Europe, British Isles, East England, Cambridgeshire, Peterborough Cathedral [Map]

Peterborough Cathedral is in Peterborough [Map].

655 Battle of the Winwaed

1056 Battle of Glasbury-on-Wye

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

The Choir of Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

The Crossing of Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Interior of Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

High Altar at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Battle of the Winwaed

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 655. This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy (age 43), brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted [Map]; because there is a well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide. This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 656. This year was Peada slain; and Wulfhere (age 16), son of Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians. In his time waxed the abbey of Medhamsted [Map] very rich, which his brother had begun. The king (age 16) loved it much, for the love of his brother Peada, and for the love of his wed-brother Oswy (age 44), and for the love of Saxulf the abbot. He said, therefore, that he would dignify and honour it by the counsel of his brothers, Ethelred and Merwal; and by the counsel of his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha; and by the counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit; and by the counsel of all his peers, learned and lewd, that in his kingdom were. And he so did. Then sent the king after the abbot, that he should immediately come to him. And he so did. Then said the king to the abbot: "Beloved Saxulf, I have sent after thee for the good of my soul; and I will plainly tell thee for why. My brother Peada and my beloved friend Oswy (age 44) began a minster, for the love of Christ and St. Peter: but my brother, as Christ willed, is departed from this life; I will therefore intreat thee, beloved friend, that they earnestly proceed on their work; and I will find thee thereto gold and silver, land and possessions, and all that thereto behoveth." Then went the abbot home, and began to work. So he sped, as Christ permitted him; so that in a few years was that minster ready. Then, when the king (age 16) heard say that, he was very glad; and bade men send through all the nation, after all his thanes; after the archbishop, and after bishops: and after his earls; and after all those that loved God; that they should come to him. And he fixed the day when men should hallow the minster. And when they were hallowing the minster, there was the king, Wulfere (age 16), and his brother Ethelred, and his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha. And the minster was hallowed by Archbishop Deusdedit of Canterbury; and the Bishop of Rochester, Ithamar; and the Bishop of London, who was called Wina; and the Bishop of the Mercians, whose name was Jeruman; and Bishop Tuda. And there was Wilfrid, priest, that after was bishop; and there were all his thanes that were in his kingdom. When the minster [Map] was hallowed, in the name of St. Peter, and St. Paul, and St. Andrew, then stood up the king before all his thanes, and said with a loud voice: "Thanks be to the high almighty God for this worship that here is done; and I will this day glorify Christ and St. Peter, and I will that you all confirm my words.-I Wulfere give to-day to St. Peter, and the Abbot Saxulf, and the monks of the minster, these lands, and these waters, and meres, and fens, and weirs, and all the lands that thereabout lye, that are of my kingdom, freely, so that no man have there any ingress, but the abbot and the monks. This is the gift. From Medhamsted to Northborough; and so to the place that is called Foleys; and so all the fen, right to Ashdike; and from Ashdike to the place called Fethermouth; and so in a right line ten miles long to Ugdike; and so to Ragwell; and from Ragwell five miles to the main river that goeth to Elm and to Wisbeach; and so about three miles to Trokenholt; and from Trokenholt right through all the fen to Derworth; that is twenty miles long; and so to Great Cross; and from Great Cross through a clear water called Bradney; and thence six miles to Paxlade; and so forth through all the meres and fens that lye toward Huntingdon-port; and the meres and lakes Shelfermere and Wittlesey mere, and all the others that thereabout lye; with land and with houses that are on the east side of Shelfermere; thence all the fens to Medhamsted; from Medhamsted all to Welmsford; from Welmsford to Clive; thence to Easton; from Easton to Stamford [Map]; from Stamford as the water runneth to the aforesaid Northborough." - These are the lands and the fens that the king gave unto St. Peter's minster.-Then quoth the king: "It is little-this gift- but I will that they hold it so royally and so freely, that there be taken there from neither gild nor gable, but for the monks alone. Thus I will free this minster; that it be not subject except to Rome alone; and hither I will that we seek St. Peter, all that to Rome cannot go." During these words the abbot desired that he would gant him his request. And the king granted it. "I have here (said he) some good monks that would lead their life in retirement, if they wist where. Now here is an island, that is called Ankerig; and I will request, that we may there build a minster to the honour of St. Mary; that they may dwell there who will lead their lives in peace and tranquillity." Then answered the king, and quoth thus: "Beloved Saxulf, not that only which thou desirest, but all things that I know thou desirest in our Lord's behalf, so I approve, and grant. And I bid thee, brother Ethelred, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, for the release of your souls, that you be witnesses, and that you subscribe it with your fingers. And I pray all that come after me, be they my sons, be they my brethren, or kings that come after me, that our gift may stand; as they would be partakers of the life everlasting, and as they would avoid everlasting punishment. Whoso lesseneth our gift, or the gift of other good men, may the heavenly porter lessen him in the kingdom of heaven; and whoso advanceth it, may the heavenly porter advance him in the kingdom of heaven." These are the witnesses that were there, and that subscribed it with their fingers on the cross of Christ, and confirmed it with their tongues. That was, first the king, Wulfere, who confirmed it first with his word, and afterwards wrote with his finger on the cross of Christ, saying thus: "I Wulfere, king, in the presence of kings, and of earls, and of captains, and of thanes, the witnesses of my gift, before the Archbishop Deus-dedit, I confirm it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Oswy, king of the Northumbrians, the friend of this minster, and o[oe] the Abbot Saxulf, commend it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Sighere, king, ratify it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Sibbi, king, subscribe it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Ethelred, the king's brother, granted the same with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And we, the king's sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, approve it."-"And I Archbishop of Canterbury, Deus-dedit, ratify it."-Then confirmed it all the others that were there with the cross of Christ (+): namely, Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester; Wina, Bishop of London; Jeruman, Bishop of the Mercians; and Tuda, bishop; and Wilfrid, priest, who was afterwards bishop; and Eoppa, priest, whom the king, Wulfere, sent to preach christianity in the Isle of Wight; and Saxulf, abbot; and Immine, alderman, and Edbert, alderman, and Herefrith, alderman, and Wilbert, alderman, and Abo, alderman; Ethelbald, Brord, Wilbert, Elmund, Frethegis. These, and many others that were there, the king's most loyal subjects, confirmed it all. This charter was written after our Lord's Nativity 664-the seventh year of King Wulfere-the ninth year of Archbishop Deus-dedir. Then they laid God's curse, and the curse of all saints, and all christian folks, on whosoever undid anything that there was done. "So be it," saith all. "Amen."-When this thing was done, then sent the king to Rome to the Pope Vitalianus that then was, and desired, that he would ratify with his writ and with his blessing, all this aforesaid thing. And the pope then sent his writ, thus saying: "I Vitalianus, pope, grant thee, King Wulfere, and Deus-dedit, archbishop, and Abbot Saxulf, all the things that you desire. And I forbid, that any king, or any man, have any ingress, but the abbot alone; nor shall he be Subject to any man, except the Pope of Rome and the Archbishop of Canterbury. If any one breaketh anything of this, St. Peter with his sword destroy him. Whosoever holdeth it, St. Peter with heaven's key undo him the kingdom of heaven."-Thus was the minster of Medhamsted begun, that was afterwards called Peter-borough. Afterwards came another archbishop to Canterbury, who was called Theodorus (age 54); a very good man and wise; and held his synod with his bishops and with his clerk. There was Wilfrid, bishop of the Mercians, deprived of his bishopric; and Saxulf, abbot, was there chosen bishop; and Cuthbald, monk of the same minster, was chosen abbot. This synod was holden after our Lord's Nativity six hundred and seventy-three winters.

After 864. The Hedda Stone at Peterborough Cathedral [Map]. A two-sided carving that memorializes the massacre of the Abbot and Monks in 870, carved a few years after the event.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 870. This year the army rode over Mercia into East-Anglia, and there fixed their winter-quarters at Thetford [Map]. And in the winter King Edmund fought with them; but the Danes gained the victory, and slew the king; whereupon they overran all that land, and destroyed all the monasteries to which they came. The names of the leaders who slew the king were Hingwar and Hubba. At the same time came they to Medhamsted [Map], burning and breaking, and slaying abbot and monks, and all that they there found. They made such havoc there, that a monastery [Map], which was before full rich, was now reduced to nothing. The same year died Archbishop Ceolnoth; and Ethered, Bishop of Witshire, was chosen Archbishop of Canterbury.

John of Worcester. 1051. Ælfric, archbishop of York, died at Southwell, and was buried at Peterborough [Map]; Kinsige, the king's chaplain, succeeded him. King Edward (age 48) released the English from the heavy tax payable to the Danish troops, in the thirty-eighth year after his father Ethelred had first imposed it. After this, in the month of September, Eustace (age 36) the elder, count of Boulogne, who had married a sister of king Edward, named Goda, sailed to Dover, Kent [Map] with a small fleet.66 His soldiers, while they were bluntly and indiscreetly inquiring for lodgings, killed one of the townsmen. A neighbour of his witnessing this, slew one of the soldiers in revenge. At this the count and his followers were much enraged, and put many men and women to the sword, trampling their babes and children under their horses' hoofs. But seeing the townsmen flocking together to resist them, they made their escape, like cowards, with some difficulty, and leaving seven of their number slain, they fled to king Edward (age 48), who was then at Gloucester. Earl Godwin (age 50), being indignant that such things should be done within his jurisdiction, in great wrath raised an immense army from the whole of his earldom, that is, from Kent, Sussex, and Wessex; his eldest son, Sweyn, also assembled the men of his earldom, that is, of the counties of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and Berks; and his other son, Harold (age 29), assembled the men of his earldom, namely, Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon, and Cambridge. This did not escape the notice of king Edward (age 48), and he therefore sent messages to Leofric, earl of Mercia, and Siward (age 41), earl of Northumbria, begging them to hasten to him with all the men they could muster, as he was in great peril. They came at first with only a few followers but when they learnt the real state of affairs, they sent swift messengers throughout their earldoms and gathered a large army. Likewise earl Ralph, son of Goda, king Edward's sister, assembled as many as he could from his county.

Note 66. Cf. Saxon Chronicle under the years 1048 and 1052.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. At the same time Arnwy, Abbot of Peterborough, resigned his abbacy in full health; and gave it to the monk Leofric, with the king's (age 49) leave and that of the monks; and the Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight winters. The Abbot Leofric gilded the minster [Map], so that it was called Gildenborough; and it then waxed very much in land, and in gold, and in silver.

Note 73 i.e. Godwin and his son Harold.

Note 74 i.e. the tide of the river.

Battle of Glasbury-on-Wye

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 16 Jun 1056. This year Bishop Egelric resigned his bishopric at Durham, and retired to Peterborough minster [Map]; and his brother Egelwine succeeded him. The worthy Bishop Athelstan died on the fourth before the ides of February; and his body lies at Hereford [Map]. To him succeeded Leofgar, who was Earl Harold's mass-priest. He wore his knapsack in his priesthood, until he was a bishop. He abandoned his chrism and his rood-his ghostly weapons-and took to his spear and to his sword, after his bishophood; and so marched to the field against Griffin the Welsh king.79 But he was there slain, and his priests with him, and Elnoth the sheriff, and many other good men with them; and the rest fled. This was eight nights before midsummer. Difficult is it to relate all the vexation and the journeying, the marching and the fatigue, the fall of men, and of horses also, which the whole army of the English suffered, until Earl Leofric, and Earl Harold (age 34), and Bishop Eldred, came together and made peace between them; so that Griffin swore oaths, that he would be a firm and faithful viceroy to King Edward. Then Bishop Eldred took to the bishopric which Leofgar had before eleven weeks and four days.

Note 79. This was no uncommon thing among the Saxon clergy, bishops and all. The tone of elevated diction in which the writer describes the military enterprise of Leofgar and his companions, testifies his admiration.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1057. This year died Earl Ralph, on the twelfth before the calends of January [21 Dec 1057]; and lies at Peterborough [Map].

John of Worcester. 1060. Henry (age 51), king of the Franks, died, and was succeeded by his eldest son Philip (age 7). Duduc, bishop of Wells, died, and was succeeded by Giso, the king's chaplain; they were both natives of Lorraine. Kinsi, archbishop of York, died at York on the eleventh of the calends of January [22nd December]. His body was carried to the abbey of Peterborough Cathedral [Map], and buried there with great pomp. Aldred, bishop of Worcester, was elected his successor as archbishop of York at Christmas; and the see of Hereford, which had been entrusted to his administration on account of his great diligence, was given to Walter, a Lorrainer, and chaplain to queen Edgitha (age 34).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1060. This year was a great earthquake on the Translation of St. Martin, and King Henry (age 52) died in France. Kinsey, Archbishop of York, died on the eleventh before the calends of January; and he lies at Peterboorugh [Map]. Bishop Aldred succeeded to the see, and Walter to that of Herefordshire. Dudoc also died, who was Bishop of Somersetshire; and Gisa the priest was appointed in his stead.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1070. This year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king (age 42); but in the Lent of the same year the king (age 42) ordered all the monasteries in England to be plundered. In the same year came King Sweyne (age 51) from Denmark into the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty with him; thinking that he would overrun the land. Then came into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that land. Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward (age 35) and his gang: because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a French abbot, whose name was Thorold;-that he was a very stern man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen. Now there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes, and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold (age 40); telling him that he sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the monks. Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood, so that they could not come in. Then they laid on fire, and burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one house. Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate; where the monks met them, and besought peace of them. But they regarded nothing. They went into the minster [Map], climbed up to the holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which was all of red gold. They climbed up to the steeple, brought down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short, they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures, in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another; and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster. Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely [Map], and deposited there all the treasure. The Danes, believing that they should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the infirmary. Then came Abbot Thorold (age 40) and eight times twenty Frenchmen with him, all full-armed. When he came thither, he found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he would come thither. This was done on the fourth day before the nones of June. The two kings, William (age 42) and Sweyne (age 51), were now reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid treasure, and carried it away with them. But when they came into the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed all the ships wherein the treasures were. Some went to Norway, some to Ireland, some to Denmark. All that reached the latter, consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes, and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's town, called --, and deposited it all there in the church. Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was consumed by fire. Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned and plundered. Almighty God have mercy on it through his great goodness. Thus came the Abbot Thorold (age 40) to Peterborough; and the monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of rite. When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men who that evil deed had done. There was a great famine this year: and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards for Denmark.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1072. This year died Bishop Aylric. He had been invested Bishop of York; but that see was unjustly taken from him, and he then had the bishopric of Durham given him; which he held as long as he chose, but resigned it afterwards, and retired to Peterborough minster [Map]; where he abode twelve years. After that King William (age 44) won England, then took he him from Peterborough, and sent him to Westminster; where he died on the ides of October, and he is there buried, within the minster, in the porch of St. Nicholas.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1102. And the Archbishop Anselm (age 69) held a synod of clergy; and there they established many canons that belong to Christianity. And many, both French and English, were there deprived of their staves and dignity, which they either obtained with injustice, or enjoyed with dishonour. And in this same year, in the week of the feast of Pentecost, there came thieves, some from Auvergne133, some from France, and some from Flanders, and broke into the minster of Peterborough [Map], and therein seized much property in gold and in silver; namely, roods, and chalices, and candlesticks.

Note 133. "Auvergne" at that time was an independent province, and formed no part of France. About the middle of the fourteenth century we find Jane, Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne, and Queen of France, assisting in the dedication of the church of the Carmelites at Paris, together with Queen Jeanne d'Evreux, third wife and widow of Charles IV., Blanche of Navarre, widow of Philip VI., and Jeanne de France, Queen of Navarre.-Felib. "Histoire de Paris", vol. I, p. 356.

Around 1230. The West Facade of Peterborough Cathedral [Map]. Early English Gothic style. The three arches with Recesses unique.

Between 1496 and 1508 the New Building was added to Peterborough Cathedral [Map]. Constructed in the Perpendicular Gothic style with Fan Vaulting. The vaulting is believed to have been designed by John Wastell.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

On 29 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon (deceased) was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map] at a service for a Princess rather than Queen.

Bishop John Hilsey preached, alleging that, in the hour of death, she had acknowledged that she had never been Queen of England.

Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 17) was Chief Mourner. Henry VIII (age 44) refused their daughter Mary (age 19) permission to attend. On the same day Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) miscarried a child.

William Harvey (age 26) attended; the only officer of arms to do so.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 29 Jan 1536. She was buried at Peterborowe [Map]c the 29th daie of Januarie, being Saturdaie.

Note c. In the Abbey Church, which Henry VIII afterwards converted into a Cathedral. The circular letter addressed by the King to many persons of quality, requiring their attendance in the conveyance of the corpse from Kimbolton to Peterborough, will be found in MS. Harleian. 540, fol 52b.

Calendars. 17 Feb 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

On that very day the good Queen of England's (deceased) burial took place, which was attended by four bishops and as many abbots, besides the ladies mentioned in my preceding despatches. No other person of rank or name was present except the comptroller of the Royal household. The place where she lies in the cathedral church of Peterborough [Map] is a good way from the high altar, and in a less honourable position than that of several bishops buried in the same church. Had she not been a dowager Princess, as they have held her both in life and death, but simply a Lady, they could not have chosen a less distinguished place of rest for her, as the people who understand this sort of thing tell me. Such have been the wonderful display and incredible magnificence which these people gave me to understand would be lavished in honour and memory of one whose great virtues and royal relationship certainly entitled her to uncommon honours.

Perhaps one of these days they will repair their fault, and erect a suitable. Monument or institute some pious foundation to her memory in some suitable spot or other.

Calendars. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

His last letter, announcing the death and martyrdom of the Queen of England, was dated the 30th of January.

Since then he (Ortiz) has received one, dated the 19th of January, [from Chapuys?], informing him that the Princess (age 20) (Mary) was in good health. The Queen before dying showed well what her whole life had been; for not only did she ask for, and receive, all the sacraments ordained by the Church, but answered the questions put by the priest with such ardour and devotion that all present were edified. Some of those who were by her bedside, having suggested that it was not yet time to receive the sacrament of Extreme Unction, she replied that she wished to hear and understand everything that was said, and make fitting answers. She preserved her senses to the last, &c.

They say that when the king of England (age 44) heard of the death of his Queen, dressed in mauve silk as he was at the time, and with a white feather in his cap, he went to solace himself with the ladies of the palace. In fact it may well be said of him and of his kingdom what the Prophet Isaias says, cap. lvii., "Justus periet, et non est qui recogitet in corde suo, et viri misericordia colliguntur quia non est qui intelligat."

Her Highness the Queen was buried with the honors of a Princess [dowager], 18 miles from the place where she died, at an abbey called Yperberu [Map] (Peterborough), the King having only sent thither some ladies of his Court to attend the funeral. The King and the concubine (age 35) were not in London, but at a place on the road called Octinton [Map] (Huntingdon).

Anne Bolans (age 35) is now in fear of the King deserting her one of these days, in order to marry another lady.

The King having sent his ambassadors into Scotland to persuade the king (age 23) of that country to separate from, and refuse obedience to, the Apostolic See, it happened that the very day and moment when the English were delivering their embassy a storm arose, and a most tremendous clap of thunder was heard, at which king James (age 23) horrified rose from his seat, crossed himself, and exclaimed, "I scarcely know which of the two things has caused me most fear and horror, that thunder and lightning we have just heard, or the proposition you have made me." After which, and in the very presence of the English ambassadors, he ordered unconditional obedience to the Church to be proclaimed throughout his dominions.

Here, at Rome, when the news of the good Queen's death arrived, the Papal bull excommunicating king Henry for his iniquitous conduct, and depriving him of his kingdom, was already sealed and closed. Since then nothing further has been done in the matter, but the executory letters (executoriales) in the principal cause have actually been taken out, though with no small trouble.-Rome, 6 March 1536.

Since the above was written I have had a letter from the Imperial ambassador in France, in date of the 15th ultimo, intimating that, according to news received from England, the King wished to marry the Princess to a gentleman of his kingdom, and that king Francis had told the Imperial ambassador that in consequence of a fall from his horse king Henry had been two hours unconscious without speech1; seeing which Ana Bolans (age 35) (Boleyn) was so struck that she actually miscarried of a son. Great news these, for which we are bound to thank God, because, were the Princess to be married as reported, she may at once be considered out of danger; for her marriage may hereafter be dissolved and declared null, as it would effectually be owing to the violence used, and the evident fear the Princess has of her life, should she not consent to it. At any rate, it must be owned that though the King himself was not converted like St. Paul after his fall, at least his adulterous wife (age 35) has miscarried of a son.

Note 1. Que el Rey de Inglaterra auia caitlo con su cavallo, y estado mas de dos horas sin habla, de lo qual la Ana (age 35) tuvo tan grande alteracion que movió un hijo."

.

Letters 1536. 01 Jun 1536. Vit. B. xiv. 220. B. M. 1023. J[ean de Ponte] to Cromwell.

"Juste deprecantibus nichil denegari debet, 1536."—On the 1st June, dined with the vicar of Honniton and another priest, at the house of John Bould, the "Lion," at Dover. There were also present a man named Granger, and the wives of Mr. Nedersolle, Mr. Wrake, and John [Bould]. During dinner a servant of the master of the Maison Dieu, named Tra[sse], came in with news that the day before Madame Anne (deceased) was beheaded, the tapers at the sepulchre [Map] of queen Katharine lighted of themselves, and, after matins, at Deo Gratias, went out; that the King sent 30 men to the abbey where queen Katharine was buried to inquire about it, and the light continued from day to day; that orders would soon be issued to pray for queen Katharine as before, and afterwards a heap of heretics and new inventions would be hanged and burnt, "comme moy qui etoyt ung heretike plus grant de Angletayre, et ung false kenayve que je toys .... davant que fut gayres je seroys davant le conseyll du Roy, comme ung false kanave que j[etoys];" and that I should mark well what he said. I asked whether he had heard me preach or speak heresy. He said yes, and that I had eaten milk, butter, and eggs. I said I never ate eggs. Then he said I was a false French knave, and should be had before the Council. "De Ponte," 1 June.

P. S.—I shall be killed of them of the Maison Dieu, and dare not abide in the chapel. I would not leave without permission of my friends, but I had rather leave than be killed without deserving it. Hol., Fr., pp. 2. Add.

Note 1. Like me who was one of the greatest heretics of England, and a false knave that I toy [?] .... before there was gayres [?] I would be before the council of the King, like a false kanave that ...

On 04 Sep 1541 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 50) issued letters patent to convert Peterborough Abbey into a Cathedral [Map]. Bishop John Chambers was appointed Bishop of Peterborough.

On 23 Dec 1541 Bishop John Chambers was consecrated Bishop of Peterborough at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

On 07 Feb 1556 Bishop John Chambers died. Effigy believed to be of John Chambers at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Bishop John Chambers: On 04 Sep 1541 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland issued letters patent to convert Peterborough Abbey into a Cathedral. He was appointed Bishop of Peterborough. On 23 Dec 1541 Bishop John Chambers was consecrated Bishop of Peterborough at Peterborough Cathedral.

In 1561 Bishop Edmund Scambler (age 41) was elected Bishop of Peterborough.

In 1583 Bishop Richard Fletcher (age 38) was appointed Dean of Peterborough.

On 01 Aug 1587 Mary Queen of Scots was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map]. Bishop William Wickham (age 48) preached.

The Letter Books of Amias Paulet Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots Published 1874 Marys Execution. The household of the late Queen were not allowed to depart as soon as Poulet (age 54) expected. They were detained at Fotheringay [Map], from motives of policy, till the 3rd of August, when the funeral of their mistress having been at last performed, they were set free. Some of them were taken to Peterborough [Map] to accompany the corpse and to be present at the funeral ceremonies on the 1st of August. Amongst them, in the order of the procession, it is surprising to find Mary's chaplain, "Monsieur du Preau, aumosnier, en long manteau, portant une croix d'Argent en main." The account of the funeral from which this is taken, written by one of the late Queen's household, takes care to mention that when they reached the choir of Peterborough Minster, and the choristers began "a chanter a leur fagon en langage Anglois," they all, with the exception of Andrew Melville and Barbara Mowbray, left the church and walked in the cloisters till the service was finished. "Si les Anglois," he says, "et principalement le Roy des heraux ... estoit en extreme cholere, d'autant estoient joieux et contents les Catholiques".

Poulet left for London, and as long as Mary's servants were detained at Fotheringay [Map], he seems to have retained jurisdiction over them. It was to him, therefore, that Melville and Bourgoin applied in March for leave to sell their horses and to write into France respecting the bequests made to them by the Queen of Scots; and to him that Darrell forwarded in June "the petition of the whole household and servants of the late Queen of Scotland remaining at Fotheringay," begging to be released from their prison and to be allowed to leave the country.

In Oct 1640 Bishop John Cosins (age 45) was appointed Dean of Peterborough.

In 1663 Bishop Joseph Henshaw (age 55) was appointed Bishop of Peterborough.

In 1679 Bishop Simon Patrick (age 52) was appointed Dean of Peterborough.

In 1685 Bishop Thomas White (age 57) was appointed Bishop of Peterborough.

In 1691 Bishop Richard Cumberland (age 58) was elected Bishop of Peterborough. He, apparently, discovered he had been elected when he read it in a newspaper whilst enjoying his habitual morning coffee at a coffe-house in Stamford [Map].

In 1691 Bishop Richard Cumberland (age 59) was appointed Bishop of Peterborough.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Apr 1691. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 74), and Bishops of Ely (age 53), Bath and Wells (age 53), Peterborough (age 63), Gloucester (age 69), and the rest who would not take the oaths to King William (age 40), were now displaced; and in their rooms, Dr. Tillotson (age 60), Dean of St. Paul's, was made Archbishop: Patrick (age 64) removed from Chichester to Ely; Cumberland (age 59) to Gloucester. Note. A mistake. Bishop Edward Fowler (age 59) was made Bishop of Gloucester. Bishop Richard Cumberland (age 59) was made Bishop of Peterborough.

1695. Monument to Robert Pemberton -1695 at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

On 08 Oct 1718 Bishop Richard Cumberland (age 86) died. He was buried the next day at Peterborough Cathedral [Map]. Sculpted by Thomas Green of Camberwell (age 59).

Bishop Richard Cumberland: On 15 Jul 1632 he was born In 1691 Bishop Richard Cumberland was elected Bishop of Peterborough. He, apparently, discovered he had been elected when he read it in a newspaper whilst enjoying his habitual morning coffee at a coffe-house in Stamford.

On 19 Aug 1721 Thomas Deacon (age 70) died. He was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map]. Powdered Wig. Hand On Skull. Elbow Reclining Figure. Heeled Shoes. Sculpted by Robert Taylor (age 7).

Thomas Deacon: Around 1651 he was born. B 1653 he and Mary Havey were married. Before 1718 he was appointed High Sheriff of Northamptonshire.

In 1744 Bishop Robert Lamb (age 41) was appointed Dean of Peterborough which position he held until 1764.

In 1747 Richard Terrick Bishop (age 37) was elected Bishop of Peterborough through the influence of William Cavendish 4th Duke Devonshire (age 26) the Prime Minister.

On 04 Oct 1747 Bishop John Thomas (age 51) was consecrated Bishop of Peterborough at Lambeth Palace [Map].

In 1764 Bishop Robert Lamb (age 61) was elected Bishop of Peterborough.

In 1769 Bishop John Hinchliffe (age 38) was appointed Bishop of Peterborough.

In 1769 Bishop John Hinchcliffe (age 38) was elected Bishop of Peterborough.

On 11 Jan 1794 Bishop John Hinchcliffe (age 63) died. He was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

On 11 Jan 1794 Bishop John Hinchliffe (age 63) died. He was buried in Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Around Mar 1794 Bishop Spencer Madan (age 65) was translated to Bishop of Peterborough.

On 08 Nov 1813 Bishop Spencer Madan (age 84) died. He was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

On 27 Sep 1815 Prebendary Joseph Parsons (age 53) was appointed Prebendary of Peterborough Cathedral.

On 01 Feb 1829 Prebendary Joseph Parsons (age 67) died. Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Prebendary Joseph Parsons: Around 1762 he was born. On 27 Sep 1815 he was appointed Prebendary of Peterborough Cathedral.

On 15 Nov 1868 Archbishop William Connor Magee (age 46) was consecrated Bishop of Peterborough.

In 1870 Haydn Keeton Organist (age 22) was appointed Organist at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

On 25 Apr 1891 Bishop Mandell Crichton (age 47) was consecrated Bishop of Peterborough.

On 05 May 1891 Archbishop William Connor Magee (age 69) died. He was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

1893. Monument at Archbishop William Connor Magee at Peterborough Cathedral [Map] sculpted by James Forsyth (age 65).

Archbishop William Connor Magee: On 17 Dec 1821 he was born at Cork. On 15 Nov 1868 Archbishop William Connor Magee was consecrated Bishop of Peterborough. On 17 Mar 1891 he was appointed Archbishop of York. He died seven weeks later. On 05 May 1891 he died. He was buried at Peterborough Cathedral.

In 1900 William Clavell Ingram Dean (age 65) was appointed Dean of Peterborough.

On 14 Jan 1901 Bishop Mandell Crichton (age 57) died. He was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Bishop Mandell Crichton: On 05 Jul 1843 he was born at Carlisle, Cumberland. On 25 Apr 1891 Bishop Mandell Crichton was consecrated Bishop of Peterborough. In 1897 Bishop Mandell Crichton was consecrated Bishop of London.

On 26 Apr 1901 William Clavell Ingram Dean (age 66) died. Monument at Peterborough Cathedral [Map] sculpted by his brother Walter Rowlands Ingram (age 65) shortly before he died on 21 Jul 1903.

William Clavell Ingram Dean: On 11 Aug 1834 he was born to Reverend George Ingram. In 1900 he was appointed Dean of Peterborough.

In Dec 1912 Lewis Clayton Bishop (age 74) was appointed assistant Bishop of Peterborough.

After 1914. Memorial to Charles Isham Strong 1838-1914 at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

After 1915 Monument to Edith Cavell Nurse (age 49) in Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Edith Cavell Nurse: On 04 Dec 1865 he was born In 1897 Edith Cavell Nurse was sent to assist with the typhoid outbreak at Maidstone, Kent for which she subsequently was awarded the Maidstone Medal. On 03 Oct 1915 Edith Cavell Nurse was arrested for helping allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium. On 12 Oct 1915 Edith Cavell Nurse was shot by firing squad for having helped two-hundred allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during the First World War.

On 25 Jun 1917 Lewis Clayton Bishop (age 79) died. They were buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Lewis Clayton Bishop: On 08 Jun 1838 he was born. In 1903 he was appointed Bishop of Leicester. In Dec 1912 he was appointed assistant Bishop of Peterborough.

On 27 May 1921 Haydn Keeton Organist (age 73) died. He was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map].

Haydn Keeton Organist: On 26 Oct 1847 he was born. In 1870 he was appointed Organist at Peterborough Cathedral.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Then on midwinter's day Archbishop Aldred hallowed him to king at Westminster, and gave him possession with the books of Christ, and also swore him, ere that he would set the crown on his head, that he would so well govern this nation as any before him best did, if they would be faithful to him. Nevertheless he laid very heavy tribute on men, and in Lent went over sea to Normandy, taking with him Archbishop Stigand, and Abbot Aylnoth of Glastonbury, and the child Edgar, and the Earls Edwin, Morkar, and Waltheof, and many other good men of England. Bishop Odo and Earl William lived here afterwards, and wrought castles widely through this country, and harassed the miserable people; and ever since has evil increased very much. May the end be good, when God will! In that same expedition92 was Leofric, Abbot of Peterborough; who sickened there, and came home, and died soon after, on the night of Allhallow-mass. God honour his soul! In his day was all bliss and all good at Peterborough. He was beloved by all; so that the king gave to St. Peter and him the abbey at Burton, and that at Coventry, which the Earl Leofric, who was his uncle, had formerly made; with that of Croyland, and that of Thorney. He did so much good to the minster of Peterborough [Map], in gold, and in silver, and in shroud, and in land, as no other ever did before him, nor any one after him. But now was Gilden-borough become a wretched borough. The monks then chose for abbot Provost Brand, because he was a very good man, and very wise; and sent him to Edgar Etheling, for that the land-folk supposed that he should be king: and the etheling received him gladly. When King William heard say that, he was very wroth, and said that the abbot had renounced him: but good men went between them, and reconciled them; because the abbot was a good man. He gave the king forty marks of gold for his reconciliation; and he lived but a little while after-only three years. Afterwards came all wretchedness and all evil to the minster. God have mercy on it!

Note 92. i.e. in the expedition against the usurper William.