1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence

1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence is in 14th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, Execution of Edmund of Woodstock

On 19 Mar 1330 the King's uncle Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent (age 28) was beheaded at Winchester Castle [Map]. Earl Kent forfeit. The executioner was a convicted latrine cleaner who was also facing the death penalty; no-one else would undertake the task of executing a member of the Royal family. Edmund had been convicted of plotting against the court believing his brother Edward II was still alive. It later emerged the plot had been created by Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 42) to entrap Edmund. King Edward III of England (age 17) was unable to show leniency risking complicity in the plot. He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, Battle of Teba

Froissart. 25 Aug 1330. Battle of Teba. And within a while after that this knight sir William Douglas (age 44) was come to the king of Spain (age 19), on a day the king issued out into the field to approach near to his enemies. And the king of Granade issued out in like wise on his part, so that each king might see other with all their banners displayed. Then they arranged their battles each against other. Then sir William Douglas (age 44) drew out on the one side with all his company, to the intent to shew his prowess the better. And when he saw these battles thus ranged on both parties, and saw that the battle of the king of Spain (age 19) began somewhat to advance toward their enemies, he thought then verily that they should soon assemble together to fight at hand strokes; and then he thought rather to be with the foremost than with the hindermost, and strake his horse with the spurs, and all his company also, and dashed into the battle of the king of Granade, crying, 'Douglas! Douglas!' weening to him the king of Spain (age 19) and his host had followed, but they did not; wherefore he was deceived, for the Spanish host stood still. And so this gentle knight (age 44) was enclosed, and all his company, with the Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, but finally he could not endure, so that he and all his company were slain. The which was great damage, that the Spaniards would not rescue them. Also in this season there were certain lords that treated for peace between England and Scotland. So that at the last there was a marriage made and solemnised between the young king of Scotland (age 4) and dame Joan of the Tower (age 7), sister to king Edward of England (age 15), at Berwick [Map], as the English chronicle saith, on Mary Maudlin day [Note. the Feast of Mary Magdalen is 22 Jul?], the year 'of our Lord MCCCXXVIII., against the assent of many of the nobles of the realm. But queen Isabel (age 35) the king's mother and the earl Mortimer (age 43) made that marriage; at the which, as mine author saith, there was great feast made on both parties.

On 25 Aug 1330 James "Black" Douglas (age 44) was killed during the Battle of Teba at Teba whilst en route to the Holy Land with the heart of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, Edward III arrests Roger Mortimer

On 19 Oct 1330 John Neville 1299-1335, William Eland, William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 20), William Clinton 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 26) and William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 29), friends of King Edward III of England (age 17) secretly entered Nottingham Castle [Map] through tunnels, met with King Edward III of England (age 17), and arrested Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) and his son Geoffrey Mortimer (age 21) in the presence of Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35).

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) was hanged naked at Tyburn [Map] accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map]. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35) subsequently requested his burial at Wigmore Abbey [Map] and, after firstly refusing, King Edward III of England (age 18) allowed his remains to be removed to Wigmore Abbey [Map]. His grandson Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March (age 2) succeeded 2nd Earl March, 4th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, Second War of Scottish Independence

Battle of Wester Kinghorn

On 06 Aug 1332 a Scottish army led by Duncan Fife 4th Earl Fife (age 44) and Robert Bruce Lord of Liddesdale unsuccessfully attempted to oppose the forces of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 49) landing near Kinghorn at a skirmish known as the Battle of Wester Kinghorn. Alexander Seton the Younger (age 42) was killed.

Battle of Dupplin Moor

On 12 Aug 1332 Battle of Dupplin Moor was fought between the supporters of the infant King David II of Scotland (age 8), son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland, and the supporters of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 49), supported by the English. The Bruce army included Robert Bruce Lord of Liddesdale and Domhnall Mar II Earl Mar (age 39). The Balliol army included David III Strathbogie 11th Earl Atholl (age 23), Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford (age 30), Thomas Ughtred 1st Baron Ughtred (age 40) and Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny (age 22). The battle is notable for being the first to use dismounted men-at-arms supported by archers; a formation that would bring repeated success to the English both in Scotland and France.

Robert Bruce Lord of Liddesdale was killed leading a charge.

Nicholas Hay (age 47) was killed.

Thomas Randolph 2nd Earl Moray was killed. His brother John Randolph 3rd Earl of Moray (age 26) succeeded 3rd Earl Moray.

Battle of Annan Moor

On 16 Dec 1332 the Battle of Annan Moor was fought between the supporters of the seven year old King David II of Scotland (age 8), son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland, and the supporters of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 49), supported by the English. The Bruce army, led by, Archibald Douglas (age 34), supported by John Randolph 3rd Earl of Moray (age 26) and King Robert II of Scotland (age 16) surprised Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 49) and his supporters at Annan and threw them out of Scotland.

Battle of Dornock

On 25 Mar 1333 the Battle of Dornock was fought between the supporters of the seven year old King David II of Scotland (age 9), son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland, and the supporters of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 50), supported by the English, commanded by Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 43). The English army quickly overwhelmed the Scottish force. William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl (age 33) was captured and spent two years in prison.

Battle of Halidon Hill

On 19 Jul 1333 King Edward III of England (age 20) defeated the Scots army at the Battle of Halidon Hill near Berwick on Tweed [Map]. John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall (age 16) commanded.

English archers, just as at the Battle of Dupplin Moor one year previously, had a significant impact on the massed ranks of Scottish schiltrons. Edward's army included: Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 33), who commanded the right wing, Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon (age 56), Robert Pierrepont, Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon (age 30), Henry Beaumont Earl Buchan (age 54) and John Sully (age 50). One of the few English casualties was John Neville (age 34) who was killed.

The Scottish army included King David II of Scotland (age 9). Alexander Bruce, Alan Stewart (age 61), James Stewart (age 57), John Stewart, William Douglas 1st Earl Atholl, Archibald Douglas (age 35) who were all killed.

Hugh 4th Earl Ross (age 36) was killed. His son William 5th Earl Ross succeeded 5th Earl Ross.

Malcolm Lennox 2nd Earl Lennox was killed. His son Domhnall Lennox Earl Lennox succeeded Earl Lennox.

Kenneth de Moravia Sutherland 4th Earl Sutherland was killed. His son William de Moravia Sutherland 5th Earl Sutherland succeeded 5th Earl Sutherland. Johanna Menteith Countess Sutherland by marriage Countess Sutherland.

Battle of Culblean

On 30 Nov 1335 David III Strathbogie 11th Earl Atholl (age 26) was killed during the Battle of Culblean. His son David IV Strathbogie 12th Earl Atholl (age 8) succeeded 12th Earl Atholl, 3rd Baron Strabolgi.

Whilst small the battle had a significant impact insofar as it brought an end to the campaign of King Edward III of England (age 23) also ending the aspirations to the Scottish throne of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 52).

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, Alfonso IV King Aragon Dies Peter IV King Aragon Succeeds

On 24 Jan 1336 Alfonso IV King Aragon (age 36) died. His son Peter IV King Aragon (age 16) succeeded IV King Aragon.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1337 Creation of Earls

In 1337 King Edward III of England (age 24) created a number of new Earldom's probably in preparation for his forthcoming war against France ...

William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 36) was created 1st Earl Salisbury. Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 33) by marriage Countess Salisbury.

William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 27) was created 1st Earl of Northampton. Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 24) by marriage Countess of Northampton.

Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester (age 46) was created 1st Earl Gloucester probably as compensation for his daughter Margaret Audley Countess Stafford 1318-1349 (age 19) having been abducted by Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford (age 35).

Robert Ufford 1st Earl Suffolk (age 38) was created 1st Earl Suffolk. Margaret Norwich Countess Suffolk (age 51) by marriage Countess Suffolk.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1337 Battle of Cadzand

Froissart. 1337When the English saw the town of Cadsant, whither they were bending their course to attack those that were within it, they considered, that, as the wind and tide were in their favour, in the name of God and St. George they would run close up to it. They ordered the trumpets to sound, and each made himself quickly ready; they ranged their vessels, and placing the archers on the prows, made full sail for the town. The sentinels and guards at Cadsant had plainly perceived the approach of this large fleet, and taking it for granted that it must be English, had already armed and placed themselves upon the dykes and the sands, with their banners in their proper position before them. They had also created a number of knights upon the occasion, as many as sixteen: their numbers might be about five thousand, taking all together, very valiant knights and bachelors, as they proved by their deeds. Among them were sir Guy of Flanders, a good knight, but a bastard*, who was very anxious that all in his train should do their duty; sir Dutres de Halluyn, sir John de Rhodes, sir Giles de l'Estrief, sir Simon and sir John de Bouquedent, who were then knighted, and Peter d'Aglemoustier, with many other bachelors and esquires, valiant men at arms. There was no parley between them, for the English were as eager to attack as the Flemings were to defend themselves. The archers were ordered to draw their bows stiff and strong, and to set up their shouts; upon which those that guarded the haven were forced to retire, whether they would or not, for this first discharge did much mischief, and many were maimed and hurt. The English barons and knights then landed, and with battle-axes, swords, and lances, combated their enemies. Many gallant deeds of prowess and courage were done that day:- the Flemings fought valiantly, and the English attacked them in all the spirit of chivalry. The gallant earl of Derby (age 27) proved himself a good knight, and advanced so forward at the first assault, that he was struck down: and then the lord of Manny (age 27) was of essential service to him; for, by his feats of arms, he covered him and raised him up, and placed him out of danger, crying, "Lancaster for the earl of Derby!" They then closed with each other; - many were wounded, but more of the Flemings than of the English; for the English archers made such continual discharges, from the time they landed, that they did them much damage.

The battle was very severe and fierce before the town of Cadsant, for the Flemings were good men, and expert in arms; the earl had selected and placed them there to defend the passage against the English, and they were desirous of performing their duty in every respect» which they did. Of the barons and knights of England, there were, first, the earl of Derby, son of Henry of Lancaster, surnamed Wryneck; the earl of Suffolk, lord Reginald Cobham (age 42), lord Lewis Beauchamp, lord William, son of the earl of Warwick, the lord William Beauclerk, sir Walter Manny, and many others, who most vigorously assaulted the Flemings. The combat was very sharp and well fought, for they were engaged hand to fist; but at length the Flemings were put to the rout, and more than three thousand killed, as well at the haven as in the streets and houses. Sir Guy, the Bastard, of Flanders, was taken prisoner. Of the killed, were sir Dutres de Halluyn, sir John of Rhodes, the two brothers Bonquedent, sir Giles de D'Estrief, and more than twunty-six other knights and esquires. The town was taken and pillaged: and when every thing was put on board the vessels with the prisoners, it was burnt. The English returned without accident to England. The king made the Jord Guy of Flanders pledge his troth, that he would remain a prisoner; hot in the course of the year he turned to the English, and did his homage and fealty to the king.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1338 French Raid on Portsmouth

On 24 Mar 1338 a large fleet of small French coastal ships sailed across the Channel from Cales [Map] and into the Solent where they landed and burnt the town of Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map].

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1338 French Raid on Walcheren

On 23 Sep 1338 a French fleet attacked an English fleet unloading cargo at Walcheren. Five large and powerful English cogs, including Edward III's (age 25) flagships the Cog Edward and the Christopher were captured. The captured crews were executed and the ships added to the French fleet.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1338 French Raid on Southampton

Froissart. 05 Oct 1338. Upon king Philip's (age 44) receiving the challenges from king Edward (age 25) and his allies, he collected men at arms and soldiers from all quarters; he sent the lord Gallois de la Bausme, a good knight from Savoy, to the city of Cambray [Map], and made him governor thereof, in conjunction with sir Thibault de Marneil and the lord of Roye: they might be, including Spaniards and French, full two hundred lances. The king seized the county of Ponthieu [Map], which the king of England had before held by right of his mother (age 43); and he also sent and entreated some lords of the empire, such as the count of Hainault his nephew (age 31), the duke of Lorrain (age 18), the Count of Bar (age 23), the bishop of Metz, the bishop of Liege, not to commit any hostile acts against him or his kingdom. The greater part of them answered as he could have wished; but the count of Hainault, in a very civil reply, said that although he should be at all times ready to assist him or his realm against any one, yet as the king of England made war in behalf of the empire, as vicar and lieutenant of it, he could not refuse him aid and assistance in his country, as he held lands under the empire. The king of France appeared satisfied with this answer, not however laying much stress on it, as he felt himself in sufficient strength to oppose his enemies.

As soon as sir Hugh Quiriel, sir Peter Bahucet, and Barbenoire, were informed that hostilities had commenced, they landed one Sunday morning in the harbour at Southampton, Hampshire [Map], whilst the inhabitants were at church: Normans, Picards, and Spaniards entered the town, pillaged it, killed many, deflowered maidens and forced wives; and having loaded their vessels with the booty, they fell down with the tide, and made sail for the coast of Normandy. They landed at Dieppe, and there divided the plunder.

On 05 Oct 1338 a French fleet landed several thousand French, Norman, Italian and Castilian sailors close to the major port of Southampton, Hampshire [Map] and assaulting it from both land and sea. The entire town was razed to the ground, thousands of pounds worth of goods and shipping took back to France, and captives executed or taken as slaves.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1339 French Raid on Harwich

On 24 Mar 1339 a French fleet raided Harwich [Map].

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1339 French Raid on Plymouth

On 20 May 1339 a French fleet raided Plymouth, Devon [Map].

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1330-1339 Edward III and Scottish Independence, 1339 Attack on Honnecourt

Froissart. Around 10 Oct 1339. As soon as king Edward had passed the river of I'Escault and was entered into the realm of France, he called to him sir Henry of Flanders, who was as then a young squire, and there he made him knight, and gave him yearly two hundred pounds sterling, sufficiently assigned him in England. Then the king went and lodged in the abbey of Mount Saint-Martin, and there tarried two days, and his people abroad in the country; and the duke of Brabant was lodged in the abbey of Vaucelles.

When the French king at Compiegne heard these tidings, then he enforced his summons, and sent the earl of Eu and of Guines his constable to Saint-Quentin's, to keep the town and frontiers there against his enemies, and sent the lord of Coucy into his own country, and the lord of Ham to his, and sent many men of arms to Guise and to Ribemont, to Bohain, and the fortresses joining to the entry of the realm; and so went himself toward Peronne.

In the mean season that king Edward lay at the abbey of Mount Saint-Martin, his men ran abroad in the country to Bapaume and near to Peronne and to Saint-Quentin's. They found the country plentiful, for there had been no war of a long season; and so it fortuned that sir Henry of Flanders, to advance his body and to increase his honour, [went] on a day with other knights, whereof sir John of Hainault was chief, and with him the lord of Fauquemont, the lord of Berg, the lord of Bautersem, the lord of Cuyk and divers other to the number of five hundred: and they avised a town thereby, called Honnecourt, wherein much people were gathered on trust of the fortresses, and therein they had conveyed all their goods; and there had been sir Arnold of Baquehem and sir William of Duvenvoorde and their company, but they attained nothing there.

There was at this Honnecourt an abbot of great wisdom and hardiness; and he caused to be made without the town a barrier overthwart the street, like a grate, not past half a foot wide every grate, and he made great provisions of stones and quicklime, and men ready to defend the place. And these lords, when they came thither, they lighted afoot and entered to the barrier with their glaives in their hands, and there began a sore assault, and they within valiantly defended themselves. There was the abbot himself, who received and gave many great strokes: there was a fierce assault: they within cast down stones, pieces of timber, pots full of chalk1 and did much hurt to the assailers: and sir Henry of Flanders, who held his glaive in his hands, and gave therewith great strokes. At the last the abbot took the glaive in his hands and drew it so to him, that at last he set hands on sir Henry's arm, and drew it so sore that he pulled out his arm at the barrier to the shoulder and held him at a great advantage, for an the barrier had been wide enough, he had drawn him through; but sir Henry would not let his weapon go for saving of his honour. Then the other knights strake at the abbot to rescue their fellow: so this wrastling endured a long space, but finally the knight was rescued, but his glaive abode with the abbot. And on a day, when I wrote this book, as I passed by I was shewed the glaive by the monks there, that kept it for a treasure.2

So this said day Honnecourt was sore assailed, the which endured till it was night, and divers were slain and sore hurt. Sir John of Hainault lost there a knight of Holland called sir Herman. When the Flemings, Hainowes, Englishmen and Almains saw the fierce wills of them within, and saw how they could get nothing there, withdrew themselves against night. And the next day on the morning the king departed from Mount Saint-Martin, commanding that no person should do any hurt to the abbey, the which commandment was kept. And so then they entered into Vermandois, and took that day their lodging betimes on the mount Saint-Quentin in good order of battle: and they of Saint-Quentin's might well see them, howbeit they had no desire to issue out of their town. The foreriders came running to the barriers skirmishing, and the host tarried still on the mount till the next day. Then the lords took counsel what way they should draw, and by the advice of the duke of Brabant they took the way to Thierache, for that way their provision came daily to them, and were determined that if king Philip did follow them, as they supposed he would do, that theii they would abide him in the plain field and give him battle.

Thus they went forth in three great battles: the marshals and the Almains had the first, the king of England in the middleward, and the duke of Brabant in the rearward. Thus they rode forth, brenning and pilling the country, a three or four leagues a day, and ever took their lodging betimes. And a company of Englishmen and Almains passed the river of Somme by the abbey of Vermand, and wasted the country all about: another company, whereof sir John of Hainault, the lord of P'auquemont and sir Arnold of Baquehem were chief, rode to Origny-Saint-Benoiste, a good town, but it was but easily closed: incontinent it was taken by assault and robbed, and an abbey of ladies violated, and the town brent. Then they departed and rode toward Guise and Ribemont, and the king of England lodged at Boheries, and there tarried a day, and his men ran abroad and destroyed the country.

Then the king took the way to the Flamengerie3, to come to Leschelle in Thierache; and the marshals and the bishop of Lincoln (age 47) with a five hundred spears passed the river of Oise and entered into Laonnois, toward the land of the lord of Coucy, and brent Saint-Gobain and the town of Marie, and on a night lodged in the valley beside Laon: and the next day they drew again to their host, for they knew by some of their prisoners that the French king was come to Saint-Quentin's with a hundred thousand men, and there to pass the river of Somme. So these lords in their returning brent a good town called Crecy and divers other towns and hamlets there-about.

Now let us speak of sir John of Hainault and his company, who were a five hundred spears. He came to Guise and brent all the town and beat down the mills: and within the fortress was the lady Jane (age 16), his own daughter, wife to the earl of Blois called Louis: she desired her father to spare the heritage of the earl his son-in-law, but for all that sir John of Hainault (age 51) would not spare his enterprise. And so then he returned again to the king, who was lodged in the abbey of Fervaques, and ever his people ran over the country.

And the lord of Fauquemont with a hundred spears came to Nouvion in Thierache, a great town; and the men of the town were fled into a great wood and had all their goods with them, and had fortified the wood with felling of timber about them. The Almains rode thither, and there met with them sir Arnold of Baquehem and his company, and so there they assailed them in the wood, who defended them as well as they might; but finally they were conquered and put to flight; and there were slain and sore hurt more than forty, and lost all that they had. Thus the country was over-ridden, for they did what they list.

Note 1. 'Chaulx,' i.e. 'quicklime.'

Note 2. The fuller text has it as follows: ' But his glaive abode with the abbot by reason of his great prowess, who kept it many years after; and it is still, as I believe, in the hall of Honnecourt. It was there assuredly at the time when I wrote this book, and it was shewed to me on a day when I passed that way, and I had relation made to me of the truth of the matter and of the manner how the assault was made; and the monks kept it still as a great ornament."

Note 3. La Flamengerie, dep. Aisne.

On 10 Oct 1339 Thomas Poynings 1st Baron Poynings (age 45) was killed at the 1339 Attack on Honnecourt.