On this Day in History ... 25 October

25 Oct is in October.

1154 Death of King Stephen

1415 Battle of Agincourt

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1586 Trial of Mary Queen of Scots

1854 Battle of Balaclava

1854 Charge of the Light Brigade

Before 25 Oct 625 Boniface V Pope died.

Before 25 Oct 625 Boniface V Pope sent letters to King Edwin of Northumbria (age 39) urging him to embrace the Christian faith, and to Edwin's Christian wife, Æthelburg of Kent (age 20), exhorting her to use her best endeavours for the conversion of her husband.

On 25 Oct 625 Boniface V Pope was buried in St Peter's Basilica.

On 25 Oct 912 Rudolph I King Burgundy (age 53) died. His son Rudolph "Pious" II King Burgundy II King Italy (age 32) succeeded II King Burgundy.

On 25 Oct 1053 Enguerrand Ponthieu II Count Ponthieu died. His uncle Bishop Guy Ponthieu (age 26) succeeded I Count Ponthieu.

Before 25 Oct 1102 Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 51) and Sybilla Conversano Duchess Normandy were married. She by marriage Duchess Normandy. He the son of King William "Conqueror" I of England and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England.

On 25 Oct 1102 William Clito Normandy Count Flanders was born to Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 51) and Sybilla Conversano Duchess Normandy. He a grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

Death of King Stephen

On 25 Oct 1180 John of Salisbury Bishop Chartres (age 62) died.

On 25 Oct 1251 Ottokar "Iron King" II King Bohemia (age 18) and Kunigunda Rostislavna Přemyslovna (age 6) were married.

On 25 Oct 1292 Bishop Robert Burnell (age 53) died at Berwick on Tweed [Map].

On 25 Oct 1324 John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort (age 59) died. His grandson John Botetort 2nd Baron Botetort (age 6) succeeded 2nd Baron Botetort 1C 1305.

On 25 Oct 1338 Elizabeth Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave Baroness Mowbray was born to John Segrave 4th Baron Segrave (age 23) and Margaret Plantagenet 2nd Countess Norfolk at Croxton Abbey [Map]. She a great granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Battle of Agincourt

On 25 Oct 1415 King Henry V of England (age 29) defeated the French army at the Battle of Agincourt. King Henry V of England (age 29) commanded the Main Battle. Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) commanded the Rearguard.

Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 30) commanded. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 25) was wounded, and was protected by his brother King Henry V of England (age 29).

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 42), commander of the Vanguard, was killed; the most senior English casualty. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397, Earl of Rutland 1C 1390 and Earl Cork extinct. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 4) inherited his estates including Conisbrough Castle [Map].

John Fortescue (age 35), Dafydd Gam Brecon (age 35) and Edward Burnell (age 44) and Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (age 38) were killed.

Michael de la Pole 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 21) was killed. His brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19) succeeded 4th Earl Suffolk 3C 1385.

The English included: Louis Robbessart (age 25), Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 33), William Botreaux 3rd Baron Botreaux (age 26), William Bourchier 1st Count Eu (age 41), John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke (age 51), Edward Courtenay (age 30), Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 12), Thomas Dutton (age 19), Edmund Ferrers 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 29), Roger Fiennes (age 31), Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh (age 57), John Grey (age 28), John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 31), William Harrington (age 42) as the King's Standard Bearer, Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 37), Piers Legh (age 26) (wounded), Alfred Longford, Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27), Thomas Morley 6th Baron Marshal 5th Baron Morley (age 22), John Rodney, Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22), Robert Strelley (age 18), James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 17), Robert Umfraville (age 52), Thomas West 2nd Baron West (age 35), Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30). Thomas Erpingham (age 60) commanded the archers. Thomas Rempston (age 26) was present. Thomas Strickland (age 48) carried the Banner of St George.

Thomas Tunstall (age 57) was killed.

The Welsh included: William ap Thomas "Blue Knight of Gwent" Herbert (age 35), Walter Sais (age 95), Roger Vaughan (age 70) and his son Roger Vaughan (age 5). Owen Tudor (age 15) is believed to have been present as a squire.

The French army suffered significant casualties. Charles Albret (age 46), Philip Valois II Count Nevers (age 26), John of Bar (age 35), Jacques Chatillon (age 48), David Rambures (age 51) and his three sons: Jean Rambures, Hugues Rambures, Philippe Rambures, Waleran Luxemburg (age 60) and Hector de Chartres were killed.

Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 20) was captured by Richard Waller (age 20) for which he was knighted on the battlefield by King Henry V of England (age 29).

John Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 34) and Charles Artois Count Eu (age 21) were captured.

Robert of Bar Count Soissons Count Marle (age 25) was killed. His daughter Jeanne of Bar Countess Soissons succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

Edward of Bar III Duke of Bar (age 38) was killed. His brother Cardinal Louis of Bar (age 38) succeeded I Duke Bar.

John Valois Alençon I Duke Alençon was killed. His son Jean Valois Alençon II Duke Alençon (age 6) succeeded II Duke Alençon.

Frederick Metz I Count Vaudémont (age 47) was killed. His son Antoine Count of Vaudémont (age 15) succeeded Count Vaudémont.

Anthony Valois Duke Brabant (age 31) was killed. His son John Valois IV Duke Brabant (age 12) succeeded IV Duke Brabant. Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester (age 14) by marriage Duchess Brabant.

Jean II Le Maingre "Boucicaut" (age 49) was captured.

Georges de La Trémoille (age 33) was captured.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 25 Oct 1415. And the kyng (age 29) sawe he myght not passe whythe out batayle, and thenne he sayde unto hys lytylle mayne, "Serys and felowys, yendyr maynye wylle lette us of oure waye, and they wylle not come unto us. But nowe lette every man preve hym-selfe a goode man thys day and a-vance hys baner in the beste tyme of the day and yere." Ande the kyng (age 29) roode ande hys basnet in hys hede, and alle othyr men wente on hyr foote a-passe in hyr hoole araye and18 Englysche myle or that they assemblyde. And thorowe Goddys grace the kynge (age 29) made hys way thoroughe the thyckyste of alle the batayle; and ther was slayne on the kyngys syde the Duke of Yorke (age 42), the Erle Southeffolke (deceased), and ij knyghtys, and Davy Gam (age 35), and of the gentylle men no moo, and of alle maner of Englysche men hyt passyd not xxviij personys. And on the Fraynysche syde was slayne the Duke of Launsonne, the Duke of Barre (age 38), the Duke of Braban (age 31), ande vij erlys, and the Constabylle of Fraunce, and the Senschalle of Henowde, and the Mayster Alblester19, and many moo lordys, and knygtys and squyers v Ml and moo. And there was take the Duke of Orlyaunce (age 20), the Duke of Burbon (age 34), the Counte of Rychemounde, and the Counte of Ewe (age 21), [th]e Marchalle of Fraunsce, Syr Bursegaunte, and many moo othyr knyghtys and squyers. And whanne thys was done the kyng (age 29) bode alle nyghte in a vyllage faste be-syde ther that the batelle was done. And on the morowe he toke hys waye unto Calys whythe hys lordys and hys presoners, whythe hys owne mayne.

Note 18. So in MS.

Note 19. Thomas Arblastier. He was one of the retinue of Sir William Bourchier. See Nicolas's Battle of Agincourt, 360.

After 25 Oct 1439 John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter (age 44) and Anne Montagu Duchess Exeter (age 39) were married. She by marriage Duchess Exeter. She the daughter of John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury and Maud Francis Countess of Salisbury. He the son of John Holland 1st Duke Exeter and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter. They were half third cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Before 25 Oct 1445 William Bourchier Baron Fitzwarin (age 30) and Thomasine Hankford 9th Baroness Fitzwarin (age 22) were married. He by marriage Baron Fitzwarin. He the son of William Bourchier 1st Count Eu and Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 25 Oct 1445 Fulk Bourchier 10th Baron Fitzwarin was born to William Bourchier Baron Fitzwarin (age 30) and Thomasine Hankford 9th Baroness Fitzwarin (age 22). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

On 25 Oct 1495 John II King Portugal (age 40) died. On 25 Oct 1495 His first cousin Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal (age 26) succeeded I King Portugal.

On 25 Oct 1519 Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 23) and Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 16) were married. She by marriage Countess Devon. He the son of William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon and Catherine York Countess Devon (age 40). He a grandson of King Edward IV of England.

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.NOTEXT

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.NOTEXT

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

Trial of Mary Queen of Scots

On 25 Oct 1586 Mary Queen of Scots (age 43) was convicted and sentenced to death. Only Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 30) offered any dissent against the judgement.

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On 25 Oct 1604 Claude de La Tremoille 2nd Duke Thouars (age 38) died.

On 25 Oct 1618 Johann Philipp Wettin Duke Saxe Altenburg (age 21) and Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (age 25) were married. He the son of Friedrich Wilhelm Wettin I Duke Saxe Weimar. They were half fourth cousins.

On 25 Oct 1627 Robert Spencer 1st Baron Spencer (age 57) died. His son William Spencer 2nd Baron Spencer (age 36) succeeded 2nd Baron Spencer Wormleighton.


Before 25 Oct 1648 William Alington 1st Baron Alington (age 37) died. He was buried on 25 Oct 1648. His son Giles Alington 2nd Baron Alington (age 1) succeeded 2nd Baron Alington of Killard 1C 1642.


On 25 Oct 1716 Mary Thorpe 14th Baroness Cobham was born to William Thorpe (age 33) and Frances Boothby (age 19).

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On 25 Oct 1720 John Hervey 2nd Baron Hervey (age 24) and Mary Lepell Baroness Hervey (age 20) were married. He the son of John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol (age 55) and Elizabeth Felton Countess Bristol (age 43).

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On 25 Oct 1734 Hugh Boscawen 1st Viscount Falmouth (age 54) died suddenly in Trefusis, Cornwall. He was buried in St Michael Pentivel, Penkevile. His son Hugh Boscawen 2nd Viscount Falmouth (age 30) succeeded 2nd Viscount Falmouth 2C 1720.


On 04 Apr 1751 John Repps of Mattishall (age 46) died. On 25 Oct 1733 Virtue Boardman (age 38) died. Memorials in Church of St Peter and St Paul Salle [Map].

John Repps of Mattishall: Around 1705 he was born to John Repps (age 27) and Dorothy Fountaine. Before 04 Apr 1705 he and Virtue Boardman (age 10) were married.

Virtue Boardman: In 1695 she was born.

PAINTINGS/HUDSON/George_II.pngBefore 25 Oct 1760 Thomas Hudson (age 59). Portrait of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland (age 76).

PAINTINGS/KNAPTON/George_II.pngBefore 25 Oct 1760 George Knapton (age 62). Portrait.of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland (age 76) wearing his Garter Robes.

PAINTINGS/HUDSON/George_II_Old.pngBefore 25 Oct 1760 Thomas Hudson (age 59). Portrait of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland (age 76).

On 25 Oct 1769 Alexander Montgomerie 10th Earl Eglinton (age 46) was shot and killed by an excise officer or Gaudger (Scots) named Mungo Campbell on 24 Oct 1769 following a dispute about the latter's right to bear arms on the Earl's grounds. The Earl died from his abdominal wounds late that evening. Campbell was convicted of murder but died by his own hand before the sentence could be carried out. His brother Archibald Montgomerie 11th Earl Eglinton (age 43) succeeded 11th Earl Eglinton.


On 25 Oct 1775 Thomas Coke 1st Earl of Leicester (age 21) and Jane Dutton (age 21) were married at Sherborne, Gloucestershire.

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On 25 Oct 1777 Arthur George Onslow 3rd Earl Onslow was born to Thomas Onslow 2nd Earl Onslow (age 23) and Arabella Mainwaring Ellerker Countess Onslow (age 22).

On 25 Oct 1828 William Legge 4th Earl Dartmouth (age 43) and Frances Barrington Countess Dartmouth were married. She by marriage Countess Dartmouth. He the son of George Legge 3rd Earl Dartmouth and Frances Finch Countess Dartmouth (age 67). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Oct 1842 Robert John Verney 25th Baron Latimer 17th Baron Willoughby de Broke (age 33) and Georgiana Jane Taylor were married.

On 25 Oct 1853 William Brodrick 8th Viscount Midleton (age 23) and Augusta Mary Fremantle were married.

Charge of the Light Brigade

On 25 Oct 1854 Hedworth Joliffe 2nd Baron Hylton (age 25) took part in the Charge of the Light Brigade.

Godfrey Morgan 1st Viscount Tredegar (age 23) was in command of a section of the Light Brigade. His horse "Sir Briggs" survived, died aged twenty-eight and was buried in the Cedar Garden at Tredegar House where there is a monument to him.

Thomas Hutton took part. He was shot through the right thigh during the advance, and on returning from the guns he was again severely wounded through the left thigh.

George Orby Wombwell 4th Baronet (age 21) took part and survived. His horse was killed under him and he was shortly after pulled off and taken prisoner, his sword and pistols being taken from him by some Russian Lancers. He managed to escape, catch another loose horse and ride back to the British lines, pursued by Russians.

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On 25 Oct 1854 George Charles Bingham 3rd Earl Lucan (age 54) led at Balaclava during the Charge of the Light Brigade.

Battle of Balaclava

On 25 Oct 1854 Poulett George Henry Somerset (age 32) and William Archer Amherst 3rd Earl Amherst (age 18) fought.

Major-General John Douglas (age 37) commanded the 79th Regiment of Foot.

General George Augustus Frederick Paget (age 36) and Henry Hugh Manvers Percy (age 37) fought.

On 25 Oct 1876 Stuart Holland 2nd Baron Rotherham was born to William Henry Holland 1st Baron Rotherham (age 26).

On 25 Oct 1883 John Lancelot Butler-Bowdon 25th Baron Grey of Ruthin was born to Captain Lancelot George Butler-Bowdon of Barlborough House in Chesterfield (age 32) and Ella Cicely Mary Clifton (age 26).

On 25 Oct 1920 Alexander I King Greece (age 27) died. His brother Paul I King Greece (age 18) succeeded I King Greece.

On 25 Oct 1963 John Lancelot Butler-Bowdon 25th Baron Grey of Ruthin (age 80) died. Baron Grey of Ruthyn 1324 abeyant between the issue of his three great aunts: Edith Maud Rawdon-Hastings 10th Countess Loudon, Victoria Maria Louisa Rawdon-Hastings and Frances Augusta Constance Muir Rawdon-Hastings Countess Romney.

On 25 Oct 2002 John Ian Robert Russell 13th Duke Bedford (age 85) died at Santa Fe. His son Henry Robin Ian Russell 14th Duke Bedford (age 62) succeeded 14th Duke Bedford 6C 1694, 14th Marquess Tavistock, 13th Marquess Tavistock, 18th Earl Bedford 3C 1551, 18th Baron Russell 1C 1539, 14th Baron Howland of Streatham. Henrietta Joan Tiarks Duchess Bedford by marriage Duchess Bedford.