20 Nov is in November.
On 20 Nov 869 Edmund "The Martyr" King East Anglia died.
Florence of Worcester Continuation. 20 Nov 1136. William (age 66), archbishop of Canterbury, died at one of his vills1, on the twelfth of the calends of December [20th November], in the fifteenth year of his patriarchate, and was buried at Canterbury.
Note 1. Probably at his "vill of Westminster," where Henry of Huntingdon tells us (Hist. p. 254) that this William Curboil (age 66), archbishop of Canterbury, sometimes resided. Huntingdon draws no favourable character of this prelate, either in his History, p. 262, or in the "Letter to Warin," pp. 315 and 326.
Nichola de la Haie: Around 1150 he was born.
On 20 Nov 1316 John "The Posthumous" I King France died.His uncle Philip V King France I King Navarre (age 23) succeeded V King France: Capet. He also claimed the Kingdom of Navarre although he had no hereditary right to do so since the Kingdom of Navarre was subject to inheritance by the female as well as male line meaning the four year old Joan Capet II Queen Navarre (age 4) was successor by right. The Navarese didn't recognise his claim.
On 20 Nov 1552 Gilbert Talbot 7th Earl of Shrewsbury was born to George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 24) and Gertrude Manners Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 27).
On 20 Nov 1558 Bishop Maurice Griffiths (age 51) died.
... many others of seuerall dispositions. All you beeing thus assembled to see mee finish my dayes, the number of which is sum'd up, for the very minutes of my life may now be reckoned. Your expectation is to have mee say something, to give satisfaction to the World, and I will doe it so farre as I can, albeit in that speech of mine, I shall (as it was spoken unto me the last night) but chatter like a Crow. But whatsoeuer I deliuer, I beseech you to take from a wounded bosome, for my purpose is to rip up my very heart, and to leaue nothing there which may proue any clogge to my Conscience. Hither am I come to performe a worke which of all others is to Man the most easie and yet to Flesh and Blood is the hardest, and that is, To die. To hide therefore any thing, for any worldly respect, were to leaue a blot upon my owne Soule, which I trust shall be presented (through the mercies of my Maker, and merits of my Sauiour) acceptable before GODS high Tribunall. And first I will labour to satisfie some, who before my apprehension were well conceipted of mee, but since my Arraignment, as I vnderstand, carryed of mee but hard opinions, for that at the Barre I stood stiffly upon the Justice of my Innocence; and this they impute as a great fault, beeing afterwards that I was found guilty of the Crime. To which I answer, that I did it ignorantly: Nay I was so farre from thinking my selfe foule in the Fact, that untill these two Gentlemen, (Doctor Felton and Doctor Whiting, the Physitions for my Soule) told mee how deepely I had imbrewed my hands in the blood of that gentleman, making mee by GODS law as guilty in the Concealing, as if I had beene a personall Actor in it: till then I say, I held my selfe so ignorant of the deede, and my Conscience so cleere, that I did never aske GOD forgivenesse, nor once repent mee of the Fact, such was my blindnesse. So that it was not onely an error, or rather a horrible sinne, in mee to consent, but a worse, to deny it, so Bloody, so Treacherous, so Foule, so Filthy a Fact as that was; for which I must confesse the King, and the State have dealt honorably, roundly, and justly, with mee, in condemning mee unto this death. And thus have I laboured and done my best to cleere this point, being willing by all good meanes to reduce your first opinions of mee; that as formerly your conceipted well of mee, so you would now with a charitable affection performe the last duty of your Christian loues towards mee, praying to GOD, both with me, and for mee; to the intent that this Cup, whereof I am to drinke, may not be greiuous unto mee, but that it may be a ioyfull conueiance to a better and more blessed comfort.
Some perhaps will thinke it to be a Rigor of the State, or aggravation of my iudgement, that I should die in this place, but this doe I take as an honor unto me, & herein doe I acknowledge my selfe to stand much bound to the State, in that I have this favour vouchsafed me to suffer Death in sight of my Charge, even where I had sinned, on the Tower-hill [Map], rather than in the place of common Execution [Map], where every base Malefactor dyeth.
Many doe I see here whom I know well, and of whom I am likewise knowne: and now am I a Spectacle for them to be looked on, whom in former times (and in all mens accounts) they held never likely to come to such an end. But herein he hold the justice of God, who is so oppos'd against sinne, because that if we forget to seeke him whilst we may, he will finde us out when we would not be found of him.
It is expected I should say something of the fact which I have committed: And hither am I come resolued to cleare my conscience (before I depart this world) of all matters which I either knowe, or can now remember. And so much I have already delivered in writing to my Lo. Chiefe Justice (age 64) and to prove that which I wrote is true, I yesterday confirmed it with the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament, wishing unto you all as much comfort by those holy Mysteries, as I tooke by them: and I doe heere (though not with such a bloud) yet with mine own bloud, seale that which I have written. For my selfe, I will hide nothing to make my fault seeme lesse, but will rip open this very heart of mine, and confesse before God myne owne uncleannesse. I have sinned exceedingly against thee O my maker, and in this am I most faulty, that I did not reveale to the King (age 50), so soone as I my selfe had knowledge of the busines. But (alas) feare to loose these worldly pleasures, and the loue to promotion, made me forget my duty to my Soueraigne, and not to regard my God, who is a swift auenger of blood: and would to heaven I had trusted to his providence, and set the thinges of this world at nought, for heavens sake, and a good conscience. You see, Gentlemen, promotion cannot rescue us from the justice of God, which alwaies pursues after sinne: And therefore I exhort you not to trust in men (how great soeuer) for they cannot hide themselues when God is angry; neither can they protect you from shame, when God will consume you: he that sitteth in heaven, will deride and scorne their foolish Inventions. As for me, I will not spare to lay open my owne shame: Thinke you I care for the reputation of this world? No, I weigh it not. This my soule shall receiue more comfort from God in my upright dealing.
My sinne, in this foule fact, was great, for upon me lay all the blood, shed, and to be shed: I have made many children fatherles, many wives husbandles, many parents childelesse: and I my selfe leave a comfortlesse wife and eight children behinde me for it too: for if I had revealed it when I might, I had freed much blood from being spilt, in so much as I could wish (Gods Justice and charity reserved) I might hang in chaines, till I rotte away by peecemeale: nor cared I what tortures my body were put unto, so I might expaite or free the bloud of so many, (some in one place, and some in another) which is both like to bee shed, and is already shed, and the Lord knowes when it will have an end. Concerning my selfe, I will aggravate the crime, by speaking of every circumstance I can remember. And now it comes into my mind, what trust that gentleman put into me: hee reputed me to bee most faithfull unto him; (Oh the wildnesse of my heart!) I proved unfaithfull, and was his deadly deceitfull friend. And here (Gentlemen) I exhort you all that you would take notice of this, ever to bee faithfull to those who put you in trust. Sir Thomas O. trusted me, and I was unfaithfull and treacherous to him, in drawing tickets for him to his disadvantage. I promised him secrecy, yet betrayed him, onely to satisfy greatnesse: But God, who sees the secret thoughts of mans heart, will disclose all unuist actions at last: nay, I am perswaded that whosoeuer they bee that commit sinne in their child-hood, at one time or other it will be revealed. In this place it commeth to my mind, that in my yonger dayes (as wel beyond the Seas as here) I was much addicted to that idle veyne of Gaming, I was bewitched with it indeed: And I played not for little for final sums neither, but for Great-ones, yet ever haunted with ill lucke: And upon a time, being much displeased at my losse, I sayd, not in a carelesse maner, Would I might be hanged; But seriously, and advisedly (betweene God and my selfe) clapping my hands upon my breast, I spake thus, If ever I play again, then let me be hangd. Now gentlemen here you may behold the justice of God, paying mee my wish and imprecation home. Bee carefull therefore I exhort you, that you vow nothing but that unto which you will give all diligence to performe: for the powerful God, before whom you make such vowes, will otherwise bee auegned: Jn this place Doctor VVhiting putting him in mind to satisfie the World touching his Religion thus he went on. THe matter you speake to mee of, faith hee, is well thought upon: for I heare that abroad hath beene some murmuring and questions made about mee for my Religion; Some giving out that I was infected with Anabaptisme: A fond, ridiculous, foolish and phantasticall opinion, which I never affected but rather despised. Many may thinke that the manner of my death doth much discourage mee, that I should dye in a halter: I would have you all to thinke that I scorne all such worldly thoughts: I care not for it, I value not any earthly shame at all, so as may have honour and glory anon in Heaven: and I make no doubt, but I shall sodainely be more happie then you all, and that I shall see GOD face to face: and if there be any point of innocency in mee at all, I doe utterly cast it from mee, and I doe commit it wholly to GOD.
And for any matter of Glory, I doe with the Saints of GOD expect it through the merits of Christ, at the Resurrection: yea it is my glorie to die thus. I might have died in my Bedde, or shooting the Bridge or else have fallen downe sodainly, in which death I should have wanted this space to repent, being the sweet comfort and assured hope of Gods favour which of his mercy he hath vouchsafed mee; So that it swalloweth up all feare of death or reproch of the World: wishing unto all you (Gentlemen) who now behold mee, that wheresoeuer you shall dye, (either in your Beddes or else-where howsoewer) you may feele such comfort and resolution as God in his mercy hath bestowed uppon mee and my wounded Soule for this and the rest of my grieuous Sinnes. But mee thinkes I heare some of you conjecture and say, that I expresse no great Arguments or signes of sorrow: You think my heart should rather dissolue and melt into teares, then to appeare so insensible of feare as I may seeme: but I must tell you, teares were never common in mee: I may therefore feare though I do not weepe. I have been couragious both beyond the Seas and heere in mine owne Country: but (Gentlemen) that was when there was no perill before mee. But now the stroke of death is upon mee. It affrights mee, and there is cause to feare: yet notwithstanding, my heart seemeth unto you to be rather of stone than of flesh. But I would have you understand, that this boldnes doth not proceed from any manly fortitude, for I am a man, fraile as you are, and dare as little look death in the face as any other: ther terors of death doe as much trouble my humane sense, as of any man whatsoeuer: but that which swalloweth up all manner of feare in me, & maketh me to glory and to reioyce in, is, the full assurance which I conceiue of the vnspeakable love of God to those who are his, of which number I perswade my selfe to bee one, and that I shall presently enioy it.
I confesse I have sinned exceedingly, against thee (oh God) many wayes, in prophaning thy holy Sabaoths, in taking thy glorious name in vaine, in my concupiscence in turning all thy graces into wantonnes, in my Riotous wasting so many of thy good Creatures, as would have belieued many poore people, whose prayers I might have had this day. I have sinned against thee in my Child-hood: but Childrens sinnes are childishly performed: but I confirmed them in my manhood, there was my sinne. I am perswaded, there is no sinne, that a man committeth in his life, knowing it to be a sin, and not repenting of it, but the Lord will iudge it. I admonish you therefore that are heere assembled, to take good notice of your sinnes, and let none escape you vnrepented. And yet when you have done the best you can, there will lie buried some one sinne or other sufficent to condemne you. O Lord clense mee from my secret sinnes, which are in me so rife. I abused the tender education of my Parents. You perhaps that knew mee will say no; I liued in an honest forme, and was not bad in my life. But I know best my selfe what I was: & if I who was so esteemed of amongst Men, shall scarcely be saued, what will become of those, whom you point at for notorious lievers? The last night God put into my mind the remembrance of one sinne of mine, which heere I will lay open, that others may take heed. I tooke a vaine pride in my pen, and some of my friendes would tell me I had some induments and speciall gift that way: (though I say nor so my selfe) but mark the iudgement of God in this; that Pen which I was so proud of, hatch struck mee dead, and like Absolons hayre hath hanged me: for there hath dropt a word or two from my Pen, in a letter of mine, which upon my Saluation I am not able to answer, or to give any good accompt of. At my Arraignment I pleaded hard for life, & protested my Innocency, but when my owne Pen came against mee, I was forthwith not able to speake anything for my selfe: for I stood as one amazed, or that had no Tongue. See (Gentlemen) the just Iudgement of GOD, who made that thing of which I was most proud, to be my bane: take notice how strangely sinne is punished, and learne every-one to striue against it.
I have heard the word of GOD, and often read it (but without vse) for I must tell you these two worthy, Gentlemen (to whom I am so much bounden, God reward them for their loue) even they begat mee very lately, for I am not ashamed to confesse that I was to be begotten unto Christ within these three daies: yea I have often prayed against sinne, and made many vowes to forsake it, but uppon the next occasion, my foule heart hath beene ready to runne with the wicked. Had I learned but this one lesson in the 119. Psalme, (Depart from mee ye wicked, I will keepe the Commandements of my God &c.) I had beene likely to have enioyed many dayes heere on eath: whereas now you all see mee ready to bee cut short by reason of my sinne. But (O LORD) albeit thou slayest mee, yet will I put my trust in thee: let the LORD doe to me what hee will, I will dye upon this hand (of trusting in him) if I faile many a soule hath miss'd, but I have sure hope of mercy in him; hee hath sufficed and succoured mee, I am sure, euer since the sentence of death hath passed uppon mee: such comfort flowing from the Godly indeauors of these Gentlemen (the Diuines) that neither the Reproach of this Death, nor the Torment of it hath any whit discouraged me; nay, let me tell you, the last night when I heard the time was appoynted, and saw the warrant in Master Sheriffs hand for my death, it no whit daunted me: But what put this courage into me? onely the hope which I had in GODS mercies. This Hope was a Seede, and this Seed must come from a Roote; I looked upon my selfe, and there was rather cause despaire; and just cause, that I should not approach GODS presence. Thus then I disputed with GOD: This Hope being a Seede must have a Roote, and this Roote is not any thing in Man, no, it is Praescientia (thy fore-knowledge,) O God, who hast elected me from eternity. I will tell you, I receiued more comfort this morning, comming along the streetes, than euer I did in all my life. I saw much people gathered together, all the way as I came, to see mee brought to this shamefull end: who with their hearty prayers and well wishings gladded and comforted my very soule: insomuch as I could wish that I had come from Westminster hither. I protest unto you, I thinke I could never have dyed so happily in my bed. But you will say, these are but speechees, and that I being so neere death, my heart cannot be so free, as I seeme in my speech: I confesse, there are in my brest frailties, which doe terrifie, and will still be busie with me, but I beseech you when I am at the stroake of death, that you would praie to GOD (with mee) that neither Sathans power, nor my weakenesse, may hinder my confidence. And I beseech God that amongst all who this daie heare mee, some may profit by my end: If I get but one Soule, I shall have much comfort in that; for that one soule my beget another, and that other another. I have held you too long, but I will draw to an end: intreating you all to ioyne in praier to God for me.
The summe of his Prayer.
O Lord God omnipotent, who sittest in Heaven, and seest all things which are done on earth: to whom are knowne all occasions of men; And who dost deride and laugh to scorne their Foolish inuentions: thou (Lord) who art powerfull to Saue at an instant, bow downe the heavens, and behold Mee (wretched sinner!) vnworthy to looke up, or lift up my hands unto thee. Remember not (O Lord) the sinnes which I have committed. Driue away this Mist which is before mee; and breake those thick Clowdes which my sinnes have made, and may let my request to come into thy presence. Strengthen mee in the middest of Death, in the assurance of thy.
Mercies; and give mee a ioyfull Passage into thy Heavenly Rest, now and for euer. Amen.
After hee had thus Prayed, hee tooke his leaue of all, with these words.
Gentlemen, I shall see your faces now no more: and pulling down his Cap in his eyes, said some privat prayer; in which time the Doctors prayed, and called to him, that hee would remember his assurance, and not be dismaied at the Cup, that hee was not drinke of: Hee answered, I will drinke it up, and never looke what is in it. And after a little time more spent in privat prayer, hee said, Lord receaue my Soule: And so yeelded up the Ghost. His Meditation and Vow. not long before his Death. When I considered Herods State, who though hee heard John Baptist gladly, yet was he intangled with Herodias: and how Agrippa liked so well of Paul as hee was perswaded almost to become a Christian, and how young mans will was good to follow Chirst yet was there one thing wanting: meethought the state of sinfull man was not vnlike. For also how the Angler though hauing caught a Fish but by the the chaps accounts it as his owne: the Bird taken but by the heele is a prey unto the Fowler: the Iayler also holds his prisoner by one ioint as safe, as cast in iron chaines: then did I think what do these motions good, if not effected to the full? what though not notoriously evill? one sinne sufficent to condemn: and is he guilty of all that guilty is of one? then said I vnto the Lord I will freely cleanse my waies and wash my hands in innocency: I will take heed that I offend not in my tongue. Lord let my thoughts be such as I may al-waies say, try and examine mee if there be any vnrighteousnes in mee. Sir Geruase Ellowis.
On 20 Nov 1629 Ernest Augustus Hanover Elector Brunswick-Lüneburg was born to George Hanover Duke Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 47) and Anne Eleonore Hesse Darmstadt Duchess Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 28).
Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1666. He gone, and Sheply, I to the office a little, and then to church, it being thanksgiving-day for the cessation of the plague; but, Lord! how the towne do say that it is hastened before the plague is quite over, there dying some people still1, but only to get ground for plays to be publickly acted, which the Bishops would not suffer till the plague was over; and one would thinke so, by the suddenness of the notice given of the day, which was last Sunday, and the little ceremony. The sermon being dull of Mr. Minnes, and people with great indifferency come to hear him.
Note 1. According to the Bills of Mortality seven persons died in London of the plague during the week November 20th to 27th; and for some weeks after deaths continued from this cause.
Before 20 Nov 1682 Arthur Chichester 3rd Earl Donegal (age 16) and Barbara Boyle Countess Donegall (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery and Margaret Howard Countess Orrery (age 60). He the son of Arthur Chichester 2nd Earl Donegal and Jane Ichyngham Countess Donegall.NOTEXT
Before 20 Nov 1684 William Estcourt 3rd Baronet (age 30) served as foreman of the jury which acquitted Edward Nosworthy (age 46). During the course of the celebrations that followed in the Globe Tavern an altercation broke out between Henry St John 1st Viscount St John (age 32) and Francis Stonehouse (age 31). William Estcourt 3rd Baronet (age 30) was killed by either or both Henry St John 1st Viscount St John (age 32) and Francis Stonehouse (age 31). Both were fined and pardoned. Baronet Estcourt of Newton in Wiltshire extinct.
Evelyn's Diary. 20 Nov 1685. The Parliament was adjourn'd to February, severall both of Lords and Commons excepting against some passage of his Majesty's (age 52) speech relating to the Test, and continuance of Popish officers in command. This was a greate surprize in a Parliament which people believ'd would have complied in all things.
Jane L'Estrange: Around 1666 she was born to Nicholas L'Estrange 3rd Baronet (age 34) and Mary Coke (age 49). On or after 01 Jun 1696, the date of the licence, William Barnesley (age 47) and Jane L'Estrange (age 30) were married. On 20 Nov 1734 Jane L'Estrange (age 68) died. She was buried at the Church of St Mary Magdalene, Eardisley.
On 20 Nov 1795 John Evelyn Pierrepont Dormer 10th Baron Dormer (age 24) and Elizabeth Kerr Baroness Dormer (age 30) were married. She the daughter of William John Kerr 5th Marquess Lothian (age 58) and Elizabeth Fortescue 5th Marchioness Lothian. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland.
On 20 Nov 1804 George William Frederick Brudenell 2nd Marquess Ailesbury was born to Charles Brudenell 1st Marquess Ailesbury (age 31) and Henrietta Maria Hill.
Archaeologia Volume 16 Appendix. November 20, 1806. The Rev. W. H. Thornbury, in two letters addressed to the Rev. John Brand, M. A. Secretary, and William Bray, Esq. Treasurer of the Society, sent an account of a Barrow [Norn's Tump aka Avening Long Barrow [Map]], opened in the parish of Avening, in Gloucestershire, whose length, from east to west, was fifty-five yards, the greatest breadth nineteen two-thirds, and the smallest twelve yards and one-third; having within it two small chambers, in one of which were found eight, and in the other three skeletons, but no celts or other remains, except some bones of animals, which were buried in the Tumulus at C. Pl. LVII.
Mr. Fosbrook, F. A. S. in a letter addressed to the Society, observes, that as none of the characteristic marks of its being Danish, Saxon, or Roman exist, it may possibly be British, and have been formed before the Roman invasion.
Archaeologia Volume 16 Appendix. November 20, 1806. An account of a Tumulus [Hoar Stone Long Barrow [Map]], opened on an estate of Matthew Baillie, M. D. in the parish of Duntesbourne Abbots, in Gloucestershire, communicated to Samuel Lysons, Esq. Director, by the Rev. Anthony Freston, Rector of Edgeworth, in the same county.
The length of the Barrow was about forty yards, and the width thirty; it contained about eight or nine bodies of different ages; it was composed of loose quarry stones; the largest stone, at the east end, has been long known, in that County, by the name of the Hoar Stone. It is of the calcareous kind, twelve feet high, fifteen in circumference, and weighs probably about five or six tons. All that part under the dotted line was below the surface of the ground.
See Plate LV.
N° 1. South east view before it was opened. 2. The Hoar Stone.
Plate LVI. 3. The Kistvaen before it was opened. 4. The same, after it was opened.
Reverend Henry Welstead: Around 1776 he was born to Charles Marion Welstead (age 33) and Ann Richards (age 33). On 29 May 1776 Reverend Henry Welstead was baptised at St Andrew's Church, Kimbolton. On 20 Nov 1819 Reverend Henry Welstead (age 43) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church, Kimbolton.
On 20 Nov 1863 James Bruce 12th Earl Kincardine 8th Earl Elgin (age 52) died of a heart attack while crossing a swinging rope and wood bridge over the river Chadly, on the lap between Kullu and Lahul in Himachal Pradesh. He was buried at St John in the Wilderness Church, Dharamshala. His son Victor Bruce 13th Earl Kincardine 9th Earl Elgin (age 14) succeeded 13th Earl Kincardine, 9th Earl Elgin.
On 20 Nov 1869 Thomas Henry Foley 4th Baron Foley (age 60) died. His son Henry Thomas Foley 5th Baron Foley (age 18) succeeded 5th Baron Foley of Kidderminster in Worcestershire 2C 1776.
On 20 Nov 1891 Mary Stapleton Viscountess Falmouth 13th Baroness Despencer (age 69) died. Her son Evelyn Boscawen 7th Viscount Falmouth (age 44) succeeded 14th Baron Despencer 4C 1357.
Consuelo Yznaga Duchess Manchester: In 1853 she was born to Antonio Modesto Yznaga del Valle (age 30). In 1877 George Victor Drogo Montagu 8th Duke Manchester (age 23) and Consuelo Yznaga Duchess Manchester (age 24) were married. He the son of William Drogo Montagu 7th Duke Manchester (age 53) and Louisa Vonalten Duchess Devonshire and Manchester (age 44). On 22 Mar 1890 William Drogo Montagu 7th Duke Manchester (age 66) died. His son George Victor Drogo Montagu 8th Duke Manchester (age 36) succeeded 8th Duke Manchester, 11th Earl Manchester, 11th Viscount Mandeville, 11th Baron Montagu of Kimbolton. Consuelo Yznaga Duchess Manchester (age 37) by marriage Duchess Manchester.
On 20 Nov 1917 Cecil Weld-Forester 5th Baron Forester (age 75) died at Brighton. He was buried at Willey Church Willey. His son George Cecil Beaumont Weld-Forester 6th Baron Forester (age 50) succeeded 6th Baron Forester of Willey Park in Shropshire.
On 20 Nov 1925 Alexandra Glücksburg Queen Consort England (age 80) died.
On 20 Nov 1947 Philip Mountbatten Duke Edinburgh (age 26) and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (age 21) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map]. She the daughter of King George VI of the United Kingdom (age 51) and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Queen Consort England (age 47). They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
On 20 Nov 1969 William Charles Arcedeckne Vanneck 5th Baron Huntingfield (age 86) died. His son Gerard Charles Arcedeckne Vanneck 6th Baron Huntingfield (age 54) succeeded 6th Baron Huntingfield of Heveningham Hall in Suffolk, 8th Baronet Vanneck of Putney.
On 20 Nov 2000 Charles Thomas Wilson 5th Baron Nunburnholme (age 65) died.
On 20 Nov 2014 María del Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart 18th Duchess of Alba 11th Duke of Berwick (age 88) died. Her son Carlos Fitz-James Stuart 19th Duke of Alba 12th Duke of Berwick (age 66) succeeded 19th Duke Alba, 17th Duke Veragua, 12th Duke of Jérica, 12th Duke of Liria, 12th Duke Berwick.