1320-1329 Despencer War

1320-1329 Despencer War is in 14th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Declaration of Arbroath

On 06 Apr 1320 fifty-one Scottish magnates signed a letter to Pope John XII (age 76) declaring Scotland to be an independent sovereign state. The signatories included Malcolm Lennox 2nd Earl Lennox.

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) was returning from Canterbury, Kent [Map] to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle, Kent [Map] which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (age 37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (age 37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 13), Maud Badlesmere Countess of Oxford (age 13), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere (age 6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot (age 6)), and her nephew Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 34), were imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Letters of Horace Walpole. Rochester, Kent [Map], Sunday.

We have finished our progress sadly! Yesterday after twenty mishaps we got to Sissinghurst to dinner. There is a park in ruins, and a house in ten times greater ruins, built by Sir John Balier, chancellor of the exchequer to Queen Mary. You go through an arch of the stables to the house, the court of which is perfect and very beautiful. The Duke of Bedford has a house at Cheneys, in Buckinghamshire, which seems to have been very like it, but is more ruined. This has a good apartment, and a fine gallery, a hundred and twenty feet by eighteen, which takes up one side: the wainscot is pretty and entire: the ceiling vaulted, and painted in a light genteel grotesque. The whole is built for show: for the back of the house is nothing but lath and plaster. From thence we Went to Bocton-Malherbe, where are remains of a house of the Wottons, and their tombs in the church; but the roads were so exceedingly bad that it was dark before we got thither, and still darker before we got to Maidstone: from thence we passed this morning to Leeds Castle [Map].347 Never was such disappointment! There are small remains: the moat is the only handsome object, and is quite a lake, supplied by a cascade which tumbles through a bit of a romantic grove. The Fairfaxes have fitted up a pert, bad apartment in the fore-part of the castle, and have left the only tolerable rooms for offices. They had a gleam of Gothic in their eyes, but it soon passed off into some modern windows, and some that never were ancient. The only thing that at all recompensed the fatigues we have undergone was the picture of the Duchess of Buckingham348, la Ragotte, who is mentioned in Grammont-I say us, for I trust that Mr. Chute is as true a bigot to Grammont as I am. Adieu? I hope you will be as weary with reading our history as we have been in travelling it. Yours ever.

Note 347. A very ancient and magnificent structure, built throughout of stone, at different periods, formerly belonging to the family of Crovequer. In the fifteenth of Edward II Sir Thomas de Colepeper, who was castellan of the castle, was hanged on the drawbridge for having refused admittance to Isabel, the Queen-consort, in her progress in performing a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket at Canterbury. The manor and castle were forfeited to the crown by his attainder, but restored to his son, Sir Thomas Colepeper. By his Diary of May 8, 1666, it appears to have been hired by Evelyn for a prison. "Here," he says, "I flowed the dry moat, made a new drawbridge, brought spring-water into the court of the castle to an old fountain, and took order for the repairs."-E.

Note 348. Mary, Duchess of Buckingham, only daughter of Thomas, Lord Fairfax.-E.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Exile of the Despencers

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, King Philip V of France Dies King Charles IV Succeeds

On 03 Jan 1322 Philip V King France I King Navarre (age 29) died. His brother Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) succeeded IV King France: Capet, I King Navarre although his niece was by right successor to the Kingdom of Navarre.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Battle of Boroughbridge

Froissart. 1322. THE foresaid king Edward the second (age 37), father to the noble king Edward the third (age 9), on whom our matter is founded, this said king governed right diversely his realm by the exhortation of sir Hugh Spencer (age 36), who had been nourished with him sith the beginning of his yongth; the which sir Hugh (age 36) had so enticed the king (age 37), that his father and he were the greatest masters in all the realm, and by envy thought to surmount all other barons of England; whereby after the great discomfiture that the Scots had made at Stirling [Map] great murmuring there arose in England between. The noble barons and the king's council, and namely against sir Hugh Spencer (age 36). They put on him that by his counsel they were discomfited, and that he was favourable to the king of Scots. And on this point the barons had divers times communication together, to be advised what they might do, whereof Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was uncle to the king, was chief. And anon when sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) had espied this, he purveyed for remedy, for he was so great with the king (age 37) and so near him, that he was more beloved with the king (age 37) than all the world after. So on a day he came to the king (age 37) and said, 'Sir, certain lords of your realm have made alliance together against you, and without ye take heed thereto betimes, they purpose to put you out of your realm': and so by his malicious means he caused that the king made all the said lords to be taken, and their heads to be stricken off without delay, and without knowledge or answer to any cause. First of all sir Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was a noble and a wise, holy knight, and hath done sith many fair miracles in Pomfret, where he was beheaded, for the which deed the said sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) achieved great hate in all the realm, and specially of the queen (age 27) and of the earl of Kent (age 20), brother to the king (age 37). And when he perceived the displeasure of the queen (age 27), by his subtle wit he set great discord between the king and the queen (age 27), so that the king (age 37) would not see the queen nor come in her company, the which discord endured a long space. Then was it skewed to the queen (age 27) secretly and to the earl of Kent (age 20), that without they took good heed to themselves, they were likely to be destroyage to Saint Thomas of Canterbury, and so to Winchelsea [Map], and in the night went into a ship that was ready for her, and her young son Edward (age 9) with her, and the earl of Kent (age 20) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 34), and in another ship they had put all their purveyance, and had wind at will, and the next morning they arrived in the haven of Boulogne [Map].

The Brut. 16 Mar 1322. Though might men seen Archers drawn ham in that on side and in that other; and Knights also fight together wonder sore; and among other, Sir Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford (age 46), a worthy knight of renown throughout all Christendom, stood and fought with his enemies upon the bridge. And as the noble lord stood and fought upon the bridge, a serf, a ribald, sculked under the bridge, and fiercely with a spear smote the noble knight into the fundement, so that his bowels come out there.

On 16 Mar 1322 the rebel army led by Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 44) attempted to cross the bridge over the River Ure (between Ripon and York) at Boroughbridge Bridge [Map]. Their path was blocked by forces loyal to the King led by Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle (age 52). Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46), Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 34), John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort (age 57) and John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers (age 32) fought for the rebels. Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford (age 22), Nicholas Longford (age 37), Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 44), John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray (age 35) were captured.

Warin Lisle (age 51) was hanged after the battle at Pontefract [Map].

Following the battle Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester (age 31) and his wife Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester were both imprisoned. He in Nottingham Castle [Map] and she in Sempringham Priory [Map].

John Clinton 2nd Baron Clinton (age 22), Ralph Greystoke 1st Baron Greystoke (age 22), William Latimer 2nd Baron Latimer of Corby (age 46), Robert Lisle 1st Baron Lisle (age 34), Domhnall Mar II Earl Mar (age 29) and Peter Saltmarsh (age 42) fought for the King.

Adam Everingham 1st Baron Everingham of Laxton (age 43) was captured.

Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex (age 46) was killed. His son John Bohun 5th Earl Hereford 4th Earl Essex (age 15) succeeded 5th Earl Hereford, 4th Earl Essex.

Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley of Stratton Audley (age 55) surrendered before the battle and was imprisoned in Wallingford Castle [Map] for the rest of his life

On 22 Mar 1322 Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 44) was beheaded at Pontefract Castle [Map] following his capture six days before at the Battle of Boroughbridge. He was buried at Pontefract Priory [Map].

On 23 Mar 1322 at York [Map] ...

Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford (age 22) was hanged. His brother Robert Clifford 3rd Baron Clifford (age 16) succeeded 3rd Baron de Clifford.

John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray (age 35) was hanged. He was buried at Fountains Abbey [Map]. His son John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray (age 11) succeeded 3rd Baron Mowbray.

On 25 Mar 1322 Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle (age 52) was created 1st Earl Carlisle in reward for his capture of Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (deceased) at the Battle of Boroughbridge.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Trial and Execution of Lord Badlesmere

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 62) at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars. His nephew Henry Burghesh's (age 30) lands were also seized. These were restored around 1326.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Return of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer

In Oct 1326 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 31) landed at Orford, Suffolk [Map] with Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 39), John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers (age 36) and Nicholas Abrichecourt (age 36).

Bishop Henry Burghesh (age 34) joined her shortly afterwards.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

On 24 Nov 1326 Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 40) was hanged in Hereford [Map]. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 31) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 39) were present.

He was dragged naked through the streets, for the crowd's mistreatment. He was made a spectacle, which included writing on his body biblical verses against the capital sins he was accused of. Then he was hanged as a mere commoner, yet released before full asphyxiation could happen.

He was then tied firmly to a ladder and his genitals sliced off and burned while he was still conscious. His entrails were slowly pulled out; finally, his heart was cut out and thrown into a fire. His body was beheaded and cut into four pieces. His head was mounted on the gates of London.

Baron Despencer forfeit.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 King Edward II of England (age 42) abdicated II King England. His son King Edward III of England (age 14) succeeded III King England.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Coronation of Edward III

Froissart. 01 Feb 1327. AFTER that the most part of the company of Hainault were departed and sir John Hainault (age 39) lord of Beaumont tarried, the queen (age 32) gave leave to her people to depart, saving a certain noble knights, the which she kept still about her and her son to counsel them, and commanded all then that departed to be at London the next Christmas, for as then she was determined to keep open court, and all they promised her so to do. And when Christmas was come, she held a great court. And thither came dukes,' earls, barons, knights, and all the nobles of the realm, with prelates and burgesses of good towns; and at this assembly it was advised that the realm could not long endure without a head and a chief lord. Then they put in writing all the deeds of the king (age 42) who was in prison, and all that he had done by evil counsel, and all his usages and evil behavings, and how evil he had governed his realm, the which was read openly in plain audience, to the intent that the noble sages of the realm might take thereof good advice, and to fall at accord how the realm should be governed from thenceforth. And when all the cases and deeds that the king had done and consented to, and all his behaving and usages were read and well understanded, the barons and knights and all the counsels of the realm drew them apart to counsel; and the most part of them accorded, and namely the great lords and nobles with the burgesses of the good towns, according as they had heard say and knew themselves the most part of his deeds. Wherefore they concluded that such a man (age 42) was not worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown royal, nor to have the name of a king. But they all accorded that Edward (age 14) his eldest son, who was there present and was rightful heir, should be crowned king instead of his father, so that he would take good counsel, sage and true, about him, so than it was before, and that the old king his father (age 42) should be well and honestly kept as long as he lived, according to his estate. And thus as it was agreed by all the nobles, so it was accomplished; and then was crowned with a crown royal at the palace of Westminster [Map] beside London the young king Edward the third (age 14), who in his, days after was right fortunate and happy in arms. This coronation was in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday [Note. Other sources day 01 Feb 1327], and as then the young king was about the age of sixteen; and they held the feast till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, and in the meantime greatly was feasted sir John of Hainault (age 39) and all the princes and nobles of his country, and was given to him and to his company many rich jewels. And so he and his company in great feast and solace both with lords and ladies tarried till the Twelfth day. And then sir John of Hainault (age 39) heard tidings how that the king of Bohemia (age 30) and the earl of Hainault (age 41) his brother and other great plenty of lords of France had ordained to be at Conde [Map] at a great feast and tourney that was there cried. Then would sir John of Hainault no longer abide for no prayer, so great desire he had to be at the said tourney, and to see the earl his brother and other lords of his country, and specially the right noble king in largess the gentle Charles king of Bohemia. When the young king Edward (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and the barons saw that he would no longer tarry, and that their request could not avail, they gave him leave sore against their wills, and the king (age 14) by the counsel of the queen (age 32) his mother did give him four hundred marks sterlings of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to be paid every year in the town of Bruges [Map], and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid at the said place [Map], and also delivered him much money to pay therewith the costs of him and of his company, till he come into his own country, and caused him to be conducted with many noble knights to Dover, Kent [Map], and there delivered hint all his passage free. And to the ladies that were come into England with the queen (age 32), and namely to the countess of Garennes, who was sister to the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies and damosels, there were given many fair and rich jewels at their departing. And when sir John of Hainault was departed from the young king Edward, and all his company, and were come to Dover, Kent [Map], they entered incontinent into their ships to pass the sea, to the intent to come betimes to the said tourney; and there went with him fifteen young lusty knights of England, to go to this tourney with him and to acquaint them with the strange lords and knights that should be there, and they had great honour of all the company that tourneyed at that time at Conde [Map].

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Weardale Campaign

Before 15 Jun 1327 the Weardale Campaign commenced with the Scottish army crossed the border into England after truce negotiations had broken down. One army crossed in the west, one in the east.

Froissart. Aug 1327. WHEN the king of England (age 14) and his host had seen and heard of the fires that the Scots had made in England, incontinent was cried alarm, and every man commanded to dislodge and follow after the marshals' banners. Then every man drew to the field ready apparelled to fight. There was ordained three great battles afoot, and to every battle two wings of five hundred men of arms, knights and squires, and thirty thousand other, armed and well apparelled, the one half on little hackneys and the other were men of the country afoot, sent out of good towns at their wages; and twenty-four thousand archers afoot, beside all the other rascal and followers of the host. And as these battles were thus ordered, so they advanced forward, well ranged and in good order, and followed the Scots by the sithe of the smoke that they made with burning; and thus they followed all that day till it was near night. Then the host lodged them in a wood by a little river side, there to rest and to abide for their carriage and purveyances. And at that day the Scots had brent and wasted and pilled the country about within five miles of the English host; but the Englishmen could not overtake them. And the next day in the morning all the host armed them and displayed their banners on the field, every man ready apparelled in his own battle, and so advanced without disordering all the day through mountains and valleys; but for all that they could never approach near to the Scots, who vent wasting the country before them. There were such marishes and savage deserts, mountains and dales, that it was commanded on pain of death that none of the host should pass before the banners of the marshals. And when it drew toward the night, the people, horse and carriage, and namely the men afoot, were so sore travailed, that they could not endure to labour any further that day. And when the lords saw that their labour in following the Scots was in vain, and also they perceived well, though the Scots would abide them, yet they might take their field in such a place or on such a hill that they could not fight with them, without it were to their great damage and jeopardy, then was it commanded in the king's name by the marshals that the host should take their lodging for that night, and so to take counsel and advice what should be best to do the next day. So the host was lodged in a wood by a river side, and the king was lodged in a little poor abbey: his men of war, horse and carriage were marvellously fortravailed. And when every man had taken his place to lodge there all night, then the lords drew them apart to take counsel how they might fight with the Scots, considering the country that they were in: for as far as they could understand, the Scots went ever forwards, all about burning and wasting the country, and perceived well how they could not in any wise fight with them among these mountains without great peril or danger, and they saw well also they could not overtake them: but it was thought that the Scots must needs pass again the river Tyne homeward; therefore it was deter ruined by great advice and counsel that all the host should remove at midnight, and to make haste in the morning to the intent to stop the passage of the river from the Scots, whereby they should be advised' by force either to fight with them, or else to abide still in England to their great danger and loss. And to this conclusion all the host was accorded, and so supped and lodged as well as they might that night, and every man was warned to be ready at the first sounding of the trumpet, and at the second blast every man to arm him without delay, and at the third every man quickly to mount on their horses and to draw under their own standard and banner; and every man to take with him but one loaf of bread, and to truss it behind him on his horse. It was also determined that they should leave behind them all their loose harness and all manner of carriages and purveyances, for they thought surely to fight with the Scots the next day, whatsoever danger they were in, thinking to jeopard, either to win or to lose all. And thus it was ordained and so it was accomplished: for about midnight every man was ready apparelled; few had slept but little, and yet they had sore travailed the day before. As great haste as they made, or they were well ranged in battle the day began to appear. Then they advanced forward in all haste through mountains, valleys and rocks, and through many evil passages without any plain country. And on the highest of these hills and on the plain of these valleys there were marvellous great marshes and dangerous passages, that it was great marvel that much people had not been lost, for they rode ever still forward and never tarried one for another; for whosoever fell in any of these marshes with much pain could get any aid to help them out again, so that in divers places there were many lost, and specially horse and carriages; and oftentimes in the day there was cried alarum, for it was said ever that the foremost company of their host were fighting with their enemies, so that the hindermost weened it had been true; wherefore they hasted them over rocks and stones and mountains with helm and shield ready apparelled to fight, with spear and sword ready in hand, without tarrying for father, brother or companion. And when they had thus run forth oftentimes in the day the space of half a mile together toward the cry, weening it had been their enemies, they were deceived; for the cry ever arose by the raising of harts, hinds and other savage beasts that were seen by them in the forward, after the which beasts they made such shouting and crying, that they that came after weened they had been a-fighting with their enemies.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Battle of Stanhope Park

Froissart. 03 Aug 1327. Battle of Stanhope Park. And when they had well rested them and taken repast, then the trumpet sounded to horse, and every man mounted, and the banners and standards followed this new-made knight, every battle by itself in good order, through mountains and dales, ranged as well as they might, ever ready apparelled to fight; and they rode and made such haste that about noon they were so near the Scots that each of them might clearly see other. And as soon as the Scots saw them, they issued out of their lodges afoot, and ordained three great battles in the availing of the hill, and at the foot of this mountain there ran a great river full of great rocks and stones, so that none might pass over without great danger or jeopardy; and though the Englishmen had passed over the river, yet was there no place nor room between the hill and the river to set the battle in good order. The Scots had stablished their two first battles at the two corners of the mountain, joining to the rocks, so that none might well mount upon the hill to assail them, but the Scots were ever ready to beat with stones the assailants, if they passed the river. And when the lords of England saw the behaving and the manner of the Scots, they made all their people to alight afoot and to put off their spurs, and arranged three great battles, as they had done before, and there were made many new knights. And when their battles were set in good order, then some of the lords of England brought their young king a-horseback before all the battles of the host, to the intent to give thereby the more courage to all his people, the which king in full goodly manner prayed and required them right graciously that every man would pain them to do their best to save his honour and common weal of his realm. And it was commanded upon pain of death that were so near together that they might know each other's arms. Then the host stood still to take other counsel. And some of the host mounted on good horses and rode forth to skirmish with them and to behold the passage of the river and to see the countenance of their enemies more nearer. And there were heralds of arms sent to the Scots, giving them knowledge, if that they would come and pass the river to fight with them in the plain field, they would draw back from the river and give them sufficient place to arrange their battles either the same day or else the next, as they would choose themselves, or else to let them do likewise and they would come over to them. And when the Scots heard this, they took counsel among themselves, and anon they answered the heralds, how they would do neither the one nor the other, and said, 'Sirs, your king and his lords see well how we be here in this realm and have brent and wasted the country as we have passed through, and if they be displeased therewith, let them amend it when they will, for here we will abide as long as it shall please us.' And as soon as the king of England (age 14) heard that answer, it was incontinent cried that all the host should lodge there that night without reculing back.

On 04 Aug 1327, during the night, James "Black" Douglas (age 41) ambushed Edward III's (age 14) camp at Stanhope Park Weardale [Map]. Douglas (age 41) reached Edward III's (age 14) collapsed tent nearly capturing the English King.

On 07 Aug 1327 the Scots quietly broke camp and returned to Scotland. The English did not pursue. The Weardale Campaign had been a success for the Scots. The campaign had been ruinously expensive for the English, costing about £70,000, with the cost of the Hainault mercenaries being £41,000. The campaign led to the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton that brought to an end the First Scottish War of Independence.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Death of Edward II

On 21 Sep 1327 King Edward II of England (age 43) was murdered at Berkeley Castle [Map]. There is speculation as to the manner of his death, and as to whether he died at all. Some believe he may have lived the rest of his life in Europe.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Death of Charles IV of France Sucession of Philip VI

Froissart. 1328. King Charles of France (age 33), son to the fair king Philip, was three times married, and yet died without issue male. The first of his wives was one of the most fairest ladies in all the world, and she was daughter to the earl of Artois. Howbeit she kept but evil the sacrament of matrimony, but brake her wedlock; wherefore she was kept a long space in prison in the castle Gaillard [Map], before that her husband was made king. And when the realm of France was fallen to him, he was crowned by the assent of the twelve douze-peers1 of France, and then because they would not that the realm of France should be long without an heir male, they advised by their counsel that the king should be remarried again; and so he was, to the daughter of the emperor Henry of Luxembourg, sister to the gentle king of Bohemia (age 31); whereby the first marriage of the king was fordone, between him and his wife that was in prison, by the licence and declaration of the pope that was then. And by his second wife, who was right humble, and a noble wise lady, the king had a son, who died in his young age, and the queen also at Issoudun [Map] in Berry. And they both died suspiciously, wherefore divers persons were put to blame after privily. And after this, the same king Charles was married again the third time to the daughter (age 18) of his uncle, the lord Louis earl of Evreux, and she was sister to the king of Navarre (age 21), and was named queen Joan. And so in time and space this lady was with child, and in the mean-time the king Charles her husband fell sick and lay down on his death-bed. And when he saw there was no way with him but death, he devised that if it fortuned the queen to be delivered of a son, then he would that the lord Philip of Valois should be his governour, and regent of all his realm, till his son come to such age as he might be crowned king; and if it fortuned the queen to have a daughter, then he would that all the twelve peers of France should take advice and counsel for the further ordering of the realm, and that they should give the realm and regaly to him that had most right thereto. And so within a while after the king Charles died, about Easter in the year of our Lord Mcccxxviii., and within a short space after the queen was delivered of a daughter.

Note 1. Froissart says simply 'les douze pers.'

Then all the peers of France assembled a council together at Paris, as shortly as they might conveniently, and there they gave the realm by common accord to sir Philip of Valois (age 34), and put clean out the queen Isabel (age 33) of England and king Edward (age 15) her son. For she was sister-german to king Charles last dead, but the opinion of the nobles of France was, and said and maintained that the realm of France was of so great nobless, that it ought not by succession to fall into a woman's hand. And so thus they crowned king of France Philip Valois at Rheims [Map] on Trinity Sunday next after.

On 01 Feb 1328 Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 33) died. On 01 Apr 1328 His first cousin King Philip "Fortunate" VI of France (age 34) succeeded VI King France: Capet Valois. The succession somewhat complicated by Charles' wife Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France being pregnant. The child Blanche Capet was born two months later on 01 Apr 1328. A girl child therefore excluded from the succession confirming Philip's as King. Charles the last of the House of Capet. Philip the first of the House of Valois. His niece Joan Capet II Queen Navarre (age 16) succeeded II Queen Navarre. Her husband Philip "Noble" III King Navarre (age 21) by marriage III King Navarre.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

Froissart. 24 Jan 1328. It was not long after but that the king (age 15) and the queen (age 33) his mother, the earl of Kent (age 26) his uncle, the earl of Lancaster (age 47), sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop1 and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (age 40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the earl's (age 42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (age 42), named Philippa (age 13); for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (age 42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (age 15) your prince and the queen (age 33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope (age 84) will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon [Map], to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren2. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope (age 84), and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope (age 84) with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant [Map], and arrived with all her company at Dover, Kent [Map]. And sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York [Map] with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of king Edward of Caernarvon, and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth: the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (age 13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (age 18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.

Note 1. This should be: 'And the other barons of England who had continued to be of the council of the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent a bishop,' etc.

Note 2. The meaning is that the kinship came by the relationship of both to the house of France. The mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles I of Valois [who were brothers; Edward and Philippa were second cousins].

On 24 Jan 1328 King Edward III of England (age 15) and Philippa of Hainault (age 13) were married at York Minster [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She was crowned the same day. She the daughter of William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34). He the son of King Edward II of England and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33). They were second cousins. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

The marriage was the quid pro quo for her father William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) having supported his mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) returning to England to usurp the throne of Edward's father King Edward II of England.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton. AND when that the Scots were departed by night from the mountain, whereas the king of England (age 15) had besieged them, as ye have heard herebefore, they went twentytwo mile through that savage country without resting, and passed the river of Tyne right near to Carlisle, Cumberland [Map]1; and the next day they went into their own land, and so departed every man to his own mansion. And within a space after there was a peace purchased between the kings of England and Scotland; and as the English chronicle saith,' it was done by the special counsel of the old queen (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40); for by their means there was a parliament holden at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], at the which the king (age 15) being within age granted to the Scots to release all the fealties and homages that they ought to have done to the crown of England, by his charter ensealed, and also there was delivered to the Scots an indenture, the which was called the Ragman, wherein was contained all the homages and fealties that the king of Scots and all the prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought to have done to the crown of England, sealed with all their seals, with all other rights that sundry barons and knights ought to have had in the realm of Scotland.

Note 1. This may be a mistake since the River Tyne doesn't flows near Carlisle. The River Eden flows through Carlisle.

On 17 Mar 1328 Robert the Bruce (age 53) signed the Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton bringing to an end the First Scottish War of Independence. The English Parliament signed at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map] on 03 May 1328. The terms of the Treaty included:

Scotland to pay England £100,000 sterling,

The Kingdom of Scotland as fully independent,

Robert the Bruce (age 53), and his heirs and successors, as the rightful rulers of Scotland, and.

The border between Scotland and England as that recognised under the reign of Alexander III (1249-1286).

The Treaty lasted four years only being regarded by the English nobility as humiliating; the work of Edward's (age 15) mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) rather than King Edward (age 15). Two years after King Edward (age 15) commenced his personal reign he commenced the Second War of Scottish Independence in Aug 1332.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Mortimer Double Marriage and Tournament

On 31 May 1328 the Mortimer family leveraged their new status at a lavish ceremony that celebrated the marriages of two of Roger Mortimer's (age 41) daughters at Hereford [Map].

Edward Plantagenet (age 8) and Beatrice Mortimer (age 6) were married. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41) and Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville (age 42). He the son of Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 27) and Alice Hales Countess Norfolk. They were half third cousin once removed. He a grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England.

Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke (age 9) and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 11) were married. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41) and Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville (age 42). He the son of John Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 14th Baron Bergavenny and Juliana Leybourne Countess Huntingdon (age 25). They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England.

King Edward III of England (age 15) and his mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) attended as well as Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41).

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Marriage of King David II of Scotland and Princess Joan

Froissart. 25 Aug 1330. Battle of Teba. And within a while after that this knight sir William Douglas (age 44) was come to the king of Spain (age 19), on a day the king issued out into the field to approach near to his enemies. And the king of Granade issued out in like wise on his part, so that each king might see other with all their banners displayed. Then they arranged their battles each against other. Then sir William Douglas (age 44) drew out on the one side with all his company, to the intent to shew his prowess the better. And when he saw these battles thus ranged on both parties, and saw that the battle of the king of Spain (age 19) began somewhat to advance toward their enemies, he thought then verily that they should soon assemble together to fight at hand strokes; and then he thought rather to be with the foremost than with the hindermost, and strake his horse with the spurs, and all his company also, and dashed into the battle of the king of Granade, crying, 'Douglas! Douglas!' weening to him the king of Spain (age 19) and his host had followed, but they did not; wherefore he was deceived, for the Spanish host stood still. And so this gentle knight (age 44) was enclosed, and all his company, with the Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, but finally he could not endure, so that he and all his company were slain. The which was great damage, that the Spaniards would not rescue them. Also in this season there were certain lords that treated for peace between England and Scotland. So that at the last there was a marriage made and solemnised between the young king of Scotland (age 4) and dame Joan of the Tower (age 7), sister to king Edward of England (age 15), at Berwick [Map], as the English chronicle saith, on Mary Maudlin day [Note. the Feast of Mary Magdalen is 22 Jul?], the year 'of our Lord MCCCXXVIII., against the assent of many of the nobles of the realm. But queen Isabel (age 35) the king's mother and the earl Mortimer (age 43) made that marriage; at the which, as mine author saith, there was great feast made on both parties.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Roger Mortimer created Earl of March

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. And also they delivered to them again the black cross of Scotland, the which the good king Edward conquered and brought it out of the abbey of Scone [Map], the which was a precious relic; and all rights and interests that every baron had in Scotland was then clean forgiven. And many other things were done at that parliament to the great hurt and prejudice of the realm of England, and in manner against the wills of all the nobles of the realm, save only of Isabel (age 33) the old queen and the bishop of Ely and the lord Mortimer (age 40): they ruled the realm in such wise, that every man was miscontent. So that the earl Henry of Lancaster (age 47) and sir Thomas Brotherton (age 27), earl marshal, and sir Edmund of Woodstock (age 26), the king's uncle, and divers other lords and commons were agreed together to amend these faults, if they might. And in that meantime the queen Isabel (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) caused another parliament to be holden at Salisbury, at the which parliament sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) was made earl of March against all the barons' wills of England, in prejudice of king and his realm, and sir John of Eltham (age 11) the king's brother was made earl of Cornwall. To the which parliament the earl Henry of Lancaster (age 47) would not come, wherefore the king was brought in belief that he would have destroyed his person; for the which they assembled a great host and went toward Bedford [Map], whereas the earl Henry (age 47) was with his company.

In Oct 1328 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41) was created 1st Earl March by his own authority to the surprise, perhaps astonishment, of the nobility who compared his behaviour as similar to the usurped Edward II.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Death of Robert the Bruce

Froissart. The foresaid peace, which was purchased between England and Scotland, was to endure three year; and in the meantime it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (age 54) was right sore aged and feeble: for he was greatly charged with the great sickness, so that there was no way with him but death. And when he felt that his end drew near, he sent for such barons and lords of his realm as he trusted best, and shewed them how there was no remedy with him, but he must needs leave this transitory life, commanding them on the faith and truth that they owed him, truly to keep the realm and aid the young prince David (age 5) his son, and that when he were of age they should obey him and crown him king, and to marry him in such a place as was convenient for his estate. Then he called to him the gentle knight sir William Douglas (age 43) [Note. William appears to be a mistake since it was James "Black" Douglas (age 43) who took Robert's heart?], and said before all the lords, 'Sir William, my dear friend, ye know well that I have had much ado in my days to uphold and sustain the right of this realm; and when I had most ado, I made a solemn vow, the which as yet I have not accomplished, whereof I am right sorry: the which was, if I might achieve and make an end of all my wars, so that I might once have brought this realm in rest nd peace, then I promised in my mind to rave gone and warred on Christ's enemies, adversaries to our holy Christian faith. To this purpose mine heart hath ever intended, but our Lord would not consent thereto; for I have had so much ado in my days, and now in my last enterprise I have taken such a malady that I cannot escape. And sith it is so, that my body cannot go nor achieve that my heart desireth, I will send the heart instead of the body to accomplish mine avow. And because I know not in all my realm no knight more valiant than ye be, nor of body so well furnished to accomplish mine avow instead of myself, therefore I require you, mine own dear especial friend, that ye will take on you this voyage, for the love of me, and to acquit my soul against my Lord God. For I trust so much in your nobleness and truth, that an ye will take on you, I doubt not but that ye shall achieve it, and declare then shall I die in more ease and quiet, so that it be done in such manner as I shall declare unto you. I will that as soon as I am trespassed out of this world, that ye take my heart out of my body and embalm it, and take of my treasure, as ye shall think sufficient for that enterprise, both for yourself and such company as ye will take with you, and present my heart to the Holy Sepulchre, whereas our Lord lay, seeing my body cannot come there: and take with you such company and purveyance as shall be appertaining to your estate. And wheresoever ye come, let it be known how ye carry with you the heart of king Robert of Scotland (age 54) at his instance and desire, to be presented to the Holy Sepulchre.' Then all the lords that heard these words wept for pity: and when this knight sir William Douglas (age 43) might speak for weeping, he said: ' Ah, gentle and noble king, a hundred times I thank your grace of the great honour that ye do to me, sith of so noble and great treasure ye give me in charge; and, sir, I shall do with a glad heart all that ye have commanded me, to the best of my true power, howbeit I am not worthy nor sufficient to achieve such a noble enterprise.' Then the king said, ' Ah, gentle knight, I thank you, so that ye will promise to do it.' 'Sir,' said the knight, ' I shall ... embalmed, and honourably he was interred in the abbey of Dunfermline [Map] in the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVII., the seventh day of the month of November [Note. Appears to be an error here 1329 rather than 1327?].' And when the springing-time began, then sir William Douglas purveyed him of that which appertained for his enterprise and took his ship at the port of Montrose in Scotland, and sailed into Flanders, to Sluys, to hear tidings and to know if there were any nobleman in that country that would go to Jerusalem, to the intent to have more company. And he lay still at Sluys the space of twelve days or he departed, but he would never come a-land, but kept still his ship, and kept always his port and behaviour with great triumph, with trumpets and clarions, as though' he had been king of Scots himself; and in his company there was a knight banneret and seven other knights of the realm of Scotland, and twenty-six young squires and gentlemen to serve him; and all his vessel was of gold and silver-pots, basins, ewers, dishes, flagons, barrels, cups and all other things; and all such as would come and see him, they were well served with two manner of wines and divers manner of spices, all manner. of people according to their degrees. And when he had thus tarried there the space of twelve days, he heard reported that Alphonso king of Spain (age 17) made war against a Saracen king of Granade. Then he thought to draw to that part, thinking surely he could not bestow his time more nobly than to war against God's enemies and that enterprise done, then he thought to go forth to Jerusalem and to achieve that he was charged with. And so he departed and took the sea toward Spain, and arrived at the port of Valence the great. Then he went straight to the king of Spain (age 17), who held his host against the king of Granade Saracen, and they were near together, on the frontiers of his land.

On 07 Jun 1329 Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland (age 54) died at Cardross Manor, Argyll. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline. His son King David II of Scotland (age 5) succeeded II King Scotland. Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland (age 7) by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1320-1329 Despencer War, Battle of Ardnocher

On 09 Oct 1329 Thomas Butler 1st Baron Dunboyne (age 58) was killed at the Battle of Ardnocher by the Chief of the Clan Geoghegan. His son Piers Butler 2nd Baron Dunboyne (age 35) succeeded 2nd Baron Dunboyne.