Biography of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471

Paternal Family Tree: Fitzmaldred aka Neville

Maternal Family Tree: Aoife NI Diarmait Macmurrough Countess Pembroke and Buckingham 1145-1188

1428 Siege of Orléans

1448 Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick

1453 Neville Percy Feud

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1458 Loveday

1459 Parliament of the Devils

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 Battle of Northampton

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Proclamation of Edward IV as King

1461 Battles of Ferrybridge

1462 Siege of Norham Castle

1462 Warwick becomes Kingmaker

1464 Suppressing the Northumbrian Resistance

1464 Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

1465 Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

1468 Skirmish of Southampton

1469 Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

1469 Execution of the Yorkists

1469 Execution of the Neville Brothers

1470 Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

1470 Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

1470 Angers Agreement

1470 Warwick returns to England

1470 Re-adeption of King Henry VI

1471 Battle of Barnet

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1483 Death of George Neville

In 1422 Richard Beauchamp 1st Earl of Worcester (age 26) died. Earl Worcester extinct. His daughter [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth Beauchamp 3rd Baroness Bergavenny (age 6) succeeded 3rd Baroness Bergavenny.

Before 1423 [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 23) and [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 15) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 34) and Eleanor Holland. He the son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 58) and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 43). They were half fourth cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Siege of Orléans

On 03 Nov 1428 [his grandfather] Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 40) died from wounds received at the Siege of Orléans. His daughter [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 21) succeeded 5th Countess Salisbury, 4th Baroness Montagu, 7th Baroness Montagu, 6th Baroness Monthermer. [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 28) by marriage Earl Salisbury.

On 22 Nov 1428 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury was born to Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 28) and Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 21). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1434 [his future brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 8) and [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick (age 10) were married at Titchfield Abbey, Hampshire [Map]. A Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. His sister [his future wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 7) would marry her brother Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 5) two years later. She the daughter of Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 34) and Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 27). He the son of Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 51) and Isabel Despencer Countess Warwick and Worcester (age 33). They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1436 [his uncle] Edward Neville 1st Baron Bergavenny (age 23) and [his sister-in-law] Elizabeth Beauchamp 3rd Baroness Bergavenny (age 20) were married. He by marriage Baron Bergavenny. She the daughter of Richard Beauchamp 1st Earl of Worcester and Isabel Despencer Countess Warwick and Worcester (age 35). He the son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 57). They were second cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1436 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 7) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 9) were married. A Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. His sister Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick (age 12) had previously married her brother Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 10). She the daughter of Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 53) and Isabel Despencer Countess Warwick and Worcester (age 35). He the son of Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 36) and Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 29). They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1437 [his uncle] George Neville 1st Baron Latimer of Snape (age 30) and [his sister-in-law] Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Latimer (age 20) were married. She by marriage Baroness Latimer of Snape. She the daughter of Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 54) and Elizabeth Berkeley Countess Warwick. He the son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 58). They were second cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 04 Feb 1443 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick was born to [his brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 17) and [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick (age 19) at Cardiff. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Baron Burghesh, and the representation of the three Despencers Baronies abeyant between her cousin George Neville 5th and 3rd Baron Bergavenny and her aunt [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 16).

Her subsequent death aged four (her father died when she was aged three) resulted in Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 14) unexpectedly becoming Earl of Warwick by marriage ie by right of his wife Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 16) who was the younger Anne's Aunt.

Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick

On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick (age 4) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (age 44).

After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, [his sister-in-law] Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 44), [his sister-in-law] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 39), [his sister-in-law] Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Latimer (age 31) and her full aunt [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 21), the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp (age 21) should succeed. Anne Beauchamp  (age 21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (age 19) by marriage Earl Warwick; the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.

The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 42) who was married to Anne's (age 21) half-sister Eleanor (age 39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.

On 18 Jun 1448 [his sister-in-law] Elizabeth Beauchamp 3rd Baroness Bergavenny (age 32) died. Her son George Neville 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny (age 8) succeeded 4th Baron Bergavenny.

On 05 Sep 1451 [his daughter] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 22) and [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 25) at Warwick Castle [Map]. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Neville Percy Feud

On 20 Oct 1453 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22), and his brothers [his brother] Thomas Neville (age 23) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 24), met with Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 60) and to negotiate peace.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 26), [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 40) and Walter Strickland (age 44).

The Lancastrians ...

Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset, 5th Earl Somerset. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland (age 33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (age 41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 20) succeeded 9th Baron de Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford (age 21) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

William Cotton (age 45) and Richard Fortescue (age 41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 52) was wounded and captured.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 54) and Edmund Dudley (age 30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) fought.

Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware (age 51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire (age 27) were killed.

After 25 May 1455 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 26) was appointed Captain of Calais.

On 11 Jun 1456 [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 27) and [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 29). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Loveday

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 24 Mar 1458. Ande this same year at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (age 22), and the [his father] Earl of Saulysbury (age 58), and the Erle of Warwycke (age 29), for the dethe of his fadyr Duke of Somersette, that the Duke of Yorke (age 46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And this tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there might noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the King, but that he shulde shewe his sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the common wele, and yf he passyd her commaundement he schulde lese his costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, A B C axyd his name, and his name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham is college. And A B C said that they moste nedys se his sarmon and his purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the King the Sonday nexte comynge. And he full goodly toke them his papyr; and they seyng and redynge his papyr, commaundyd to leve out and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive said but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that A B C made the sarmonys that were said fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that þe men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for her purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosseb with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for his labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and out for his travayle, and alle his frendys full sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum habebit, &c. And that same year alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf it were in fylde with spere and schylde.

Note b. kiss.

On 24 Mar 1458 at Westminster Hall [Map] King Henry VI (age 36) made a great speech [See Chronicle of St Albans] the purpose of which was to ensure future peace in his Kingdom. Some were required to pay fines in recomponse for deaths at the First Battle of St Albans some three years before, some prisoners were released, some were bound to good behaviour, and future arbitration.

After the speech King Henry VI (age 36), Queen Margaret (age 28), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 22), [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 29), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 22), Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 36) and Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 35) processed, hand-in-hand to St Paul's Cathedral [Map] and a ttended a service presided over by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 40).

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 1459. Also alle that seson the Erle of Warwyke (age 30) with sowdyers of Calysse were comynge unto the Duke of Yorke (age 47), and he come ovyr-wharte Colsylle be-syde Covyntre, and the Duke of Somerset (age 22) whythe his men rode a-longe thoroughe the towne, and yet non of them mette whythe othyr as it happyd, or by lyckely hode they wold have made a newe fraye. Ande the same day Androwe Throllope consayvyd [Note. conceived] that the Erle of Warwyke (age 30) was goyng unto the Duke of Yorke (age 47) and not unto the King, and utterly forsoke him and come unto the King and was pardonyd; and that made the duke full sore a-frayde when he wyste that some olde soudyers went from him unto the King, &c.

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham (age 39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry [Map]. The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 48), his sons Edward Earl of March (age 17), Edmund Earl of Rutland (age 16) were attainted, as were [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30) and [his brother] John Neville 1431-1471 (age 28).

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow [Map]. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37) who was present.

The Yorkist Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 48), the future King Edward IV of England (age 17), Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 26) and Thomas Parr (age 52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 41).

Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 22) was present on the Yorkist side for which he was subsequently attainted. Earl Tankerville forfeit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande this same year there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the King (age 37) and the Duke of Yorke (age 48), the [his father] Erle of Salusbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwyke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but his party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo then xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the King. And thenne the duke (age 48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr him that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and his yong sonys [King Edward V of England and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York] were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne (age 25) [Note. Husband of Edward's sister Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 13)], and they were full welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The [his father] Erle of Saulysbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwycke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17), Syr John Wenlocke (age 59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham (age 26), and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham (age 26); and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey [Map], ande from Garnesaye unto Calys [Map], for fere of dethe that they said was ymagenyde by the kyng and his lordys, and of her owne housolde mayny for her dystruccyon, the counselle and consent of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd out of Ingelonde on Synt Edward is evyn, Synt Edward bothe King and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys.

Note a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Calendars. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal, Buckinghamshire [Map]. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (age 48), Edward Earl of March (age 17), Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 30), and [his father] Richard, Earl of Salisbury (age 59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais [Map] to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said Earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.

Chronicle of England by William of Worcester. [Jan 1460]. And shortly after the said feast, John Dynham (age 27), with others from Calais, secretly entered Sandwich [Map], and there captured Lord Rivers (age 55) and Anthony Woodville (age 20) his son, with many large ships, and brought them to Calais, where the Earls of March (age 17), Warwick (age 31), and [his father] Salisbury (age 60) were present.

Et cito post dictum festum Johannes Denham cum aliis de Calesiæ secrete intravit Sandwycum, ac ibidem cepit dominum de Reverys et Antonium Widwele filium ejus, cum multis magnis navibus, et adduxit Calisiæ, comitibus Marchiæ et Warrewici et Sarum, Calisiæ existentibus.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 15 Jan 1460. But the Erle of Warwycke (age 31) come unto Sondewyche [Map], and there he toke the Lord Rivers (age 55) with his ladye (age 45), the lady and Duchyes of Bedfordeb and brought them to Calys, for he was commaundyd to have londyd at C[a]lys by the King, but he was brought there sonner then him lekyd.

Note b. Jaquetta (age 45), widow of the Regent Bedford. She was the daughter of Peter of Luxemburg, Count of St. Pol, and soon after her first husband's death married Sir Richard Woodville (age 55), who was created Baron Rivers by Henry VI. in 1448, and Earl Rivers by Edward IV. (who was his son-in law) in 1466.

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31) raided Sandwich, Kent [Map] capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 55), his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 45) and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 20) were captured.

Around Nov 1459 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) and King Edward IV of England (age 17) fled to Calais [Map].

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 26 Jun 1460 Edward, Earl of March (age 18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31) landed at Sandwich, Kent [Map].

1460 Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV of England (age 18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31), [his brother] Archbishop George Neville (age 28), [his uncle] William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 43) had started the day as part of the Lancastrian army but did nothing to prevent the Yorkist army attacking.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) was captured.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 7th Earl Stafford, 8th Baron Stafford.

John Talbot 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 11) succeeded 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere, 9th Baron Talbot.

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 37) was killed.

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.

William Lucy (age 56) was killed apparently by servants of a member of the Stafford family who wanted his wife Margaret Fitzlewis (age 21).

Thomas Tresham (age 40) fought.

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) and William Norreys (age 19) were knighted.

Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland was executed following the battle.

The battle was fought south of the River Nene [Map] in the grounds of Delapré Abbey.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the King and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (age 31). And there they toke the King (age 38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (age 48) out of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (age 57), stondyng stylle at his tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (age 42), the Lord Bemond (age 50), and the Lord Egremond (age 37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (age 56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the King, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of his comynge, and lovyd that knyght is wyffe (age 21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd his dethe.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle [Map]. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 25) and William Gascoigne XIII (age 30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), Henry Roos and Thomas St Leger (age 20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was killed. His son King Edward IV of England (age 18) succeeded 4th Duke York, 7th Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge.

[his brother] Thomas Neville (age 30), and Edward Bourchier were killed.

Father and son Thomas Harrington (age 60) and John Harrington (age 36) were killed, the former dying of his wounds the day after.

William Bonville 6th Baron Harington (age 18) was killed. His daughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 7th Baroness Harington.

Thomas Parr (age 53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle [his father] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland. William Bonville (age 40) was executed.

Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 17) was killed on Wakefield Bridge [Map] by John "Butcher" Clifford (age 25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher". Earl of Rutland extinct.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of þea Erle of Marche (age 18) unto London; then alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and said that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to them take,

and said, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with this fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche (age 18)." And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle out of hit, at a towne of his owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde [Map]; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was full sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for his fadyr the Duke of Yorke (age 49), and for his good brother the Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Note a. the repeated in MS.

Chronicle of England by Jean de Waurin. Chapter 3.40. How the Duke of York and the [his father] Earl of Salisbury were defeated and killed through the treachery of Andrew Trollope and several other noble men.

The Duke of York, therefore, being retreated to Wakefield, upon hearing news that Queen Margaret was coming with a great force of armed men to fight him, accompanied by the Duke of Somerset, was greatly astonished, as he did not have sufficient troops at the moment to resist such great power. He and the Earl of Salisbury, along with others in their company, spoke together to conclude their affairs. They sent for men from all sides, fortifying themselves to the best of their ability within the town. However, all this was in vain because at the moment they were attacked, most of their men had gone out for foraging. Additionally, Andrew Trollope, who was a very cunning military man, told the Duke of Somerset that he knew well that they could not force the Duke of York out of the town without a great loss of men. He found a way throughout the night to dress his men in coats bearing the badge of the Ragged Staff, which belonged to the Earl of Warwick (age 33) and were recognized as such, thus they appeared to be four hundred of the bravest men, well-instructed in what they had to do secretly. Their plan was to go straight to the town and tell the Duke of York that they came from the county of Lancashire to aid him.

When the Duke of York, who never suspected treachery, saw these companions approaching, he was very joyful and allowed them inside the town. That same night, the Duke of York ordered a strong guard because he knew well that the Duke of Somerset was in the fields, intending to confront him with all his might.

But when day broke, Andrew Trollope, accompanied by other soldiers all wearing the badge of the Ragged Staff, sent word to the Duke of York, without revealing his identity, that they were a large force come to his aid. The Duke was overjoyed and marched out of the town with the intention of engaging his enemies. At that moment, Andrew Trollope, the traitor, knowing that the Duke of Somerset was nearby, initiated the skirmish, and the Duke of Somerset, ready for action, charged fiercely upon the Duke of York and his men. Quickly, Andrew Trollope and his group, as well as those who had been sent by him into the town that night, turned against the Duke of York and his followers. In this battle, the Duke of York, the Earl of Rutland his son, the Earl of Salisbury, Sir [his brother] Thomas Neville his son, and many other noble men of their company were killed. This battle took place outside the town of Wakefield on the penultimate day of December in the year fourteen sixty. Queen Margaret was very joyful upon hearing this news, as were all those supporting her cause. On the other hand, the Earls of March and Warwick, who had lost their fathers in this battle, were deeply saddened and angered, but for the time being, they could not rectify the situation.

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

On 08 Feb 1461 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:

181st Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32).

182nd William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68).

183rd Thomas Kyriell (age 65).

184th John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

Second Battle of St Albans

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (age 39) roode to Synt Albonys [Map], and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (age 32), the Erle of Arundelle (age 43), the [his brother] Lord Bouser (age 30), the Lord Bonvyle (age 68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Ml men. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (age 30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore said; and her mayny and every lord is men bare her lordys leverey, that every man mighte knowe his owne feleschippe by his lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lord bare the [his future son-in-law] Pryncys (age 7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge is fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and some were take and spoylyd out of her harnysse by the way as they fledde. And some of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit is to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl [Map]; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for some were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And son aftyr the bocher, for schame of his sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as it is said, hynge him selfe; and some men said that it was for loste of his goode, but dede he ys-God knowythe the trought.

And in the myddys of the batayle King Harry (age 39) wente unto his Quene (age 30) and for-soke alle his lordys, ande truste better to her party thenne unto his owne lordys. And then thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) a schapyd a-waye; the [his brother] Byschoppe of Exceter (age 29), that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lord Bouser (age 30), whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lord Bonevyle (age 68) was be-heddyd, the common sayynge that his longage causyd him to dye. The Prynce (age 7) was jugge is owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel (age 65). The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys (age 39) party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd it full stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake her raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe them in towne of Synt Albonys [Map], and then alle [t]yng was to seke and out of ordyr, for her pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene (age 30) was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle her gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete mighty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they might schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute this iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr it by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute out at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as full of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they might stonde. And whenn her schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, then there might noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe him sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse full of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man might bryse it to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he might hale it a brode, then hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle this ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf it were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry (age 39). There fore it is moche lefte, and men take them to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe her vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men is alle the tryste.

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 26), Henry Roos and Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12) and Thomas Tresham (age 41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57). [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 30) was captured. Robert Poynings (age 42) and James Luttrell (age 34) were killed.

John Grey (age 29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) subsequently married King Edward IV of England (age 18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) and Thomas Kyriell (age 65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (age 39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 2nd Baroness Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell (age 65) was beheaded.

William Cotton (age 21) was killed.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Before 25 Feb 1461. There the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) informyd him of the gydynge and dysposyscyon of Kyng Harry (age 39), and of the Quene (age 30), and of the love and favyr that the comyns hadde unto hym, and by ryght to occupy the crowne of Inglonde, and soo his hert was some what made gladde and comfortyd. But he was sory that he was soo pore, for he hadde no mony, but the substance of his mayny come at her owne coste.

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Alle soo the xxvj [26] day of Februer nexte folowyng Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18) com to London owt of Walys and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) with hym, and xl M1 [40,000] men with them bothe, and they enteryd unto the cytte of London, and there he toke uppon him the crowne of Inglond by the avysse of the lordys spyrytual and temporalle, and by the elexyon of the comyns. And so he began his rayne the iiij day of Marche, in the year of our lord God M1CCCC lxj [1461], the Sondy letter D as for that year.

Calendars. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 32), to receive deserters from the party of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (age 18) by word of mouth.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. The xiij day of Marche the King, owre newe King Edwarde (age 18), toke his jornaye unto the Northe, and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym. The Erle of Warwycke (age 32) and the Lord Fauconbrygge (age 32), with many knyghtes, squyers, and comyns, to the nombyr of iic Mlmen.

Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32) fought at Ferrybridge with John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter (age 35) capturing the bridge.

On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32) fought. John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter (age 35) was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25) and John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 51).

On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25) was killed at Dintingdale during a skirmish. [his uncle] William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 56) fought for York. His son Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford (age 7) succeeded 10th Baron de Clifford, 10th Lord Skipton.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. And the xxviij day of Marche, that was Palme Sunday evyn, the Lord Fewater (age 35) was slayne at Ferybryge, and many with him was slayne and drownyd. And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) was hurte yn his legge with an arowe at the same jornaye.

Calendars. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle [Map]. The like (Grant for life) to the said earl (age 32), the office of Master of the King's Mews and Falcons and a messuage called 'le Mewehous' at Charryng by Westminster, co Middlesex, with all houses and other profits pertaining to the same, in the same manner as John, duke of Bedford, deceased; and appointment of him to take the king's right prises of falcons, goshawks, sakers, sakrets, lanners, lannerets and ger-falcons sold within the realm, paying the accustomed price viz 20s for each tercel of goshawk, saker, lanner or lanneret. By other latters patent.

Calendars. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle [Map]. The like (Grant for life) to the said earl (age 32) of the offices of steward of the manor or lordship of Fekenham, co Worcester, and master forester and rider of the kings forst of Fekenham with the custody of the king's park of Fekenham and the stank there, with the accustomed fees. By other latters patent.

Calendars. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle [Map]. Appointment for life of the said earl (age 32), as great chamberlain of England, with the accustomed fees. By other latters patent.

Calendars. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle [Map]. Grant to the king's (age 19) kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 32), of the custody of all lordships, manors and lands with knight's fees and advowsons held by the king's uncle [his uncle] George Neville (age 54), knight, lord Latymer, within the county of York or elsewhere, during the idiotcy of the latter, even though no inquisition has been taken. By other letters patent.

Calendars. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle [Map]. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Richard (age 32), Earl of Warwick, of the office of constable of the king's castle of Dover, and al rents and services called 'castelwarde', and herbage and advowsons pertaining to the same, and the wardenship of the Cinque Ports and all forfeitures, 'shares', wreck of sea and other profits; and also 300l yearly for the sustenances of himself and priests, servants, watchmen, and other officers there, in the same manner as Humphey, late Duke of Gloucester, viz 146l frin the wards pertaining to the castle and 154l from the fee farm of the town of Southampton. By other latters patent.

Calendars. 03 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Appointment of the king's (age 19) kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 33), to execute the office of steward of England at the trial of Henry VI and other rebels who murdered the King's father Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. 1462. And then my Lord of Warwycke (age 33) and his brother the [his brother] Lord Montegewe (age 31) put them in devyr to rescewe [t]e said castelle of Norham, and soo they dyd, and put bothe King Harry and the Kyng of Schotys (age 10) to flyghte. And Quene Margarete whythe alle hir consayle, and Syr Perys de Brasey (age 52) whythe the Fraynysche men, fledde a-wey by water with iiij balynggarys; and they londyd at the Scluse [Map] in Flaundyrs, and lefte Kyng Harry that was be hynde hem, and alle her hors and her harneys, they were so hastyd by my lord of Warwycke, and his brother the lord Mountegewe, and by her feleschippe with them accompanyde. And at the departynge of Syr Perys de Brasyl and his feleschippe was on manly man that purposyd to mete with my lord of Warwycke, that was a taberette, for he stode a-pon an hylle with his tabyr and his pype, taberyng and pyping as merely as any man might, stondyng by him selfe, tylle my lord come unto him he wold not lesse his grownd; and there he be-come my lordys man; ande yet he is with him full good and to his lorde.

1462 Siege of Norham Castle

Around Jun 1462 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including King James III of Scotland (age 10), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland (age 28), King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 40) and his wife Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 32), laid siege to Norham Castle [Map]. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 33) and his brother [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 31) advanced to Norham Castle [Map] at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 32) and her son [his future son-in-law] Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales (age 8) escaped to Berwick on Tweed [Map] and then to the continent. King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 40) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.

Calendars. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace [Map]. Appointment of W. archbishop of York, Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 33), John Neville of Muntague, knight, Robert Danby, knight, Robert Constable, knight, the mayor of York, Thomas Wytham (age 42), Brian Rouclyff, Henry Sotehill (age 44), Guy Fairefax, John Grenefeld, Richard Pygote, Henry Thwaites, Nicholas Girlyiigton, John Wencelagh, John Thirske, Nicholas Holgate, John Marton, William Bradford and John Shirwode as justices of the survey and custody of the rivers in the county of York pursuant to the statutes of 24 Edward III., 4o Edward III., and 1 Henry IV., concerning the erection of weirs, mills, stanks, pales and kiddles.

Calendars. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace [Map]. Licence for the king's kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick and Salisbury (age 33), to grant castles, manors, lordships, lands, rents and services, of the yearly value of 1,000/., held in chief, although the reversion of the same may belong to the crown on his death without issue, to George, Bishop of Exeter, John, Earl of Worcester, John Markham, Robert Dauby, Walter Blounte, James Strangwais, Walter Wrottesley, knights, Thomas Witham (age 42), Thomas Colte, Henry Sotehill (age 44) and William Kelsy in fee simple to pay his debts and fulfil his will alter his de»th. By K.

Warwick becomes Kingmaker

Before 09 Dec 1462 [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 55) died. Her son Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 34) succeeded 6th Earl Salisbury, 5th Baron Montagu, 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some fourteen years previously. The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.

On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand (age 30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of King Edward IV of England (age 20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 34) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle [Map] with the young (future) King Richard III of England (age 10).

Calendars. 23 Jun 1463. Inspeximus and confirmation to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Clyfton, Dertmuth and Hardenesse of (1) letters patent dated 14 December, 2 Richard II. inspecting and confirming a charter dated at the Tower of London, 14 April, 15 Edward III. [Charter Roll, 15 Edward III. No. 18,] and (2) a charter dated at Westminster, 5 November, 17 Richard II. [Charter Noll, 15-17 Richard II. No. 10]; and grant that the adjoining township of Southtouudertemouth shall henceforth be annexed to the said borough of Cliftondertemouth Hardenasse, in consideration of the fact that the burgesses keep watches against invaders on the confines of the township and beyond at a place called 'Galions Boure' but the inhabitants of the township contribute nothing because they do not enjoy the liberties of the borough. Th« mayor and bailiffs shall have return of writs and execution thereof within the said township and the liberty of the borough, saving always the right of the lord of the fee of the township, and all pleas real and personal and attachments and fines and amercements, and also view of frauk-pledge and all that peitains to it. And they may acquire, in mortmain, after inquisition, lands, tenements, rents and other possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 201. yearly. Witnesses: Th. archbishop of Canterbury (age 45), W. archbishop of York (age 75), [his brother] G. Bishop of  Exeter (age 31), the chancellor, J. Bishop of  Carlisle, the king's brothers [his future son-in-law] George, duke of Clarence (age 13), and Richard, duke of Gloucester (age 10), the king's kinsmen Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 34), and John, Earl of Worcester (age 36), treasurer of England, Robert Styllyngton (age 43), king's clerk, keeper of the privy seal, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (age 32), the king's chamberlain, and John Wenlok of Wenlok (age 63), knights.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. Around Apr 1464. Ande a-boute Ester nexte aftyr the Schottys sewyd unto our sovereign lord the King for pes. And the King ordaynyde Commyssourys to mete whythe [t]e Schottys. The names of the Commyssyonourys be wretyn here aftyr folowyng: The [his brother] Chaunceler of Ingelond (age 32), the [his brother] Lord Montegewe (age 33), the Erle of Warwycke (age 35), and many othyr for the Englysche partye, to brynge it to a conclusyon.

Suppressing the Northumbrian Resistance

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. Around Jul 1464. Alle so the same somer my Lord of Warwycke (age 35) and his brether the [his brother] Lord Mountegewe (age 33), that was made Erle of Northehumberlond by the King, they ij layde a sege unto the castelle of Anwyke [Map] a gate it by a-poyntement. And in the same wyse and forme they gate the castelle of Dunsterborowe [Map] by the same mene. And thenne they layd sege to the castelle of Bamborowe [Map], and layde grete ordynans and gonnys [Note. guns] there too. And manly they gate it by fors, and toke there yn that fals traytur Syr Raffe Gray (age 32), and brought him unto the King to the castelle of Pomfrete [Map]. And fro thens he was ladde to Dankester [Map], and there his hedde was smete of and sent to London, and it was sette a-pon Londyn Bryge [Map].

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

In Sep 1464 King Edward IV of England (age 22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 35) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife.

Chronicle of Gregory 1465. Apr 1465. Thenne at the begynnyng of the terme aftyr Estyr the fryer apperyd by fore Mayster Docter Wynterborne, my lordys offycer and juge in suche causys and othyr as for spyrytualte. And þer were many worthy docters a gayne the fryer, but he lenyd evyr unto his prevelege, but he schewyd non but a bylle unselyd. Thenne the mater was put to my [his brother] Lord of London (age 33), by so moche that alle this trobylle was done in his dyossy, and the Chaunceler of Inglond, that was my Lord of Warwyeke (age 36) is brother, a toke party a-gayne the fryers; and the day folowynge the provyncyalle and Docter Haldon come to Poulys by fore my lord of London and brought her prevelegys with hem, but þe prevelege wolde not serve that tyme for noo cause of eresy. And my lord lawfully a-sytyd them to appere by fore him that same aftyr non, but they come not, for the provyncyalle toke his way a-non towarde Rome. And Docter Haldon toke noo leve of the byschoppe. And then my Lord Chaunceler hyrde that they were gone, and send for the yong fryer Harry Parker and commaundyd him to preson. And he was take from preson and sende unto my lord of London. And the Son day aftyr the same fryer, Harry Parker, objuryd that he sayd, and said as we saye, that Cryste is lord of ovyr alle thynge, and he confessyd alle so that very nede causyd them to saye that Cryste beggyd, by cause that men shulde take the ordyr of fryers moste parfytyste of alle orders.

Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

Chronicle of England by William of Worcester. [25 May 1465]. And on Saturday, the Queen (age 28) rode in a litter through Cheapside and the high streets of London, with all the newly made knights before her, until they arrived at Westminster. And on the following Sunday, she was crowned Queen of England by Archbishop Thomas Bourchier (age 47) of Canterbury. And on Monday, the day after, there were great jousts at Westminster, and Lord Stanley had the honour. He had a ring with a ruby, a special honour. And Thomas Wingfield, esquire, and Roger Chamberlain jousted with lances before the King at Westminster. Throughout the entire month of May, during the Queen's coronation, the Earl of Warwick (age 36) and Lord Hastings (age 34), along with other ambassadors of the King, were with Lord Charolais and other ambassadors of the Duke of Burgundy at Boulogne across the sea; and although they superficially celebrated greatly, they ultimately could not come to an agreement, because Lord Charolais at that time strongly favoured Queen Margaret's party.

Et in die Sabbati regina in uno horsleter equitabat per Chepe et altos vicos Londoniæ, et omnes novi milites ante, usque dum venerunt apud Westmonasterium. Et die Dominica sequente coronata fuit in reginam Angliæ a domino Thoma Boughcher, Cantu arise archiepiscopo. Et die Lunæ in crastino fuerunt magna hastiludia apud Westmonasterium; et dominus de Stanley habuit honorem. Habuit annulum cum rubio, honore extra. Et Thomas Wyngfeld, armiger, et Rogerus Chambirleyne hastiludebant cum lanceis coram rege apud Westmonasterium. Toto illo mense Maii tempore coronationis reginæ comes Warrwici ac dominus de Hastynges, et alii ambassiatores regis fuerunt cum domino Charleys ac aliis ambassiatoribus ducis Burgundiæ apud Boleyne supra mare; et quamvis superficialiter fecerint magna festa, finaliter non potuerunt concordare, quia dominus de Charoloys illo tempore multum favebat parti reginæ Margaretæ.

Skirmish of Southampton

Before 10 May 1468 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 41) sat in judgement on the Earl of Warwick's (age 39) men who had attempted to steal the ship Trinity for the Earl of Warwick (age 39). In addition to the usual punishment of hanging, drawing and quartering Tiptoft also subjected the men's corpses to being impaled, perhaps unique in English punishments, but usual for pirates in Europe. His actions were described as cruel and unmerited by the common people and resulted in Tiptoft being known as 'Butcher'.

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 [his son-in-law] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 19) and [his daughter] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 17) were married by [his brother] Archbishop George Neville (age 37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais [Map] witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40). She by marriage Duchess Clarence. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 42). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 54). They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Execution of the Yorkists

On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle [Map] by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40).

Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 64) was beheaded. His son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers. Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers by marriage Countess Rivers.

John Woodville (age 24) was beheaded.

On 10 Sep 1469 King Edward IV of England (age 27) was released by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40) afer Warwick realised he didn't have sufficient support for an alternative regime.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (age 30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York [Map] in the presence of King Edward IV of England (age 27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville feud that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

On 12 Mar 1470 King Edward IV of England (age 27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 41) and [his son-in-law] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 20).

Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

On 27 Mar 1470 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 39) revoked his title of Earl of Northumberland so that the Earldom could be given to Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 21) of the Percy family who were its traditional holders. A deeply unpopular move with the Neville family who had been longstanding enemies of the Percies in the North. He was created 1st Marquess Montagu instead. Possibly a consequence of the defection of Warwick the Kingmaker (age 41) to the Lancastrian cause as evidenced by the Welles Rebellion earlier in the year.

On 27 Mar 1470 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 9) was created 1st Duke Bedford by King Edward IV of England (age 27) in preparation for his marriage to Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 4) which didn't, in the end, take place. He, George, was nephew to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 41) whose defection to the Lancastrian side may have caused the King to change his mind about his daughter's marriage.

Angers Agreement

On 22 Jul 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker (age 41), King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 48) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 40) signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral [Map]. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France (age 47). [his future son-in-law] Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales (age 16) and [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14) were betrothed as part of the Agreement.

Warwick returns to England

On 13 Sep 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker (age 41) and [his son-in-law] George (age 20) landed at Dartmouth, Devon and/or Plymouth, Devon [Map].

Re-adeption of King Henry VI

On 13 Dec 1470 [his son-in-law] Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales (age 17) and [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14) were married at Angers Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Princess of Wales. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 42) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 44). He the son of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 49) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 40). They were half third cousins. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (age 28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers [his son-in-law] George (age 21) and Richard (age 18), John Babington (age 48), Wiliam Hastings (age 40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings, William Norreys (age 30), William Parr (age 37), John Savage (age 49), William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 41), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40), John Scott Comptroller (age 48) and Thomas Strickland.

The Yorkists William Blount (age 29), Humphrey Bourchier (age 40), Humphrey Bourchier (age 36), Henry Stafford (age 46) and Thomas Parr were killed.

The Lancastrians ...

Warwick the Kingmaker (age 42) was killed. Earl Salisbury forfeit on the assumption he was attainted either before or after his death; the date of his attainder is unknown. If not attainted the Earldom may be in abeyance. Baron Montagu and Baron Montagu abeyant between his two daughters [his daughter] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 19) and [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14).

[his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 40) was killed. Marquess Montagu extinct. He was buried at Bisham Abbey [Map].

William Tyrrell was killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford (age 46) and John Paston (age 27) were wounded, John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 28) commanded, and John Paston (age 29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 33) fought.

Robert Harleston (age 36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury (age 62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham (age 51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

After 14 Apr 1471 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 42) was buried at Bisham Priory aka Abbey [Map].

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared [his former wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (age 31) two younger brothers [his son-in-law] George (age 24) and the Richard (age 21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (age 47) daughters, [his daughter] Isabel (age 22) and [his daughter] Anne (age 17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV of England (age 31) and before King Richard III of England (age 21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described King Richard III of England (age 21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape (age 6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 56).

Calendars. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace [Map]. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster [Map], 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that [his son-in-law] George Duke Clarence (age 24), and [his daughter] Isabel (age 22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and [his daughter] Anne (age 17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle, late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to [his former wife] Anne Beauchamp (age 47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (age 24) and Isabel (age 22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (age 21) and Anne (age 17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale sometime of [his mother] Ales, late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

Death of George Neville

On 04 May 1483 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 22) died. He being the son of [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, the nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker who should, perhaps, have inherited the Earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury from his mother that had been appropriated by George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 22) and King Richard III of England (age 30). The timing somewhat suspicious. The future Richard III would now enjoy the whole of the Warwick inheritance.

On 20 Sep 1492 [his former wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 66) died.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Notwithstanding, the Duchess of York, his mother, was so sore moved therewith that she argued against the marriage as much as she possibly might, alleging that it was in his honor, profit, and surety also, to marry in a noble progeny out of his realm, whereupon depended great strength to his estate by the affinity and great possibility of increase of his possessions, and that he could not well otherwise do because the Earl of Warwick had so far moved already, who was not likely to take it well, if all his voyage were in such ways frustrated and his agreements dashed. And she said also that it was not princely to marry his own subject, no great occasion leading thereunto, no possessions, or other commodities depending thereupon, but only, as it were, a rich man that would marry his maid only for a little wanton dotage upon her person. In which marriage many more commend the maiden's fortune than the master's wisdom. And yet therein she said was more honesty than honor in this marriage, forasmuch as there is between no merchant and his own maid so great difference, as between the King and this widow. In whose person, although there was nothing to be disliked, "yet was there," she said, "nothing so excellent, but it might be found in diverse others that were more suitable," said she, "for your estate, and maidens also, whereas the widowhood of Elizabeth Gray alone, though she were in all other things convenient for you, should yet suffice, it seems to me, to restrain you from marriage, since it is an improper thing and a very blemish and high disparagement to the sacred majesty of a prince, who ought as nigh to approach priesthood in purity as he does in dignity, to be defouled with bigamy in his first marriage."

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. The Duchess, with these words nothing appeased, and seeing the King so set thereon that she could not pull him back, so highly she disdained it that under pretext of her duty to God, she devised to disturb this marriage, and rather to help that he should marry one Dame Elizabeth Lucy, whom the King had also not long before gotten with child. Wherefore the King's mother objected openly against his marriage, as it were in discharge of her conscience, that the King was betrothed to Dame Elizabeth Lucy, and her husband before God. By reason of which words, such obstacle was made in the matter that either the bishops dared not, or the King would not, proceed to the solemnizing of this wedding till these same matters were clearly purged and the truth well and openly testified.

Whereupon Dame Elizabeth Lucy was sent for. And although she was by the King's mother and many others filled with good encouragement-to affirm that she was betrothed unto the King-yet when she was solemnly sworn to say the truth, she confessed that they were never betrothed. However, she said his Grace spoke so loving words unto her that she verily hoped he would have married her, and that if it had not been for such kind words, she would never have showed such kindness to him, to let him so kindly get her with child.

This examination solemnly taken, when it was clearly perceived that there was no impediment, the King, with great feast and honorable solemnity, married Dame Elizabeth Gray and her crowned queen that was his enemy's wife, who many times had prayed full heartily for his loss. In which God loved her better than to grant her petition.

But when the Earl of Warwick understood of this marriage, he took it so highly that his embassy was deceived by mockery that, for very anger and disdain, he assembled a great power against the King at his return, and came so fast upon him, before he could be able to resist, that the King was glad to leave the realm and flee into Holland for assistance, where he remained for the space of two years, leaving his new wife in Westminster in sanctuary, where she was delivered of Edward the Prince, of whom we before have spoken. In the meantime, the Earl of Warwick took out of prison and set up again Henry the Sixth, who was before by King Edward deposed and that, much by the power of the Earl of Warwick, who was a wise man and a courageous warrior and of such strength-what for his lands, his alliances, and favor with all the people-that he made kings and put down kings almost at his pleasure; and it was not impossible to have attained the crown himself, if he had not reckoned it a greater thing to make a king than to be a king. But nothing lasts always, for, in conclusion, King Edward returned, and with much less number than Warwick had, at Barnet on the Easter Day field, slew the Earl of Warwick with many other great lords of that party, and so stably attained the crown again that he peaceably enjoyed it until his dying day; and in such plight he left the crown that it could not be lost but by the discord of his very friends, or falsehood of his feigned friends.

I have rehearsed this business about this marriage somewhat the more at length because it might thereby the better appear how slippery a ground the Protector built his pretext, by which he pretended King Edward's children to be bastards. But that invention, simple as it was, it liked them to whom it sufficed to have something to say, while they were sure to be compelled to no larger proof than they themselves pleased to make.

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. The chaptaynys of this fylde undyr the Duke of Yorke was the Erle of Warwyke, the [his father] Erle of Saulysbury. And in that batayle wer slayne the Duke of Somersett, the Erle of Northehomerlonde, the Lord Clyfforde, with many moo othyr, bo the of gentylle men and yemen. And the King lete alle this mater be in a dormon a grete and a long tyme aftyr, as ye shalle hyre, for it was noo seson to trete of pesse, for some were welle contente and some evylle plesyd, but at the laste the pepylle said that the Duke of Somersett was worthy to suffer that dethe by so moche that he brought Kyng Harry at Claryngdon be-syde Saulysbury and there he toke his grete sekenys.

Note b. Sir James Butler, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond. The writer is wrong in saying that he was made Earl of Wiltshire after the battle. He was created Earl of Wiltshire in 1449, and succeeded to the earldom of Ormond in 1452.

Thomas VI Wake and Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Latimer were married. She the daughter of Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley Countess Warwick. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section X. The following account of Edward's marriage is taken from MS. Lansd. 210. The date of this occurrence is unfortunately not known, nor have I been able to supply the deficiency:—

In thys same yer kyng Edward sent hys trusty frende, the Erle of Warwyk, and other imbasseturs into France to conclowde a maryage for hym with the lady Bona, that was syster to the French quene, a lady of excelent bewté, wech he concludyd in the kynges name, the wech besenys afterward dyd cawse cevylle war and moch meschef; for Kyng Edward had changyd hys mende, or the Erle cam whom agayn, and was maryed to the lady Elsabyth Gray, dawter to Rycharde Lord Revers, woch was maryd befor to Ser John Gray, knight, by whom she had ij. cheldren, Thomas and Richard."

It will be recollected that Queen Margaret visited France to obtain succour for King Henry. The following very curious narrative, which is taken from MS. Lambeth, 448, throws great light on the way Edward was made acquainted with her designs:—

Blyssyt be God! diverse of owre adversaryes be owrethrowyn, and we undyrstond the prevyte and fals ymaginacions of the French party. Also ther is oon callyt John Worby, of Mortlond, a spye, in the county of Herteford, servaunt to Sere John Russel, in the county of Wyscetre, takyn be the Lord Suthwell, and the seid a spye ther takyn, hath confessyt that Kyng Herry, late Kyng of England, in dede but not in ryth, and sche that was Queyn Margarete hys wyf, and Edward hyr son, the duk of Brytayn, Edward the Duk of Burgoyn, Syr Wylliam Taylbos, the Lord Roos, Sir Richard Tunstall, Thomas Ormond, Sir W. Catisby, Thomas Fytze Harry—thes lordes and knytes be in Scotlond with the Scottes. The Duk of Excetre, Erl of Penbrok, the Baron of Burford, John Ayne—thes schal lond at Bumeryes be the appoyment of Robert Gald, Captene of the Duk of Burgoyne. Duk Herry of Calabere, the Lord Hungyrford, the Lord Mortone, the Duk of Somersete, with lx. m1. men of Spayn, thes schal londyn in the coost of Norfolk and Suffolk. The Lord Lewys, the Duk of Spayne, Herry the Dolfyn of Franch, Ser John Fosbrew, Ser John Russel of Wycetre, Ser Thomas Burtayn, the erlys brothere of Denschyre, Ser Thomas Cornwaylys; thes lordes and knytes schal londyn at Sanewych by the appoyment. Than comyng after thes lordes and knytes byfore wryten to assiste them with al the powre possibille they may make; the Kyng of Fraunce with a c. m'; the Kyng of Denmarke with xx. m1; the Kyng of Aragon 1. m'; the Kyng of Slavern with xx. M!; the Kyng of Cesyl with xxv. m'; the Kyng of Portyngale with x. m'; the whych be appoyntyt to enter the reme of Inglond.

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section X. 2. Letter of Richard, Earl of Warwick, to Elizabeth Wodevile.

Worshipful and welebiloved, I grete you wele, And forasmoche as my right welebiloved, Sir Hugh John, knyght, which now late was with you unto his ful grete joie, and had grete chere as he seith, whereof I thanke you, hath enfourmed me how that he for the greet love and affectioun that he hath unto your persone, as wele for the grete sadnes and wisdome that he founde and proved in you at that tyme, as for your grete and preised vertues and wommanly demeanyng, desireth with al his hert to do you worship by wey of mariage, bifore ony other creature lyvynge as he seith. I, consideryng his seid desire, and the greet worshipe that he had, which was made knyght at Jerusalem; and after his comyng home, for the grete wisdome and manhode that he was renoumed of, was made knyght Marchal of Fraunce, and after that knyght Marchal of Englond, unto his grete worshipe, with other his grete and many vertues and desertes; And also the gode and notable service that hath done and daily doth to me, Write unto you at this tyme, and pray you affecteously that ye wil the rathere, at this my request and praiere, to condescende and applie you unto his seid lawful and honest desire, wherein ye shal not onely purvey right notablyfor yourself unto your wele and grete worshipe in tyme to come, as I verely trust, but also cause me to shewe unto you such gode lordship, as ye by reasoun shal holde you contente and pleased, with the grace of God, whiche everlastyngly have you in his blissed proteccioun and governaunce. Writen, &c.

By Richard Erle of Warr' To Dame Elizabeit Wodeville.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Of these two, the one had a sermon in praise of the Protector before the coronation, the other after; both so full of tedious flattery that no man's ears could abide them. Penker in his sermon so lost his voice that he was glad to leave off and come down in the midst. Doctor Shaa by his sermon lost his honesty and soon after his life, for very shame of the world, into which he dared never after come abroad. But the friar cared not for shame, and so it harmed him the less. However, some doubt and many think that Penker was not of counsel of the matter before the coronation, but after the common manner fell to flattery afterwards; namely, because his sermon was not immediately after it, but at Saint Mary's Hospital on the Easter after. But certain is it that Doctor Shaa was of counsel in the beginning so far forth that they determined he should first break the matter in a sermon at Paul's Cross, in which he should, by the authority of his preaching, incline the people to the Protector's ghostly purpose.

But now was all the labor and study in the device of some appropriate pretext for which the people should be content to depose the Prince and accept the Protector for king, for which diverse things they devised. But the chief thing, and the most weighty of all that invention, rested in this: they should allege bastardy, either in King Edward himself, or in his children, or both, so that he should seem unable to inherit the crown by the Duke of York, and the Prince by him. To lay bastardy in King Edward sounded openly to the rebuke of the Protector's own mother, who was mother to them both; for in that point could be none other color, but to pretend that his own mother was one adulteress, which, not withstanding, to further his purpose he omitted not; but nevertheless, he would the point should be less and more favorably handled, not even fully plain and directly, but that the matter should be touched upon, craftily, as though men spared, in that point, to speak all the truth for fear of his displeasure. But the other point, concerning the bastardy that they devised to surmise in King Edward's children, that would he be openly declared and enforced to the uttermost. The color and pretext whereof cannot be well perceived but if we first repeat to you some things long before done about King Edward's marriage.

After King Edward the Fourth had deposed King Henry the Sixth and was in peaceful possession of the realm, determining himself to marry, as it was requisite both for himself and for the realm, he sent over in embassy the Earl of Warwick with other noble men in his company unto Spain to entreat and conclude a marriage between King Edward and the king's daughter of Spain. In which thing the Earl of Warwick found the parties so toward and willing that he speedily, according to his instructions, without any difficulty brought the matter to a very good conclusion.

Now it happened in the meanwhile that there came to make a suit by petition to the King, Dame Elizabeth Gray, who was after his Queen, at that time a widow born of noble blood, specially by her mother, who was Duchess of Bedford before she married the Lord Woodville, Elizabeth's father. However, this Dame Elizabeth, herself being in service with Queen Margaret, wife unto King Henry the Sixth, was married unto one John Gray, a squire, whom King Henry made knight upon the battlefield where he had fought on Shrove Tuesday at Saint Albans against King Edward. And little while enjoyed he that knighthood, for he was at the same field slain. After he had died, and the Earl of Warwick being in his embassy about the before mentioned marriage, this poor lady made humble suit unto the King that she might be restored unto such small lands as her late husband had given her during their marriage. Whom when the King beheld and heard her speak, as she was both fair, of a good favor, moderate of stature, well made and very wise, he not only pitied her, but also grew enamored with her. And taking her afterward secretly aside, began to enter into talking more familiarly. Whose appetite, when she perceived it, she virtuously denied him. But that did she so wisely, and with so good manner, and words so well set, that she rather kindled his desire than quenched it. And finally after many a meeting, much wooing, and many great promises, she well spied the King's affection toward her so greatly increased that she dared somewhat the more boldly say her mind, as to him whose heart she perceived more firmly set than to fall off for a word. And in conclusion she showed him plain that as she knew herself too simple to be his wife, so thought she herself too good to be his concubine. The King, much marveling at her constancy, as he that had not been wont elsewhere to be so stiffly told nay, so much esteemed her continence and chastity that he set her virtue in the place of possession and riches. And thus taking counsel of his desire, determined in all possible haste to marry her. And after he was thus resolved, and there had between them an agreement been assured, then asked he counsel of his other friends, and in such manner, as they might easily perceive it remedied not greatly to say nay.

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 1337-1388

Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 1306-1376

Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury 1407-1462

Richard Neville Earl Salisbury 1400-1460

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471

Kings Wessex: Great x 12 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 9 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471

Anne Neville Queen Consort England x 1

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 2

Ancestors of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Neville

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby

Great x 2 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville of Raby 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Fitzroger 5th Baron Warkworth

Great x 3 Grandmother: Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Zouche Baroness Warkworth 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Audley

Great x 3 Grandfather: Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley of Stratton Audley 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ela Longespée Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Audley Baroness Greystoke and Neville 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund Mortimer 2nd Baron Mortimer of Wigmore 2 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Iseult Mortimer 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Fiennes 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry Percy 10th and 2nd Baron Percy 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl of Arundel 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Saluzzo Countess Arundel 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Clifford

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella Vipont 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Idonia Clifford Baroness Percy 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas de Clare 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Clare Baroness Clifford Baroness Welles 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Juliana Fitzgerald 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: Richard Neville Earl Salisbury Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Giles "Payne" Roet

Great x 1 Grandmother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Montagu 1st Baron Montagu, Baron Monthermer

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison

Great x 3 Grandmother: Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Ralph Monthermer 1st Baron Monthermer

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Monthermer 2nd Baron Monthermer Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan of Acre Countess Gloucester and Hertford Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Monthermer Baroness Montagu 3rd Baroness Monthermer Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter Brewes Count Flanders

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Brewes Baroness Monthermer

GrandFather: Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Adam Francis

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maud Francis Countess of Salisbury

Mother: Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert de Holand of Upholland

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Holland 1st Baron Holand

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Zouche Baroness Holand 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Segrave

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret of France Queen Consort England 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Wake 1st Baron Wake of Liddell 2 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Wake Countess Kent 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Fiennes Baroness Wake Liddell 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Eleanor Holland 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl of Arundel 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl of Arundel 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Saluzzo Countess Arundel 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Warenne

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alice Warenne Countess Arundel

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Vere

Great x 1 Grandmother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Patrick Chaworth

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Chaworth