Culture, General Things, Types of Ship

Types of Ship is in General Things.

Culture, General Things, Types of Ship, Carrack

Carrack. A carrack is a three or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th to 15th centuries in Europe, most notably in Portugal. Evolved from the single-masted cog.

On 08 Jun 1587 the English fleet commanded by Francis Drake (age 47) sighted a Portuguese carrack, the São Filipe, twenty leagues from the Island of São Miguel, returning from the Indies laden with treasure. After a brief exchange of fire it was captured, the first ship to be so on the return run from the Indies. Its enormous fortune of gold, spices, and silk was valued at £108,000 (of which 10% was to go to Francis Drake (age 47)); the fleet returned to England, arriving on 06 July 1587. The expedition led by Francis Drake (age 47) was a resounding military success: over one hundred Spanish vessels of different tonnages were destroyed or captured during the expedition. Economic and material losses caused to the Spanish fleet by the English attack ensured that Spanish plans for the invasion of England had to be postponed for over a year. It was not until Aug 1588 that the Armada was ready to leave for the British Isles.

The Henry Grace à Dieu was a English carrack of the King's Fleet in the 16th century, and in her day the largest warship in the world. Built by William Bond (master shipwright) under the direction of Robert Brygandine (clerk of the ships), she had a large forecastle four decks high, and a stern castle two decks high. She was 165 feet (50 m) long, measuring 1,000 tons burthen[a] and having a complement of 700 men.

Culture, General Things, Types of Ship, Cog

Cog. A cog is a type of ship that first appeared in the 10th century, and was widely used from around the 12th century on. Cogs were clinker-built, generally of oak. These vessels were fitted with a single mast and a square-rigged single sail.

Culture, General Things, Types of Ship, Longship

Culture, General Things, Types of Ship, Longship, Busse

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1662. A very hard frost; which is news to us after having none almost these three years. Up and to Ironmongers' Hall by ten o'clock to the funeral of Sir Richard Stayner. Here we were, all the officers of the Navy, and my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who did discourse with us about the fishery, telling us of his Majesty's resolution to give £200 to every man that will set out a Busse1; and advising about the effects of this encouragement, which will be a very great matter certainly. Here we had good rings, and by and by were to take coach; and I being got in with Mr. Creed into a four-horse coach, which they come and told us were only for the mourners, I went out, and so took this occasion to go home. Where I staid all day expecting Gosnell's coming, but there came an excuse from her that she had not heard yet from her mother, but that she will come next week, which I wish she may, since I must keep one that I may have some pleasure therein.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1662. Before I went to the office my wife's brother did come to us, and we did instruct him to go to Gosnell's and to see what the true matter is of her not coming, and whether she do intend to come or no, and so I to the office; and this morning come Sir G. Carteret (age 52) to us (being the first time we have seen him since his coming from France): he tells us, that the silver which he received for Dunkirk did weigh 120,000 weight. Here all the morning upon business, and at noon (not going home to dinner, though word was brought me that Will. Joyce was there, whom I had not seen at my house nor any where else these three or four months) with Mr. Coventry (age 34) by his coach as far as Fleet Street, and there stepped into Madam Turner's (age 39), where was told I should find my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), and with him to the Temple [Map], but not having time to do anything I went towards my Lord Sandwich's (age 37). (In my way went into Captn. Cuttance's coach, and with him to my Lord's.) But the company not being ready I did slip down to Wilkinson's, and having not eat any thing to-day did eat a mutton pie and drank, and so to my Lord's, where my Lord and Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir Wm. Darcy, one Mr. Parham (a very knowing and well-spoken man in this business), with several others, did meet about stating the business of the fishery, and the manner of the King's giving of this £200 to every man that shall set out a new-made English Busse by the middle of June next. In which business we had many fine pretty discourses; and I did here see the great pleasure to be had in discoursing of publique matters with men that are particularly acquainted with this or that business. Having come to some issue, wherein a motion of mine was well received, about sending these invitations from the King (age 32) to all the fishing-ports in general, with limiting so many Busses to this, and that port, before we know the readiness of Members, we parted, and I walked home all the way, and having wrote a letter full of business to my father, in my way calling upon my cozen Turner and Mr. Calthrop (age 38) at the Temple [Map], for their consent to be my arbitrators, which they are willing to. My wife and I to bed pretty pleasant, for that her brother brings word that Gosnell, which my wife and I in discourse do pleasantly call our Marmotte, will certainly come next week without fail, which God grant may be for the best.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1662. That done, to the Globe, and there dined with Mr. Wood, and so by water with Mr. Pett (age 52) home again, all the way reading his Chest accounts, in which I did see things did not please me; as his allowing himself 1300 for one year's looking to the business of the Chest, and £150 per annum for the rest of the years. But I found no fault to him himself, but shall when they come to be read at the Board. We did also call at Limehouse [Map] to view two Busses that are building, that being a thing we are now very hot upon. Our call was to see what dimensions they are of, being 50 feet by the keel and about 60 tons.

Culture, General Things, Types of Ship, Pinnace

Pinnace. As a ship's boat, the pinnace is a light boat, propelled by oars or sails, carried aboard merchant and war vessels in the Age of Sail to serve as a tender. The pinnace was usually rowed but could be rigged with a sail for use in favorable winds.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1561. The xxiiij day of June, was Mydsomer-day, at Grenwyche was grett tryum(ph) of the rever, a-gaynst the cou[rt; there] was a goodly castylle mad a-pone Temes, and men of armes with-in ytt, with gones and spers, for to deffend [the same,] and a-bowt ytt wher serten small pynnes with ... and grett shottyng of gonnes and horlyng of ba[lls of] wyld fyre, and ther was a barke with ij tope [castles ?] for the Quen('s) (age 27) grace to be in for to se the passe-tyme, the wyche was vere latt or yt was done.