On this Day in History ... 13 January

13 Jan is in January.

858 Death of King Æthelwulf

888 Death of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1312 Gaveston Returns from Exile

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1400 Epiphany Rising

1559 Coronation of Elizabeth I

1666 Great Plague of London

After 13 Jan 47BC Ptolemy XIV Philopator 59BC 44BC and Cleopatra VII Philopator 69BC 30BC (age 22) were married. They were brother and sister.


On 13 Jan 731 Archbishop Berhtwald died.

Death of King Æthelwulf

On 13 Jan 858 King Æthelwulf of Wessex died. His son King Æthelbald of Wessex succeeded King Wessex.

Death of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 901. This year died ALFRED, the son of Ethelwulf, six nights before the mass of All Saints. He was king over all the English nation, except that part that was under the power of the Danes. He held the government one year and a half less than thirty winters; and then Edward (age 27) his son took to the government. Then Prince Ethelwald, the son of his paternal uncle, rode against the towns of Winburn and of Twineham [Map], without leave of the king and his council. Then rode the king with his army; so that he encamped the same night at Badbury [Map] near Winburn; and Ethelwald remained within the town with the men that were under him, and had all the gates shut upon him, saying, that he would either there live or there die. But in the meantime he stole away in the night, and sought the army in Northumberland. The king gave orders to ride after him; but they were not able to overtake him. The Danes, however, received him as their king. They then rode after the wife that Ethelwald had taken without the king's leave, and against the command of the bishops; for she was formerly consecrated a nun. In this year also died Ethered, who was alderman of Devonshire, four weeks before King Alfred.

On 13 Jan 1049 Dirk Gerulfing IV Count Holland (age 24) was murdered. His brother Floris Gerulfing I Count Holland (age 24) succeeded I Count Holland.

On 13 Jan 1200 Otto Hohenstaufen I Count Burgundy (age 29) was murdered.

Chronica Majora. 05 Jan 1237. In the year of our Lord 1237 which was the twentieth of the reign of King Henry the Third, he held his court at Christmas, at Winchester, whence he forthwith sent royal warrants throughout all the English territories, ordering all nobles belonging to the kingdom of England, namely, archbishops, bishops, abbats, installed priors, earls, and barons, all to assemble without fail in the octaves of the Epiphany at London, to arrange the royal business and matters concerning the whole kingdom. The nobles on hearing this immediately obeyed the king's summons, and accordingly on the day of St. Hilary, a countless multitude of nobles, namely, the whole community of the kingdom, came to London, and proceeded to the royal palace at Westminster to hear the king's pleasure. When they had all taken their seats, there stood up in the midst of them, one William de Kaele, a clerk and familiar of the king's, a discreet man and well skilled in the laws of the land, who, acting as a sort of mediator between the king and the nobles, disclosed to them the king's pleasure and intentions. "My lord the king," he said, "informs you that, whatever he may have done heretofore, he now and henceforth will, without hesitation, submit himself to the advice of all of you, as his faithful and natural subjects. But those men who have till now, in the management of his affairs, been in charge of his treasury, have rendered him an incorrect account of the moneys received by them, and owing to this the king is now destitute of money, without which any king is indeed destitute; he therefore humbly demands assistance from you in money, on the understanding that the money which may be raised by your good will shall be kept to be expended for the necessary uses of the kingdom, at the discretion of any of you elected for the purpose. "When the assembled nobles heard this speech, they each and all, not expecting anything of this sort, murmured greatly, and "Alter in alterius jactantes lumina vultus". [Each hearer lost in dire amaze, Turned on his neighbour's face his gaze.]

And they said to one another, Fuderunt partum montes: en ridiculus mus. [The labouring mountains shook the earth, And to a paltry mouse gave birth. This is a quote from Aesop's Fable "The Mountain in Labour". It refers to speech acts which promise much but deliver little].

They then replied with indignation that they were oppressed on all sides, so often promising and paying now the twentieth, now the thirtieth, and now the fiftieth part of their property, and they declared that it would be unworthy of them, and injurious to them, to allow a king so easily led awav, who had never repelled or even frightened one of the enemies of the kingdom, even the least of them, and who had never increased his territories but rather lessened them, and placed them under foreign yoke, to extort so much money, so often, and by so many arguments, from his natural subjects, as if they were slaves of the lowest condition, to their injury and for the benefit of foreigners. "When the king heard this, he wished to calm the general discontent, and promised on oath that he would never again provoke or annoy the nobles of the kingdom by injuring them in that way, provided that the thirtieth part of all moveable property in England was granted and paid to him for his present use; because the large sum of money which he had a little while before sent to the emperor (age 42) (as he stated) for the marriage of his sister (age 23), and also what he had spent at his own marriage, had in a great degree exhausted his money. To this they openly replied that he, the king, had done all this without the advice of his liege subjects, and they ought not to share the punishment as they were innocent of the crime. They however withdrew to a private place to consult about obeying the king's demand, and supplying his necessities, and to discuss the kind and quantity of assistance which was demanded. As they were withdrawing for this purpose, Gilbert Bassett (age 49) said to the king in the hearing of all. and with less circimispection of speech than he ought, - "My lord king, send some one of your friends to be present at the conference of your barons." He was, when he said this, sitting on one side of the king, with only a few persons between them, and in reply to his speech, Richard Percy (age 67), who had been at the conference of the nobles, and was, not without cause, angry at it, said, "What is it, friend Gilbert, that you said? are we too foreigners, and are we not amongst the number of the king's friends? "And Gilbert felt himself rebuked by this unpleasant and sudden speech. And thus by a multipHcity of arguments the conference was protracted for four days.

Gaveston Returns from Exile

On 13 Jan 1312 King Edward II of England (age 27) and Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 28) were reunited at Knaresborough Castle [Map] (probably).

On 13 Jan 1330 Frederick "Fair" Habsburg I Duke Austria (age 41) died. His brother Leopold Habsburg I Duke Austria succeeded I Duke Austria.

On 13 Jan 1334 Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile was born illegitimately to Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile (age 22) and Eleanor Guzman. He was one of twins.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

Epiphany Rising

On 13 Jan 1403 Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 33) with her two daughters Marguerite Montfort Viscountess Rohan (age 11) and Blanche Montfort Countess Armagnac (age 6) departed from Camaret to travel to England intending to land at Southampton. A storm caused them to land at Falmouth, Cornwall from where they travelled to Winchester.

On 13 Jan 1450 Henry Grey 2nd Earl Tankerville (age 32) died. His son Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 13) succeeded 3rd Earl Tankerville 1C 1418.

On 13 Jan 1483 Margrave Henry III of Upper Hesse (age 42) died.

Coronation of Elizabeth I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Jan 1559. The xiij day of January with-in the Towre the Quen mad Knyghtes of the Baythe x.

Note. P. 186. The Knights of the Bath made at the Coronation of queen Elizabeth were in number eleven, viz.:—

John lord Darcy of the North (age 19),

John lord Sheffield (age 21),

John lord Darcy of Chiche (age 27),

Sir Robert Rich (age 22),

Sir Roger North (age 29),

Sir John Zouch,

Sir Nicholas Pointz (age 31),

Sir John Berkeley,

Sir Edward Unton (age 25),

Sir Henry Weston (age 24),

Sir George Speke (age 29),

See Anstis's History of the Order of the Bath, App. lxx.; and Nicolas, Appx. p. xiv.

On 13 Jan 1559 two new peerages were created ...

Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon (age 32) was created 1st Baron Hunsdon 1C 1559. Anne Morgan Baroness Hunsdon (age 30) by marriage Baroness Hunsdon.

Oliver St John 1st Baron St John Bletso (age 37) was created 1st Baron St John Bletso 1C 1559. Agnes Fisher Baroness St John Bletso (age 33) by marriage Baroness St John Bletso.


Between 13 Jan 1571 and 26 Feb 1572 Colin Campbell 6th Earl Argyll (age 28) and Agnes Keith Countess Moray and Argyll (age 40) were married. She by marriage Countess Argyll. She the daughter of William Keith 4th Earl Marischal (age 64) and Margaret Keith Countess Marischal. He the son of Archibald Campbell 4th Earl Argyll and Margaret Graham Countess Argyll. They were half fourth cousins.

On 13 Jan 1584 Thomas Wentworth 2nd Baron Wentworth (age 59) died. His son Henry Wentworth 3rd Baron Wentworth (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Wentworth 1C 1529.


On 13 Jan 1585 John Fleming 1st Earl Wigtown (age 18) and Lilias Graham Countess Graham were married. She the daughter of John Graham 3rd Earl Montrose (age 37). They were first cousin once removed.

On 13 Jan 1653 David Wemyss 2nd Earl Wemyss (age 42) and Margaret Leslie Countess Buccleuch and Wemyss (age 32) were married. She the daughter of John Leslie 6th Earl Rothes and Anne Erskine Countess of Rothes. He the son of John Wemyss 1st Earl Wemyss and Jane Gray Countess Wemyss. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1666. Home with his Lordship to Mrs. Williams's, in Covent-Garden [Map], to dinner (the first time I ever was there), and there met Captain Cocke (age 49); and pretty merry, though not perfectly so, because of the fear that there is of a great encrease again of the plague this week. And again my Lord Bruncker (age 46) do tell us, that he hath it from Sir John Baber; who is related to my Lord Craven (age 57), that my Lord Craven (age 57) do look after Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) place, and do reckon himself sure of it.

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John Ashton Edmund Elliot Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (age 41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (age 41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham, Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (age 40) and Queen (age 28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France, agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend [Map], but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.

After this the Evidence for the King (age 40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower [Map]: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend [Map] they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

On 13 Jan 1694 Mary Stafford Countess Stafford (age 74) died. She was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jan 1695. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The King (age 44) and Princess Anne (age 29) reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House [Map]; she was desired to take into her family divers servants of the late Queen; to maintain them the King (age 44) has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.


On 13 Jan 1781 Margaret Rolle Countess Orford (age 71) died. Her son George Walpole 3rd Earl Orford (age 50) succeeded 16th Baron Clinton.

On 13 Jan 1803 John Ponsonby 1st Viscount Ponsonby (age 33) and Frances Elizabeth Villiers Viscountess Ponsonby (age 17) were married. She the daughter of George Bussy Villiers 4th Earl Jersey (age 67) and Frances Twysden (age 49).

On 13 Jan 1805 Maria wife of Robert Henson died. Monument in Church of St John the Baptist, Barnack [Map]. Sculpted by Richard Westmacott (age 29).

On 30 Aug 1810 Reverend Henry Spelman (age 82) died. On 13 Jan 1795 Ann Harwick died. They were buried at All Saints Church Narborough [Map].

Reverend Henry Spelman: Around 1728 he was born to John Spelman (age 36). Before 13 Jan 1795 Reverend Henry Spelman (age 67) and Ann Harwick were married.

Ann Harwick: She was born to Edmund Harwick and Amy Goodwin.

On 13 Jan 1819 George Spencer-Churchill 6th Duke Marlborough (age 25) and Jane Stewart Duchess Marlborough (age 21) were married. She the daughter of George Stewart 8th Earl Galloway (age 50) and Jane Paget Countess Galloway (age 44). He the son of George Spencer-Churchill 5th Duke Marlborough (age 52) and Susan Stewart Duchess Marlborough (age 51). They were first cousins.

On 13 Jan 1834 Richard Trench 4th Earl of Clancarty was born to William Trench 3rd Earl of Clancarty (age 30) and Sarah Juliana Butler (age 21).


13 Jan 1887. Marriage Certificate of Edward John Smith and Sarah Eleanor Pennington who were marred at St Oswald's Church, Winwick. He, twenty-five years later, was Captain of the Titanic who went down with his ship.

On 13 Jan 2017 Antony Armstrong-Jones 1st Earl of Snowdon (age 86) died. His son David Armstrong-Jones 2nd Earl of Snowdon (age 55) succeeded 2nd Earl Snowdon, 2nd Viscount Linley. Serena Stanhope (age 46) by marriage Countess Snowdon.