On this Day in History ... 02 September

02 Sep is in September.

1666 Great Fire of London

1701 Death of King James II

1718 Battle of Cape Passaro

1752 Date Change

On 02 Sep 1277 Maurice Fitzgerald 4th Lord Offaly (age 39) died at Ross, County Wexford. His nephew John Fitzgerald 1st Earl of Kildare (age 27) succeeded 4th Lord Offaly.

On 02 Sep 1381 Frederick Wittelsbach Duke Bavaria (age 42) and Maddalena Visconti Duchess Bavaria (age 15) were married. Maddalena Visconti Duchess Bavaria by marriage Duchess Bavaria. The difference in their ages was 27 years. He the son of Stephen Wittelsbach II Duke Bavaria and Elisabeth Barcelona Duchess Bavaria. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 02 Sep 1473 Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers died.

On 02 Sep 1597 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63) granted licence to the executors of Sir Rowland Hayward to sell King's Place [Map] in the Hackney in north London to Elizabeth Trentham, her brother Francis Trentham of Rocester (age 33), her uncle Ralph Sneyd (age 70), and her cousin, Giles Yonge (age 43). The acquisition of King's Place by Elizabeth Trentham and her relatives placed it 'beyond the reach of Oxford's creditors'.

Before 02 Sep 1609 John Fleming 2nd Earl Wigtown (age 20) and Margaret Livingston Countess Wigtown were married. She the daughter of Alexander Livingston 1st Earl Linlithgow and Helen Hay. He the son of John Fleming 1st Earl Wigtown (age 42) and Lilias Graham Countess Graham. They were second cousins.


On 02 Sep 1609 Thomas Scrope 10th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 42) died at Langar. His son Emanuel Scrope 1st Earl of Sunderland (age 25) succeeded 11th Baron Scrope of Bolton.

Around 02 Sep 1642 James Brydges 8th Baron Chandos was born to John Brydges 2nd Baronet (age 18) at Wilton.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Having seen as much as I could now, I away to White Hall by appointment, and there walked to St. James's Parks, and there met my wife and Creed and Wood and his wife, and walked to my boat; and there upon the water again, and to the fire up and down, it still encreasing, and the wind great. So near the fire as we could for smoke; and all over the Thames, with one's face in the wind, you were almost burned with a shower of firedrops. This is very true; so as houses were burned by these drops and flakes of fire, three or four, nay, five or six houses, one from another. When we could endure no more upon the water; we to a little ale-house on the Bankside, over against the Three Cranes, and there staid till it was dark almost, and saw the fire grow; and, as it grew darker, appeared more and more, and in corners and upon steeples, and between churches and houses, as far as we could see up the hill of the City, in a most horrid malicious bloody flame, not like the fine flame of an ordinary fire. Barbary and her husband away before us.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Here meeting, with Captain Cocke (age 49), I in his coach, which he lent me, and Creed with me to Paul's, and there walked along Watlingstreet, as well as I could, every creature coming away loaden with goods to save, and here and there sicke people carried away in beds. Extraordinary good goods carried in carts and on backs. At last met my Lord Mayor (age 46) in Canningstreet, like a man spent, with a handkercher about his neck. To the King's message he cried, like a fainting woman, "Lord! what can I do? I am spent: people will not obey me. I have been pulling down houses; but the fire overtakes us faster than we can do it". That he needed no more soldiers; and that, for himself, he must go and refresh himself, having been up all night.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So he left me, and I him, and walked home, seeing people all almost distracted, and no manner of means used to quench the fire. The houses, too, so very thick thereabouts, and full of matter for burning, as pitch and tarr, in Thames-street; and Ware [Map] houses of oyle, and wines, and brandy, and other things. Here I saw Mr. Isaake Houblon, the handsome man, prettily dressed and dirty, at his door at Dowgate, receiving some of his brothers' (age 37) things, whose houses were on fire; and, as he says, have been removed twice already; and he doubts (as it soon proved) that they must be in a little time removed from his house also, which was a sad consideration. And to see the churches all filling with goods by people who themselves should have been quietly there at this time.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So home with a sad heart, and there find every body discoursing and lamenting the fire; and poor Tom Hater come with some few of his goods saved out of his house, which is burned upon Fish-streets Hill [Map]. I invited him to lie at my house, and did receive his goods, but was deceived in his lying there, the newes coming every moment of the growth of the fire; so as we were forced to begin to pack up our owne goods; and prepare for their removal; and did by moonshine (it being brave dry, and moon: shine, and warm weather) carry much of my goods into the garden, and Mr. Hater and I did remove my money and iron chests into my cellar, as thinking that the safest place. And got my bags of gold into my office, ready to carry away, and my chief papers of accounts also there, and my tallys into a box by themselves. So great was our fear, as Sir W. Batten (age 65) hath carts come out of the country to fetch away his goods this night. We did put Mr. Hater, poor man, to bed a little; but he got but very little rest, so much noise being in my house, taking down of goods.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So I was called for, and did tell the King (age 36) and Duke of Yorke (age 32) what I saw, and that unless his Majesty did command houses to be pulled down nothing could stop the fire. They seemed much troubled, and the King (age 36) commanded me to go to my Lord Mayor (age 46)1 from him, and command him to spare no houses, but to pull down before the fire every way. The Duke of York (age 32) bid me tell him that if he would have any more soldiers he shall; and so did my Lord Arlington (age 48) afterwards, as a great secret2.

Note 1. Sir Thomas Bludworth (age 46). See June 30th, 1666.

Note 2. Sir William Coventry wrote to Lord Arlington on the evening of this day, "The Duke of York (age 32) fears the want of workmen and tools to-morrow morning, and wishes the deputy lieutenants and justices of peace to summon the workmen with tools to be there by break of day. In some churches and chapels are great hooks for pulling down houses, which should be brought ready upon the place to-night against the morning" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-66, p. 95).

PAINTINGS/LELY/Henry_Bennet_2.png PAINTINGS/LELY/Henry_Bennet.png

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. By this time it was about twelve o'clock; and so home, and there find my guests, which was Mr. Wood and his wife Barbary Sheldon, and also Mr. Moons: she mighty fine, and her husband; for aught I see, a likely man. But Mr. Moone's design and mine, which was to look over my closett and please him with the sight thereof, which he hath long desired, was wholly disappointed; for we were in great trouble and disturbance at this fire, not knowing what to think of it. However, we had an extraordinary good dinner, and as merry, as at this time we could be. While at dinner Mrs. Batelier come to enquire after Mr. Woolfe and Stanes (who, it seems, are related to them), whose houses in Fish-street [Map] are all burned; and they in a sad condition. She would not stay in the fright. Soon as dined, I and Moone away, and walked, through the City, the streets full of nothing but people and horses and carts loaden with goods, ready to run over one another, and, removing goods from one burned house to another.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. They now removing out of Canning-streets (which received goods in the morning) into Lumbard-streets [Map], and further; and among others I now saw my little goldsmith, Stokes, receiving some friend's goods, whose house itself was burned the day after. We parted at Paul's; he home, and I to Paul's Wharf, where I had appointed a boat to attend me, and took in Mr. Carcasse and his brother, whom I met in the streets and carried them below and above bridge to and again to see the fire, which was now got further, both below and above and no likelihood of stopping it. Met with the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) in their barge, and with them to Queenhith and there called Sir Richard Browne (age 61) to them. Their order was only to pull down houses apace, and so below bridge the water-side; but little was or could be done, the fire coming upon them so fast. Good hopes there was of stopping it at the Three Cranes above, and at Buttolph's Wharf below bridge, if care be used; but the wind carries it into the City so as we know not by the water-side what it do there. River full of lighters and boats taking in goods, and good goods swimming in the water, and only I observed that hardly one lighter or boat in three that had the goods of a house in, but there was a pair of Virginalls1 in it.

Note 1. The virginal differed from the spinet in being square instead of triangular in form. The word pair was used in the obsolete sense of a set, as we read also of a pair of organs. The instrument is supposed to have obtained its name from young women, playing upon it.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. We staid till, it being darkish, we saw the fire as only one entire arch of fire from this to the other side the bridge, and in a bow up the hill for an arch of above a mile long: it made me weep to see it. The churches, houses, and all on fire and flaming at once; and a horrid noise the flames made, and the cracking of houses at their ruins.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Having staid, and in an hour's time seen the fire: rage every way, and nobody, to my sight, endeavouring to quench it, but to remove their goods, and leave all to the fire, and having seen it get as far as the Steele-yard [Map], and the wind mighty high and driving it into the City; and every thing, after so long a drought, proving combustible, even the very stones of churches, and among other things the poor steeple by which pretty Mrs.----lives, and whereof my old school-fellow Elborough is parson, taken fire in the very top, an there burned till it fell down: I to White Hall (with a gentleman with me who desired to go off from the Tower, to see the fire, in my boat); to White Hall, and there up to the Kings closett in the Chappell, where people come about me, and did give them an account dismayed them all, and word was carried in to the King (age 36).

From 02 Sep 1666 to 06 Sep 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed around 13000 properties in the medieval City of London as well as 87 parish churches and St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. The fire is estimated to have left 80% of the city's residents homeless.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So I down to the water-side, and there got a boat and through bridge, and there saw a lamentable fire. Poor Michell's house, as far as the Old Swan [Map], already burned that way, and the fire running further, that in a very little time it got as far as the Steeleyard [Map], while I was there. Everybody endeavouring to remove their goods, and flinging into the river or bringing them into lighters that layoff; poor people staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then running into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs by the water-side to another. And among other things, the poor pigeons, I perceive, were loth to leave their houses, but hovered about the windows and balconys till they were, some of them burned, their wings, and fell down.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. This fatal night, about ten, began the deplorable fire, near Fish Street Hill [Map], in London.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. By and by Jane comes and tells me that she hears that above 300 houses have been burned down to-night by the fire we saw, and that it is now burning down all Fish-street [Map], by London Bridge [Map]. So I made myself ready presently, and walked to the Tower [Map], and there got up upon one of the high places, Sir J. Robinson's (age 51) little son going up with me; and there I did see the houses at that end of the bridge all on fire, and an infinite great fire on this and the other side the end of the bridge; which, among other people, did trouble me for poor little Michell and our Sarah on the bridge. So down, with my heart full of trouble, to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 51), who tells me that it begun this morning in the King's baker's' house in Pudding-lane, and that it hath burned St. Magnus's Church [Map] and most part of Fish-street [Map] already.


Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Lord's Day. Some of our mayds sitting up late last night to get things ready against our feast to-day, Jane called us up about three in the morning, to tell us of a great fire they saw in the City. So I rose and slipped on my nightgowne, and went to her window, and thought it to be on the backside of Marke-lane [Map] at the farthest; but, being unused to such fires as followed, I thought it far enough off; and so went to bed again and to sleep. About seven rose again to dress myself, and there looked out at the window, and saw the fire not so much as it was and further off.

On 02 Sep 1680 Francis Wenman 1st Baronet (age 50) died. His son Richard Wenman 4th Viscount Wenman (age 23) succeeded 2nd Baronet Wenman of Caswell.

PAINTINGS/GIBSON/Sarah_Alston.jpgBefore 02 Sep 1692 Thomas Gibson (age 12). Portrait of Sarah Alston Duchess Somerset (age 50).

Sarah Alston Duchess Somerset: In 1642 she was born to Edward Alston (age 47). In 1656 John Seymour 4th Duke Somerset (age 11) and Sarah Alston Duchess Somerset (age 14) were married. He the son of William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset (age 68) and Frances Devereux Duchess of Somerset (age 56). He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland. On 12 Dec 1671 William Seymour 3rd Duke Somerset (age 17) died. His uncle John Seymour 4th Duke Somerset (age 26) succeeded 4th Duke Somerset 4C 1547, 3rd Marquess Hertford 1C 1641, 4th Earl Hertford 4C 1559. Sarah Alston Duchess Somerset (age 29) by marriage Duchess Somerset. On 02 Sep 1692 Sarah Alston Duchess Somerset (age 50) died.

On 19 Nov 1698 Henry Spelman of Wickmere (age 69) died. On 02 Sep 1729 Margaret Spelman (age 81). Monument and chest tomb in Church of St Andrew Wickmere [Map].

Henry Spelman of Wickmere: On 14 Jul 1629 he was born to Clement Spelman (age 31).

Margaret Spelman: Around 1648 she was born to Clement Spelman (age 50).

1701 Death of King James II

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Sep 1701. The death of King James (age 67), happening on the 15th of this month, N. S., after two or three days' indisposition, put an end to that unhappy Prince's troubles, after a short and unprosperous reign, indiscreetly attempting to bring in Popery, and make himself absolute, in imitation of the French, hurried on by the impatience of the Jesuits; which the nation would not endure.


1718 Battle of Cape Passaro

Calendars. 02 Sep 1718. Royal sign manual for 1,000l. to Paty Byng, Esq.: without account: as a mark of royal favour in consideration of his service in bringing letters from our Admiral Sir George Byng (age 55) with a particular account of the engagement [1718 Battle of Cape Passaro] with the Spanish Fleet off Cape Passaro the 31st July last. (Money warrant dated Sept. 3 hereon.) (Money order dated Sept. 3 hereon.) (Letter of direction dated Sept. 5 hereon.) King's Warrant Book XXIX, p. 104. Order Book X, p. 157. Disposition Book XXIV, p. 147.


On 02 Sep 1725 Henry Vane 1st Earl Darlington (age 20) and Grace Fitzroy Countess Darlington (age 28) were married. She the daughter of Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 63) and Anne Pulteney Duchess Southampton Duchess of Cleveland (age 61). She a granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

1752 Date Change

On 02 Sep 1752 Great Britain and Ireland adopted the Gregorian Calendar and corrected the date losing eleven days. Wednesday 02 Sep 1752 was followed by Thursday 14 Sep 1752. The tax year requiring 365 days slipped from commencing on 25 March, Lady Day, to 05 April as a consequence.

On 02 Sep 1784 Leicester FitzGerald Charles Stanhope 5th Earl of Harrington was born to Charles Stanhope 3rd Earl of Harrington (age 31) and Jane Fleming Countess Harrington (age 29). He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.


On 02 Sep 1809 Clementina Drummond Willoughby 24th Baroness Willoughby Eresby Baroness Aveland was born to Peter Drummond Burrell 2nd Baron Gwydyr 22nd Baron Willoughby (age 27) and Clementina Sarah Drummond Baroness Gwydyr Baroness Willoughby Eresby (age 23).

On 02 Sep 1854 Henry Neville 3rd Marquess Abergavenny was born to William Neville 1st Marquess Abergavenny (age 27) and Caroline Vanden Bempte Johnston Marchioness Abergavenny.

On 02 Sep 1869 Walter James 3rd Baron Northbourne was born to Walter Henry James 2nd Baron Northbourne (age 23) and Edith Emeline Mary Lane Baroness Northbourne.

On 02 Sep 1890 Albert Nelson 6th Earl Nelson was born to Edward Nelson 5th Earl Nelson (age 30).

PAINTINGS/LAFAYETTE/Daisy_Cornwallis.jpg02 Sep 1898. James Lafayette (age 45). Photograph of Mary Theresa "Daisy" Cornwallis-West (age 25).

Mary Theresa "Daisy" Cornwallis-West: On 28 Jun 1873 she was born to William Cornwallis-West (age 38) and Mary "Patsy" Fitzpatrick (age 17) at Ruthin Castle. On 29 Jun 1943 Mary Theresa "Daisy" Cornwallis-West (age 70) died.

After 02 Sep 1915. St Andrew's Church, Bredwardine [Map]. Grave of Tom Gammon. Born in Bredwarine. King's Shropshire Light Infantry "C" Coy. 8th Bn. Died from an abscess aged twenty-three at the Cambridge Hospital in Aldershot where the battalion was training. The date of his daeth either 1st of September, as recorded on his grave, or the 2nd, as recorded on the memorial inside the Church. He was born in Bredwardine on June 25, 1892, to Thomas Arthur Gammond (died 1939) and Jane, née Davies (died 1935).

On 02 Sep 1939 George Townshend 7th Marquess Townshend (age 23) and Elizabeth Luby Marchioness Townshend were married. She by marriage Marchioness Townshend. He the son of John Townshend 6th Marquess Townshend. He a great x 3 grandson of King William IV of the United Kingdom.