Biography of Louis "Sun King" XIV King France 1638-1715
In 1615 [his father] Louis XIII King France (age 13) and [his mother] Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France (age 13) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Philip III King Spain (age 36) and Margaret of Austria Queen Consort Spain. He the son of Henry IV King France and Marie de Medici Queen Consort France (age 39). They were second cousins.
Evelyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1643. The Earl of Norwich (age 58) came as Ambassador extraordinary: I went to meet him in a coach and six horses, at the palace of Monsieur de Bassompière, where I saw that gallant person, his gardens, terraces, and rare prospects. My lord was waited on by the master of the ceremonies, and a very great cavalcade of men of quality, to the Palais Cardinal, where on the 23d he had audience of the French king (age 5), and the [his mother] queen Regent his mother (age 42), in the golden chamber of presence. From thence, I conducted him to his lodgings in Rue St. Denis, and so took my leave.
Memoirs of Jean Francois Paul de Gondi Cardinal de Retz Book 1. On the 12th of February a herald came with two trumpeters from the Court to one of the city gates, bringing three packets of letters, one for the Parliament, one for the Prince de Conti (age 19), and the third for the Hotel de Ville. It was but the night before that a person was caught in the halls dropping libels against the Parliament and me; upon which the Parliament, Princes, and city supposed that this State visit was nothing but an amusement of Cardinal Mazarin to cover a worse design, and therefore resolved not to receive the message nor give the herald audience, but to send the King's (age 10) Council to the [his future wife] Queen (age 10) to represent to her that their refusal was out of pure obedience and respect, because heralds are never sent but to sovereign Princes or public enemies, and that the Parliament, the Prince de Conti (age 19), and the city were neither the one nor the other. At the same time the Chevalier de Lavalette, who distributed the libels, had formed a design to kill me and M. de Beaufort (age 33) upon the Parliament stairs in the great crowd which they expected would attend the appearance of the herald. The Court, indeed, always denied his having any other commission than to drop the libels, but I am certain that the Bishop of Dole told the Bishop of Aire, but a night or two before, that Beaufort (age 33) and I should not be among the living three days hence.
The King's (age 10) councillors returned with a report how kindly they had been received at Saint Germain. They said the Queen (age 10) highly approved of the reasons offered by the Parliament for refusing entrance to the herald, and that she had assured them that, though she could not side with the Parliament in the present state of affairs, yet she received with joy the assurances they had given her of their respect and submission, and that she would distinguish them in general and in particular by special marks of her good-will. Talon, Attorney-General, who always spoke with dignity and force, embellished this answer of the Queen (age 10) with all the ornaments he could give it, assuring the Parliament in very pathetic terms that, if they should be pleased to send a deputation to Saint Germain, it would be very kindly received, and might, perhaps, be a great step towards a peace.
When I saw that we were besieged, that the Cardinal had sent a person into Flanders to treat with the Spaniards, and that our party was now so well formed that there was no danger that I alone should be charged with courting the alliance of the enemies of the State, I hesitated no longer, but judged that, as affairs stood, I might with honour hear what proposals the Spaniards would make to me for the relief of Paris; but I took care not to have my name mentioned, and that the first overtures should be made to M. d'Elbeuf, who was the fittest person, because during the ministry of Cardinal de Richelieu he was twelve or fifteen years in Flanders a pensioner of Spain. Accordingly Arnolfi, a Bernardin friar, was sent from the Archduke Leopold, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands for the King of Spain, to the Duc d'Elbeuf, who, upon sight of his credentials, thought himself the most considerable man of the party, invited most of us to dinner, and told us he had a very important matter to lay before us, but that such was his tenderness for the French name that he could not open so much as a small letter from a suspected quarter, which, after some scrupulous and mysterious circumlocutions, he ventured to name, and we agreed one and all not to refuse the succours from Spain, but the great difficulty was, which way to get them. Fuensaldagne, the general, was inclined to join us if he could have been sure that we would engage with him; but as there was no possibility of the Parliaments treating with him, nor any dependence to be placed upon the generals, some of whom were wavering and whimsical, Madame de Bouillon pressed me not to hesitate any longer, but to join with her husband, adding that if he and I united, we should so far overmatch the others that it would not be in their power to injure us.
Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1651. I went to visit Mr. Hobbes (age 63), the famous philosopher of Malmesbury, Wiltshire [Map], with whom I had long acquaintance. From his window we saw the whole equipage and glorious cavalcade of the young French Monarch, Louis XIV (age 13), passing to Parliament, when first he took the kingly government on him, now being in his 14th year, out of his minority and the [his mother] Queen Regent's (age 49) pupilage. First came the captain of the King's Aids, at the head of 50, richly liveried; next, the Queen-Mother's Light Horse, 100, the lieutenant being all over covered with embroidery and ribbons, having before him four trumpets habited in black velvet, full of lace, and casques of the same. Then, the King's Light Horse, 200, richly habited, with four trumpets in blue velvet embroidered with gold, before whom rode the Count d'Olonne coronet [cornet], whose belt was set with pearl. Next went the grand Prévôt's company on foot, with the Prévôt on horseback; after them, the Swiss in black velvet toques, led by two gallant cavaliers habited in scarlet-colored satin, after their country fashion, which is very fantastic; he had in his cap a pennach of heron, with a band of diamonds, and about him twelve little Swiss boys, with halberds. Then, came the Aide des Cérémonies; next, the grandees of court, governors of places and lieutenants-general of provinces, magnificently habited and mounted; among whom I must not forget the Chevalier Paul, famous for many sea-fights and signal exploits there, because it is said he had never been an Academist, and yet governed a very unruly horse, and besides his rich suit his Malta Cross was esteemed at 10,000 crowns. These were headed by two trumpets, and the whole troop, covered with gold, jewels, and rich caparisons, were followed by six trumpets in blue velvet also, preceding as many heralds in blue velvet semée with fleurs-de-lis, caduces in their hands, and velvet caps on their heads; behind them, came one of the masters of the ceremonies; then, divers marshals and many of the nobility, exceeding splendid; behind them Count d'Harcourt, grand Ecuyer, alone, carrying the King's sword in a scarf, which he held up in a blue sheath studded with fleurs-de-lis; his horse had for reins two scarfs of black taffeta.
Evelyn's Diary. 15 Sep 1651. I accompanied Sir Richard Browne (age 46), my father-in-law, to the French Court, when he had a favorable audience of the French King (age 13), and the [his mother] Queen (age 49), his mother; congratulating the one on his coming to the exercise of his royal charge, and the other's prudent and happy administration during her late regency, desiring both to preserve the same amity for his master, our King, as they had hitherto done, which they both promised, with many civil expressions and words of course upon such occasions. We were accompanied both going and returning by the Introductor of Ambassadors and Aid of Ceremonies. I also saw the audience of Morosini, the Ambassador of Venice, and divers other Ministers of State from German Princes, Savoy, etc. Afterward I took a walk in the King's gardens, where I observed that the mall goes the whole square there of next the wall, and bends with an angle so made as to glance the wall; the angle is of stone. There is a basin at the end of the garden fed by a noble fountain and high jetto. There were in it two or three boats, in which the King now and then rows about. In another part is a complete fort, made with bastions, graft, half-moons, ravelins, and furnished with great guns cast on purpose to instruct the King in fortification.
In 1660 Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 21) and Maria Theresa of Spain Queen Consort France (age 21) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Philip IV King Spain (age 54) and Elisabeth Bourbon Queen Consort Spain. He the son of Louis XIII King France and Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France (age 58). They were double first cousins.
On 30 Dec 1662 [his daughter] Anne Élisabeth Bourbon died.
On 26 Dec 1664 [his daughter] Marie Anne Bourbon died.
On 20 Jan 1666 [his mother] Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France (age 64) died.
On 02 Oct 1666 [his illegitimate daughter] Marie Anne Bourbon was born illegitimately to Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 28) and Louise de La Vallière (age 22).
On 31 Mar 1670 [his illegitimate son] Louis Auguste Bourbon Duke Maine was born illegitimately to Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 31) and Françoise Athénaïs Marquise Montespan (age 29).
Evelyn's Diary. 02 May 1671. The French King (age 32), being now with a great army of 28,000 men about Dunkirk, divers of the grandees of that Court, and a vast number of gentlemen and cadets, in fantastical habits, came flocking over to see our Court and compliment his Majesty (age 40). I was present, when they first were conducted into the Queen's (age 32) withdrawing-room, where saluted their Majesties the Dukes of Guise [Note. Possibly Henri Jules Bourbon Condé Prince Condé (age 27) who ], Longueville, and many others of the first rank.
On 10 Jul 1671 [his son] Philippe Charles Bourbon (age 2) died.
On 01 Mar 1672 [his daughter] Marie Thérèse Bourbon (age 5) died.
On 04 Nov 1672 [his son] Louis François Bourbon died.
On 01 Jun 1673 [his illegitimate daughter] Louise Françoise Bourbon was born illegitimately to Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 34) and Françoise Athénaïs Marquise Montespan (age 32).
On 09 Feb 1677 [his illegitimate daughter] Françoise Marie Bourbon Duchess Orléans was born illegitimately to Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 38) and Françoise Athénaïs Marquise Montespan (age 36).
On 06 Jun 1678 [his illegitimate son] Louis Alexandre Count of Toulose was born illegitimately to Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 39) and Françoise Athénaïs Marquise Montespan (age 37).
On 07 Mar 1680 [his son] Louis "Le Grand Dauphin" Bourbon Duke Burgundy (age 18) and [his daughter-in-law] Maria Anna Victoria Wittelsbach Duchess Burgundy (age 19) were married. She by marriage Duchess Burgundy. He the son of Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 41) and Maria Theresa of Spain Queen Consort France (age 41). They were third cousins.
On 30 Jul 1683 [his wife] Maria Theresa of Spain Queen Consort France (age 44) died.
Evelyn's Diary. 05 May 1686. There being a Seale It was fear'd we should be requir'd to passe a doquett dispensing with Dr Obadiah Walker (age 70) and four more, whereof one was an apostate curate of Putney, ye others officers of University College, Oxford, to hold their masterships, fellowships, and cures, and keepe publiq schooles, and enjoy all former emoluments, notwithstanding they no more frequented or us'd the public formes of prayers or communion with ye Church of England, or took yc test and oathes of allegiance and supremacy, contrary to 20 Acts of Parliament; which dispensation being also contrary to his Ma*'s (age 52) owne gracious declaration at ye beginning of his reigne, gave umbrage (as well it might) to every good Protestant, nor could we safely have pass'd it under the Privy Seale, wherefore it was done by immediate warrant, sign'd by Mr. Solicitor. This Walker (age 70) was a learned person, of a monkish life, to whose tuition I had more than 30 yeares since recommended the sonns of my worthy friend Mr. Hyldyard of Horsly in Surrey, believing him to be far from what he prov'd, an hypocritical conceal'd Papist, by wch he perverted the eldest sonn of Mr. Hyldyard, Sr Edwd Hale's (age 41) eldest sonn, and severall more, to the greate disturbance of the whole Nation, as well as of the University, as by his now publiq defection appear'd. All engines being now at work to bring in Popery, wch God in mercy prevent ! This day was burnt in the old Exchange, by the common hangman, a translation of a booke written by ye famous Monsr Claude, relating onely matters of fact concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous proceedings of ye French King (age 47) against his Protestant subjects, without any refutation of any facts therein; so mighty a power and ascendant here had the French Ambass', who was doubtlesse in greate indignation at the pious and truly generous charity of all the Nation, for ye reliefe of those miserable sufferers who came over for shelter. About this time also the Duke of Savoy (age 19), instigated by ye French King to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont, slew many thousands of those innocent people, so that there seem'd to be an universal designe to destroy all that would not go to masse, throughout Europe. Quod avertat D. O. M ! No faith in Princes!
Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jul 1686. I supp'd with the Countesse of Rochester (age 40), where was also the Dutchesse of Buckingham (age 47) and Madame de Governe, whose daughter (age 20) was married to ye Marquess of Halifax's (age 52) sonn (age 52). She made me a character of ye French King (age 47) and [his son] Dauphin (age 24), and of ye persecution. That they kept much of the cruelties from the King's knowledge; that the Dauphin was so afraid of his father, that he durst not let any thing appeare of his sentiments; that he hated letters and priests, spent all his time in hunting, and seem'd to take no notice of what was passing.
Evelyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1689. The King (age 55) abroad was now furnished by the French King (age 50) with money and officers for an expedition to Ireland. The great neglect in not more timely preventing that from hence, and the disturbances in Scotland, give apprehensions of great difficulties, before any settlement can be perfected here, while the Parliament dispose of the great offices among themselves. The Great Seal, Treasury and Admiralty put into commission of many unexpected persons, to gratify the more; so that by the present appearance of things (unless God Almighty graciously interpose and give success in Ireland and settle Scotland) more trouble seems to threaten the nation than could be expected. In the interim, the new King refers all to the Parliament in the most popular manner, but is very slow in providing against all these menaces, besides finding difficulties in raising men to send abroad; the former army, which had never seen any service hitherto, receiving their pay and passing their summer in an idle scene of a camp at Hounslow, unwilling to engage, and many disaffected, and scarce to be trusted.
Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. King James (age 55) was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades, whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the King (age 55) to remove the Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling him that the King of France (age 50), his master, would never assist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor Prince (age 55) is managed by the French.
On 18 Feb 1692 [his son-in-law] Philippe Bourbon II Duke Orléans (age 17) and [his illegitimate daughter] Françoise Marie Bourbon Duchess Orléans (age 15) were married at Palace of Versailles, Versailles. She by marriage Duchess Orléans. She the daughter of Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 53) and Françoise Athénaïs Marquise Montespan (age 51). He the son of Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans (age 51) and Elizabeth Charlotte Palatinate Simmern Duchess Orléans (age 39). They were first cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland.
Evelyn's Diary. 06 Apr 1692. A fast. King James (age 58) sends a letter written and directed by his own hand to several of the Privy Council, and one to his daughter (age 29), the Queen Regent, informing them of the Queen (age 33) being ready to be brought to bed, and summoning them to be at the birth by the middle of May, promising as from the French King (age 53), permission to come and return in safety.
Evelyn's Diary. 14 May 1693. Nothing yet of action from abroad. Muttering of a design to bring forces under color of an expected descent, to be a standing army for other purposes. Talk of a declaration of the French King (age 54), offering mighty advantages to the confederates, exclusive of King William (age 42); and another of King James (age 59), with an universal pardon, and referring the composing of all differences to a Parliament. These were yet but discourses; but something is certainly under it. A declaration or manifesto from King James (age 59), so written, that many thought it reasonable, and much more to the purpose than any of his former.
The heir to the French throne their only remaining son Louis (age 1), aged two, great-grandson of the reigning monarch Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 73) succeeded his great-grandfather three years later in 1715.
Louis Bourbon Condé and [his illegitimate daughter] Louise Françoise Bourbon were married. She the daughter of Louis "Sun King" XIV King France and Françoise Athénaïs Marquise Montespan. He the son of Henri Jules Bourbon Condé Prince Condé and Anne Henriette Palatinate Simmern. He a great x 2 grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland.
The 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover was a pact between France and England for England to abandon its alliance with Sweden and the Duct Republic, allowing France to conquer the Dutch Republic after which France would England a number of stratgeic ports on Dutch Rivers.
King Charles II's sister Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans was instrumental in arranging the Treaty - she was married to the French King's brother [his brother] Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans.
The signatories included:
Kings Wessex: Great x 17 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England
Kings Gwynedd: Great x 16 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd
Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 22 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth
Kings Powys: Great x 17 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys
Kings England: Great x 8 Grand Son of King Edward III of England
Kings Scotland: Great x 15 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland
Kings Franks: Great x 13 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks
Kings France: Son of Louis XIII King France
Great x 1 Grandfather: Antoine King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England
GrandFather: Henry IV King France 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England
Great x 1 Grandmother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England
Father: Louis XIII King France 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England
Louis "Sun King" XIV King France 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England
Great x 1 Grandfather: Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England
GrandFather: Philip III King Spain 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England
Great x 1 Grandmother: Anna of Austria Queen Consort Spain 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England
Mother: Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England
Great x 1 Grandfather: Charles Habsburg Spain II Archduke Austria 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England
GrandMother: Margaret of Austria Queen Consort Spain 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England
Great x 1 Grandmother: Maria Anna Wittelsbach 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England