Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and East Anglia was appointed Earl East Anglia.
Around 1024 [his daughter] Ealdgyth Mercia was born to Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and East Anglia.
Px In nomine domini nostri Iesu Christi. Omnis quidem susceptio et datio passionum terrarum melius litterarum exemplis confirmanda sit ne in posterum aliquis testamenti confirmationem ignorans presumptionis peccatum uel direptionis incaute crimen incurrat. Qua de re ego EADWARD (age 39) rex regali fretus dignitate aliquam terram cuidam fideli meo ministro uocitato nomine ORDGAR - unum dimidium mansam in loco ubi dictum est Littleham; cum sylua ad se pertinente in australi parte in hereditatem perennem impendere curaui. Sit uero predictum rus ab omni seculari grauedine expers. nisi expeditione pontis arcisue munitione. Quicumque hoc decretum minuere seu transmutare satagerit; noscat se reum esse in die iudicii coram Christo et sanctis eius. Terra autem ista his terminibus circumdatur. Ðis syndon þære healfan hide landgemæro æt Lytlanhamme. Ærest on Exanmuðan. þonne up on stryem. be norðan lydewicnæsse on þone norþran mere. up andlang riðan of þone æwylm. þanone east rihte to hafocys setle. þanone east rihte to þan hricgwege. andlang þæs hricgweges. on þa ealdan dic. east andlang þære dic of þære wega gelæto be norðan ðam fulan landa. þanon norð on þone grenan weg on auan ford. of þam fordan up andlang stryemes on þone sele. of þam sele norð on þone grenan weg to þam slæde. east up andlang þæs slædes to ðære plegin stowe. þonne to þan herpaðe. andlang þæs herpaðas to fugelis beorh dune. andlang þære dune to fuhgeles beorhge. fram þam beorhge suð to ellewurðie. þanon to þan broce. adun þonne andlang þæs broces eft ut on sæ: - Acta est autem hec prefata donatio anno ab incarnatione domini nostri Iesu Christi. millesimo. xl. ii. indictione. x.
Ego Eadweard rex Britannie totius Anglorum (age 39) monarchus hoc agie Crucis taumate roboraui.
Eadsige Dorobernensis ecclesie archiepiscopus eiusdem regis principatum et beniuolentiam sub sigillo Sancte Crucis conclusi.
Ego Ælfgyfu (age 57) regina humillima adiuui.
Ego Ælfwine episcopus assensum prebui.
Ego Byrhtwold episcopus dictando titulaui.
Ego Dudoc episcopus consolidaui.
Ego Lyfing episcopus dignum duxi.
Ego [his uncle] Godwine dux.
Ego Sigwerd dux.
Ego [his father] Leofric dux.
Ego Sigwerd abbas.
Ego Ælfwine abbas.
Ego Odda (age 49) minister.
Ego Ordgar minister.
Ego Ælfgar minister.
Ego Godwine minister.
Ego Æþelric minister.
Ego Toky minister.
Ego Toui minister.
Ego Dodda minister.
Ego Ælfwerd minister.
Ego Osmær minister.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (age 36), who had the sister of King Edward (age 48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover [Map]. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover [Map], he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (age 36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (age 36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (age 48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (age 48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin (age 50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover [Map]. For Eustace (age 36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (age 50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (age 50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (age 30), his son, over his; and Harold (age 29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, Gloucestershire, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (age 36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (age 48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after [his father] Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (age 41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (age 48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (age 48), that they would seek Godwin's (age 50) army if the king (age 48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (age 41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (age 50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, Surrey [Map], and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (age 48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (age 29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (age 30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (age 48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (age 48) held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (age 50) and his wife, and all his three sons - Sweyne (age 30) and Tosty (age 25) and Grith (age 19). And he went south to Thorney67, with his wife, and Sweyne (age 30) his son, and Tosty (age 25) and his wife (age 18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (age 38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria (age 18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38)], and his son Grith (age 19). Earl Harold (age 29) with Leofwine (age 16) went to Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map] in the ship that Earl Sweyne (age 30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (age 48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (age 30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (age 48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (age 50), and Earl Sweyne (age 30), and Earl Harold (age 29), together at Beverstone [Map], and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (age 48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (age 48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (age 48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (age 48). There was now assembled before the king (age 48)68 Earl Siward (age 41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (age 50) and his sons, that the king (age 48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (age 48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (age 48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (age 48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (age 30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Harold (age 29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (age 48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (age 48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (age 48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Sweyne (age 30) to Bosham [Map], and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (age 38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (age 29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (age 48) security.
It was from Thorney69 that Godwin (age 50) and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's (age 38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (age 48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (age 48) darlings; and his daughter (age 25) wedded and united to the king (age 48). Soon after this took place, the king (age 48) dismissed the lady (age 25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell [Map]. Soon after came Earl William (age 23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (age 48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (age 23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (age 29) before possessed.
Note 67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.
Note 68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.
Note 69. Now Westminster.
John of Worcester. 1053. Rhys, the brother of Griffyth, king of South Wales, was put to death by order of king Edward (age 50) at a place called Bullington [Map], on account of the plundering inroads he had frequently made, and his head was brought to the king at Gloucester on the eve of our Lord's Epiphany [5th January]. In the same year, on the second day of the festival of Easter [12th April], which was celebrated at Winchester [Map], earl Godwin (age 52) came to his end while he was sitting at table with the king, according to his usual custom; for, being suddenly seized with a violent illness, he fell speechless from his seat. His sons, earl Harold (age 31), Tosti (age 27), and Gurth (age 21), perceiving it, carried him into the king's chamber, hoping that he would presently recover; but his strength failing, he died in great suffering on the fifth day afterwards [15th April], and was buried in the Old Minster. His son Harold (age 31) succeeded to his earldom, and Harold's (age 31) earldom was given to Algar, son of earl [his father] Leofric.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 15 Apr 1053. In this year was the king (age 50) at Winchester [Map], at Easter; and Earl Godwin (age 52) with him, and Earl Harold (age 31) his son, and Tosty (age 27). On the day after Easter sat he with the king at table; when he suddenly sunk beneath against the foot-rail, deprived of speech and of all his strength. He was brought into the king's chamber; and they supposed that it would pass over: but it was not so. He continued thus speechless and helpless till the Thursday; when he resigned his life, on the seventeenth before the calends of May; and he was buried at Winchester in the old minster. Earl Harold (age 31), his son, took to the earldom that his father had before, and to all that his father possessed; whilst Earl Elgar took to the earldom that Harold (age 31) had before. The Welshmen this year slew a great many of the warders of the English people at Westbury, Wiltshire [Map]. This year there was no archbishop in this land: but Bishop Stigand held the see of Canterbury at Christ church, and Kinsey that of York. Leofwine and Wulfwy went over sea, and had themselves consecrated bishops there. Wulfwy took to the bishopric which Ulf had whilst he was living and in exile.
Flowers of History 1055. 1055. In the same year, Siward, duke of Northumberland (age 45), died, and king Eadward (age 52) conferred that dukedom on Tosti (age 29), duke Harold's (age 33) brother. Not long after this, king Eadward (age 52) held a council at London, and banished from England earl Algar, who thereupon went into Ireland, where he got eighteen piratical vessels, and joining himself to [his future son-in-law] GGriffin king of Wales, made incursions into the kingdom of England. Having invaded Herefordshire, they were met by duke Ranulph, son of king Eadward's sister; but at the first onset Ranulph and his men fled; whereupon Algar and Griffin pursued the fugitives and slew five hundred of them. After this victory they entered the city of Hereford, and having slain seven ecclesiastics who defended the doors of the cathedral, they burned that church with its ornaments and relics. Then, after slaying some of the inhabitants, and taking others captives, and burning the town, they retired with a rich booty. On hearing of this deed, king Eadward assembled a large army at Gloucester, and giving it in command to Harold, son of Godwin, he ordered him to make a fierce attack on the enemy. Accordingly, he boldly entered Wales and advanced with his army as far as Snowdon; but Algar and Griffin, well acquainted with Harold's valour, avoided an encounter. After terribly ravaging Wales, Harold marched to Hereford, which he environed with a broad and high rampart, and strengthened the city with gates and bars. At length, by the intervention of messengers, a peace of short duration was made between Algar and the king. In the same year, Hermann bishop of Ramesbury, annoyed at the king's refusal to allow the episcopal seat to be transferred to Salisbury, resigned his bishopric, and crossing the sea, assumed the monastic habit at St. Bertin's, and remained three years in that monastery. The first bishop of Ramesbury was Ethelstan, the second Odo, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, the third Osulf, the fourth Algar, the fifth Elstan, the sixth Siric, the seventh Alfric, the eighth Brithwold, who continued from the time of king Ethelred to St. Eadward. We read of this Brithwold, that in the time of king Cnute, he would frequently turn his thoughts to the English royal race, then well nigh destroyed, and would wonder whether it would ever be restored, and that one night, as he lay on his bed musing on this subject, he was caught up on high, where he saw Peter, the prince of the apostles, holding in his arms Eadward the future king, then in Normandy, whom he consecrated to be king, and foretold that he would lead a life of celibacy and reign twenty-four years. It is said also that Brithwold inquired respecting the succession of the kincrs of England, and received this answer, " The kingdom of England belongs to God, and he will provide himself kings." The aforesaid Hermann returned to his bishopric, and, with king Eadward's leave, united the bishopric of Sherborne with that of Ramesbury, and transferred the cathedral see to Salisbury.
John of Worcester. 1055. Siward (age 45), earl of Northumberland, died at York, and was buried in the monastery at Galmanho [Map]72, which he had himself founded: his earldom was given to Tosti (age 29), earl Harold's (age 33) brother. Shortly afterwards, king Edward (age 52), in a council held at London, banished earl Algar, earl [his father] Leofric's son, without any just cause of offence. Algar presently went to Ireland, and having collected eighteen pirate ships, returned with them to Wales, where he implored Griffyth the king to lend him his aid against king Edward. [his future son-in-law] Griffyth immediately assembled a numerous army from all parts of his dominions, and directed Algar to join him and his army at a place appointed with his own troops; and having united their forces they entered Herefordshire, intending to lay waste the English marshes.
John of Worcester. 1055. On receiving intelligence of this calamity, the king immediately commanded an army to be levied from every part of England, and on its being assembled at Gloucester, gave the command of it to the brave earl Harold (age 33), who, zealously obeying the king's orders, was unwearied in his pursuit of [his future son-in-law] Griffyth and Algar, and boldly crossing the Welsh border, encamped beyond Straddell [Snowdon]; but they knowing him to be an intrepid and daring warrior, did not venture to wait his attack, but retreated into South Wales. On learning this, he left there the greatest part of his army, with orders to make a stout resistance to the enemy if circumstances should require it; and returning with the remainder of his host to Hereford, he surrounded it with a wide and deep trench, and fortified it with gates and bars. Meanwhile, after an interchange of messages, Griffyth, Algar, and Harold (age 33), with their attendants, met at a place called Biligesteagea, and peace being proposed and accepted, they contracted a firm alliance with each other. After these events, earl Algar's fleet [of pirates] sailed to Chester [Map], and waited there for the hire he had engaged to pay them; but he himself went to court and restored by the king to his earldom. At that time died Tremerin, a Welsh bishop,[Bishop of St Davids] who had been a monk. He was, for a long time, coadjutor to Athelstan, bishop of Hereford, after Athelstan became incapable of performing his episcopal functions, having been blind for thirteen years. Heriman, bishop of Wiltshire, being offended at the king's refusing to allow him to remove the seat of his bishopric from the vill called Ramsbury to the abbey of Malmesbury, resigned his bishopric and, going beyond sea, took the monastic habit at St. Bertin, [an abbey near St Omer] in which monastery he abode for three years.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 24 Oct 1055. This year died Earl Siward at York; and his body lies within the minster at Galmanho76, which he had himself ordered to be built and consecrated, in the name of God and St. Olave, to the honour of God and to all his saints. Archbishop Kinsey fetched his pall from Pope Victor. Then, within a little time after, a general council was summoned in London, seven nights before mid-Lent; at which Earl Elgar, son of Earl Leofric, was outlawed almost without any guilt; because it was said against him that he was the betrayer of the king and of all the people of the land. And he was arraigned thereof before all that were there assembled, though the crime laid to his charge was unintentional. The king, however, gave the earldom, which Earl Siward formerly had, to Tosty (age 29), son of Earl Godwin. Whereupon Earl Elgar sought [his future son-in-law] Griffin's territory in North-Wales; whence he went to Ireland, and there gave him a fleet of eighteen ships, besides his own; and then returned to Wales to King Griffin with the armament, who received him on terms of amity. And they gathered a great force with the Irishmen and the Welsh: and Earl Ralph collected a great army against them at the town of Hereford [Map]; where they met; but ere there was a spear thrown the English people fled, because they were on horses. The enemy then made a great slaughter there-about four hundred or five hundred men; they on the other side none. They went then to the town, and burned it utterly; and the large minster [Map]77 also which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be built, that they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and of all things whatever; and the people they slew, and led some away. Then an army from all parts of England was gathered very nigh;78 and they came to Gloucester: whence they sallied not far out against the Welsh, and there lay some time. And Earl Harold (age 33) caused the dike to be dug about the town the while. Meantime men began to speak of peace; and Earl Harold (age 33) and those who were with him came to Bilsley, where amity and friendship were established between them. The sentence of outlawry against Earl Elgar was reversed; and they gave him all that was taken from him before. The fleet returned to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which Elgar promised them. The slaughter was on the ninth before the calends of November. In the same year died Tremerig, the Welsh bishop, soon after the plundering; who was Bishop Athelstan's substitute, after he became infirm.
Note 76 The church, dedicated to St. Olave, was given by Alan Earl of Richmond, about thirty-three years afterwards, to the first abbot of St. Mary's in York, to assist him in the construction of the new abbey. It appears from a MS. quoted by Leland, that Bootham-bar was formerly called "Galman-hithe", not Galmanlith, as printed by Tanner and others.
Note 77 Called St. Ethelbert's minster; because the relics of the holy King Ethelbert were there deposited and preserved.
Note 78 The place where this army was assembled, though said to be very nigh to Hereford, was only so with reference to the great distance from which some part of the forces came; as they were gathered from all England. They met, I conjecture, on the memorable spot called "Harold's Cross", near Cheltenham, and thence proceeded, as here stated, to Gloucester.
John of Worcester. 24 Oct 1055. Earl Ralph, the cowardly son of king Edward's (age 52) sister, having assembled an army, fell in with the enemy two miles from the city of Hereford [Map], on the ninth of the calends of November [24th October]. He ordered the English, contrary to their custom, to fight on horseback; but just as the engagement was about to commence, the earl, with his French and Normans, were the first to flee. The English seeing this, followed their leader's example, and nearly the whole of the enemy's army going in pursuit, four or five hundred of the fugitives were killed, and many were wounded. Having gained the victory, king [his future son-in-law] Griffyth and earl Algar entered Hereford [Map], and having slain seven of the canons who defended the doors of the principal church, and burnt the monastery built by bishop Athelstan, that true servant of Christ, with all its ornaments, and the relics of St. Ethelbert, king and martyr, and other saints, and having slain some of the citizens, and made many other captives, they returned laden with spoil.
Around 1057 [his son-in-law] Gruffydd ap Llywelyn King Wales and [his daughter] Ealdgyth Mercia (age 33) were married. She the daughter of Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and East Anglia. He the son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll King Gwynedd King Powys King Deheubarth and Angharad ferch Maredudd.
John of Worcester. 1057. The renowned [his father] Leofric, son of the ealdorman Leofwine, of blessed memory, died in a good old age, at his own vill of Bromley, on the second of the calends of September [31st August], and was buried with great pomp at Coventry; which monastery, among the other good deeds of his life, he and his wife, the noble countess [his mother] Godiva, a worshipper of God, and devoted friend of St. Mary, Ever-a-Virgin, had founded, and amply endowing it with lands on their own patrimony, had so enriched with all kinds of ornament, that no monastery could be found in England possessed of such abundance of gold, silver, jewels, and precious stones as it contained at that time. They also enriched, with valuable ornaments, the monasteries of Leominster and Wenlock, and those at Chester dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. Werburgh, the virgin, and the church which Eadnoth, bishop of Lincoln, had built on a remarkable spot, called in English St. Mary's Stow [Map]73, which means in Latin St. Mary's place. They also gave lands to the monastery at Worcester, and added to the buildings, ornaments, and endowments of Evesham abbey. During his whole life, this earl's sagacity was of the utmost advantage to the kings and the whole commonwealth of England. His son Algar was appointed to his earldom.
Note 73. Henry of Huntingdon describes it as "under the hill at Lincoln;" but Bishop Farmer says that "Stowe was in the bishop's manor by Trent side." The priory of Stowe, or Mary-Stowe, was annexed to Eynsham abbey, in Oxfordshire.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1057. The same year died [his father] Earl Leofric, on the second before the calends of October; who was very wise before God, and also before the world; and who benefited all this nation.80 He lies at Coventry81: and his son Elgar took to his territory.
Note 80. See more concerning him in Florence of Worcester. His lady, Godiva, is better known at Coventry. See her story at large in Bromton and Matthew of Westminster.
Note 81. He died at his villa at Bromleage (Bromley in Staffordshire).—Flor.
John of Worcester. 1058. Algar, earl of Mercia, was outlawed by king Edward (age 55) for the second time, but, supported by [his son-in-law] Griffyth, king of Wales, and aided by a Norwegian fleet, which unexpectedly came to his relief, he speedily recovered his earldom by force of arms. Pope Stephen died on the third of the calends of April [30th March]. He was succeeded by Benedict, who sent the pallium to Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury. Æthelric was ordained bishop of Sussex; and abbot Siward was consecrated bishop of Rochester. Aldred, bishop of Worcester, dedicated with great ceremony to Peter, prince of the apostles, the church [Map] which he had built from the foundations in the city of Worcester, and afterwards, with the king's license, appointed Wulfstan (age 50), a monk of Worcester, ordained by him, abbot of the new foundation. Then, having resigned the bishopric of Wilton, which he held in commendam, and restored it to Heriman, before mentioned, he crossed the sea, and went through Hungary to Jerusalem; a pilgrimage which no English archbishop or bishop is known to have performed before.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1058. This year was Earl Elgar banished: but he soon came in again by force, through [his son-in-law] Griffin's assistance: and a naval armament came from Norway. It is tedious to tell how it all fell out. In this same year Bishop Aldred consecrated the minster church [Map] at Gloucester, which he himself had raised82 to the honour of God and St. Peter; and then went to Jerusalem83 with such dignity as no other man did before him, and betook himself there to God. A worthy gift he also offered to our Lord's sepulchre; which was a golden chalice of the value of five marks, of very wonderful workmanship. In the same year died Pope Stephen; and Benedict was appointed pope. He sent hither the pall to Bishop Stigand; who as archbishop consecrated Egelric a monk at Christ church, Bishop of Sussex; and Abbot Siward Bishop of Rochester.
Note 82 He built a new church from the foundation, on a larger plan. The monastery existed from the earliest times.
Note 83 Florence of Worcester says, that he went through Hungary to Jerusalem.
Around 1060 Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and East Anglia died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1065. Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed their Earl Tosty (age 39); slaying all the men of his clan that they could reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York, with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere there find. They then sent after [his son] Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and chose him for their earl. He went south with all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he came to Northampton [Map]; where his brother [his son] Edwin came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom. Many Britons also came with him. Harold (age 43) also there met them; on whom they imposed an errand to King Edward (age 62), sending also messengers with him, and requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl. This the king granted; and sent back Harold (age 43) to them, to Northampton, on the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of Knute. But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton, whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could come at; which amounted to many thousands. Many hundred men also they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters.
[his son] Edwin Earl of Mercia was born to Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and East Anglia.
[his son] Burgheard Mercia was born to Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and East Anglia.
[his son] Morcar Earl Northumbria was born to Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and East Anglia.
Philip IV King Spain x 14
Louis I King Spain x 14
Louis XV King France x 23