On this Day in History ... 23 August

23 Aug is in August.

1305 Execution of William Wallace

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

1628 Murder of the Duke of Buckingham

1662 Catherine of Braganza's Arrival in London

On 23 Aug 963 Richard "Good" Normandy II Duke Normandy was born to Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy (age 30) and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu.

On 23 Aug 1106 Magnus Billung Duke Saxony (age 61) died.

On 23 Aug 1276 Hugh Neville 1st Baron Neville Essex was born to John Neville (age 36).

Execution of William Wallace

John of Fordun's Chronicle. In the year 1305, William Wallace was craftily and treacherously taken by John of Menteith (age 30), who handed him over to the king of England (age 66); and he was, in London, torn limb from limb, and, as a reproach to the Scots, his limbs were hung on towers in sundry places throughout England and Scotland.

On 23 Aug 1305 William Wallace was hanged at the Elms in Smithfield [Map]. His head being displayed on London Bridge [Map].

On 08 Apr 1956 a plaque was unveiled on the wall of St Bartholomew's Hospital near to the site of his execution the text of which reads ...

To the immortal memory of Sir William Wallace Scottish patriot born at Elderslie Renfrewshire circa 1270 A.D. Who from the year 1296 fought dauntlessly in defence of his country's liberty and independence in the face of fearful odds and great hardship being eventually betrayed and captured brought to London and put to death near this spot on the 23rd August 1305.

His example heroism and devotion inspired those who came after him to win victory from defeat and his memory remains for all time a source of pride, honour and inspiration to his Countrymen.

"Dico tibi verum libertas optima rerum nunquam servili sub nexu vivito fili"

Translation: I tell you the truth, son, freedom is the best condition, never live like a slave

"Bas Agus Buaidh" aka Death and Victory, a traditional Scottish battle cry.

Before 23 Aug 1334 Adam Welles 3rd Baron Welles (age 30) and Margaret Bardolf Baroness Welles (age 22) were married. She by marriage Baroness Welles.

On 23 Aug 1452 James "White Earl" Butler 4th Earl Ormonde (age 59) died at Dublin [Map]. He was buried at St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. His son James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 31) succeeded 5th Earl Ormonde 1C 1328.

On 23 Aug 1499 Bishop John Blythe (age 39) died. He was buried at Salisbury Cathedral [Map]. Monument bottom middle.

On 23 Aug 1524 Bishop Edmund Tuchet (age 81) died. He was buried in Salisbury Cathedral [Map]. Finely carved monument. Similar in style to Prince Arthur's Chantry in Worcester Cathedral [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Aug 1551. The xxiij day [of] August the Kynges (age 13) grace went from Amton courte [Map] unto Wyndsore [Map], and ther was stallyd the Frenche Kyng (age 32) of the nobull order of the garter, with a grett baner of armes inbrodered with flowrs delusys of gold bosted, the mantylls of tysshuw, and the elmett clene gylt and ys sword; and the goodly gere was.

Note. The French king installed at Windsor. This was of course by deputy. He had been elected of the Garter on the St. George's day preceding, and the marquess of Northampton (age 39) had conveyed the insignia to France. See various documents relating to his election described by Strype, Memorials, 1721, ii. 512.


1554 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Aug 1554 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38) created her new husband (age 27) and the Earl of Sussex Garter Knights:

331st Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 27).

332nd Henry Radclyffe 2nd Earl of Sussex (age 47).


Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Aug 1557. The xxiij day of August was the hers of the kyng [of Denmark] at Powlles taken downe by master Garter, and serten of the lord tressorer('s) servandes, and the waxchandlers and carpynters.

On 23 Aug 1568 Thomas Wharton 1st Baron Wharton (age 73) died. His son Thomas Wharton 2nd Baron Wharton (age 48) succeeded 2nd Baron Wharton. Anne Radclyffe Baroness Wharton by marriage Baroness Wharton.

On 23 Aug 1605 Thomas Fitzwilliam 1st Viscount Fitzwilliam (age 24) and Margaret Plunkett were married.

On 23 Aug 1613 John Harington 1st Baron Harington (age 73) died. His son John Harrington 2nd Baron Harington (age 21) succeeded 2nd Baron Harington of Exton.


Murder of the Duke of Buckingham

On 23 Aug 1628 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) was murdered at Greyhound Pub, Portsmouth by a disgruntled soldier John Felton (age 33). He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map]. His son George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 2C 1623, 2nd Marquess of Buckingham 1C 1618, 2nd Earl Buckingham 4C 1617.

Felton was considered a hero by many who blamed Buckingham for the failures of the 1625 Cádiz Expedition and 1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. Felton was subsequently hanged.

PAINTINGS/LARKIN/George_Villiers_1st_Duke_Buckingham.png PAINTINGS/JOHNSON/George_Villiers.jpg PAINTINGS/MIJTENS/George_Villiers.jpg PAINTINGS/RUBENS/George_Villiers.jpg PAINTINGS/MIEREVELT/George_Villiers.jpg PAINTINGS/LELY/George_Villiers.png

Before 23 Aug 1637 Thomas Turner Dean Canterbury (age 46) and Margaret Windebank were married.

On 23 Aug 1637 Bishop Francis Turner was born to Thomas Turner Dean Canterbury (age 46) and Margaret Windebank.

On 23 Aug 1641 John Leslie 6th Earl Rothes (age 41) died. His son John Leslie 1st Duke Rothes (age 11) succeeded 7th Earl Rothes.

On or before 23 Aug 1652 Colin Lindsay 3rd Earl Balcarres was born to Andrew Lindsay 1st Earl Balcarres (age 34).


On 23 Aug 1662 Patrick Lyon 3rd Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne (age 19) and Helen Middleton Countess Strathmore and Kinghorne (age 17) were married. She by marriage Countess Strathmore and Kinghorne. She the daughter of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton (age 54) and Grizel Durham Countess Middleton. He the son of John Lyon 2nd Earl Kinghorne and Elizabeth Maule Countess Kinghorne and Linlithgow.

Catherine of Braganza's Arrival in London

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1662. So we parted, and Mr. Creed by appointment being come, he and I went out together, and at an ordinary in Lombard Street [Map] dined together, and so walked down to the Styllyard [Map], and so all along Thames-street, but could not get a boat: I offered eight shillings for a boat to attend me this afternoon, and they would not, it being the day of the Queen's (age 23) coming to town from Hampton Court [Map].

On 23 Aug 1668 Bishop George Hall (age 55) died from a wound inflicted by a knife in his pocket when he chanced to fall in his garden at Wigan.

On 23 Aug 1725 James Radclyffe 4th Earl of Newburgh was born to Charles Radclyffe Earl Newburgh (age 31) and Charlotte Livingstone 3rd Countess Newburgh (age 31). He a great grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 23 Aug 1741 James Hope Johnstone 3rd Earl Hopetoun was born to John Hope 2nd Earl Hopetoun (age 36) and Anne Ogilvy Countess Hopetoun (age 31).

On 23 Aug 1770 Edward Moore 2nd Marquess Drogheda was born to Charles Moore 1st Marquess Drogheda (age 40) and Anne Seymour-Conway Marchioness Drogheda (age 26). He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 23 Aug 1798 Alexander Baring 1st Baron Ashburton (age 23) and Ann Louisa Bingham Baroness Ashburton (age 16) were married.

On 23 Aug 1806 Henry Howard 2nd Earl of Effingham was born to Kenneth Alexander Howard 1st Earl of Effingham (age 38) and Charlotte Primrose Countess Effingham (age 30). Coefficient of inbreeding 3.12%. NOTEXT

On 19 Apr 1827 Charles Robert Siddall was born to Charles Crooke Siddall (age 26) and Elizabeth Eleanor Evans at 7 Charles Street. She was baptised 23 Aug 1830.

Charles Crooke Siddall: Around 1801 he was born.

On 25 Jul 1829 Elizabeth Siddal was born to Charles Crooke Siddall (age 28) and Elizabeth Eleanor Evans at 7 Charles Street. She was baptised 23 Aug 1830.

Diary of a Dean by Merewether. 23 Aug 1849. 21st, — Whilst the men were commencing their work at the large barrows on the preceding day, a shepherd stated that one of the boys had told him that he had "hooked" up out of a little barrow on Bye Down Hill a crock, but he knocked it to bits with the stick. On visiting the spot, about a mile north-east, it appeared to be a very small barrow, without any trench round it, and very little elevated; the turf on this part of the down is much broken. At the top of the barrow were evidently the remains of an urn, of a pottery apparently more compact than those recently discovered; and from the holes in the turf, in different directions, various fragments might be collected (H). Almost at the verge of the barrow was a trackway, having a trench on either side; but it was not easy to trace it for more than two miles, in consequence of the cultivation of the hills; it runs nearly east and west; traversing in the easterly direction from this spot the down called "Temple" Down, on which, near its course, is a hut designated by the grandiloquent title of "Glorian."1

Note 1. "Gloria Tanaris." as suggested by the site, as connected with the worship of Mr Bowes, from the possilble sanctity of that deity.

On 23 Aug 1861 Philip Hamond (age 22) died from sun stroke in India. Memorial in All Saints Church, West Acre [Map].

Philip Hamond: Around 1839 he was born to Anthony Hamond (age 34) and Mary Anne Musters (age 32).

On 23 Aug 1876 Richard William Alan Onslow 5th Earl Onslow was born to William Onslow 4th Earl Onslow (age 23) and Florence Coulston Gardner Countess Onslow (age 23).