1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events

9th Century Events is in 1st Millennium Events.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Coronation of Charlemgne as Holy Roman Emperor

On 25 Dec 800 Charles "Charlemagne aka Great" King Franks King Lombardy Holy Roman Emperor (age 58) was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at St Peter's Basilica by Pope Leo III.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Coronation of Charles "Younger" King Franks

On 25 Dec 800 Charles "Younger" King Franks (age 28) was crowned King of the Franks.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Kempsford

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 800. This year was the moon eclipsed, at eight in the evening, on the seventeenth day before the calends of February; and soon after died King Bertric and Alderman Worr. Egbert (age 27) succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom; and the same day Ethelmund, alderman of the Wiccians, rode over the Thames at Kempsford; where he was met by Alderman Woxtan, with the men of Wiltshire, and a terrible conflict ensued, in which both the commanders were slain, but the men of Wiltshire obtained the victory.

In 802 Æthelmund Alderman Hwicce and Weohstan Alderman Wiltshire were killed.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Death of Charlemagne

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Ellendun

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 823. This year a battle was fought between the Welsh in Cornwall and the people of Devonshire, at Camelford, Cornwall; and in the course of the same year Egbert, king of the West-Saxons (age 50), and Bernwulf, King of Mercia, fought a battle at Wilton, in which Egbert (age 50) gained the victory, but there was great slaughter on both sides. Then sent he his son Ethelwulf into Kent, with a large detachment from the main body of the army, accompanied by his bishop, Elstan, and his alderman, Wulfherd; who drove Baldred, the king, northward over the Thames. Whereupon the men of Kent immediately submitted to him; as did also the inhabitants of Surrey, and Sussex, and Essex; who had been unlawfully kept from their allegiance by his relatives. The same year also, the king of the East-Angles, and his subjects besought King Egbert (age 50) to give them peace and protection against the terror of the Mercians; whose king, Bernwulf, they slew in the course of the same year.

In Sep 825 Beornwulf King Mercia defeated Ecgberht, King of Wessex (age 52), at the Battle of Ellendun replacing Mercian with Wessex dominance over the Saxon Heptarchy. Sir Frank Stenton described it as 'one of the most decisive battles of English history'. The location of the battle is not known although a number of locations have been suggested: Wroughton, Wiltshire, Lydiard Park Swindon, Wiltshire and Wilton, Wiltshire [Map].

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Charmouth

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 836. Text 833AD. This year fought King Egbert (age 63) with thirty-five pirates at Charmouth, where a great slaughter was made, and the Danes remained masters of the field. Two bishops, Hereferth and Wigen, and two aldermen, Dudda and Osmod, died the same year.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Hingston Down

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 838. Text 835AD. This year came a great naval armament into West-Wales, where they were joined by the people, who commenced war against Egbert (age 65), the West-Saxon king. When he heard this, he proceeded with his army against them and fought with them at Hengeston, where he put to flight both the Welsh and the Danes.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Fontenay

On 25 Jun 841 Lambert Guideschi II Count Nantes fought at Fontenay, Yonne during the Battle of Fontenay: Franks.

On 11 May 1745 the allied army commanded by William Augustus Hanover 1st Duke Cumberland (age 24) was defeated by a French army at the Battle of Fontenay.

George Cholmondeley (age 20), George Keppel 3rd Earl Albermarle (age 21), Joseph Yorke 1st Baron Dover (age 20) and John Waldegrave 3rd Earl Waldegrave (age 27) fought.

Henry Ponsonby (age 60), James Dillon and Robert Douglas were killed.

George Sackville aka Germain 1st Viscount Sackville (age 29) led the charge of the Duke of Cumberland's infantry leading his regiment so deep into the French lines that when he was wounded and captured he was taken to the tent of Louis XV.

Louis 6th Duke of Gramont (age 55) was killed. His son Antoine 7th Duke Gramont (age 23) succeeded 7th Duke Gramont.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Blain aka Messac

On 24 May 843 the Battle of Blain aka Messac was a battle between Brittany and the County of Nantes over control of Nantes which, at that time, was controlled by the Frankish Kingdom. The Franks were defeated.

Lambert Guideschi II Count Nantes commanded the Breton army.

Renaud Count of Herbauges, Poitiers and Nantes, who commanded the army of Nantes, was killed the following day.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Ballon

On 22 Nov 845 Lambert Guideschi II Count Nantes fought at Redon during the Battle of Ballon.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Ockley

Assers Life of Alfred 851. 851. 5. Battle of Aclea.14 Having done these things there, the aforesaid heathen host went into Surrey, which is a shire situated on the south shore of the river Thames, and to the west of Kent. And Æthelwulf, King of the Saxons, and his son Æthelbald, with the whole army, fought a long time against them at a place called Aclea15, that is, 'Oak-plain'; there, after a lengthy battle, which was fought with much bravery on both sides, the most part of the heathen horde was utterly destroyed and slain, so that we never heard of their being so smitten, either before or since, in any region, in one day16; and the Christians gained an honorable victory, and kept possession of the battle-field.

Note 14. Based upon the Chronicle.

Note 15. Stevenson is inclined to reject this customary identification with Oakley, in Surrey.

Note 16. The source - the Chronicle - says: 'And there made the greatest slaughter among the heathen army that we have heard reported to the present day.'

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 851. This year Alderman Ceorl, with the men of Devonshire, fought the heathen army at Wemburg [Map], and after making great slaughter obtained the victory. The same year King Athelstan and Alderman Elchere fought in their ships, and slew a large army at Sandwich [Map] in Kent, taking nine ships and dispersing the rest. The heathens now for the first time remained over winter in the Isle of Thanet [Map]. The same year came three hundred and fifty ships into the mouth of the Thames; the crew of which went upon land, and stormed Canterbury, Kent [Map] and London; putting to flight Bertulf, king of the Mercians, with his army; and then marched southward over the Thames into Surrey. Here Ethelwulf and his son Ethelbald, at the head of the West-Saxon army, fought with them at Ockley [Map], and made the greatest slaughter of the heathen army that we have ever heard reported to this present day. There also they obtained the victory.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Jengland

On 22 Aug 851 Lambert Guideschi II Count Nantes fought at Grand Fougeray during the Battle of Jengland.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of the Isle of Thanet

In 853 Earl Ealhere was killed at the Battle of the Isle of Thanet.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 853. This year Burhred, King of Mercia, with his council, besought King Ethelwulf to assist him to subdue North-Wales. He did so; and with an army marched over Mercia into North-Wales, and made all the inhabitants subject to him. The same year King Ethelwulf sent his son Alfred to Rome (age 4); and Leo, who was then pope, consecrated him king, and adopted him as his spiritual son. The same year also Elchere with the men of Kent, and Huda with the men of Surrey, fought in the Isle of Thanet [Map] with the heathen army, and soon obtained the victory; but there were many men slain and drowned on either hand, and both the aldermen killed. Burhred, the Mercian king, about this time received in marriage the daughter (age 15) of Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons.

Assers Life of Alfred 853. 853. 9. Other Events of 853.24 That same year also, Ealdorman Ealhere with the men of Kent, and Huda with the men of Surrey, fought bravely and resolutely against an army of the heathen in the island which is called Tenet [Map]25 in the Saxon tongue, but Ruim in the Welsh language. At first the Christians were victorious. The battle lasted a long time; many fell on both sides, and were drowned in the water; and both the ealdormen were there slain. In the same year also, after Easter, Æthelwulf, King of the West Saxons, gave his daughter (age 15) to Burgred, King of the Mercians, as his queen, and the marriage was celebrated in princely wise at the royal vill of Chippenham [Map].

Note 24. Based upon the Chronicle.

Note 25. Thanet [Map].

In 853 Alderman Huda was killed at the Battle of the Isle of Thanet.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Winchester

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 860. This year died King Ethelbald, and his body lies at Sherborn [Map]. Ethelbert his brother then succeeded to the whole kingdom, and held it in good order and great tranquillity. In his days came a large naval force up into the country, and stormed Winchester. But Alderman Osric, with the command of Hampshire, and Alderman Ethelwulf, with the command of Berkshire, fought against the enemy, and putting them to flight, made themselves masters of the field of battle. The said Ethelbert reigned five years, and his body lies at Sherborn [Map].

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Death of King Æthelwulf

On 13 Jan 858 King Æthelwulf of Wessex died. His son King Æthelbald of Wessex succeeded King Wessex.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Death of King Æthelbald

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of York

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 867. This year the army went from the East-Angles over the mouth of the Humber to the Northumbrians, as far as York. And there was much dissension in that nation among themselves; they had deposed their king Osbert, and had admitted Aella, who had no natural claim. Late in the year, however, they returned to their allegiance, and they were now fighting against the common enemy; having collected a vast force, with which they fought the army at York [Map]; and breaking open the town, some of them entered in. Then was there an immense slaughter of the Northumbrians, some within and some without; and both the kings were slain on the spot. The survivors made peace with the army. The same year died Bishop Ealstan, who had the bishopric of Sherborn [Map] fifty winters, and his body lies in the town.

On 21 Mar 867 Osberht King of Northumbria and Ælla King of Northumbria were killed during the Battle of York.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Death of King Æthelberht

In 865 King Æthelberht of Wessex died. His brother King Æthelred of Wessex (age 18) succeeded King Wessex. Wulfthryth Unknown Queen Anglo Saxons by marriage Queen Anglo Saxons.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Brissarthe

On 02 Jul 866 Ranulf I Duke Aquitaine (age 46) and Robert "Strong" King West Francia (age 36) were killed fighting the joint Breton-Viking army at the Battle of Brissarthe at Brissarthe.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Englefield

On 31 Dec 870 Æthelwulf Mercia Earldorman Berkshire (age 45) defeated the Viking army at the Battle of Englefield at Englefield. The Viking Army retreated to Reading [Map]. Sidrac Viking was killed.

Assers Life of Alfred 871. 871. 35. The Danes defeated at Englefield.77 In the year of our Lord's incarnation 871, which was the twenty-third of King Alfred's life, the heathen army, of hateful memory, left East Anglia, and, entering the kingdom of the West Saxons, came to the royal vill called Reading [Map], situated on the south bank of the Thames, in the district called Berkshire; and there, on the third day after their arrival, their [two] ealdormen, with great part of the army, rode forth for plunder, while the others made an entrenchment between the rivers Thames and Kennet, on the southern side of the same royal vill. They were encountered by Æthelwulf (age 46), Ealdorman of Berkshire, with his men, at a place called Englefield78 [in English, and in Latin 'The Field of the Angles'].79 Both sides fought bravely, and made long resistance to each other. At length one of the heathen ealdormen was slain, and the greater part of the army destroyed; upon which the rest saved themselves by flight, and the Christians gained the victory and held the battle-field.

Note 77. Chiefly from the Chronicle.

Note 78. Five and one-half miles southwest of Reading.

Note 79. Added from Florence of Worcester by Stevenson.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 871. This year came the army to Reading in Wessex; and in the course of three nights after rode two earls up, who were met by Alderman Ethelwulf (age 46) at Englefield; where he fought with them, and obtained the victory. There one of them was slain, whose name was Sidrac.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Reading

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 04 Jan 871. About four nights after this, King Ethered (age 24) and Alfred (age 22) his brother led their main army to Reading, where they fought with the enemy; and there was much slaughter on either hand, Alderman Ethelwulf (age 46) being among the skain; but the Danes kept possession of the field.

On 04 Jan 871 King Æthelred of Wessex (age 24) and Alfred the Great's (age 22) army attacked, but were repulsed by, the Viking army at Battle of Reading at Reading [Map]. Æthelwulf Mercia Earldorman Berkshire (age 46) was killed.

On 09 Dec 1688 the Battle of Reading was fought between supporters of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) and King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38). King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) was victorious. Thereafter King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) fled to France and King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) acceeded.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Ashdown

Assers Life of Alfred 871. 871. 38. Alfred begins the Attack.85 Now the Christians had determined that King Æthelred (age 24), with his men, should attack the two heathen kings, and that his brother Alfred (age 22), with his troops, should take the chance of war against all the leaders of the heathen. Things being so arranged on both sides, the king still continued a long time in prayer, and the heathen, prepared for battle, had hastened to the field. Then Alfred (age 22), though only second in command, could no longer support the advance of the enemy, unless he either retreated or charged upon them without waiting for his brother. At length, with the rush of a wild boar, he courageously led the Christian troops against the hostile army, as he had already designed, for, although the king had not yet arrived, he relied upon God's counsel and trusted to His aid. Hence, having closed up his shield-wall in due order, he straightway advanced his standards against the foe. [At length King Æthelred (age 24), having finished the prayers in which he was engaged, came up, and, having invoked the King of the universe, entered upon the engagement.]86

Note 85. All original except final clause.

Note 86. Supplied by Stevenson from Florence of Worcester.

Assers Life of Alfred 871. 871. 37. Battle of Ashdown.80 Roused by this grief and shame, the Christians, after four days, with all their forces and much spirit advanced to battle against the aforesaid army, at a place called Ashdown81, which in Latin signifies 'Ash's82 Hill.' The heathen, forming in two divisions, arranged two shield-walls of similar size; and since they had two kings and many ealdormen, they gave the middle83 part of the army to the two kings, and the other part to all the ealdormen. The Christians, perceiving this, divided their army also into two troops, and with no less zeal formed shield-walls.84 But Alfred (age 22), as I have been told by truthful eye-witnesses, marched up swiftly with his men to the battle-field; for King Æthelred (age 24) had remained a long time in his tent in prayer, hearing mass, and declaring that he would not depart thence alive till the priest had done, and that he was not disposed to abandon the service of God for that of men; and according to these sentiments he acted. This faith of the Christian king availed much with the Lord, as I shall show more fully in the sequel.

Note 80. Chiefly from the Chronicle.

Note 81. The Berkshire Downs (Stevenson).

Note 82. Stevenson is convinced that Æscesdun, though interpreted as 'mons fraxini,' cannot mean 'the hill of the ash,' but that Ash is here a man's name.

Note 83. Perhaps mediam is a scribal error for unam or primam (Stevenson).

Note 84. There is a note on the Germanic shield-wall in my edition of Judith (305ª), in the Belles Lettres Series.

Assers Life of Alfred 871. 871. 39. The Heathen Rout and Loss.87 But here I must inform those who are ignorant of the fact that the field of battle was not equally advantageous to both parties, since the heathen had seized the higher ground, and the Christian array was advancing up-hill. In that place there was a solitary low thorn-tree, which I have seen with my own eyes, and round this the opposing forces met in strife with deafening uproar from all, the one side bent on evil, the other on fighting for life, and dear ones, and fatherland. When both armies had fought bravely and fiercely for a long while, the heathen, being unable by God's decree longer to endure the onset of the Christians, the larger part of their force being slain, betook themselves to shameful flight. There fell one of the two heathen kings and five ealdormen; many thousand of their men were either slain at this spot or lay scattered far and wide over the whole field of Ashdown. Thus there fell King Bagsecg, Ealdorman Sidroc the Elder and Ealdorman Sidroc the Younger, Ealdorman Osbern, Ealdorman Fræna, and Ealdorman Harold; and the whole heathen army pursued its flight, not only until night, but until the next day, even until they reached the stronghold88 from which they had sallied. The Christians followed, slaying all they could reach, until it became dark.

Note 87. Mostly original.

Note 88. Probably Reading.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 08 Jan 871. And about four nights after this, King Ethered (age 24) and Alfred (age 22) his brother fought with all the army on Ashdown, and the Danes were overcome. They had two heathen kings, Bagsac and Healfden, and many earls; and they were in two divisions; in one of which were Bagsac and Healfden, the heathen kings, and in the other were the earls. King Ethered (age 24) therefore fought with the troops of the kings, and there was King Bagsac slain; and Alfred (age 24) his brother fought with the troops of the earls, and there were slain Earl Sidrac the elder, Earl Sidrac the younger, Earl Osbern, Earl Frene, and Earl Harold. They put both the troops to flight; there were many thousands of the slain, and they continued fighting till night.

On 08 Jan 871 King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex (age 22) defeated the Viking army led by Halfdan Ragnarsson at the Battle of Ashdown in Berkshire. Bagsecg Viking was killed.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Basing

Assers Life of Alfred 871. 871. 40. Battle of Basing.89 After90 fourteen days had elapsed King Æthelred (age 24) and his brother Alfred (age 22) joined their forces, and marched to Basing91 to fight with the heathen. Having thus assembled, battle was joined, and they held their own for a long time, but the heathen gained the victory, and held possession of the battle-field. After this fight, another army of heathen came from beyond sea, and joined them.

Note 89. From the Chronicle.

Note 90. Before this sentence occurs the following in the Latin: Quibus cum talia præsentis vitæ dispendia alienigenis perperam quærentibus non sufficerent. This may represent a sentence in the author's draft that was intended, owing to change of construction, to be omitted (Stevenson).

Note 91. In Hampshire.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Around 22 Jan 871. Within a fortnight of this, King Ethered (age 24) and Alfred (age 22) his brother fought with the army at Basing; and there the Danes had the victory.

On 22 Jan 871 King Æthelred of Wessex (age 24) was defeated by the Viking army at the Battle of Basing at Old Basing, Hampshire [Map].

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Marton

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Around 22 Mar 871. About two months after this, King Ethered (age 24) and Alfred (age 22) his brother fought with the army at Marden. They were in two divisions; and they put them both to flight, enjoying the victory for some time during the day; and there was much slaughter on either hand; but the Danes became masters of the field; and there was slain Bishop Heahmund, with many other good men. After this fight came a vast army in the summer to Reading. And after the Easter of this year died King Ethered (age 24). He reigned five years, and his body lies at Winburn-minster [Map]. Then Alfred (age 22), his brother, the son of Ethelwulf, took to the kingdom of Wessex.

Around 22 Mar 871 Halfdan Ragnarsson defeated the Wessex army led by King Æthelred of Wessex (age 24) and King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex (age 22) at the Battle of Marton. The location of 'Marton' is not known; suggestions include Marden, Wiltshire in Wiltshire and Winterborne St Martin, Dorset in Dorset. Bishop Heahmund of Wessex was killed.

On 23 Apr 871 King Æthelred of Wessex (age 24) died possibly as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Marton which took place a month earlier.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Wilton

Assers Life of Alfred 871. 871. 42. Alfred comes to the Throne; Battle of Wilton.94 That same year the aforesaid Alfred (age 22), who had been up to that time, during the lifetime of his brothers, only of secondary rank, now, on the death of his brother, by God's permission undertook the government of the whole kingdom, amid the acclamations of all the people; and indeed, if he had chosen, he might easily have done so with the general consent whilst his brother above named was still alive, since in wisdom and every other good quality he surpassed all his brothers, and especially because he was brave and victorious in nearly every battle. And when he had reigned a month almost against his will - for he did not think that he alone, without divine aid, could sustain the ferocity of the heathen, though even during his brothers' lifetimes he had borne the calamities of many - he fought a fierce battle with a few men, and on very unequal terms, against all the army of the heathen, at a hill called Wilton [Map], on the south bank of the river Wiley95, from which river the whole of that shire is named; and after a severe engagement, lasting a considerable part of the day, the heathen, seeing the whole extent of the danger they were in, and no longer able to bear the attack of their enemies, turned their backs and fled. But, shame to say, they took advantage of their pursuers' rashness96, and, again rallying, gained the victory and kept the battle-field. Let no one be surprised that the Christians had but a small number of men, for the Saxons as a people had been all but worn out by eight battles in this selfsame year against the heathen, in which there died one king, nine chieftains, and innumerable troops of soldiers, not to speak of countless skirmishes both by night and by day, in which the oft-named [King] Alfred (age 22), and all the leaders of that people, with their men, and many of the king's thanes, had been engaged in unwearied strife against the heathen. How many thousand heathen fell in these numberless skirmishes God alone knows, over and above those who were slain in the eight battles above mentioned.

Note 94. Paraphrased and amplified from the Chronicle.

Note 95. A tributary of the Nadder, which it joins near Wilton [Map].

Note 96. Or, perhaps, 'fewness,' reading paucitatem for peraudacitatem (Stevenson).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Around Apr 871. And within a month of this, King Alfred (age 22) fought against all the Army with a small force at Wilton, and long pursued them during the day; but the Danes got possession of the field. This year were nine general battles fought with the army in the kingdom south of the Thames; besides those skirmishes, in which Alfred the king's brother, and every single alderman, and the thanes of the king, oft rode against them; which were accounted nothing. This year also were slain nine earls, and one king; and the same year the West-Saxons made peace with the army.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Edington

Assers Life of Alfred 878. 878. 56. Battle of Edington, and Treaty with Guthrum.127 The next morning at dawn he moved his standards to Edington128, and there fought bravely and perseveringly by means of a close shield-wall against the whole army of the heathen, whom at length, with the divine help, he defeated with great slaughter, and pursued them flying to their stronghold. Immediately he slew all the men and carried off all the horses and cattle that he could find without the fortress, and thereupon pitched his camp, with all his army, before the gates of the heathen stronghold. And when he had remained there fourteen days, the heathen, terrified by hunger, cold, fear, and last of all by despair, begged for peace, engaging to give the king as many designated hostages as he pleased, and to receive none from him in return - in which manner they had never before made peace with any one. The king, hearing this embassage, of his own motion took pity upon them, and received from them the designated hostages, as many as he would. Thereupon the heathen swore, besides, that they would straightway leave his kingdom; and their king, Guthrum, promised to embrace Christianity, and receive baptism at King Alfred's (age 29) hands - all of which articles he and his men fulfilled as they had promised. For after [three]129 weeks Guthrum, king of the heathen, with thirty130 men chosen from his army, came to Alfred (age 29) at a place called Aller, near Athelney, and there King Alfred (age 29), receiving him as a son by adoption, raised him up from the holy font of baptism. On the eighth day, at a royal vill named Wedmore [Map], his chrism-loosing131 took place. After his baptism he remained twelve days with the king, who, together with all his companions, gave him many rich gifts.132

Note 127. Based upon the Chronicle.

Note 128. In Wiltshire.

Note 129. Supplied by Stevenson from the Chronicle.

Note 130. Properly, as one of thirty, according to the Chronicle.

Note 131. Chrism is the term employed for the mixture of oil and balsam employed in the rite of confirmation, and sometimes for the ceremony of confirmation itself. In the early church, this ceremony immediately followed baptism, and was performed by the laying on of hands. In the Roman church it is obligatory on all Catholics, and no baptism is theoretically complete without it. It is performed by a bishop (only exceptionally by a priest). The ceremony begins with the bishop's rising and facing the person or persons to be confirmed, his pastoral staff in his hand, and saying: 'May the Holy Ghost come upon you, and the power of the Holy Ghost keep you from sins' (Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome: Liturgy in Rome, London, 1897, pp. 169–171). The rite is described in Egbert's Pontifical, which may be taken as representing the custom in the church of Alfred's time. Lingard says (Anglo-Saxon Church, London, 1858, 1. 297): 'According to that pontifical, the bishop prayed thus: "Almighty and Everlasting God, who hast granted to this thy servant to be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, and hast given to him remission of his sins, send down upon him thy sevenfold Holy Spirit, the Paraclete from heaven, Amen. Give to him the spirit of wisdom and understanding, Amen - the spirit of counsel and fortitude, Amen - the spirit of knowledge and piety, Amen. Fill him with the spirit of the fear of God and our Lord Jesus Christ, and mercifully sign him with the sign of the holy cross for life eternal." The bishop then marked his forehead with chrism, and proceeded thus: "Receive this sign of the holy cross with the chrism of salvation in Christ Jesus unto life eternal." The head was then bound with a fillet of new linen to be worn seven days, and the bishop resumed: "O God, who didst give thy Holy Spirit to thine apostles, that by them and their successors he might be given to the rest of the faithful, look down on the ministry of our lowliness, and grant that into the heart of him whose forehead we have this day anointed, and confirmed with the sign of the cross, thy Holy Spirit may descend; and that, dwelling therein, he may make it the temple of his glory, through Christ our Lord." The confirmed then received the episcopal blessing, and communicated during the mass.'

The chrism-loosing was the ceremony of unbinding the fillet, apparently.

Note 132. MS. ædificia; Stevenson, beneficia.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Around 12 May 878. Then, in the seventh week after Easter, he rode to Brixton by the eastern side of Selwood; and there came out to meet him all the people of Somersersetshire, and Wiltshire, and that part of Hampshire which is on this side of the sea; and they rejoiced to see him. Then within one night he went from this retreat to Hey; and within one night after he proceeded to Heddington; and there fought with all the army, and put them to flight, riding after them as far as the fortress, where he remained a fortnight. Then the army gave him hostages with many oaths, that they would go out of his kingdom. They told him also, that their king would receive baptism. And they acted accordingly; for in the course of three weeks after, King Guthrum, attended by some thirty of the worthiest men that were in the army, came to him at Aller, which is near Athelney [Map], and there the king became his sponsor in baptism; and his crisom-leasing was at Wedmor. He was there twelve nights with the king (age 29), who honoured him and his attendants with many presents.

Around 12 May 878 King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex (age 29) defeated the Viking army led by Guthrum Viking at the Battle of Edington at Edington, Wiltshire (the location is subject to dispute; possibly Heddington, Wiltshire).

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Treaty of Wedmore

Around Aug 878 Guthrum Viking agreed to leave Wessex, to be baptised and to accept King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex (age 29) as his adoptive father. Known as Treaty of Wedmore.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Death of Carloman II King West Francia

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Death of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 887. This year the army advanced beyond the bridge at Paris;38 and then upwards, along the Seine, to the Marne. Then upwards on the Marne as far as Chezy; and in their two stations, there and on the Yonne, they abode two winters. This same year died Charles, king of the Franks (age 47). Arnulf, his brother's son, had six weeks before his death bereft him of his kingdom; which was now divided into five portions, and five kings were consecrated thereto. This, however, was done with the consent of Arnulf; and they agreed that they should hold in subjection to him; because none of them had by birth any claim on the father's side, except him alone. Arnulf, therefore, dwelt in the country eastward of the Rhine; Rodulf took to the middle district; Oda to the western; whilst Berenger and Witha became masters of Lombardy and the Cisalpine territory. But they held their dominion in great discord; fought two general battles, and frequently overran the country in partial encounters, displacing each other several times. The same year also, in which the Danish army advanced beyond the bridge at Paris, Alderman Ethelhelm led the alms of the West-Saxons and of King Alfred to Rome.

Note 38. This bridge was built, or rebuilt on a larger plan than before, by Charles the Bald, in the year 861, "to prevent the Danes or Normans (says Felibien) from making themselves masters of Paris so easily as they had already done so many times," etc.—"pour empescher que les Normans ne se rendissent maistres de Paris aussi facilement qu'ils l'avoient deja fait tant de lois," etc.—Vol. i. p. 91, folio. It is supposed to be the famous bridge afterwards called "grand pont" or "pont au change",—the most ancient bridge at Paris, and the only one which existed at this time.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Battle of Farnham

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 894. This year, that was about twelve months after they had wrought a work in the eastern district, the Northumbrians and East-Angles had given oaths to King Alfred (age 45), and the East-Angles six hostages; nevertheless, contrary to the truce, as oft as the other plunderers went out with all their army, then went they also, either with them, or in a separate division. Upon this King Alfred gathered his army, and advanced, so that he encamped between the two armies at the highest point he could find defended by wood and by water, that he might reach either, if they would seek any field. Then went they forth in quest of the wealds, in troops and companies, wheresoever the country was defenceless. But they were also sought after most days by other companies, either by day or by night, both from the army and also from the towns. The king had divided his army into two parts; so that they were always half at home, half out; besides the men that should maintain the towns. The army came not all out of their stations more than twice; once, when they first came to land, ere the forces were collected, and again, when they wished to depart from their stations. They had now seized much booty, and would ferry it northward over Thames into Essex, to meet their ships. But the army rode before them, fought with them at Farnham, routed their forces, and there arrested the booty. And they flew over Thames without any ford, then up by the Colne on an island. Then the king's forces beset them without as long as they had food; but they had their time set, and their meat noted. And the king was advancing thitherwards on his march with the division that accompanied him. But while he was advancing thitherwards, the other force was returning homewards. The Danes, however, still remained behind; for their king was wounded in the fight, so that they could not carry him. Then collected together those that dwell in Northumbria and East-Anglia about a hundred ships, and went south about; and with some forty more went north about, and besieged a fort in Devonshire by the north sea; and those who went south about beset Exeter [Map]. When the king heard that, then went he west towards Exeter with all his force, except a very considerable part of the eastern army, who advanced till they came to London; and there being joined by the citizens and the reinforcements that came from the west, they went east to Barnfleet. Hasten was there with his gang, who before were stationed at Milton, and also the main army had come thither, that sat before in the mouth of the Limne at Appledore. Hasten had formerly constructed that work at Barnfleet, and was then gone out on plunder, the main army being at home. Then came the king's troops, and routed the enemy, broke down the work, took all that was therein money, women, and children and brought all to London. And all the ships they either broke to pieces, or burned, or brought to London or to Rochester [Map]. And Hasten's wife and her two sons they brought to the king, who returned them to him, because one of them was his godson, and the other Alderman Ethered's. They had adopted them ere Hasten came to Bamfleet; when he had given them hostages and oaths, and the king had also given him many presents; as he did also then, when he returned the child and the wife. And as soon as they came to Bamfleet, and the work was built, then plundered he in the same quarter of his kingdom that Ethered his compeer should have held; and at another time he was plundering in the same district when his work was destroyed. The king then went westward with the army toward Exeter, as I before said, and the army had beset the city; but whilst he was gone they went to their ships. Whilst he was thus busied there with the army, in the west, the marauding parties were both gathered together at Shobury in Essex, and there built a fortress. Then they both went together up by the Thames, and a great concourse joined them, both from the East-Angles and from the Northumbrians. They then advanced upward by the Thames, till they arrived near the Severn. Then they proceeded upward by the Severn. Meanwhile assembled Alderman Ethered, Alderman Ethelm, Alderman Ethelnoth, and the king's thanes, who were employed at home at the works, from every town east of the Parret, as well as west of Selwood, and from the parts east and also north of the Thames and west of the Severn, and also some part of North-Wales. When they were all collected together, they overtook the rear of the enemy at Buttington on the banks of the Severn, and there beset them without on each side in a fortress. When they had sat there many weeks on both sides of the water, and the king meanwhile was in Devonshire westward with the naval force, then were the enemy weighed down with famine. They had devoured the greater part of their horses; and the rest had perished with hunger. Then went they out to the men that sat on the eastern side of the river, and fought with them; but the Christians had the victory. And there Ordhelm, the king's thane, was slain; and also many other king's thanes; and of the Danes there were many slain, and that part of them that came away escaped only by flight. As soon as they came into Essex to their fortress, and to their ships, then gathered the remnant again in East-Anglia and from the Northumbrians a great force before winter, and having committed their wives and their ships and their booty to the East-Angles, they marched on the stretch by day and night, till they arrived at a western city in Wirheal that is called Chester [Map]. There the army could not overtake them ere they arrived within the work: they beset the work though, without, some two days, took all the cattle that was thereabout, slew the men whom they could overtake without the work, and all the corn they either burned or consumed with their horses every evening. That was about a twelvemonth since they first came hither over sea.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Odo I King West Francia succeeded by Charles "Simple"

On 01 Jan 898 Odo I King West Franks (age 41) died. Charles "Simple" III King West Francia (age 18) succeeded III King West Francia.

1st Millennium Events, 9th Century Events, Death of King Alfred the Great

On 26 Oct 899 King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex (age 50) died at Winchester, Hampshire [Map]. He was buried at Hyde Abbey. His son King Edward "Elder" of the Anglo Saxons (age 25) succeeded King Anglo Saxons. Ecgwynn Unknown Queen Consort Anglo Saxons by marriage Queen Consort Anglo Saxons.