Latimer. From the church a road leads past the Bedford Arms and Baptist chapel, erected in 1779, to the rectoryhouse, half a mile distant from the church. The schools, which were built in 1846, lie a little south of the village. Further south in Green Street, a lane leading to Chorley Wood station, are Little and Great Green Street Farms.

The country around is hilly and richly wooded and watered by the River Chess, which on the north turns the wheel of Chenies Mill and separates the parish from Hertfordshire. The Chess is here famous for its trout, and Mr. Froude has written many pages descriptive of the pleasure of trout-fishing at Chenies4. Woodside House, which lies between the woods and the river, is the residence of Adeline Duchess of Bedford. A road running parallel with the river leads west through park-land bordered by woods to Dell Farm, near which is the site of a fairly large Roman villa5, and from here footpaths lead south to Oldhouse Farm.

Peter Allibond, who translated theological treatises from the French and Latin, was rector of Chenies at his death in 1629 and was buried in the chancel of the church6.

Note 1. Chan. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, file 5, no. 16.

Note 2. Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).

Note 3. Leland, Itin. (ed. 2), i, 115, 116.

Note 4. Froude, Short Studies on Great Subjects (ed. 3), iv, 526-42.

Note 5. V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 8.

Note 6. Dict. Nat. Biog.

Royal Descendants of John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 2

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 4

Ancestors of John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555

Great x 2 Grandfather: Stephen Russell

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry Russell

GrandFather: John Russell

Father: James Russell

John Russell 1st Earl Bedford

GrandFather: Thomas Wise

Mother: Alice Wise