On this Day in History ... 10 January

10 Jan is in January.

1156 Henry II travels to Normandy

1558 Surrender of Calais

1608 Masque of Beauty

1645 Execution of Archbishop William Laud

1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

1666 Great Plague of London

1715 Battle of Preston

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 10 Jan 1123. Robert, the eighteenth bishop of Lincoln, while riding on horseback and conversing with king Henry at Woodstock in the month of January, fell to the ground, and, losing the use of his speech, was carried to his lodgings, and shortly afterwards expired.1 Ralph, also, the king's chancellor, came to a wretched end.2

Note 1. For the circumstances attending the death of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, see the Saxon Chronicle; also, Henry of Huntingdon's History, p. 250, and his "Letter to Walter," p. 304. Bohn's Antiq. Lib.

Note 2. The tragic end of this unscrupulous lawyer is related by Huntingdon. Ibid, p. 250.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 10 Jan 1123. And thence he went to Woodstock [Map]; and his bishops and his whole court with him. Then did it betide on a Wednesday, which was on the fourth day before the ides of January, that the king (age 55) rode in his deer-fold;146 the Bishop Roger of Salisbury147 on one side of him, and the Bishop Robert Bloet of Lincoln on the other side of him. And they rode there talking together. Then sank down the Bishop of Lincoln, and said to the king (age 55), "Lord king (age 55), I die." And the king (age 55) alighted down from his horse, and lifted him betwixt his arms, and let men bear him home to his inn. There he was soon dead; and they carried him to Lincoln with great worship, and buried him before the altar of St. Mary. And the Bishop of Chester, whose name was Robert Pecceth, buried him.

Note 146. i.e. an inclosure or park for deer. This is now called Blenheim Park, and is one of the few old parks which still remain in this country.

Note 147. This may appear rather an anticipation of the modern see of Salisbury, which was not then in existence; the borough of Old Saturn, or "Saresberie", being then the episcopal seat.

Henry II travels to Normandy

On 10 Jan 1156 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 22) crossed from Dover [Map] to Wissant [Map]. Richard "The Loyal" Lucy (age 67) was appointed Regent in Henry's absence. Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 34) was placed in the care of Archbishop Theobald of Bec (age 66) and John of Salisbury Bishop Chartres (age 38). Her party included her sister Petronilla Poitiers (age 31).

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 10th and 11th of January, 1358, Isabella (age 63) is visited by the Countess of Pembroke (age 41), the Isabella aka Elizabeth Julich Countess Kent (age 28), and Sir John de Wynewyk. Of these, the Countess of Pembroke has been already noticed. The Countess of Kent was Isabella aka Elizabeth Julich Countess Kent (age 28), daughter of the Marquess of Juliers (age 59), and widow of John Plantagenet, Earl of Kent. Her husband had died in the year 13531; upon which she took the veil at Waverley [Map]; but afterwards, as Dugdale tells us, "quitting her profession, was clandestinely married to Sir Eustace Dabrischecourt." The name of this knight is usually written D'Ambreticourt. He was the son of Sir Sanchez D'Ambreticourt (age 28), Knight of the Garter, and a descendant of the poor knight of Ostrevant, in Hainault, in whose house Isabella found shelter on her dismissal from the court of her brother, Charles IV. of France, and whom, with his whole family, she had invited over into England, and had in various ways advanced. In reference to the Countess of Kent, Froissart says— "This lady was greatly attached to Sir Eustace D'Ambreticourt, for his gallant deeds of arms, which had been related to her: and she sent him coursers, hackneys, and letters full of love; which so much emboldened Sir Eustace, and spurred him to perform such feats of chivalry and of arms, that all those under him made fortunes." Dugdale tells us, in respect of the Countess's breach of her vows, that "she and her said husband, being personally convented before the said Archbishop of Canterbury in his manor house of Maghfeld," the Archbishop imposed on them a certain penance of prayers and alms very skilfully adapted to their offence.

Of Sir John de Wynewyk, I have been unable to learn anything of certainty. He appears to have been attached to the King's court, and was perhaps the medium employed for managing Isabella's affairs. He visited her and exchanged letters with her constantly.

Note 1. Possibly a mistake for 1352? John Plantagenet 3rd Earl Kent died 26 Dec 1352.

On 10 Jan 1443 Richard Cornwall 5th Baron Burford (age 82) died at Burford [Map]. His grandson Thomas Cornwall 6th Baron Burford (age 36) succeeded 6th Baron Burford.

Surrender of Calais

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jan 1558. [The x day of January heavy news came to En]gland, and to London, thatt the Fre[nch had won] Cales [Map], the wyche was the hevest tydy[ngs to London] and to England that ever was hard of, for lyke a trayter yt was sold and d[elivered unto] them the (blank) day of January; the duke of Guise (age 38) was cheyff capten, and evere man dyschargyd the town.

Note. Pp. 162, 163. Soldiers sent to Calais. The several parishes of the counties where musters took place were obliged to send their quota. Thus the churchwardens of St. Margaret's Westminster paid "for setting owt of soldyers the vijth day of January as apperethe by a bylle, iiijli. viijs. vijd. ob." "Item, for settyng forthe fyve soldyers to Portismothe the last yere of quene Mary xxxiijs. iiijd."

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On 10 Jan 1581 Robert Rich 1st Earl Warwick (age 21) and Penelope Devereux Countess Devonshire (age 18) were married. She by marriage Baroness Rich Leez. She the daughter of Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex and Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 37).

Masque of Beauty

After 10 Jan 1637. This little brass at St Laurence's Church, Ludlow [Map] appears to be to Maria Fox daughter of Somerset Fox died 10 Jan 1637. Probably Somerset Fox of Gwernygo in Montgomeryshire.

1645 Execution of Archbishop William Laud

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 10 Jan 1645. The 10 of Janu: my lo: of canterbury (age 71) was beheaded on tower hill [Map] and was buried at barking church [Map].

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1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

In early 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 02 Jan 1661 Henry Bedingfield 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Bedingfield of Oxburgh in Norfolk.

On 10 Jan 1661 Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot was created 1st Baron Rutherford 1C 1661 with special remainder to his heirs and assignees whatsoever, and that under what provisions, restrictions, and conditions the said Lord Rutherford should think fit.

On 23 Jan 1661 John Cole 1st Baronet (age 41) was created Baronet Cole of Newland.

On 23 Feb 1661 Edward Smythe 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Smythe.

On 04 Mar 1661 Compton Reade 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet Reade of Barton in Berkshire. Mary Cornwall Lady Reade (age 31) by marriage Lady Reade of Barton in Berkshire.

On 10 Mar 1661 Brian Broughton 1st Baronet (age 42) was created 1st Baronet Broughton of Broughton in Staffordshire.

On 20 Mar 1661 Thomas Rich 1st Baronet (age 60) was created 1st Baronet Rich of Sonning in Berkshire.

On 29 Mar 1661 Robert Cholmondeley 1st Viscount Cholmondeley (age 21) was created 1st Viscount Cholmondeley of Kells in County Meath.

On 30 Mar 1661 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 50) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

On 30 Mar 1661 John Fettiplace 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire. Anne Wenman Lady Fettiplace (age 31) by marriage Lady Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jan 1663. I saw a ball again at Court, danced by the King (age 32), the Duke (age 29), and ladies, in great pomp.

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On 10 Jan 1666 Henry Hastings 1st Baron Loughborough (age 55) died. Baron Loughborough extinct.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1666. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and there hear to our grief how the plague is encreased this week from seventy to eighty-nine. We have also great fear of our Hambrough fleete, of their meeting the Dutch; as also have certain newes, that by storms Sir Jer. Smith's fleet is scattered, and three of them come without masts back to Plymouth, Devon [Map], which is another very exceeding great disappointment, and if the victualling ships are miscarried will tend to the losse of the garrison of Tangier.

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On 10 Jan 1710 Algernon Capell 2nd Earl Essex (age 39) died. His son William Capell 3rd Earl Essex (age 12) succeeded 3rd Earl Essex 9C 1641.

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1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston [Map]. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton (age 37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London [Map] on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.


On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map].

On 09 Feb 1716 William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (age 35) effected his escape from the Tower of London [Map] by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart (age 26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater (age 23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave (age 20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond (age 44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (age 54) in person without success.

On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map]. Earl Derwentwater, Baronet Radclyffe of Derwentwater in Cumberland forfeit.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

General Thomas Forster of Adderstone (age 31) was attainted. He was imprisoned at Newgate Prison, London [Map] but escaped to France.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper (age 50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

On 10 Jan 1773 Frederick Hesse-Kassel (age 52) and Princess Philippine Hohenzollern (age 27) were married. No issue. The difference in their ages was 25 years. He the son of William Hesse-Kassel. They were third cousins. She a great granddaughter of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 10 Jan 1783 George Coventry 7th Earl Coventry (age 24) and Margaret "Peggy" Pitches Countess Coventry (age 23) were married. He the son of George Coventry 6th Earl Coventry (age 60) and Maria Gunning Countess Coventry.

On 10 Jan 1797 Robert Sherard 4th Earl Harborough (age 84) and Jane Reeve Countess Harborough were married. The difference in their ages was 28 years. He the son of Philip Sherard 2nd Earl Harborough and Anne Pedley Countess Harborough.

On 10 Jan 1797 Jemima Campbell 2nd Marchioness Grey (age 73) died. Marquess Grey extinct. Her daughter Amabel Yorke Countess Grey (age 45) succeeded 5th Baroness Lucas of Crudwell.

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On 10 Jan 1800 Henry Roper 12th Baron Teynham (age 35) died unmarried. His brother John Roper 13th Baronet Teynham (age 32) succeeded 13th Baron Teynham of Teynham in Kent.

On 10 Jan 1808 George Keith Elphinstone 1st Viscount Keith (age 62) and Hester "Queenie" Thrale Viscountess Keith (age 43) were married.

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On 10 Jan 1809 Alfred Harley 6th Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer was born to Edward Harley 5th Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer (age 35) and Jane Elizabeth Scott Countess of Oxford and Mortimer (age 35).

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On 10 Jan 1810 Charles Bennet 6th Earl Tankerville was born to Charles Augustus Bennet 5th Earl Tankerville (age 33) and Corisande Armandine Sophie Léonie Hélène Gramont Countess Tankerville (age 27) at Charles Street, Berkeley Square.

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On 10 Jan 1811 William Saltren died. Church of St Edmund Holme Pierrepont [Map]. Sculpted by John Flaxman (age 55).

On 10 Jan 1834 John Dalberg-Acton 1st Baron Acton was born to Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton 7th Baronet (age 32) and Marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg Lady Acton (age 21).

On 10 Jan 1848 John Wodehouse 2nd Earl Kimberley was born to John Wodehouse 1st Earl Kimberley (age 22) and Florence Fitzgibbon Countess Kimberley (age 23).

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On 10 Jan 1865 William Fox-Strangways 4th Earl of Ilchester (age 69) died without issue. His nephew Henry Edward Fox-Strangways 5th Earl of Ilchester (age 17) succeeded 5th Earl Ilchester.

On 10 Jan 1871 Heneage Finch 6th Earl Aylesford (age 46) died. His son Heneage Finch 7th Earl Aylesford (age 22) succeeded 7th Earl Aylesford.

On 10 Jan 1880 Robert Jocelyn 4th Earl Roden (age 33) died. His uncle John Strange Jocelyn 5th Earl Roden (age 57) succeeded 5th Earl Roden.

On 10 Jan 1922 Byron Cary 12th Viscount Falkland (age 76) died. His son Lucius Cary 13th Viscount Falkland (age 41) succeeded 13th Viscount Falkland.

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On 10 Jan 1931 Thelma Morgan Viscountess Furness (age 26), at her country house Burrough Court, near Melton Mowbray, introduced the Duke of Windsor (age 36) to Wallis Warfield aka Simpson Duchess of Windsor (age 34). She, Wallis, was visiting Thelma's sister Gloria aka Maria Mercedes Morgan (age 26).

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On 10 Jan 1938 Henry Neville 3rd Marquess Abergavenny (age 83) died. His nephew Guy Larnach Neville 4th Marquess Abergavenny (age 54) succeeded 4th Marquess Abergavenny, 8th Earl Abergavenny, 4th Earl Lewes, 24th Baron Bergavenny 1C 1392, 22nd Baron Bergavenny 2C 1450. Isabel "Nellie" Larnach Marchioness Abergavenny (age 47) by marriage Marchioness Abergavenny.

On 10 Jan 1953 Walter Francis Montagu-Douglas-Scott 9th Duke Buccleuch 11th Duke Queensberry (age 29) and Jane McNeill Duchess of Buccleuch (age 23) were married at St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh. The ceremony was attended by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (age 26) and the Duke of Edinburgh (age 31) as well as a number of other members of the Royal family. He the son of Walter Scott 8th Duke Buccleuch 10th Duke Queensberry (age 58) and Vreda Lascelles Duchess Buccleuch and Queensbury (age 52).

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On 10 Jan 1999 Frederick William John Augustus Hervey 7th Marquess Bristol (age 44) died of multiple organ failure due to chronic drug abuse almost penniless at Little Horringer Hall. His brother Frederick Hervey 8th Marquess of Bristol (age 19) succeeded 8th Marquess Bristol, 8th Earl Jermyn, 12th Earl Bristol 2C 1714.