History of Westminster Palace

1101 Christmas Court

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1453 Birth of Edward of Westminster

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1478 Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Funeral of Edward IV

1483 Coronation of Richard III

1485 Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

1490 Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1649 Execution of Three Lords

1666 Four Days' Battle

1683 Frost Fair

Westminster Palace is in Westminster.

Christmas Court

In Dec 1101 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (33) hosted his at Christmas Court at Westminster Palace. Gilbert Clare 1066-1117 (35) attended.

On 01 May 1118 Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118 (38) died at Westminster Palace. She was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Chronica Majora 1236 Heavy falls of rain. 10 Feb 1236. About the same time, for two months and more, namely, in January, February, and part of March, such deluges of rain fell as had never been seen before in the memory of any one. About the feast of St. Scholastica, when the moon was new, the sea became so swollen by the river torrents which fell into it, that all the rivers, especially those which fell into the sea, rendered the fords impasSable, overflowing their banks, hiding the bridges from sight, carrying away mills and dams, and overwhelming the cultivated lands, crops, meadows, and marshes. Amongst other unusual occurrences, the River Thames overflowed its usual bounds, and entered the grand palace at Westminster, where it spread and covered the whole area, so that small boats could float there, and people went to their apartments on horseback. The water also forcing its way into the cellars could with difficulty be drained off. The signs of this storm which preceded it, then gave proofs of their threats; for on the day of St. Damasus, thunder was heard, and on the Friday next after the conception of St. Mary, a spurious sun was seen by the side of the true sun.

In 1238 Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (30) and Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Pembroke Countess Leicester 1215-1275 (23) were married at Westminster Palace. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a daughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She by marriage Countess of Leicester.

On 17 Jun 1239 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (31) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (16) at Westminster Palace.

On 25 Nov 1253 Katherine Plantagenet 1253-1257 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (46) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (30) at Westminster Palace.

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 12 Dec 1307 King Edward II of England (23). Westminster Palace. To John de Brittania, earl of Richmond (68), [keeper] of Scotland. Order to restore to Aymer de Valencia (32), earl of Pembrok, his lands, etc., in the counties of Sellekyrk [Selkirkshire] and Twedale and in the forest of Sellekyrk, which he has seized into the king's hands because the men and tenants of the same had late traitoroursly adhered to Robert de Brus (33), the king's enemy and rebel.

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 24 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Westminster Palace. To John Sampson (61), constable of the king's castle of Scardeburgh. Order to permit Henry Percy (34) and his consort and their household to dwell in the houses within the said castle, provided that the castle be safely guarded.

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 06 Mar 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Westminster Palace. To Thomas de la Hide, late steward of Cornwall and Sheriff of the same. Order to deliver to Peter de Gavaston (24), knight, all the ferms, rents, and issues of the said County from Michaelmas last, and of the lands of the late Edmund earl of Cornwall (58), the king having granted to the said Peter the county of Cornwall, and all the lands of the said Edmund.

The like to John de Tresimple, for the ferms, etc., of the manor, etc.

The like to Walter de Gloucester, escheator this side of Trent, for the ferms, etc., of the manors.

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 17 Mar 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Westminster Palace. To John Sampson (61), constable of the king's castle of Scardeburgh. Order to permit Henry Percy and his consort and their household to dwell in the houses within the said castle, provided that the castle be safely guarded.

Letter XXIV Philippa of Hainault Queen of Edward III to Sir John de Edington her Attorney. 14 May 1354. Letter XXIV. Philippa of Hainault Queen of Edward III (39) to Sir John de Edington her Attorney.

Philippa, by the grace of God queen of England, lady of Ireland, and duchess of Aquitaine, to our dear clerk Sir John de Edington, our attorney in the exchequer of our very dear lord the king, sends greeting.

We command you, that you cause all the writs which have been filed from the search lately made by Sir Richard de Cressevill to be postponed until the octaves of Easter next ensuing; to the end that, in the meantime, we and our council may be able to be advised which of the said writs are to be put in execution for our profit, and which of them are to cease to the relief of our people, to save our conscience. And we will that this letter be your warrant therefore.

Given under our privy seal, at Westminster, the 14th day of May, in the year of the reign of our very dear lord the king of England the twenty-eighth.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His son Richard (9) succeeded King England. His niece Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.

Close Rolls Richard II 1396 1399 V6. 07 Jun 1399. Westminster Palace. To the keepers, occupiers, receivers or farmers of the lordship of Kyngeston in Dorsete for the time being. Order so long as the same shall remain in the king's hand to pay to John Swelle esquire 20 marks a year, which by a writing indented, confirmed by the king, John late duke of Lancastre (59) granted him for life, to be taken of the issues of the said lordship.

Close Rolls Richard II 1396 1399 V6. 14 Jun 1399. Westminster Palace. To the keepers, farmers, occupiers or receivers of the manor of Lopham co. Norffolk for the time being. Order every year to pay to Roger Bliklynge his raiment or 13s. 4d. for it, and 3d. a day, and to pay him the arrears since 5 February 8 Richard II, on which date the king confirmed letters patent whereby Margaret late duchess of Norffolk, by name of Margaret countess of Norffolk, granted to the said Roger for life the office of keeper of the park, warren and game to the said manor pertaining, raiment once a year at Christmas of the suit of her esquires or 13s. 4d., and 3d. a day of the agistments of the park at the feast of St. Peter in autumn.

In 1409 Margaret Beaufort Countess Devon 1409-1449 was born to John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (36) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (24) at Westminster Palace. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Birth of Edward of Westminster

On 13 Oct 1453 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 was born to Henry VI (31) and Margaret of Anjou (23) at Westminster Palace. When King Henry (31) recovered from his catatonic state in Jan 1455, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since King Henry (31) and Queen Margaret (23) had been married for eight years before the birth. Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was suggested at the time.

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 17d. 09 May 1460. Westminster Palace. Commission to John Chafyn of New Saresbury to take stone-masons, masons, plumbers, smiths, plasterers and all other workmen necessary for the building and repairs of the manor of Claryndon and elsewhere, and to purvey stones, timber, iron, lead, glass, tiles, laths, shingles, boards, nails and all other necessaries therefor, and carriage for the same.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (32), to receive deserters from the party of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (18) by word of mouth.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 18 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant, during the King's pleasure, to the King's kinsman Henry, viscount Bourchier (57), of the office of treasurer of the Exchequer in the same manner as Walter Hungerford (82), knight, late treasurer.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 21 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace. Protection for two years for Edmund Grey of Ruthyn (44), knight, going beyond the seas, and his men, and possessions.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 02 May 1461. Westminster Palace. The like (Grant for life) to the king's (19) kinsman John Neville of Montagu (30), knight, from Easter last, of the king's mines in Decon and Cornwall in which gold and silver can be found or worked for, at a rent of 110l yearly, as the king's father used to pay, with power of demise the same for 10, 15 or 20 years, provided that after his death the holders pay a tithe of the pure silver or lead to the king or his farmer. By p.s.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 04 May 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman George (29), bishop of Exeter, from Easter last of the custody of the king's manor manor or lordship of Chiltern Langley in Hertfordshire, with mills, rents, vert and other profits, excepting 250 rabbits yearly for the king's hosehold, at a yearly rent of 50 marks 20d as formerly and 6s 8d besides; with acquittance of repairs and allowance for any annuity granted out of the manor. By K (19).

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. On 05 Jun 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury (43), of the custody of the lordship, manor and park of Langle by Maydeston, co Kent, rendering 5 marks yearly. By K (19).

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. On 10 Jul 1461. Westminster Palace. Ratification for life of the estate of Master Robert Stillyngton (41), king's clerk as deacon of the king's free chapel of St Martin le Grand, London, archdeacon of Colchester in the cathedral of London and of Taunton in the cathedral of Wells, prebendary of Wetewang in the cathedral of York, Marther (possibly typo since 'Martha' unknown) in the cathedral of St Davids and the prebend which John Luca lately had in the king's free chapel of St Stephen within his palace of Wesminster, and person of the church of Aysshebury, in the diocese of Salisbury.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 21 Jul 1461. Westminster Palace. The like to John Howard (36), king's knight, the office of the constableship and custody of Norwich Castle from Exeter lats, with the fees as in the times of Edward III and Richard II from the issues of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 25 Jul 1461. Westminster Palace. Exemption for life of Geoffrey Boleyne (55), alderman of London, for his good service to the king's father, from being put on assizes, juries, inquisitions, attaints or recognisances and dfrom being made trier of them, taxer, collector, or assesor of customs, taxes, tallages, fifteenths, tenths or other subsidies, knight, major, sheriff, escheator, commissioner, constable, sheriff, bailiff or other officer or minister of the king against his will. By p.s.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 28 Jul 1461. Westminster Palace. Appointment, during good behaviour, of John Howard (36), knight, as one of the king's carvers, receiving 40lyearly, viz 20l from the far of the town of Ipswich, co Suffolk, ad 20l from the issues of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. By p.s.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 26 Nov 1461. Westminster Palace. The like (Grant for life) to Margaret, duchess of Somerset (51), of 166l 13s 4d yearly from Michaelmas, 39 Henry VI, from the king's petty custom in the port of London and the same at the same at the receipt of the Exchequer, in lieu of a grant and confirmation to her of the same sums in pdwer by latters atent dated 9 July, surrendered. By K (19).

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman John, earl of Worcester (34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 03 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Appointment of the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (33), to execute the office of steward of England at the trial of Henry VI and other rebels who murdered the King's father Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 12 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to Richard Wydevill (56), lord of Ryvers, of the office of chief rider of the king's forest of Saucy. co Northampton, with all trees and profits, viz dry trees, dead trees, blown down, old hedges or copice-hedges, boughs fallen without date, cahettels, waifs, strays, pannage of swine, 'derefall wode', 'draenes' brushwood and brambles, prerquisites of courts, swainmote and other issues within the forest, from the time when he had he same by letters patent of Henry VI.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 21 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. The like to Robert Ingleton of the reversion of the office of chancellor of Westminster, the Exchequer, with the accustomed fees, immediately after the decease, resignation or dismissal of Thomas Witham (41), to whom the same has been granted for life.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace. Licence for the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick and Salisbury (33), to grant castles, manors, lordships, lands, rents and services, of the yearly value of 1,000/., held in chief, although the reversion of the same may belong to the crown on his death without issue, to George, bishop of Exeter, John, earl of Worcester, John Markham, Robert Dauby, Walter Blounte, James Strangwais, Walter Wrottesley, knights, Thomas Witham (42), Thomas Colte, Henry Sotehill (44) and William Kelsy in fee simple to pay his debts and fulfil his will alter his de»th. By K.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace. Appointment of W. archbishop of York, Richard, earl of Warwick (33), John Neville of Muntague, knight, Robert Danby, knight, Robert Constable, knight, the mayor of York, Thomas Wytham (42), Brian Rouclyff, Henry Sotehill (44), Guy Fairefax, John Grenefeld, Richard Pygote, Henry Thwaites, Nicholas Girlyiigton, John Wencelagh, John Thirske, Nicholas Holgate, John Marton, William Bradford and John Shirwode as justices of the survey and custody of the rivers in the county of York pursuant to the statutes of 24 Edward III., 4o Edward III., and 1 Henry IV., concerning the erection of weirs, mills, stanks, pales and kiddles.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 01 Aug 1462. Westminster Palace. Grant to the king^s uncle William Neville (57), earl of Kent and lord of Fauconberg, and the heirs male of his body of the manors and lordships of Crukerne, Misterton, Glopton, Kyngeston by Yevulchestre, Somerton Erleghy Batheneston and Shekerwike, co. Somerset, Northam, Londay, Slapton, Torrybrian, Clyfton Dertmouth Hardenesse, Norton Daunde by Dertmouth, Aylesbeare and Whympell, co. Devon, and Shevyok, Antony, Portloo, Landulp, Trelowia, Northill, Landrian, Legh Durant, Oldlawitta, Penpol, Elerky and Lanyhorn, co. Cornwall, the boroughs of Crofthull and Portpigham, co. Cornwall, the lordships and manors of Ebryngton, Yeverne Courteney, Maperton, Ramsam, Wroxhale, Childefrome, Tolre Porcorum, Pountknoll, Valet, Clevecombo, Swere, Netherkentcombe and Hasilbeare, co. Dorset, the castle and lordship of Warder, co. Wilts, the lordships and manors of Chellesfelde, Esthall, Faukehnm, Ayssh and Wylmyngtou, co. Kent, and Maunsfelde, Lyndeby and Clypston in Shirwode, co. Nottingham, tho castle and lordships of Horeston and Balsover, co. Derby, the lordships and manor's of Whitle and Warpesden alias Warpelesden, co. Surrey, the manors of Bondeby, co. Lincoln, and Westle, co. Suffolk, all manors, messuages, lands, rents and services late of Antony Nuthill of Holdernesse in the county of York, all burgages, messuages, lands, rents and services late of Thomas Tresham (42), knight, in the town, suburb and fields of Norhampton, the manor of Wavenden, co. Buckingham, and all other lands, rents and services in those places, with all timber and lead, late of the said Thomas Tresham (42) in the town of Norhampton, with advowsons, knights' fees, frandchises, liberties, hundreds, courts leet, views of frank-pledge, fairs, markets, warrens, fisheries, wreck of sea, chattels of felons and fugitives and all other profits, in the king's hands by reason of an act of Parliament at Westminster, 4 November, and all the issues of the same from the first day of the reign. And if he die without male heir of his body the king grants the said lordships and manors of Crukeme, Aylesbcare, Whympell, Torribrian, Ebryngton, Yeverne Courtenay, Shevyok, Antony, Portloo, Landulp, Trelowia, Northll, Landryan, Legh Durant, Oldlawitta, Penpoll, Elerky, Norton, Croftholl, Porpighan and Lavyhome with advowsons and knight's fees to George Neville, bishop of Exeter (30), John Markham, knight, chief Justice of the Bench, Robert Danby, knight, chief justice of the Common Bench, Thomas Witham (42), chancellor of the Exchequer, Thomas Cooke, citizen and alderman of London, Robert Ingleton, John Payntour and Thomas Graveson for twelve years from his death.

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Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 04 Aug 1462. Westminster Palace. Commission to Humphrey Bourghchier of Cromwell, Walter Blount and John Greseley, knights, John Bothe, Nicholas Fitzherbert, Nicholas Stathom, John Tunsted, James Hopwode and the sheriff of Derby to arrest in the counties of Derby, Nottingham or York and imprison Richard Ghiitford of Retford, co. Nottingham, and his abettors, who wander about the county of Derby and stir up the king's subjects to rebellion and have imprisoned certain of the king's officers.

The like to Humphrey Bourghchier of Cromwell, Robert Clyfton and Robert Strclley, knights, John Stanhope, Richard Wilughby, Thomas Nevill of Rolleston, William Merynges, Thomas Nevill of Southleverton and the sheriff of Nottingham.

The like to John Neviie of Mountague, Ralph de Graystok, Thomas Lomley, James Strangweys, Robert Constable, John Conyers, John Melton and John Constable, knights, Thomas Wytham (42), John Hastynges, Brian Roclyff, Henry Sothehill, Edmund Fitzwiliiam, William Burgh, Richard Pygot, Nicholas Girlyngton, Ralph Ayssheton, Robert Nevyle, John Thwaytes, Guy Fairefax, William Scargill, Percival Grisaker, William Eland, John Wenslagh, John Vavasour, John Haitfeld, John Grenefeld and the sheriff of York.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 20 Aug 1462. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to Thomas Witham (42), from Michaelmas last, for his good service to the king and his father Richard, late duke of York, of 20l. yearly from the fee farm of the town of Scardeburgh and the manor of Walgrave and from 60 acres of land and the issues of the town.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1463. 13 Mar 1463. Westminster Palace. Commission to James Strangways, knight, Thomas Witham (43), chancellor of the Exchequer, Thomas Mouutford, esquire, John Laton, esquire, and Ralph Assheton, esquire, to enquire by oath of good men of the county of York whether Joan Faucombregge, late countess of Kent (56), is an idiot and incapable of the government of herself and her possessions, whether she has alienated any of her lands, and who is her next heir.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1465. 16 Nov 1465. Westminster Palace. Licence for Thomas Witham (45), esquire, and his executors to found a perpetual chantry of one chaplain to celebrate divine service daily at the altar of Holy Trinity and St. Giles in a church or chapel newly built by him at Corneburgh, co. York, for the good estate of the king and the said Thomas and Agnes his wife and for their souls after death and the souls of the king's father Richard, duke of York, Richard, earl of Salisbury, and Alice his wife and the relatives and benefactors of the said Thomas and Agnes and all for whom the said Thomas is in any way bound to pray, to be called the chantry of Thomas Witham, esquire; and for the alienation in mortmain to the said chaplain by the said Thomas and Agnes and their executors and assigns of lands, rents, services and possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 10 marks yeaiiy.

By E. and for lOOs, paid in the hanaper.

On 11 Feb 1466 Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 was born to King Edward IV (23) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (29) at Westminster Palace.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

On 20 Mar 1469 Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 was born to King Edward IV (26) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (32) at Westminster Palace. Named after her father's mother Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (53).

On 17 Aug 1473 Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- was born to King Edward IV (31) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (36) at Westminster Palace. He was created 1st Duke York 2C 1474 by his father on the same day.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

Parliament Rolls.Edward IV Oct 1472.Second Roll. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster, 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (24), and Isabel (22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and Anne (17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle (45), late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to Anne Beauchamp (47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (24) and Isabel (22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (21) and Anne (17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales (67), late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

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On 02 Nov 1475 Anne York 1475-1511 was born to King Edward IV (33) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (38) at Westminster Palace.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 16 May 1483. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's servant Henry Duke of Buckingham (28), of the offices of chief justice and chamberlain in South and North Wales, constable of the castles and counties of Kermerdyn and Cardigan, the castles of Abrustwith, co Cardigan, and Denevour in South Wales, the castle and town of Tonebigh, co. Pembroke, the castle and lordship of Kylgarvan in South Wales, the castle and town of Llan Stepham in South Wales, the lordship of Wallewynscastell in South Wales, the lordship of Westhaverford in South Wales, constable, steward, and receiver of the castle, lordshiop and manor of Uske, the castle and lordship of Carlion, the castle, lordship and manor of Dynas, the castle and a moiety of the lordship of Ewyas Lacy, the castles, lordships and manors of Belth,Clifford, Radnore, Melenyth, Montgomery, Dynbigh, Elvell and Narberth, the castle, lordship and manors of Wygmore and Holt in the marches of Wales, and the lordship and manor of Bromfield in the same marches, steward and receiver of the lordships and manors of Norton, Knyghton, Raydor, Guerthrenyon, Comotoyder, Glasbury, Weryfreton, Cherbury, Terthic, Halcetur, Kadewyn, Newton, Kyry in the marches.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 20 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's servant William Hastings (52), knight, of the office of master and worker of the king's moneys and keeper of the exchange within the Tower of London, the realm of England and the town of Calais according to the form of certain indentures, receiving the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 20 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Grant to the king's kinsman Henry Duke of Buckingham (28), of the supervision and power of array of the king's subjects in the counties of Salop, Hereford, Somerset, Dorset and Wilts. By p.s.

Coronation of Richard III

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 30 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Commission to the king's kinsman John duke of Norfolk (58), to execute the office of steward of England at the king's coronation. By K.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 30 Jun 1483 William Catesby 1450-1485 (33) was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace Grant for life to William Catesby (33), esquire, of the office of Baron of the Exchequer, receiving the accustomed fees at the Exchequer or the receipt of the Exchequer, with all rights, profits and commodities. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 15 Jul 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) was appointed Constable England. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Henry, Duke of Buckingham (28), of divers specified offices and powers in North and South Wales and the marches.

The like to the same of the office of constable of England, with the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 25 Jul 1483. John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) was appointed Lord Admiral of all England Ireland and Aquitaine. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Henry (58), duke of Norfolk, of the office of admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine, with certain specified powers and the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 14 Aug 1483 Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (27) was appointed Chief Butler of England. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Francis Lovell (27), knight, viscount Lovel, the king's chamberlain, of the office of Chief Butler of England, void by the death of Anthony, late earl Rivers (43), receiving fees of 100l yearly from the customs and prises of wines and other issues of his office, with all other profits. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. On 09 Mar 1484 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's servant Robert Brackenbury -1485 of the office of Constable of the Tower of London and 100l. yearly for his wages from the issues of the manors or lordships of Wrottell, Haveryng, Boyton, Hadlegh, Raylegh and Rocheford, co Essex, and Tunbrich, Penshurste, Middleton and Merdon and the hundred of Middleton, co Kent, with arrears from 17 July last, in lieu of a grant to him by letters patent of that date surrendered. By p.s.

Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

On 16 Mar 1485 Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (28) died at Westminster Palace. Probably of tuberculosis. The day she died there was an Eclipse of the Sun; a bad omen to some. There were rumours of foul play.

On 28 Nov 1489 Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (32) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (23) at Westminster Palace.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 27 Feb 1490 Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 (3) was created Prince of Wales at Westminster Palace.

Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (33) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502.

On 12 Nov 1549 Walter Mildmay 1521-1589 (28) was ordered by the Privy Council to examine the Westminster Palace which had been in the custody of Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (49).

In Oct 1605 Thomas Knyvet 1st Baron Knyvet 1545-1622 (60) searched and arrested Guy Fawkes whilst leaving the cellar shortly after midnight at Westminster Palace.

Gunpowder Plot

On 04 Nov 1605 William Parker 4th Baron Monteagle 14th Baron Marshal 13th Baron Morley 1575-1622 (30) searched the basement with Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (44) and discovered the gunpowder and explosives at Westminster Palace.

Around 1615 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of William Parker 4th Baron Monteagle 14th Baron Marshal 13th Baron Morley 1575-1622. In 1598 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626.

Death of Edward IV

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. This noble prince died at his palace of Westminster and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at Windsor. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another's enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

Exchequer, Westminster Palace

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 January 1660. 02 Jan 1660. Thence I went to the Temple to speak with Mr. Calthropp (36) about the 60l. due to my Lord, but missed of him, he being abroad. Then I went to Mr. Crew's (62) and borrowed 10l. of Mr. Andrewes (NOTE. Possibly John Andrews Timber Merchant) for my own use, and so went to my office, where there was nothing to do. Then I walked a great while in Westminster Hall, where I heard that Lambert (40) was coming up to London; that my Lord Fairfax (47) was in the head of the Irish brigade, but it was not certain what he would declare for. The House was to-day upon finishing the act for the Council of State, which they did; and for the indemnity to the soldiers; and were to sit again thereupon in the afternoon. Great talk that many places have declared for a free Parliament; and it is believed that they will be forced to fill up the House with the old members. From the Hall I called at home, and so went to Mr. Crew's (62) (my wife (19) she was to go to her father's), thinking to have dined, but I came too late, so Mr. Moore and I and another gentleman went out and drank a cup of ale together in the new market, and there I eat some bread and cheese for my dinner. After that Mr. Moore and I went as far as Fleet-street together and parted, he going into the City, I to find Mr. Calthrop (36), but failed again of finding him, so returned to Mr. Crew's (62) again, and from thence went along with Mrs. Jemimah home, and there she taught me how to play at cribbage. Then I went home, and finding my wife (19) gone to see Mrs. Hunt, I went to Will's, and there sat with Mr. Ashwell talking and singing till nine o'clock, and so home, there, having not eaten anything but bread and cheese, my wife (19) cut me a slice of brawn which I received from my Lady; which proves as good as ever I had any. So to bed, and my wife (19) had a very bad night of it through wind and cold.

Around 1652. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of General John Lambert 1619-1684.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 January 1660. 03 Jan 1660. Tuesday. I went out in the morning, it being a great frost, and walked to Mrs. Turner's (8) to stop her from coming to see me to-day, because of Mrs. Jem's coming, thence I went to the Temple to speak with Mr. Calthrop (36), and walked in his chamber an hour, but could not see him, so went to Westminster, where I found soldiers in my office to receive money, and paid it them. At noon went home, where Mrs. Jem, her maid, Mr. Sheply, Hawly, and Moore dined with me on a piece of beef and cabbage, and a collar of brawn. We then fell to cards till dark, and then I went home with Mrs. Jem, and meeting Mr. Hawly got him to bear me company to Chancery Lane, where I spoke with Mr. Calthrop (36), he told me that Sir James Calthrop was lately dead, but that he would write to his Lady, that the money may be speedily paid. Thence back to White Hall, where I understood that the Parliament had passed the act for indemnity to the soldiers and officers that would come in, in so many days, and that my Lord Lambert (40) should have benefit of the said act. They had also voted that all vacancies in the House, by the death of any of the old members, shall be filled up; but those that are living shall not be called in. Thence I went home, and there found Mr. Hunt and his wife, and Mr. Hawly, who sat with me till ten at night at cards, and so broke up and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 January 1660. 04 Jan 1660. Wednesday Early came Mr. Vanly to me for his half-year's rent, which I had not in the house, but took his man to the office and there paid him. Then I went down into the Hall and to Will's, where Hawly brought a piece of his Cheshire cheese, and we were merry with it. Then into the Hall again, where I met with the Clerk and Quarter Master of my Lord's (34) troop, and took them to the Swan and gave them their morning's draft, they being just come to town. Mr. Jenkins shewed me two bills of exchange for money to receive upon my Lord's and my pay. It snowed hard all this morning, and was very cold, and my nose was much swelled with cold. Strange the difference of men's talk! Some say that Lambert must of necessity yield up; others, that he is very strong, and that the Fifth-monarchy-men [will] stick to him, if he declares for a free Parliament. Chillington was sent yesterday to him with the vote of pardon and indemnity from the Parliament.

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 January 1660. 05 Jan 1660. Thursday. I went to my office, where the money was again expected from the Excise office, but none brought, but was promised to be sent this afternoon. I dined with Mr. Sheply, at my Lord's lodgings, upon his turkey pie. And so to my office again; where the Excise money was brought, and some of it told to soldiers till it was dark.

House of Commons, Westminster Palace

On 11 May 1812 Spencer Perceval 1762-1812 (49) was assassinated at House of Commons.

Old Palace Yard, Westminster Palace

On 29 Oct 1618 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (64) was beheaded at Old Palace Yard. He was buried in St Margaret's Church.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1598 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1588 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618.

On 09 Mar 1649 at the Old Palace Yard three Royalist Lords were beheaded ...

Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 (41) was beheaded. His son Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1632-1683 (17) succeeded 2nd Baron Capell Hadham.

Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 (58) was beheaded. His son Robert Rich 5th Earl Warwick 2nd Earl Holland 1619-1675 (30) succeeded 2nd Earl Holland. Elizabeth Ingram Countess Holland 1623-1661 (26) by marriage Countess Holland.

James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 (42) was beheaded. His brother William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton 1616-1651 (32) succeeded 2nd Duke Hamilton by special remainder.

John Owen 1600-1666 (49) had been sentenced to death but was subsequently pardoned.

Around 1647 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649. In 1634 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649. 1639. Follower of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649.

On 07 Dec 1661 Bishop Nicholas Monck 1610-1661 (51) died at Old Palace Yard.

Painted Chamber

New Palace Yard

St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Palace

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard Duke of Gloucester (19) and Anne Neville (16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Gloucester.

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son Richard of Shrewsbury (4) and Anne Mowbray (5) were married at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She had recently inherited the vast Mowbray inheritance when her father John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (33) died in 1476. The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters Elizabeth (11), Mary (10) and Cecily (8). The day before Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (35) was knighted. In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (4) would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (53) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death).

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

After 09 Apr 1483 King Edward IV lay in state at St Stephen's Chapel.

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of King Edward IV (40) was moved to St Stephen's Chapel. Edward Story Bishop of Chichester -1503 sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68), Chamberlain to Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 30 Mar 1553 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (63) was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury at St Stephen's Chapel by John Longland Bishop of Lincoln -1547, John Vesey aka Harman Bishop of Exeter 1462-1555 (91) and Henry Standish Bishop of St Asaph 1475-1535 (78).

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.

Star Chamber, Westminster Palace

On 28 Nov 1449 William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (34) attacked Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 (46) at Star Chamber.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 July 1666. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the King (36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (49) and Bishop of Winchester (47), where the Dean of Westminster (31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (32) second son, now born at St. James's; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 July 1666. 12 Jul 1666. We sat the first time in the Star-chamber. There was now added to our commission Sir George Downing (41) (one that had been a great ... against his Majesty (36), but now insinuated into his favor; and, from a pedagogue and fanatic preacher, not worth a groat, had become excessively rich), to inspect the hospitals and treat about prisons.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 August 1666. 28 Aug 1666. Sat at the Star-chamber. Next day, to the Royal Society, where one Mercator, an excellent mathematician, produced his rare clock and new motion to perform the equations, and Mr. Rooke, his new pendulum.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 August 1667. 29 Aug 1667. We met at the Star Chamber about exchange and release of prisoners.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 April 1672. 17 Apr 1672. Sat on business in the Star Chamber.

Westminster Hall

Westminster Palace Yard

On 29 Jun 1612 Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar -1612 was hanged in Westminster Palace Yard for having arranged the murder of his fencing Master John Painter Turner who had previously disfigured him during practice. At his trial Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (51) read the charges.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619, whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 who was attached to the English Embassy at the time. In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626.

Westminster Stairs, Westminster Palace

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 February 1661. 03 Feb 1661. So up to my Lady, and sat and talked with her long, and so to Westminster Stairs, and there took boat to the bridge, and so home, where I met with letters to call us all up to-morrow morning to Whitehall about office business.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 December 1661. 04 Dec 1661. To Whitehall with both Sir Williams, thence by water, where I saw a man lie dead upon Westminster Stairs that had been drowned yesterday.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 September 1662. 14 Sep 1662. Lord's Day. Up very early, and Mr. Moore taking leave of me the barber came and trimmed me (I having him now to come to me again after I have used a pumice-stone a good while, not but what I like this where I cannot conveniently have a barber, but here I cannot keep my hair dry without one), and so by water to White Hall, by the way hearing that the Bishop of London (64) had given a very strict order against boats going on Sundays, and as I come back again, we were examined by the masters of the company in another boat; but I told them who I was. But the door not being open to Westminster Stairs there, called in at the Legg and drank a cup of ale and a toast, which I have not done many a month before, but it served me for my two glasses of wine to-day.

Thence to St. James's to Mr. Coventry (34), and there staid talking privately with him an hour in his chamber of the business of our office, and found him to admiration good and industrious, and I think my most true friend in all things that are fair. He tells me freely his mind of every man and in every thing.

Thence to White Hall chapel, where sermon almost done, and I heard Captain Cooke's (46) new musique. This the first day of having vialls and other instruments to play a symphony between every verse of the anthem; but the musique more full than it was the last Sunday, and very fine it is1. But yet I could discern Captain Cooke (46) to overdo his part at singing, which I never did before.

Thence up into the Queen's (23) presence, and there saw the Queen (23) again as I did last Sunday, and some fine ladies with her; but, my troth, not many.

Thence to Sir G. Carteret's (52), and find him to have sprained his foot and is lame, but yet hath been at chappell, and my Lady much troubled for one of her daughters that is sick. I dined with them, and a very pretty lady, their kinswoman, with them. My joy is, that I do think I have good hold on Sir George (52) and Mr. Coventry (34). Sir George (52) told me of a chest of drawers that were given Sir W. B. by Hughes the rope-maker, whom he has since put out of his employment, and now the fellow do cry out upon Sir W. for his cabinet.

So home again by water and to church, and from church Sir Williams both and Sir John Minnes (63) into the garden, and anon Sir W. Pen (41) and I did discourse about my lodgings and Sir J. Minnes (63), and I did open all my mind to him, and he told me what he had heard, and I do see that I shall hardly keep my best lodging chamber, which troubles me, but I did send for Goodenough the plasterer, who tells me that it did ever belong to my lodgings, but lent by Mr. Payles to Mr. Smith, and so I will strive hard for it before I lose it.

So to supper with them at Sir W. Batten's (61), and do counterfeit myself well pleased, but my heart is troubled and offended at the whole company.

So to my office to prepare notes to read to the Duke to-morrow morning, and so to my lodgings and to bed, my mind a little eased because I am resolved to know the worst concerning my lodgings tomorrow. Among other things Sir W. Pen (41) did tell me of one of my servants looking into Sir J. Minnes' (63) window when my Lady Batten lay there, which do much trouble them, and me also, and I fear will wholly occasion my loosing the leads. One thing more he told me of my Jane's cutting off a carpenter's long mustacho, and how the fellow cried, and his wife would not come near him a great while, believing that he had been among some of his wenches. At which I was merry, though I perceive they discourse of it as a crime of hers, which I understand not.

1. Charles II determined to form his own chapel on the model of that at Versailles. Twenty-four instrumentalists were engaged, and this was the first day upon which they were brought into requisition. Evelyn alludes to the change in his Diary, but he puts the date down as the 21st instead of the 14th. "Instead of the antient, grave and solemn wind musiq accompanying the organ, was introduc'd a concert of 24 violins between every pause after the French fantastical light way, better suiting a tavern or playhouse than a church. This was the first time of change, and now we no more heard the cornet which gave life to the organ, that instrument quite left off in which the English were so skilful". A list of the twenty-four fiddlers in 1674, taken from an Exchequer document, "The names of the Gents of his Majesties Private Musick paid out of the Exchequer", is printed in North's "Memoires of Musick", ed. Rimbault, 1846, p. 98 (note).

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 January 1684. 09 Jan 1684. I went crosse the Thames on the ice, now become so thick as to beare not onely streetes of boothes, in which they roasted meate, and had divers shops of wares, quite acrosse as in a towne, but coaches, carts, and horses, passed over. So I went from Westminster Stayres to Lambeth, and din'd with the Archbishop (66): where I met my Lord Bruce, Sir Geo. Wheeler (32), Coll. Cooke, and severall divines. After dinner and discourse with his Grace till evening prayers, Sir Geo. Wheeler (32) and I walked over the ice from Lambeth Stayres to the horse ferry.

Westminster Bridge, Westminster Palace

Around 1746. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (48). The City of Westminster from River Thames near the York Water Gate with Westminster Bridge under construction.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (49). Westminster Bridge, with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the Thames.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (52). Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House In the distance the Banqueting House, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Watling Street 1c Rochester to London. From Durobrivae the road continues through Park Pale, Vagniacis, Dartford, Noviomagus, Bexley, down Shooter's Hill past Eltham Common to Greenwich Park where the road either (or both):

1. went along the Old Kent Road and crossed the River Thames at either the London Bridge or a ford near Westminster Bridge after which it continued north past St Mary le Bow Church Cheapside, Newgate Gate, Ludgate Hill and over the River Fleet at Fleet Bridge to Marble Arch.

2. continued north-west through Camberwell crossing the River Thames near Vauxhall Bridge after which it continued north to Marble Arch.