On this Day in History ... 25th October

25 Oct is in October.

1154 Death of King Stephen

1415 Battle of Agincourt

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1586 Trial of Mary Queen of Scots

1854 Charge of the Light Brigade

1854 Battle of Balaclava

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 25th October

On 25 Oct 625 Boniface V Pope was buried in St Peter's Basilica.

On 25 Oct 912 Rudolph I King Burgundy (age 53) died. His son Rudolph "Pious" II King Burgundy II King Italy (age 32) succeeded II King Burgundy.

On 25 Oct 1251 Ottokar "Iron King" II King Bohemia (age 18) and Kunigunda Rostislavna Přemyslovna (age 6) were married.

On 25 Oct 1415 King Henry V of England (age 29) defeated the French army at the Battle of Agincourt. King Henry V of England (age 29) commanded the Main Battle. Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) commanded the Rearguard.

Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 30) commanded. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 25) was wounded, and was protected by his brother King Henry V of England (age 29).

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 42), commander of the Vanguard, was killed; the most senior English casualty. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Earl of Rutland and Earl Cork extinct. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 4) inherited his estates including Conisbrough Castle [Map].

John Fortescue (age 35), Dafydd Gam Brecon (age 35) and Edward Burnell (age 44) and Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (age 38) were killed.

Michael de la Pole 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 21) was killed. His brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19) succeeded 4th Earl Suffolk.

The English included: Louis Robbessart (age 25), Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 33), William Botreaux 3rd Baron Botreaux (age 26), William Bourchier 1st Count Eu (age 41), John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke (age 51), Edward Courtenay (age 30), Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 12), Thomas Dutton (age 19), Edmund Ferrers 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 29), Roger Fiennes (age 31), Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh (age 57), John Grey (age 28), John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 31), William Harrington (age 42) as the King's Standard Bearer, Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 37), Piers Legh (age 26) (wounded), Alfred Longford, Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27), Thomas Morley 6th Baron Marshal 5th Baron Morley (age 22), John Rodney, Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22), Robert Strelley (age 18), James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 17), Robert Umfraville (age 52), Thomas West 2nd Baron West (age 35), Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30). Thomas Erpingham (age 60) commanded the archers. Thomas Rempston (age 26) was present. Thomas Strickland (age 48) carried the Banner of St George.

Thomas Tunstall (age 57) was killed.

The Welsh included: William ap Thomas "Blue Knight of Gwent" Herbert (age 35), Walter Sais (age 95), Roger Vaughan (age 70) and his son Roger Vaughan (age 5). Owen Tudor (age 15) is believed to have been present as a squire.

The French army suffered significant casualties. Charles Albret (age 46), Philip Valois II Count Nevers (age 26), John of Bar (age 35), Jacques Chatillon (age 48), David Rambures (age 51) and his three sons: Jean Rambures, Hugues Rambures, Philippe Rambures, Waleran Luxemburg (age 60) and Hector de Chartres were killed.

Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 20) was captured by Richard Waller (age 20) for which he was knighted on the battlefield by King Henry V of England (age 29).

John Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 34) and Charles Artois Count Eu (age 21) were captured.

Robert of Bar Count Soissons Count Marle (age 25) was killed. His daughter Jeanne of Bar Countess Soissons succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

Edward of Bar III Duke of Bar (age 38) was killed. His brother Cardinal Louis of Bar (age 38) succeeded I Duke Bar.

John Valois I Duke Alençon was killed. His son John Valois II Duke Alençon (age 6) succeeded II Duke Alençon.

Frederick Metz I Count Vaudémont (age 47) was killed. His son Antoine Count of Vaudémont (age 15) succeeded Count Vaudémont.

Anthony Valois Duke Brabant (age 31) was killed. His son John Valois IV Duke Brabant (age 12) succeeded IV Duke Brabant. Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester (age 14) by marriage Duchess Brabant.

Jean II Le Maingre "Boucicaut" (age 49) was captured.

Georges de La Trémoille (age 33) was captured.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 25 Oct 1415. And the kyng (age 29) sawe he might not passe whythe out batayle, and thenne he said unto his lytylle mayne, "Serys and felowys, yendyr maynye wylle lette us of our waye, and they wylle not come unto us. But nowe lette every man preve hym-selfe a goode man this day and a-vance his baner in the beste tyme of the day and year." Ande the kyng (age 29) roode ande his basnet in his hede, and alle othyr men wente on her foote a-passe in her hoole araye and18 Englysche myle or that they assemblyde. And thorowe Goddys grace the King (age 29) made his way thoroughe the thyckyste of alle the batayle; and ther was slayne on the kyngys syde the Duke of Yorke (age 42), the Erle Southeffolke (deceased), and ij knyghtys, and Davy Gam (age 35), and of the gentylle men no moo, and of alle maner of Englysche men it passyd not xxviij personys. And on the Fraynysche syde was slayne the Duke of Launsonne, the Duke of Barre (age 38), the Duke of Braban (age 31), ande vij erlys, and the Constabylle of Fraunce, and the Senschalle of Henowde, and the Mayster Alblester19, and many moo lordys, and knygtys and squyers v Ml and moo. And there was take the Duke of Orlyaunce (age 20), the Duke of Burbon (age 34), the Counte of Rychemounde, and the Counte of Ewe (age 21), [th]e Marchalle of Fraunsce, Syr Bursegaunte, and many moo othyr knyghtys and squyers. And whanne this was done the kyng (age 29) bode alle nyghte in a vyllage faste be-syde ther that the batelle was done. And on the morowe he toke his waye unto Calys whythe his lordys and his presoners, whythe his owne mayne.

Note 18. So in MS.

Note 19. Thomas Arblastier. He was one of the retinue of Sir William Bourchier. See Nicolas's Battle of Agincourt, 360.

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

On 25 Oct 1495 John II King Portugal (age 40) died. On 25 Oct 1495 His first cousin Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal (age 26) succeeded I King Portugal.

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Bradford, 256. 6026. Chapuys (age 39) to Charles V (age 29).

On the receipt of your letter on Thursday the 21st, dated Piacenza, I sent to Windsor to ask for an audience. As the administration has fallen principally into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56), and the communication is more agreeable to him than that of the marriage, I hastened to visit him. The Cardinal (age 56), who was dis-evangelised on the day of St. Luke the Evangelist (18 Oct.), has been deprived of his offices. I was received by the Duke with great distinction, and expressed to him the regard in which you had always held him for his goodwill. He seemed highly pleased, and said that he and his family had always been attached to the house of Burgundy; that no one more lamented the late disagreements than himself, but that all the evil and misunderstanding ought to be attributed to those who formerly directed the King's councils, acting by their own will and authority, with which the King himself was often dissatisfied.

In reply to his remark that he should like to serve your Majesty against the Turk, I praised his virtuous feelings, and told him that was the main object of my communication; but for the better security of peace, which the King had done so much to establish, one unhappy difference between himself and the Queen remained to be settled. I told him that, however strongly he might feel from family considerations, he could not but feel as a true knight, nor act otherwise than if it had been his own daughter, and as conscience directed; and that your Majesty was convinced that he had not been the promoter of this step. He replied that he would sooner have lost one of his hands than that such a question should have arisen; but it was entirely a matter of law and conscience, and he had never been appealed to; that it had been submitted to ecclesiastics and doctors, who had pronounced against the validity of the marriage; that if the dispensation you held was illegal, the King would consider himself the most abused prince in Christendom; and that if you had not declared yourself in it so openly, it might have sooner been brought to a satisfactory issue. I explained to him the constraint under which you acted; and that, as to the king of England not having declared himself a party in the matter, it was clear that he had done so from the proceedings of the English ambassadors at Rome. Finding he remained thoughtful, I changed the subject. Shortly after he turned to me with a laugh, and said, "How glad the Emperor will be to hear of this fall of the Cardinal (age 56), and his loss of office?" I answered, I thought you would, but not from any hatred you had to the Cardinal (age 56); and that he could have done neither good nor ill to you, and was not of such importance as that you would care to be avenged, or trouble yourself about his disgrace; but what you rejoiced at was, that the king of England would now learn who had been his evil counsellors, and leave the management of affairs to men who from birth and circumstances were more competent. I told him that I was the first who had broken through the chain of paying court to the Cardinal (age 56), and addressed myself to him. He thanked me for my good intentions, and said that the government was managed not by an individual but by the Council, where he usually assisted, and would promote Your Majesty's interests.

In order to please the Duke (age 56) I asked him what I should do, although I had already sent one of my secretaries to the King. He told me that the King had ordered that application should be made direct to himself, before any other person was acquainted with the communication. He followed me to the hall, using very courteous language.

On the 22nd my secretary returned from Windsor, stating that the King would be at Greenwich on Saturday, and I was to go the day after. On my reaching Greenwich [Map] I found a civil gentleman, named Poller (Bollen?), sent by the King to conduct me to the palace. There I found the bishop of London (age 55), who led me to the King's antechamber, where the Court was assembled, and was received by two dukes and the archbishop of Canterbury (age 79). I conversed with these lords, waiting for the King to go to mass; and we talked of the conference at Bologna. The King, on going to mass, came directly to me, and taking me by the sleeve said, with the utmost graciousness, "You have news from my brother the Emperor." On answering Yes, he asked the date, and then said your Majesty was very careful to give him information. I assured him that you were anxious to make him partaker of all affairs, and thus show your brotherly affection. I then presented your letters, and, as to the particulars of my credentials, he said that the ambassadors in your court were authorised to treat about them. Speaking of your going into Italy I bespoke his good offices.

On his return from mass, he came up to me again, and resumed the subject. When we talked of the necessity of resisting the Turk, and of the Pope's arrival at Bologna on the 5th, I said I thought it advisable that he should commission his ambassadors with the Pope to treat; and I combated his remark that he could do but little against the Turk, seeing he was wealthy, and as absolute in his dominions as the Pope. He urged that this affair was chiefly yours, and if you wished to accomplish it you must make peace with the princes of Italy. I assured him you had never ceased from efforts in this direction. The conversation then turned on the duke Francesco Sforza; and I urged, in opposition to his remark, that your proceedings were as favorable to the Duke as could be. He objected to the cession of Pavia and Alexandria, alleging the cruelties which had taken place at Sienna. I told him Pavia was out of dispute, as it was already given up. "Between ourselves," said he, "I think it is a great shame that whilst the Turk is in Austria, the patrimony of the Emperor, he should not rescue it, but make war upon Christians." On my urging the danger that might be expected from Sforza and the Venetians if your troops were withdrawn, he urged that neither could do anything. Shortly after, changing his tone, he said, with some emphasis, "My brother the king of France has made your Emperor a marvellous offer." This he repeated three times. I said, if it were so, he had now done a virtuous part, and kept his professions. After various other topics it grew late. Not a word was said of the Queen. After dinner he asked me if I had anything more to say.

All here are satisfied with the treaty of Cambray. As for the observance of it, the Queen, as I have already written, has expressed her doubt of its duration. It is supposed to have cost this King 800,000 ducats. He is not therefore likely to break it. People here are not very anxious to repeat the dose, as it is not to their taste. At present they seem on good terms with the French. The ambassador has been only once at court with his brother since my arrival. He has been commanded to deliver his message to the Council, and abstain from communication with the Cardinal; at which he was greatly vexed. Various ambassadors are here. The most in favour is the Milanese, on whom the King has spent money. Those who are now in most credit are the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45). There is not a single person about the King who is not saturated with French money; and though they profess great affection to you, their affection for money is much stronger. I have submitted the proposition to the King respecting the sea being kept free from pirates. He has ordered a good reception for Mons. Rosymbez.

The downfall of the Cardinal (age 56) is complete. He is dismissed from the Council, deprived of the Chancellorship, and constrained to make an inventory of his goods in his own hand, that nothing may be forgotten. It is said that he has acknowledged his faults, and presented all his effects to the King. Yesterday the King returned to Greenwich by water secretly, in order to see them, and found them much greater than he expected. He took with him "sa mye" (his darling-Ann Boleyn (age 28)), her mother (age 49), and a gentleman of his chamber (Norris?) The Cardinal, notwithstanding his troubles, has always shown a good face, especially towards the town, but since St. Luke's Day all has been changed to sighs and tears night and day. The King, either moved by pity, or for fear if he should die the whole extent of his effects would not be found, sent him a ring for his comfort. He has withdrawn with a small attendance to a place ten miles off. They have sent for his son from Paris. People say execrable things of him, all which will be known at this Parliament. But those who have raised the storm will not let it abate, not knowing, if he returned to power, what would become of them. The ambassador of France commiserates him most. It was feared the Cardinal (age 56) would get his goods out of the country, and therefore a strict watch was kept at the ports, and the watch insisted on opening the coffers of cardinal Campeggio (age 54), notwithstanding his passport, and, on his refusal, broke open the locks. He said they had done him great wrong to suppose that he could be corrupted by the Cardinal, since he had been proof against the innumerable presents offered him by the King.

The Chancellor's seal has remained in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56) till this morning, when it was transferred to Sir Thomas More (age 51). Every one is delighted at his promotion, because he is an upright and learned man, and a good servant of the Queen. He was Chancellor of Lancaster, an office now conferred on the Sieur Villeury (Fitzwilliam). Richard Pace, a faithful servant of your Majesty, whom the Cardinal had kept in prison for two years, as well in the Tower of London as in a monastery (Syon House), is set at liberty. Unless his mind should again become unsettled, it is thought he will rise in higher favour at Court than ever.

There is a young man here, sent by the duke of Saxony, who has much business with the King and the bishop of London (age 55).

Of the King's affair there is nothing new to communicate, except what the bishop of London (age 55) has told me, that Dr. Stokesley (age 54) had been sent to France to consult the doctors of Paris. The Queen begs your Majesty will send some respectable person there to do the same, for without some definitive sentence the King will remain obstinate in his opinions. She thinks that delay will be more dangerous than profitable, and therefore we have thought it desirable not to consent to the postponement demanded. To avoid creating suspicion in the mind of the King, she thinks I had better cease to visit her, but she will provide means for my speaking with her in private. London, 25 Oct. 1529.

P.S.-Two days after I had written the above, the Cardinal (age 56) was definitively condemned by the Council, declared a rebel, and guilty of high treason for having obtained a legatine bull, whereby he had conferred many benefices in the King's patronage. He has been deprived of his dignities, his goods confiscated, and himself sentenced to prison until the King shall decide. This sentence was not given in his presence, but to his two proctors. This he will not find easy of digestion, but worse remains behind (mais encoures ne serat il quicte pour le prix).

On 25 Oct 1586 Mary Queen of Scots (age 43) was convicted and sentenced to death. Only Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 30) offered any dissent against the judgement.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. My Lord being gone I to the office, and there find Captain Ferrers, who tells me his wife is come to town to see him, having not seen him since 15 weeks ago at his first going to sea last. She is now at a Taverne and stays all night, so I was obliged to give him my house and chamber to lie in, which he with great modesty and after much force took, and so I got Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) coach to carry her thither, and the coach coming back, I with Mr. Evelyn (age 44) to Deptford, Kent [Map], where a little while with him doing a little business, and so in his coach back again to my lodgings, and there sat with Mrs. Ferrers two hours, and with my little girle, Mistress Frances Tooker, and very pleasant. Anon the Captain comes, and then to supper very merry, and so I led them to bed. And so to bed myself, having seen my pretty little girle home first at the next door.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1666. After dinner I out with my wife to Mrs. Pierce's, where she hath not been a great while, from some little unkindness of my wife's to her when she was last here, but she received us with mighty respect and discretion, and was making herself mighty fine to go to a great ball to-night at Court, being the Queene's (age 56) birthday; so the ladies for this one day do wear laces, but to put them off again to-morrow.

On 25 Oct 1683 Charles Fitzroy 2nd Duke Grafton was born to Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 20) and Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 15). He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1684 Elizabeth Maddison (age 66) died. She was buried at St Mary's Church, Long Newton [Map].

Elizabeth Maddison: In Oct 1618 she was born to Lyonell Maddison. On 27 Mar 1640 George Vane of Long Newton and she were married. They had thirteen children.

On 25 Oct 1692 Elisabeth Farnese Queen Consort Spain was born.

On 25 Oct 1727 Thomas Walpole was born to Horatio Walpole 1st Baron Walpole (age 48) and Mary Magdalen Lombard (age 32).

On 04 Apr 1751 John Repps of Mattishall (age 46) died. On 25 Oct 1733 Virtue Boardman (age 38) died. Memorials in Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map].

John Repps of Mattishall: Around 1705 he was born to John Repps and Dorothy Fountaine. Before 04 Apr 1705 he and Virtue Boardman were married.

Virtue Boardman: In 1695 she was born.

On 25 Oct 1759 William Wyndham Granville 1st Baron Grenville was born to George Granville (age 47) and Elizabeth Wyndham (age 40).

On 25 Oct 1812 Richard Buckner was born.

On 25 Oct 1854 Poulett George Henry Somerset (age 32) and William Archer Amherst 3rd Earl Amherst (age 18) fought.

Major-General John Douglas (age 37) commanded the 79th Regiment of Foot.

General George Augustus Frederick Paget (age 36) and Henry Hugh Manvers Percy (age 37) fought.

On 25 Oct 1854 Hedworth Joliffe 2nd Baron Hylton (age 25) took part in the Charge of the Light Brigade.

Godfrey Morgan 1st Viscount Tredegar (age 23) was in command of a section of the Light Brigade. His horse "Sir Briggs" survived, died aged twenty-eight and was buried in the Cedar Garden at Tredegar House, Monmouthshire where there is a monument to him.

Thomas Hutton took part. He was shot through the right thigh during the advance, and on returning from the guns he was again severely wounded through the left thigh.

George Orby Wombwell 4th Baronet (age 21) took part and survived. His horse was killed under him and he was shortly after pulled off and taken prisoner, his sword and pistols being taken from him by some Russian Lancers. He managed to escape, catch another loose horse and ride back to the British lines, pursued by Russians.

Fiennes Wykeham-Martin Cornwallis (age 22) took part.

On 25 Oct 1854 George Charles Bingham 3rd Earl Lucan (age 54) led at Balaclava during the Charge of the Light Brigade.

On 25 Oct 1920 Alexander I King Greece (age 27) died. His brother Paul I King Greece (age 18) succeeded I King Greece.

Births on the 25th October

On 25 Oct 1102 William Clito Normandy Count Flanders was born to Robert Curthose III Duke Normandy (age 51) and Sybilla Conversano Duchess Normandy. He a grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

On 25 Oct 1338 Elizabeth Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave Baroness Mowbray was born to John Segrave 4th Baron Segrave (age 23) and Margaret Plantagenet 2nd Countess Norfolk at Croxton Abbey [Map]. She a great granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 25 Oct 1415 William Bourchier Baron Fitzwarin was born to William Bourchier 1st Count Eu (age 41) and Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford (age 32). He a great grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 25 Oct 1445 Fulk Bourchier 10th Baron Fitzwarin was born to William Bourchier Baron Fitzwarin (age 30) and Thomasine Hankford 9th Baroness Fitzwarin (age 22). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 25 Oct 1505 Henry Capell was born to Giles Capell of Rayne Hall (age 25) and Isabel Newton (age 20).

On 25 Oct 1510 Renée of France Duchess of Ferrara was born to Louis XII King France (age 48) and Anne of Brittany Queen Consort France (age 33). Coefficient of inbreeding 5.00%.

On 25 Oct 1601 John Frederick was born.

Around 25 Oct 1625 Periam Pole was born to Peryam Pole (age 33). He was baptised at the Church of St Andrew Moretonhampstead, Devon.

On 25 Oct 1649 Edward Blackett 2nd Baronet was born to William Blackett 1st Baronet (age 28) and Elizabeth Kirkley.

On 25 Oct 1667 Prince Louis Frederick I of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was born.

On 25 Oct 1683 Charles Fitzroy 2nd Duke Grafton was born to Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 20) and Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 15). He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1692 Elisabeth Farnese Queen Consort Spain was born.

On 25 Oct 1716 Mary Thorpe 14th Baroness Cobham was born to William Thorpe (age 33) and Frances Boothby (age 19).

On 25 Oct 1727 Thomas Walpole was born to Horatio Walpole 1st Baron Walpole (age 48) and Mary Magdalen Lombard (age 32).

On 25 Oct 1735 Stillborn Saxe Coburg Altenburg was born to Duke Frederick III of Saxe Coburg Altenburg III (age 36) and Luise Dorothea Saxe Meiningen Duchess Saxe Gotha Altenburg (age 25) at Gotha.

On 25 Oct 1735 Louis Saxe Coburg Altenburg was born to Duke Frederick III of Saxe Coburg Altenburg III (age 36) and Luise Dorothea Saxe Meiningen Duchess Saxe Gotha Altenburg (age 25) at Gotha.

On 25 Oct 1759 Empress Sophie Dorothea of Russia was born to Frederick Eugene Württemberg Duke Württemberg (age 27) and Friederike Sophie Dorothea Hohenzollern (age 22). She a great x 2 granddaughter of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1759 William Wyndham Granville 1st Baron Grenville was born to George Granville (age 47) and Elizabeth Wyndham (age 40).

On 25 Oct 1766 Arthur Kaye Legge was born to William Legge 2nd Earl Dartmouth (age 35) and Frances Catherine Gounter Nicoll Countess Dartmouth (age 33).

On 25 Oct 1768 Frederick William Nassau Weilburg was born to Charles Christian Nassau Weilburg (age 33) and Carolina Orange Nassau (age 25). He a great grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1774 Robert Johnson Eden 5th Baronet was born to John Eden 4th Baronet (age 34).

On 25 Oct 1777 Arthur George Onslow 3rd Earl Onslow was born to Thomas Onslow 2nd Earl Onslow (age 23) and Arabella Mainwaring Ellerker Countess Onslow (age 22).

On 25 Oct 1778 Frances Marsham was born to Charles Marsham 1st Earl Romney (age 34) and Frances Wyndham Countess Romney (age 23).

On 25 Oct 1780 Archbishop John Bird Sumner was born to Robert Sumner in Kenilworth.

On 25 Oct 1782 William Verner 1st Baronet was born.

On 25 Oct 1809 Michael Hicks-Beach 8th Baronet was born to Michael Hicks-Beach (age 29).

On 25 Oct 1812 Richard Buckner was born.

On 25 Oct 1822 Edward Fitzgerald Campbell 2nd Baronet was born to Guy Campbell 1st Baronet (age 36) and Pamela Fitzgerald Lady Campbell (age 26).

On 25 Oct 1853 Sydney Charles Buxton 1st Earl Buxton was born at 7 Grosvenor Crescent Belgravia.

On 25 Oct 1858 Edward George Grey was born to Charles Samuel Grey (age 47) and Margaret Dysart Hunter.

On 25 Oct 1876 Stuart Holland 2nd Baron Rotherham was born to William Henry Holland 1st Baron Rotherham (age 26).

On 25 Oct 1882 Gillian Mary Birkbeck was born to Henry Birkbeck (age 29).

On 25 Oct 1883 John Lancelot Butler-Bowdon 25th Baron Grey of Ruthin was born to Captain Lancelot George Butler-Bowdon of Barlborough House in Chesterfield (age 32) and Ella Cicely Mary Clifton (age 26).

On 25 Oct 1894 Mary Margaret Desiree Meynell Viscountess Falmouth was born.

On 25 Oct 1895 Francis Rodd 2nd Baron Rennell was born.

On 25 Oct 1913 Diana Holman Hunt was born to Hilary Lushington Hunt (age 34).

On 25 Oct 1921 Michael Hohenzollern Sigmaringen was born to King Carol II Hohenzollern Sigmaringen (age 28) and Helen Glücksburg (age 25). He a great x 2 grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.43%.

On 03 Oct 1931 Rosemary Mitcham was born.

On 25 Oct 2013 Rosemary Mitcham (age 82) died.

On 25 Oct 1931 Ludwig Hesse Darmstadt was born to Georg Donatus Hesse Darmstadt Grand Duke (age 24) and Cecilie Glücksburg Grand Duchess (age 20). He a great x 2 grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.81%.

Before 25 Oct 1938 Anne Patricia Neville was born to John Henry Guy Neville 5th Marquess Abergavenny (age 23) and Mary Patricia Harrison Marchioness Abergavenny (age 23).

On 25 Oct 1953 Iona Charlotte Grimston was born to John Grimston 6th Earl of Verulam (age 41).

Marriages on the 25th October

Before 25 Oct 1102 Robert Curthose III Duke Normandy (age 51) and Sybilla Conversano Duchess Normandy were married. She by marriage Duchess Normandy. He the son of King William "Conqueror" I of England and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England.

On 25 Oct 1251 Ottokar "Iron King" II King Bohemia (age 18) and Kunigunda Rostislavna Přemyslovna (age 6) were married.

Before 25 Oct 1415 Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (age 38) and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam "Star of Abergavenny" Brecon were married.

After 25 Oct 1439 John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter (age 44) and Anne Montagu Duchess Exeter (age 39) were married. She by marriage Duchess Exeter. She the daughter of John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury and Maud Francis Countess of Salisbury. He the son of John Holland 1st Duke Exeter and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter. They were half third cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 25 Oct 1441 Francesco Sforza I Duke Milan (age 40) and Bianca Maria Visconti (age 16) were married. The difference in their ages was 23 years.

Before 25 Oct 1445 William Bourchier Baron Fitzwarin (age 30) and Thomasine Hankford 9th Baroness Fitzwarin (age 22) were married. He by marriage Baron Fitzwarin. He the son of William Bourchier 1st Count Eu and Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England.

After 25 Oct 1478 Robert Clifford and Elizabeth Barley were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 25 Oct 1519 Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 23) and Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 16) were married. She by marriage Countess Devon. He the son of William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon and Catherine York Countess Devon (age 40). He a grandson of King Edward IV of England.

On 25 Oct 1618 Johann Philipp Wettin Duke Saxe Altenburg (age 21) and Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (age 25) were married. He the son of Friedrich Wilhelm Wettin I Duke Saxe Weimar and Anna Maria Countess Palatine of Neuburg (age 43). They were half fourth cousins.

On 25 Oct 1671 Johann Adolph I Duke Saxe Weissenfels (age 21) and Johanna Magdalena of Saxe-Altenburg (age 15) were married. She the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm Wettin II Duke Saxe Altenburg. They were fourth cousins.

On 25 Oct 1720 John Hervey 2nd Baron Hervey (age 24) and Mary Lepell Baroness Hervey (age 20) were married. He the son of John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol (age 55) and Elizabeth Felton Countess Bristol (age 43).

Before 25 Oct 1731 Gustavus Hume 3rd Baronet (age 61) and Alice Moore were married. She the daughter of Henry Hamilton Moore 3rd Earl of Drogheda.

Before 25 Oct 1737 Thomas Style 4th Baronet (age 52) and Elizabeth Hotham were married.

On 25 Oct 1739 Infante Philip of Spain (age 19) and Louise Elisabeth of France (age 12) were married. She the daughter of Louis XV King France (age 29) and Marie Leszczyńska Queen Consort France (age 36). He the son of Philippe V King Spain (age 55) and Elisabeth Farnese Queen Consort Spain (age 47). They were first cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1775 Thomas Coke 1st Earl of Leicester (age 21) and Jane Dutton (age 21) were married at Sherborne, Gloucestershire.

On 25 Oct 1780 John Ingilby 1st Baronet (age 22) and Elizabeth Amcotts Lady Ingilby (age 17) were married.

On 25 Oct 1803 Robert Eden Duncombe Shafto (age 26) and Catherine Eden (age 33) were married at St Mary's, Lambeth [Map].

On 25 Oct 1825 Charles Fitzroy (age 34) and Anne Cavendish (age 37) were married. She the daughter of George Augustus Henry Cavendish 1st Earl Burlington (age 71) and Elizabeth Compton Countess Burlington (age 65). He the son of George Henry Fitzroy 4th Duke Grafton (age 65) and Charlotte Maria Waldegrave. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1828 William Legge 4th Earl Dartmouth (age 43) and Frances Barrington Countess Dartmouth were married. She by marriage Countess Dartmouth. He the son of George Legge 3rd Earl Dartmouth and Frances Finch Countess Dartmouth (age 67). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1842 Robert John Verney 25th Baron Latimer 17th Baron Willoughby de Broke (age 33) and Georgiana Jane Taylor were married.

On 25 Oct 1853 William Brodrick 8th Viscount Midleton (age 23) and Augusta Mary Fremantle were married.

On 25 Oct 1887 Algernon Henry Grosvenor (age 23) and Catherine Dorothea Simeon were married.

On 25 Aug 1914 or 25 Oct 1914 Henry Cecil Vane (age 32) and Enid Victoria Rachel Fane (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Anthony Fane 13th Earl of Westmoreland (age 55).

Deaths on the 25th October

Before 25 Oct 625 Boniface V Pope died.

On 25 Oct 912 Rudolph I King Burgundy (age 53) died. His son Rudolph "Pious" II King Burgundy II King Italy (age 32) succeeded II King Burgundy.

On 25 Oct 1053 Enguerrand Ponthieu II Count Ponthieu died. His uncle Bishop Guy Ponthieu (age 26) succeeded I Count Ponthieu.

On 25 Oct 1180 Bishop John of Salisbury (age 62) died.

On 25 Oct 1265 Robert V Beauchamp (age 48) died at Sherborne, Dorset [Map].

On 25 Oct 1268 John Balliol (age 60) died.

On 25 Oct 1292 Bishop Robert Burnell (age 53) died at Berwick on Tweed [Map].

On 25 Oct 1324 John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort (age 59) died. His grandson John Botetort 2nd Baron Botetort (age 6) succeeded 2nd Baron Botetort.

On 25 Oct 1383 William Clinton (age 31) died at Maxstoke.

On 25 Oct 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer (age 57) died. He was buried at Poets Corner Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 25 Oct 1415 King Henry V of England (age 29) defeated the French army at the Battle of Agincourt. King Henry V of England (age 29) commanded the Main Battle. Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) commanded the Rearguard.

Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 30) commanded. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 25) was wounded, and was protected by his brother King Henry V of England (age 29).

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 42), commander of the Vanguard, was killed; the most senior English casualty. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Earl of Rutland and Earl Cork extinct. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 4) inherited his estates including Conisbrough Castle [Map].

John Fortescue (age 35), Dafydd Gam Brecon (age 35) and Edward Burnell (age 44) and Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (age 38) were killed.

Michael de la Pole 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 21) was killed. His brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19) succeeded 4th Earl Suffolk.

The English included: Louis Robbessart (age 25), Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 33), William Botreaux 3rd Baron Botreaux (age 26), William Bourchier 1st Count Eu (age 41), John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke (age 51), Edward Courtenay (age 30), Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 12), Thomas Dutton (age 19), Edmund Ferrers 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 29), Roger Fiennes (age 31), Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh (age 57), John Grey (age 28), John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 31), William Harrington (age 42) as the King's Standard Bearer, Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 37), Piers Legh (age 26) (wounded), Alfred Longford, Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27), Thomas Morley 6th Baron Marshal 5th Baron Morley (age 22), John Rodney, Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22), Robert Strelley (age 18), James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 17), Robert Umfraville (age 52), Thomas West 2nd Baron West (age 35), Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30). Thomas Erpingham (age 60) commanded the archers. Thomas Rempston (age 26) was present. Thomas Strickland (age 48) carried the Banner of St George.

Thomas Tunstall (age 57) was killed.

The Welsh included: William ap Thomas "Blue Knight of Gwent" Herbert (age 35), Walter Sais (age 95), Roger Vaughan (age 70) and his son Roger Vaughan (age 5). Owen Tudor (age 15) is believed to have been present as a squire.

The French army suffered significant casualties. Charles Albret (age 46), Philip Valois II Count Nevers (age 26), John of Bar (age 35), Jacques Chatillon (age 48), David Rambures (age 51) and his three sons: Jean Rambures, Hugues Rambures, Philippe Rambures, Waleran Luxemburg (age 60) and Hector de Chartres were killed.

Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 20) was captured by Richard Waller (age 20) for which he was knighted on the battlefield by King Henry V of England (age 29).

John Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 34) and Charles Artois Count Eu (age 21) were captured.

Robert of Bar Count Soissons Count Marle (age 25) was killed. His daughter Jeanne of Bar Countess Soissons succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

Edward of Bar III Duke of Bar (age 38) was killed. His brother Cardinal Louis of Bar (age 38) succeeded I Duke Bar.

John Valois I Duke Alençon was killed. His son John Valois II Duke Alençon (age 6) succeeded II Duke Alençon.

Frederick Metz I Count Vaudémont (age 47) was killed. His son Antoine Count of Vaudémont (age 15) succeeded Count Vaudémont.

Anthony Valois Duke Brabant (age 31) was killed. His son John Valois IV Duke Brabant (age 12) succeeded IV Duke Brabant. Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester (age 14) by marriage Duchess Brabant.

Jean II Le Maingre "Boucicaut" (age 49) was captured.

Georges de La Trémoille (age 33) was captured.

On 25 Oct 1432 Henry Percy of Atholl (age 47) died.

On 25 Oct 1439 Beatrice Aviz Duchess Exeter (age 57) died.

On 25 Oct 1454 Edward FitzEustace of Castlemartin in County Kildare (age 73) died.

On 25 Oct 1478 Ralph Jocelyn died.

On 25 Oct 1495 John II King Portugal (age 40) died. On 25 Oct 1495 His first cousin Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal (age 26) succeeded I King Portugal.

On 25 Oct 1531 George Booth (age 40) died at Dunham Massey [Map].

On 25 Oct 1548 François Valois (age 35) died.

On 25 Oct 1556 Elizabeth Bledlow Baroness Williams (age 52) died.

On 25 Oct 1557 William Cavendish (age 52) died.

On 25 Oct 1604 Claude de La Tremoille 2nd Duke Thouars (age 38) died.

On 25 Oct 1604 Claude Tremoille (age 38) died.

On 25 Oct 1619 Temperance Bray (age 42) died.

On 25 Oct 1627 Robert Spencer 1st Baron Spencer (age 57) died. His son William Spencer 2nd Baron Spencer (age 36) succeeded 2nd Baron Spencer Wormleighton.

Before 25 Oct 1648 William Alington 1st Baron Alington (age 37) died. He was buried on 25 Oct 1648. His son Giles Alington 2nd Baron Alington (age 1) succeeded 2nd Baron Alington of Killard.

On 25 Oct 1651 Richard Alleyne (age 78) died.

Around 25 Oct 1657 Robert Devereux (age 7) died.

On 25 Oct 1670 William Stanley (age 30) died.

On 25 Oct 1683 William Scroggs (age 60) died.

On 25 Oct 1684 Elizabeth Maddison (age 66) died. She was buried at St Mary's Church, Long Newton [Map].

Elizabeth Maddison: In Oct 1618 she was born to Lyonell Maddison. On 27 Mar 1640 George Vane of Long Newton and she were married. They had thirteen children.

Before 25 Oct 1685 Thomas Archer (age 66) died. On 25 Oct 1685 Thomas Archer (age 66) was buried at Tamworth, Staffordshire [Map].

On 25 Oct 1689 Joseph Maynard (age 49) died.

On 25 Oct 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 44) died at Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at Holy Trinity Church, Minories [Map]. His son William Legge (age 19) succeeded 2nd Baron Dartmouth.

On 13 Aug 1693 Christopher Turnor of Milton Erneys in Bedfordshire (age 42) died.

On 20 Jun 1696 Elizabeth Crew Countess Arran (age 45) died.

On 25 Oct 1694 Elizabeth Turnor (age 4) died.

On 25 Oct 1696 Francis Lawley 2nd Baronet (age 66) died. His son Thomas Lawley 3rd Baronet (age 46) succeeded 3rd Baronet Lawley of Spoonhill in Shropshire.

On 25 Oct 1705 Dorothy Keyt (age 34) died.

On 25 Oct 1709 Jeffrey Jeffreys (age 57) died. He was buried at St Mary Axe.

On 25 Oct 1718 Frances Winchcombe Viscountess Bolingbroke (age 37) died.

On 25 Oct 1720 William Ward (age 43) died.

On 25 Oct 1725 Cecil Bisshopp 5th Baronet died. His son Cecil Bisshopp 6th Baronet (age 24) succeeded 6th Baronet Bisshopp of Parham in Sussex.

On 25 Oct 1731 Gustavus Hume 3rd Baronet (age 61) died.

On 25 Oct 1734 Elizabeth Taylor (age 67) died.

On 25 Oct 1734 Hugh Boscawen 1st Viscount Falmouth (age 54) died suddenly in Trefusis, Cornwall. He was buried in St Michael Pentivel, Penkevile. His son Hugh Boscawen 2nd Viscount Falmouth (age 30) succeeded 2nd Viscount Falmouth.

On 25 Oct 1735 Stillborn Saxe Coburg Altenburg died at Gotha.

On 25 Oct 1737 Elizabeth Hotham died.

On 04 Apr 1751 John Repps of Mattishall (age 46) died. On 25 Oct 1733 Virtue Boardman (age 38) died. Memorials in Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map].

John Repps of Mattishall: Around 1705 he was born to John Repps and Dorothy Fountaine. Before 04 Apr 1705 he and Virtue Boardman were married.

Virtue Boardman: In 1695 she was born.

On 25 Oct 1759 Gerard Napier 5th Baronet (age 58) died. His son Gerard Napier 6th Baronet (age 20) succeeded 6th Baronet Napier of Middle Marsh in Dorset.

On 25 Oct 1769 Alexander Montgomerie 10th Earl Eglinton (age 46) was shot and killed by an excise officer or Gaudger (Scots) named Mungo Campbell on 24 Oct 1769 following a dispute about the latter's right to bear arms on the Earl's grounds. The Earl died from his abdominal wounds late that evening. Campbell was convicted of murder but died by his own hand before the sentence could be carried out. His brother Archibald Montgomerie 11th Earl Eglinton (age 43) succeeded 11th Earl Eglinton.

On 25 Oct 1791 Herbert Mackworth (age 54) died.

On 25 Oct 1829 Frederick Lennox (age 28) died.

On 25 Oct 1842 Lieutenant-General Charles William Doyle (age 72) died.

On 25 Oct 1849 Charlotte North died.

On 25 Oct 1857 Frances "Fanny" Callander Lady Graham (age 64) died at Pavilion Parade, Cowes.

On 25 Oct 1865 Henry Stevenson Blackwood (age 46) died from a fall from a horse after riding into a rope which had been stretched across the road.

On 25 Oct 1868 Henrietta Anne Bourne Lady Haselrigge (age 84) died.

On 25 Oct 1876 Friedrich Wilhelm Hesse-Kassel (age 86) died.

On 25 Oct 1878 Sarah Cotton (age 63) died.

On 25 Oct 1881 Thomas Michael Greenhow (age 89) died.

On 25 Oct 1895 George Thomas Orlando Bridgeman (age 72) died at The Hall, Wigan.

On 25 Oct 1912 John Ralph Stockley Carr-Ellison (age 45) died.

On 25 Oct 1914 Francis Ernest Waller 4th Baronet (age 34) was killed in action. He was buried at the Royal Irish Rifles Graveyard, Laventie, Departement du Pas-de-Calais. His brother Wathen Arthur Waller 5th Baronet (age 33) succeeded 5th Baronet Waller of Braywick Lodge in Berkshire.

On 25 Oct 1920 Alexander I King Greece (age 27) died. His brother Paul I King Greece (age 18) succeeded I King Greece.

On 25 Oct 1921 Harriet Cecilia FitzHerbert (age 72) died.

On 25 Oct 1933 Osmond William Toome Westenra Hastings (age 60) died.

On 25 Oct 1943 Lieutenant David Hugh Joicey (age 21) was killed in action at Salerno. He was buried at the Salerno War Cemetery Plot III. A. 33.

On 25 Oct 1963 John Lancelot Butler-Bowdon 25th Baron Grey of Ruthin (age 80) died. Baron Grey of Ruthyn abeyant between the issue of his three great aunts: Edith Maud Rawdon-Hastings 10th Countess Loudon, Victoria Maria Louisa Rawdon-Hastings and Frances Augusta Constance Muir Rawdon-Hastings Countess Romney.

On 25 Oct 1966 Lieutenant-Colonel Ralph Gerald Ritson (age 86) died.

On 25 Oct 2002 Mary Cecilia Georgina Weld-Forester (age 85) died.

On 25 Oct 2002 John Ian Robert Russell 13th Duke Bedford (age 85) died at Santa Fe. His son Henry Robin Ian Russell 14th Duke Bedford (age 62) succeeded 14th Duke Bedford, 14th Marquess Tavistock, 13th Marquess Tavistock, 18th Earl Bedford, 18th Baron Russell of Cheneys, 16th Baron Russell of Thornhaugh, 14th Baron Howland of Streatham. Henrietta Joan Tiarks Duchess Bedford by marriage Duchess Bedford.