Biography of Archbishop Ælfric -1051

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1023. This year returned King Knute (age 28) to England; and Thurkyll and he were reconciled. He committed Denmark and his son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with him to England. This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury. This year King Knute (age 28) in London, in St. Paul's minster [Map], gave full leave60 to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege. And they did so, on the sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy corpse over the Thames to Southwark [Map]. And there they committed the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester. There on the third day came the Lady Emma (age 38) with her royal son Hardacnute (age 5); and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs of praise, carried the holy archbishop into Canterbury Cathedral [Map], and so brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before the ides of June. Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them, lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege on the north side of the altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all humility. May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men through the holy intercession of Elphege!

Note 60. Matthew of Westminster says the king took up the body with his own hands.

John of Worcester. 1023. The body of St. Alphege, the martyr, was translated from London to Canterbury. Wulfstan, archbishop of York, died at York on the fifth of the calends of June [28th May], but his body was carried to Ely and buried there. He was succeeded by Ælfric Puttuc, provost of Winchester.

John of Worcester. 1026. Ælfric, archbishop of York, went to Rome, and received the pallium from pope John. Richard II (age 62), duke of Normandy, died, and was succeeded by Richard III (age 24), who, dying the same year, was succeeded by his brother Robert (age 25).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1026. This year went Bishop Elfric to Rome, and received the pall of Pope John on the second day before the ides of November.

John of Worcester. 1031. Canute (age 36), king of England, Denmark, and Norway, went in great state from Denmark to Rome58, and, having made rich offerings in gold, silver, and other precious objects, to St. Peter, prince of the apostles, he obtained from pope John that the English School should be free from all tribute and taxes. On his journey to Rome and back, he distributed large alms among the poor, and procured at great cost the abolition of the tolls levied at many barriers on the roads, where they were extorted from pilgrims. He also vowed to God, before the tomb of the apostles, that he would amend his life and conduct; and he sent thence a memorable letter by the hands of Living, the companion of his journey, (a man of great prudence, at that time abbot of Tavistock, and afterwards, in the course of the same year, Ednoth's successor in the see of Crediton), and others his envoys to England, while he himself came back from Rome by the same road he went there, visiting Denmark before his return to England. I think it right to subjoin the text of this letter.

"Canute (age 36), king of all England, and of Denmark, Norway, and part of Sweden, to Ethelnoth, metropolitan, and Alfric, archbishop of York, and to all the bishops and prelates, and to the whole nation of the English, both the nobles and the commons, greeting:

"I notify to you that I have lately taken a journey to Rome, to pray for the forgiveness of my sins, and for the welfare of my dominions, and the people under my rule. I had long since vowed this journey to God, but I have been hitherto prevented from accomplishing it by the affairs of my kingdom and other causes of impediment. I now return most humble thanks to my God Almighty for suffering me in my lifetime to visit the sanctuary of his apostles, SS. Peter and Paul, and all others which I could find either within or without the city of Rome, and there in person reverentially worship according to my desire. I have performed this chiefly, because I have learnt from wise men that St. Peter the apostle has received from God great power in binding and in loosing, and carries the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and therefore I esteemed it very profitable to seek his special patronage with the Lord.

"Be it known to you that, at the celebration of Easter, a great assembly of nobles was present with our lord, the pope John, and Conrad the emperor; that is to say, all the princes of the nations from Mount Garganus to the neighbouring sea. All these received me with honour and presented me with magnificent gifts; but more especially was I honoured by the emperor with various gifts and valuable presents, both in gold and silver vessels, and in palls and very costly robes. 1 spoke with the emperor himself, and the lord pope, and the princes who were there, in regard to the wants of my people, English as well as Danes; that there should be granted to them more equal justice and greater security in their journeys to Rome, and that they should not be hindered by so many barriers on the road, nor harassed by unjust tolls.

The emperor assented to my demands, as well as king Rodolph (age 60)59, in whose dominions these barriers chiefly stand; and all the princes made edicts that my people, the merchants as well as those who go to pay their devotions, shall pass to and fro in their journeys to Rome in peace, and under the security of just laws, free from all molestation by the guards of barriers or the receivers of tolls. I made further complaint to my lord the pope, and expressed my high displeasure, that my archbishops are sorely aggrieved by the demand of immense sums of money, when, according to custom, they resort to the apostolical see to obtain the pallium; and it is decreed that it should no longer be done. All things, therefore, which I requested for the good of my people from my lord the pope, and the emperor, and king Rodolph, and the other princes through whose territories our road to Rome lies, they have most freely granted, and even ratified their concessions by oath; to which four archbishops, twenty bishops, and an innumerable multitude of dukes and nobles who were there present, are witnesses. Wherefore I return most hearty thanks to Almighty God for my having successfully accomplished all that I had desired, as I had resolved in my mind, and having satisfied my wishes to the fullest extent.

"Be it known therefore to all of you, that I have humbly vowed to the Almighty God himself henceforward to amend my life in all respects, and to rule the kingdoms and the people subject to me with justice and clemency, giving equitable judgements in all matters; and if, through the intemperance of youth or negligence, I have hitherto exceeded the bounds of justice in any of my acts, I intend by God's aid to make an entire change for the better. I therefore adjure and command my counsellors to whom I have entrusted the affairs of my kingdom, that henceforth they neither commit themselves, nor suffer to prevail, any sort of injustice throughout my dominions, either from fear of me, or from favour to any powerful person. I also command all sheriffs and magistrates throughout my whole kingdom, as they tender my regard and their own safety, that they use no unjust violence to any man, rich or poor, but that all, high and low, rich or poor, shall enjoy alike impartial law; from which they are never to deviate, either on account of royal favour, respect of person in the great, or for the sake of amassing money wrongfully, for I have no need to accumulate wealth by iniquitous exactions.

"I wish you further to know, that, returning by the way I went, I am now going to Denmark to conclude a treaty for a solid peace, all the Danes concurring, with those nations and peoples who would have taken my life and crown if it had been possible; but this they were not able to accomplish, God bringing their strength to nought.—May He, of his merciful kindness, uphold me in my sovereignty and honour, and henceforth scatter and bring to nought the power and might of all my adversaries ! When, therefore, I shall have made peace within the surrounding nations, and settled and reduced to order all my dominions in the East, so that we shall have nothing to fear from war or hostilities in any quarter, I propose to return to England as early in the summer as I shall be able to fit out my fleet. I have sent this epistle before me in order, that my people may be gladdened at my success; because, as you yourselves know, I have never spared, nor will I spare, myself or my exertions, for the needful service of my whole people. I now therefore command and adjure all my bishops and the governors of my kingdom, by the duty they owe to God and myself, to take care that before I come to England all dues belonging to God, according to the old laws, be fully discharged; namely, plough-alms, the tithe of, animals born in the current year, and the pence payable to St. Peter at Rome, whether from towns or vills; and in the middle of August the tithes of corn; and at the feast of St. Martin the first-fruits of grain (payable) to every one's parish church, called in English ciric-sceat. If these and such-like dues be not paid before I come, those who make default will incur fines to the king, according to the law, which will be strictly enforced without mercy. Farewell."

Note 58. The Saxon Chronicle and Henry of Huntingdon agree with John as to the date of Canute's journey to Rome; but it was probably five or six years earlier. Wippo, a contemporary writer, places it in 1027.

Note 59. Rudolph "Idle" III King Burgundy (age 60). Note some sources refer to Rudolph "Pious" II King Burgundy II King Italy but he would have been dead one hundred years before.

John of Worcester. 1040. Harold (age 24), king of England, died at London, and was buried at Westminster. After his funeral, the nobles of almost the whole of England sent envoys to Hardicanute (age 22) at Bruges, where he was staying with his mother (age 55), and, thinking it was for the best, invited him to come to England and ascend the throne. Thereupon, he fitted out fifty ships, and embarking Danish troops, before midsummer sailed over to England, where he was received with universal joy, and shortly afterwards crowned; but during his government he did nothing worthy his royal power. For as soon as he began to reign, calling to mind the injuries which both he and his mother had suffered at the hands of his predecessor, and reputed brother, king Harold (age 24), he despatched to London, Ælfric, archbishop of York, and earl Godwin (age 39), with Stor, the master of his household, Edric, his steward, Thrond, captain of his guards, and other men of high rank, with orders to dig up the body of Harold (age 24) and throw it into a sewer; and when it was thrown there, he caused it to be dragged out and cast into the river Thames. Shortly afterwards, it was picked up by a fisherman, and being immediately brought to the Danes, was honourably buried by them in a cemetery they possessed at London.60 After this, he ordered that eight marks should be paid to every rower in his fleet, and twelve to each steersman, to be levied from the whole of England; a tax so burthensome, that scarcely any one would pay it, and he became thoroughly detested by those who at first were most anxious for his coming. Besides, he was greatly incensed against earl Godwin (age 39), and Living, bishop of Worcester, for the death of his brother Alfred, of which they were accused by Ælfric, archbishop of York, and some others. In consequence, he took the bishopric of Worcester from Living and gave it to Ælfric; but the following year, he ejected Ælfric and graciously restored Living, who had made his peace with him.

Note 60. The cemetery of St Clement-Danes, where the Northmen had a settlement on the bank of the Thames, outside the walls of London. The Saxon Chronicle is silent as to Harold's corpse being thrown into the Thames and fished up, but Henry of Huntingdon gives the same account as our author.

John of Worcester. 1041. This year Hardicanute (age 23), king of England, sent his house-carls62 through all the provinces of his kingdom to collect the tribute which he had imposed. Two of them, Feader and Thurstan, were slain on the 4th of the ides [the 4th] of May, by the citizens of Worcester, Worcestershire [Map] and the people of that neighbourhood, in an upper chamber of the abbey-tower, where they had concealed themselves during a tumult. This so incensed the king, that to avenge their deaths he sent Thorold, earl of Middlesex, Leofric, earl of Mercia, Godwin (age 40), earl of Wessex, Siward (age 31), earl of Northumbria, Boni, earl of Hereford, and all the other English earls, with almost all his house-carls, and a large body of troops, to Worcester, Worcestershire [Map], where Ælfric was still bishop, with orders to put to death all the inhabitants they could find, to plunder and burn the city, and lay waste the whole province.

Note 62. The Danish body-guards.

Coronation of Edward the Confessor

John of Worcester. 1043. Edward (age 40) was anointed king at Winchester on the first day of Easter, being the third of the nones [the 3rd] of April, by Eadsige, archbishop of Canterbury, Jilric, archbishop of York, and nearly all the bishops of England. In the same year, fourteen days before the feast-day of St. Andrew the apostle [16th November], the king went suddenly and unexpectedly from the city of Gloucester to Winchester, accompanied by the earls Godwin (age 42), Leofric, and Siward (age 33); and by their advice took from his mother (age 58) all the gold, silver, jewels, precious stones, and other valuables she possessed, because she had been less liberal to him than he expected, and had treated him harshly both before and after he was king. Notwithstanding, he gave orders for her being supplied with all necessaries, and ordered her to remain there quiet.

Charter S999 King Edward to Ælfstan. A.D. 1043. King Edward (age 40) to Ælfstan, his minister; grant of 10 hides (mansae) at Sevington in Leigh Delamere, Wilts. Latin with English bounds

Nichil ergo in hoc seculo prolixa felicitate fruitur, nichil diuturna dominatione potitur, nichil quod non ad fatalem uite terminum ueloci cursu tendatur, ideoque ut ortodoxorum demonstrant paracdigmata sic nobis mundanarum rerum patrimonie sunt perfruende ut tamen eterne patrie emolumentis numquam fraudemur. Quam ob rem ego Eadward, annuente altitroni moderatoris imperio Anglorum basileus, quodam ministro meo Ælfstan nominato .x. mansas ubi dicitur æt Seofonhæmtune libens donabo, quatinus habeat atque possideat ac post se qualicumque uoluerit heredi derelinquat. Sit autem rus predictum ab omni mundano seruitio liberum, tribus tam exceptis, uiatici restauratione pontis, arcis construccione regalis, expeditione etiam populari. Siquis uero quod absit cupiditatis flamma accensus hoc nostrum infringere temptauerit donum, sciat se dampnaturum cum filiis perdicionis in tartareis tormentis, nisi resipiscens digna satisfactione emendauerit. Nam predicta ruris particula his metis constat circumcincta. Erest on þa haran apeldran, of þare apeldran 7lang pinnan rode, of þære rode betweox Mor sceagan 7 Middel lea, ðwyres on þa ealdan dic, of ðære dic andlang hricges on byde wil, of ðan wille 7lang stræte on hægla þorn, of þan ðorne 7lang hricges on hodan mere, on gerihte on fif þornas, of fif þornon þwyres on ðane ealdan ellen styb, of ðan stybbe on ða ealdan dic, of þære dic andlang herpaðes þæt hit cymð be norðan bien hylle in on þæt slæd, swa 7lang fura on þæne smalan weg, swa 7lang weges on ðone wiðig, of ðan wiþige on stan wyl, of þan wille þwyres on ðæne garan, of þan garan on þæs broces bige, of þan bige on þa ealdan eorð byrig, of þære byrig on ðone ac styb, of þan stibbe eft on þa haran apeldran. Scripta est ergo huius regalis doni cartula anno dominice incarnationis .xliii. post mille, indiccione .xi., his confirmantibus quorum uocabula infra sunt pretitulata et cernentibus apparent adnotata.

Ego Eadward (age 40) rex Anglorum meum donum signo crucis confirmaui [King of the English, I confirmed my gift with the sign of the cross].

Ego Ælfgyfa (age 58) predicti regis mater regium munus corroboraui [the royal office of the mother of the said king].

Ego Eadsinus archiepiscopus almo sancte crucis uexillo confortaui [archbishop with the standard of the holy cross].

Ego Ælfric archipresul istud datum consolidaui.

Ego Bryhtwold episcopus.

Ego Æþelstan episcopus.

Ego Godwine dux.

Ego Godeman presbiter.

Ego Karl minister.

Ego Ælfeget minister.

Ego Ælfwig prefectus.

Ego Ælfwine episcopus.

Ego Grimkyl episcopus.

Ego Dudoca episcopus.

Ego Lyfing episcopus.

Ego Brihtwine episcopus.

Ego Eadnoþ episcopus.

Ego Æþelweard abbas.

Ego Ælfwine abbas.

Ego Siward abbas.

Ego Wulfsige abbas.

Ego Leofric presbiter.

Ego Siward (age 33) dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Eadwold presbiter.

Ego Hereman presbiter.

Ego Leofric presbiter.

Ego Osgod miles.

Ego Ælfstan miles.

Ego Esbern miles.

Ego Lyfing miles.

Ego Ordgar miles.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Brihtric minister.

Ego Dodda, Æþelmer.

Ego Urki minister.

Ego Ælfget minister.

Ego Wulfnoð prefectus.

Ego Kinewerd prefectus.

Ego Tokig minister.

Ego Æþelwig minister.

Ego Leofric 7 Tofig ministri.

Ego Ælfwig prefectus.

Ego Æþelmær minister.

Ego Æþelric minister.

Ego Totig minister.

Ego Leofwine minister.

Ego Godsunu minister.

Ego Ulfkitel 7 Æþelric ministri.

Charter S1001 King Edward to Ælfwine. A.D. 1044. King Edward (age 41) to Ælfwine, bishop (of Winchester); grant of 30 hides (mansae) at Witney, Oxon [Map]. Latin with English bounds

Rubric: ˘is is ∂ara .xxx. hidæ boc æt Witanigæ ∂e Eadward cing gebocode Ælfwinæ bisceope on ece yrfe. + Christi omnipotentis dei largiflua bonitas omnino laudanda, omnique est laude praeferenda, quae nullo bonitatis termino ualet concludi, utpote idem deus ipse sit suae bonitatis bonitas, distribuens gratis non tantum dignis uerum etiam indignis participium bonitatis suae; est quippe rex regum, omniumque subsistentium uisibilium aeque inuisibilium creator et suae creationis discretissimus dispositor, disponens omnia sibi libito uti competi diuinae dominationi eius; nam quosdam libero arbitrio quibusdam praeficit dignitate huius saeculi et opibus diuersis, quibus rursum mandat ut ipsi eorum inopiam sua sufficientia releuare debeant qui minus abundant saecularibus negociis, et pro hoc possint maiori mercede ab eo donari. Unde ego Eadwardus rex Anglicae nationis eius ammonitione prouocatus, pro adipiscenda remunerationis mercede, dono cuidam familiari episcopo meo Ælfwino pro fideli obsequio quo michi fideliter obsecundatur .xxx. uidelicet mansas, in loco quem soicolae illius uocant Wittannige, ut eas quoad uiuit libere possideat; et post mortem det sibi placito cuicunque elegerit. Sit itaque rurisculum illud ab omni mundiali seruitio liberum, excepto communi seruitio, hoc est, arcis recuperatione, et pontis restauratione, ac expeditione in hostes patriae. Si quispiam quoquomodo malae mentis conamine hoc meum donatiuum donum infringere uel abripere per uiolentiam uoluerit, priuatus a consortio dei qui nos imperat iuniorum nostrorum necessitatibus subuenire pro suo amore, constringatur et obligetur inextricabilium nodorum habenis perpetuae dampnationis, nisi resipiscat et poenitentiae uenia deleat. ˘is synt ∂a landgemæra to Wittannige. Ærest andlang ∂æs streames on ∂one mædham ∂e hyrn∂ into Scylftune; and fram Scylftune andlang streames ∂æt it cym∂ to ∂am mylewere ∂e hyrn∂ into duceling dune; of ∂æm wære ofær ∂one wegean mor into hocslew; ∂anon on ∂a niwan dic; of ∂ære dic on horninga mære; of horninga mære andlang ∂æs gemæres to hlæwan slæde; of ∂am slæde into dufan doppe and swa andlang gemæres into Leofstanes bricge; of Leofestanes bricge into kytelaceras; of kytelacæras innon ∂a wudestret; andlang ∂ære strete into hafoces hlæwe; of hafoces hlewæ innon wænric; of wenric to swondæne; æfter swondæne to ∂ære haran apeldran; of ∂ære apeldran andlang gemæres innan swonlege; of swonleage upp to ∂am heafdam; of ∂am heafdan andlang surode innan huntenan weg; andlang huntenan wege into Wicham; of Wicham a be ∂are wyrtruman ∂æt hit cym∂ on sceapa weg; of sceapa wege andlang rihtes gemæres innan æcenes feld; of æcenes felda andlang rihtes gemæres of kicgestan; of kicgestane into æceres felda; of æcenes felda ∂ær ∂a cnihtas licga∂; and fram ham ∂e ∂a cnihtas licga∂ on mætseg; andlang metseg into wenric. Anno dominicae incarnationis millesimo quadragesimo quarto, indictione duodecima et septem concurrentibus, atque .xviii. epactis rotantibus, haec regalis concessio atque donatio facta est sub astipulatione primatum quorum nomina hic caraxata sunt.

Ego Eadwardus (age 41) rex totius Brittanniae praefatam meam donationem cum sigillo sanctae crucis regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego Ælfgyfu (age 59) eiusdem regis mater hanc regalem donationem cum trophaeo agiae crucis ouanter diuulgaui.

Ego Eadsinus archiepiscopus triumphalem agiae crucis trophaeum huic regio muneri gaudenter impressi.

Ego Ælfricus archipraesul hanc territoriam scedulam signo sanctae crucis diligenter adsignare curaui.

Ego Ælfwinus Wintoniensis episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Beorhtwoldus Wiltuniensis episcopus coadunaui.

Ego Ea∂no∂us Dorcensis episcopus corroboraui.

Ego Lyfingus Cridiensis episcopus confirmaui.

Ego Æ∂elstanus Herfordensis episcopus consigillaui.

Ego Ælfweardus Lundoniensis episcopus conscripsi.

Ego Duduco Uuillensis episcopus condixi.

Ego Grimkyllus Australium Saxonum episcoups consensi.

Ego Wulfsynus Licetfeldensis episcopus conclusi.

Ego Bryhtwinus Scirburnensis episcopus commodum duxi.

Ego Godwine (age 43) dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Siwerd (age 34) dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Ælfwine dux.

Ego Ælfwerd dux.

Ego Sywerd dux.

Ego Leofsige dux.

Ego Ælfsige dux.

Ego Ælfstan dux.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Brihtric minister.

Ego Æ∂elwig minister.

Ego ˘ure∂ minister.

Ego Ælfstan minister.

Ego Carl minister.

Ego Ordulf minister.

Charter S1006 King Edward to Old Minster, Winchester. 1044. King Edward to Old Minster, Winchester; grant of 15 hides (mansae) at Pitminster, Somerset. Latin with English bounds

Rubric: ˘is is ∂æra fiftyna hyda land boc to Pypmynstre ∂e Eadweard cyng gæbocodæ sanctæ Petræ and sanctæ Paulæ into Ealdan mynstræ. + Omnibus flebilia et detestanda huius fluctuantis saeculi piacula, diris obscoenae horrendaeque mortalitatis latratibus circumsepta omnique spurcitia saginata, non nos patriae indeptae pacis securos, sed quasi foetidae corruptelae in uoraginem casuros prouocando ammonent, ut ea toto mentis conamine cum casibus suis despiciendo abiiciamus, et penitus uelut fastidiosam melancoliae nausiam abominando fugiamus, et diligenter ad illud attendamus quod praecipit sermo euangelicus, ita inquiens, 'Date et dabitur uobis;' uere sicut quidam dicit sapiens 'Hilarem datorem diligit deus.' Hac ergo salutari ammonitione adtactus ego Eadwardus annuente superna dei clementia rex tocius Anglicae nationis, huius saeculi caduca pro nichilo ducens, sed cum transitoriis aeternaliter permansura adipisci cupiens, fugitiuam et sine dubio transitoriam dare non differo possessiunculam, ut iugiter mansuram in regno Christi et dei recipiam. Proinde omnibus innotesco, me nunc aliquam telluris partem ouanter dedisse sancto Petro et co-apostolo eius Paulo, ut peccatorum meorum magnitudo ex parte releuetur a domino Iesu Christo, qui est uera et exoptata omnium peccatorum remissio. Huius ergo telluris uocabulum Pipmynster est appellatum illaque terra quindecim mansarum retinet amplitudinem, quam etiam sicut supradixi ad Uetustum dedi monasterium quod in ciuitate Wintonia est situm, et in honore supradictorum apostolorum consecratum, pro meae animae salute et parentum meorum. Sit autem praedicta terra ab omni mundiali seruitio libera, cum pascuis et pratis, siluarumque densitatibus, et cum omnibus aliis ad se rite pertinentibus, exceptis his tribus, communium utilitatum necessitatibus, hoc est, arcis recuperatione, uel pontis restauratione, seu expeditione in hostes patriae. Si quis autem, quod absit, diabolico inflatus spiritu hanc meae compositionis ac confirmationis scedulam demere uel infringere temptauerit, et terram supradictorum apostolorum per uiolentiam sibi usurpare praesumpserit, segregetur a dei consortio et participatione omnium sanctorum in hoc sancto monasterio requiescentium, et aeterna confusione edacibus tormentorum flammis deputetur in saecula saeculorum, nisi quantocius suam peruersam emendare curauerit rapinam per condignam satisfactionem. Praenotatae uero telluris limites ita plane sunt dilatatae. ˘is synd ∂era .xv. hida landgemere to Pipmynstre; ∂æt is, erest on binnacumbes broc; ∂onne andlang broces ondun to ∂ære hæcginge; ∂anon on gerihta on fyrslege; of forslege on ∂one eastran stream; andlang streames on Tugeles mor; of Tugeles more to ∂ære foxec; of ∂ære foxec to heardan geate; of heardan geate to Twinteles ham; of Twinteles hamme to deopa forda; of deopa forda east on gerihte to drindlea; of trindlea andlang broces to wægela byrig; of wegela byrig on ∂one gregean stan; of ∂an gregean stane to readan forda; of reada forda on gerihte to Scora dic; of Scora dic andlang herpa∂es to langgan hamme; of langgan hamme on ∂one gregean stan; of ∂am gregean stane upp on epsgweg to ∂ære greatan lindan; of ∂ære greatan lindam on oxena feld easteweardne upp to ∂am stanbeorge; of ∂am stanbeorge upp on wealderes weg to pidles beorge; of piples beorge on wi∂icumbes heafod; of wi∂icumbes heafde west on gerihta to ∂ære readan dic; of ∂ære readan dic nor∂ on gerihte on ∂one acbeara easteweardne; of ∂am acbeara west andlang herp∂es to ∂ære haran apelduran; of ∂ære haran apeldyran eft on binnacumbes broc. Anno dominicae incarnationis millesimo quadragessimo quarto, indictione duodecima, et septem concurrentibus, atque octodecim epactis rotantibus, haec regalis concessio atque donatio facta est, sub astipulatione primatum quorum nomina hic caraxata sunt.

Ego Eadwardus rex tocius Brittanniae praefatam meam donationem cum sigillo sanctae crucis regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego Ælfgyfu eiusdem regis mater hanc regalem donationem cum sigillo sanctae crucis ouanter diuulgaui.

Ego Eadsinus archiepiscopus triumphalem agiae crucis trophaeum huic regio muneri gaudenter impressi.

Ego Ælfricus archipraesul hanc territoriam scedulam signo sanctae crucis diligenter adsignare curaui.

Ego Ælfwinus Wintoniensis episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Byrhtwoldus Wiltuniensis episcopus coadunaui.

Ego Ælfweardus Lundoniensis episcopus corroboraui.

Ego Lyfingus Cridiensis episcopus confirmaui.

Ego Æ∂elstanus Herfordensis episcopus consigillaui.

Ego Eadno∂us Dorcensis episcopus conscripsi.

Ego Duduco Willensis episcopus condixi.

Ego Grimgillus Australium Saxonum episcopus consensi.

Ego Wulfsinus Licetfeldensis episcopus conclusi.

Ego Brihtwinus Scirburnensis episcopus commodum duxi.

Ego Godwine dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Siweard dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Ælfwine abbas.

Ego Æ∂elweard abbas.

Ego Siweard abbas.

Ego Leofsige abbas.

Ego Ælfsige abbas.

Ego Ælfstan abbas.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Brichtric minister.

Ego Æ∂elwig minister.

Ego ˘ure∂ minister.

Ego Ælfstan minister.

Ego Carl minister.

Ego Ordulf minister.

Charter S1005 King Edward to Ordgar. 1044. King Edward to Ordgar, his faithful minister; grant of 1 pertica beneath Elddin (at Illand in Northill, Cornwall). Latin with English bounds

Bounds of benythan Elddin. First at the dry stream. Then down along the stream until it shoots out into the Inny. Then down-stream to the tor; thence to the white stone-barrow [or 'hill']. Thence to the old way; from the way to the mere. From the mere right to the middle of Eldin byrig. Thence to the mægean stone; thence west to the green way. Then along the way, back to the dry stream.

Regnante in euum Domino nostro Iesu Christo . qui monarchiam mundi totius ac celsitudinem celorum abditamque profunditatem turgentis oceani in altis et in imis omnia cum sue maiestatis imperio nunc et in euum gubernat . Quapropter ego EADVVEARDVS . Angulsaxonum rex cuidam meo ministro fideli . cui nomen insitum est ORDGAR . unam perticam . concedo in illo loco qui dicitur . BEnyðan . ELDDIN . cum omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus campis . pascuis . pratis . silluis en in suo uiuere cum prosperitate semper istum exenium obtineat . et post se cum cirograp\h/o perpetuo cui uoluerit tradat . Prefatum rus omni seruitio careat preter expeditionem pontis et arcis munimen . Celum scandat cupiens inappetat ren\n/uens . Istis terminis predicta terra circumgirata esse uidetur. Ðys is þære anre gyrde landgemæru beniðan Elddin . Ærest on seh frod . þonne adun 7lang stremys of hyt scyt ut on æni . þonne adun on strem on þone torr . þanune to þan hwitan stan beorhge . þanune to þan ealdan wege . of þam wege to þam mere . fram þam mere a gerihte to Eldin byrig middeweardre . þanon to þan mægean stane . þanone west to þam grenan wege . þonne andlang weges eft to seh frod. Anno dominice incarnationis Domini nostri Iesu Christi . post millesimo .xliiii. indictione .xii. scripta est hec cartula.

Ego EADWEARD rex Anglorum prefatam donationem concessi.

Ego EADSie archiepiscopus cum signo sancte crucis roboraui.

Ego Ælfric archipresul sigillum agie crucis impressi.

Ego Ælfwine episcopus consignaui.

Ego Lyfing episcopus corroboraui.

Ego Dudoc episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Ealdred episcopus adquieui.

Ego Godwine dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Sigwerd dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Ælfstan minister.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Ecglaf minister.

Ego Dodda minister.

Ego Osmær minister.

Ego Godwine minister.

Ego Ecgulf minister.

Ego Ælfwine minister.

Ego Æþelric minister.

Ego Ælfwerd minister.

Ego Wulfnoð minister.

Ego Leofnoð minister.

Charter S1004 King Edward to Orc. 1044. King Edward to Orc, his faithful minister; grant of 5 perticae at Abbots Wootton in Whitchurch Canonicorum, Dorset. Latin with English bounds

Px Postquam protoplasti serpentina suasione seducti stola immortalitatis perdita in huius terre peregrinationis erumpnis multiplicibus onustam creatoris sententia multati sudatis uultibus proprio conamine humum terre colere coeperunt . Semper sequacibus necessitas inoleuit alimoniam ceu mortalibus ex terre germinibus adquirere . ne deficiente uictu defeceret et uita; Ideoque ego Eadweard rex Anglorum dedi cuidam meo fideli ministro qui iuxta sue proprie gentis consuetudinem ab infantili etate nomen accepit . Orc . in eternam hereditatem impendo telluris particulam . id est .v. perticarum agelluli . illo in loco ubi iamdudum solicole regionis illius nomen inposuerunt æt Wudetune . libenter concedo quatenus ille libere possideat uita [comite] cum cunctis utilitatibus campis . paschuis . pratis . siluis . et post metam huius labilis uite cuicumque heredi sibi placuerit derelinquat in eternam hereditatem; Si autem tempore contigerit aliquo quempiam hominum aliqum libellum ob istarum apicum adnichilationem in palam producere sit omnimodis ab omnibus hominum ordinibus condempnatus omnique abolitus industria ueritatis cuiuscumque regum fuerit tempore perscriptus. Sit autem istud prefatum rus liberrimum ab omni mundiali obstaculo exceptis que usuali ritu obseruantur . id est cum glomerata sibi alternatim expeditioni compulerit populari commilitonum confligere castra atque cum sua petunt pontis titubantia muniri uada. Ac cum conciuium turma urbium indigent muniri stabiliter septa; Et si quis hanc nostram largitionem uoluerit cupido conamine adnullare et ad proprium usum peruertere sciat se digna mercedem recepturum suae tyrannidis cum complicibus Iude proditoris Christi . nisi satisfactione emendare antea satagerit. His namque confiniis prefatum rus circum cincta est. + Ærest of strætforda up andlang ˇæs grenan weges to smiceran æc. Andlang weges to Ketanlege upewerdre. Andlang herpa∂es to ˇam herpaˇes on nor∂ healfe lobirihtes gete. Of ˇam herpa∂e benorˇan labrihtes gete on ∂ære dice hyrnan adune on ˇære land sceare to ˇam twam wicon adune 7langes drian hyrstes lace . fram ∂ære lace to ˇan ligcgendum æc . fram ∂am licgendum æc innan sticelan ford . of ∂am forda andlang herpa∂es of wulfrices dice . hyrnan . fram ∂ære dice hyrnan 7lang hæccean . to bridian beara lace on ˇare hnottan stybb . of ˇam hnottan stybbe 7lang hæccean to ∂one mycclan mapeldran. Andlang hæccean to ˇære ræw apoldran. Andlang hæccean to cern hlinces herpa∂e. Andlang herpa∂es to ˇan holan wege. Andlang dic su∂ to ˇære holan lace. 7 lang ∂ære lace . up innan ˇone herpa∂. Andlang herpaˇes innan hweoulforda. Scripta est autem hæc singrapha . Anno dominice incarnationis . Millesimo quadragesimo .iiii. Indictione uero .xii. Horum consilio et testimonio quorum nomina hic infra habentur.

Ego Eadweard rex Anglorum agiae crucis signaculo hanc munificentiam consignaui.

Ego Eadsige Doruernensis aecclesie archiepiscopus consensi et subscripsi.

Ego Ælfric Eboracensis aecclesie archiepiscopus.

Ego Ælfwine episcopus.

Ego Brihtwold episcopus.

Ego Lyfincg episcopus.

Ego Brihtwine episcopus.

Ego Alfwold episcopus.

Ego Dudoc episcopus.

Ego Ealldred episcopus.

Ego Ælfstan abbas.

Ego Ælfwine abbas.

Ego Æ∂elweard abbas.

Ego Ælfric abbas.

Ego Ælfwig abbas.

Ego Æˇelwi abbas.

Ego Ælfwig abbas.

Ego Goduuine dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Siwerd dux.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Brihtric minister.

Ego Ælfstan minister.

Ego Ælfget minister.

Ego Siwerd minister.

Ego Wulfno∂ minister.

Ego Ecglaf minister.

Charter S1002 King Edward to Abbot Richard. 1044. King Edward to Abbot Richard and St Peter's, Ghent; confirmation and grant of privileges and of land at Lewisham, Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham, Coombe, Kent; with Æschore (possibly Ashour, Kent), Æffehaga; Wiggenden, Sharrington and Sandhurst, Kent; also part of the land in London called Wermanecher. Latin

In nomine sanctae et indiuiduae trinitatis. Ego Eadwardus Anglorum dei gratia basileus, omnibus post me futuris regibus, archiepiscopis, abbatibus, comitibus, uicecomitibus, omnibusque baronibus ac ministris, cunctisque praesentibus et futuris, salutem, et huius rei notitiam. Summum in regibus ac principibus bonum est iustitiam dei colere et aecclesiarum quieti prospicere, et de illarum perpetua securitate sollerter tractare; quia qui eam exaltant et honorant, cum ea et in ea et per eam exaltantur et honorantur. Et quoniam in locis plurimis inquietudines plurimas, molestias, persecutiones, scandala atque grauamina monachos a nonnullis pertulisse cognouimus, decet ut nostrae excellentiae regia prouisio de ipsorum uentura quiete, salubri meditetur dispositione, ut in ipsis manentes tranquilla mente in seruitute dei ipsius subueniente gratia permaneant; unde praesentes et posteri sciant uniuersi, quod antiqui gloriosi reges, Ælfredus, uidelicet, et Eadwardus filius eius, aecclesiam sancti Petri de Gant quae in monte Blandinio sita est nimio affectu dilexerunt, honorauerunt; et donationem illam, Leuesham, scilicet, cum omnibus sibi pertinentibus, quam Æl∂rudis praefati Ælfredi neptis aecclesiae eidem libere contulit, regia concessione et libertate perpetua munierunt. Quorum boni operis intentione perpendens ne eorum statuta unquam ducantur in irritum, aut ullis, quod absit, posteris turbentur temporibus, ego quidem huius libertatis patrocinator, donis eorum fauens, pro eorum et mea omniumque successorum meorum regum, atque Baldwini comitis cognati mei, necnon et omnium fidelium prosperitate et salute, deo et beato apostolo Petro, pio fautori nostro, et abbati Richardo monachisque praefatae aecclesiae de Gant concedo atque mea regia auctoritate confirmo manerium de Leuesham, cum omnibus sibi pertinentibus, uidelicet, Greenwic, Wulewic, Modingeham, atque Cumbe, et cum uallibus etiam in Andreda eisdem maneriis adiacentibus, scilicet, Æschore, Æffehaga, Wingindene, Scarendene, Sandherste, et cum aecclesiis, cimiteriis, decimis, redditibus, in campis et siluis, in pratis et pascuis, in aquis et paludibus, in piscariis et piscationibus, in molendinis et in omnibus suis appendiciis. Praeterea addidi loco illi praelibato infra Londoniam, partem terrae de terra illa, uidelicet, quae Wermanecher Anglice nuncupatur, cum hueruo eidem terrae pertinenti, et cum omnibus rectitudinibus et consuetudinibus, quae ad illam pertinent. Concedo eis etiam in omnibus terris suis praenominatis, consuetudines hic Anglice scriptas, scilicet infangene∂eof, mondbruce, mischenninge, u∂leaw, ferdwite, wearwite, blodwite, hleastynge, sceawinge, hamsocne, forstall, aliasque omnes leges et consuetudines quae ad me pertinent. Donaui etiam Richardo religioso abbati et omnibus futuris post eum, ibidem abbatibus, et fratribus eiusdem loci, in omni praedicta monasterii possessione, sacam et socam, theloneumque suum in terra et in aqua, et consuetudinem quae dicitur teames, latrones latronumque captiones uel emissiones, et pacis fracturam, et pugnam in domo factam, et domus inuasionem, et omnes assultus in suo iure, in uia et extra, in festo et extra, in urbe et extra, in aqua et extra, tam plene et tam libere sicut eas habebam in manu mea; nullis itaque unquam grauentur oneribus expeditionum nec pontium uel castrorum restructione, nec regalium siue episcopalium ministrorum exactione. Defendo insuper, et ex nomine sanctae trinitatis prohibeo, ut nullus regum succedentium, episcoporum, principum, comitum, uicecomitum, procuratorum, siue aliorum regum clientium, uel episcoporum, ministrorum, pastum, censum, uel inpensionem seu aliud quidlibet ab aecclesia illa uel a terris praescriptis ad eam pertinentibus per uim aut per consuetudinem exigat, sed omnimodam libertatem mea regia corroboratione perpetualiter possideant, quatinus ipsa religiosa concio, pro remedio animae meae, et successorum meorum regum Angliae, omniumque benefactorum eiusdem aecclesiae, ac fidelium salute, peruigiles persoluat deprecationes, oleumque bonae actionis more sapientium uirginum sub habitu religionis seruans Christo domino et eius beato apostolo Petro indefesse deseruiat. Si quis autem contra hanc auctoritatis nostrae paginam senserit, quicunque ille fuerit, cuiuscunque aetatis uel potestatis, gradus et ordinis, et eam infringere uoluerit, uel alios ad hoc conduxerit, unusquisque pro seipso libras .v. partibus sancti Petri persoluat, et quicquid exinde fiscus noster in murdris, geldis, danegeldis, omnibusque aliis rebus uel stipendiis, quae in terris illis surrexerint, ad partem nostram sperare poterat, in luminaribus siue fratrum ipsius monasterii uictus aminiculis perenniter per nostra oracula ad integrum sit concessum atque indultum. Quicunque successorum meorum hanc donationis libertatem firmiter atque inuiolabiliter custodierit, aeterna coronetur claritate, coelestisque regni perfruatur foelicitate; si quis uero eam, quod absit, destruere uoluerit, siue eandem possessionem a donatione et seruitio saepedictae aecclesiae et abbatum eiusdem loci, et monachorum, subtrahere conatus fuerit, uel per partes quasi haereditatis iure auferre praesumpserit, sicut contradictor et conuulsor huius nostri decreti ac temerator, cum Iuda traditore domini aeterno anathemati subiaceat, nisi deo et beato suo apostolo Petro digna poenitentia satisfecerit. Non enim superiorem uel inferiorem aliquem decet hominem illud sibi in ius haereditatis uendicare, quod per regiam corroborationem ad illud, cuius esse debeat, prouida ratione fuerit redactum. Anno igitur dominicae incarnationis .m.xliiii. indictione .xii. et .vii. concurrentibus, atque .xi. epactis rotantibus, haec regalis concessio et donatio facta est sub astipulatione primatum quorum nomina karaxata uidentur.

Ego Eadwardus rex totius Britanniae hanc propriam donationem regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego Ælfgyfu eiusdem regis mater assensum accommodaui.

Ego Eadsinus Dorobernensis aecclesiae archiepiscopus hanc pietatem diuulgaui.

Ego Ælfricus Eboracensis ciuitatis archipraesul hanc territoriam scedulam diligenter assignaui.

Ego Æluueardus Londoniensis episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Godwinus Rofensis episcopus gaudenter impressi.

Ego Æluuynus Wintoniensis episcopus corroboraui.

Ego Beorhtwoldus Wiltuniensis episcopus coadunaui.

Ego Liuingus Cridiensis episcopus confirmaui.

Ego Æ∂elstanus Herfordiensis episcopus consignaui.

Ego Wulstanus Wigorniensis episcopus hanc diuulgaui.

Ego Eadno∂us Dorccensis episcopus condixi.

Ego Duduco Willensis episcopus conscripsi.

Ego Grimkillus episcopus Australium Saxonum consensi.

Ego Wulsinus episcopus Licetfeldensis commodum duxi.

Ego Britwinus episcopus Scireburnensis conclusi.

Ego Godwinus dux Amen dixi.

Ego Leofricus dux testificaui.

Ego Siwardus dux testificaui.

Ego Haroldus dux testificaui.

Ego Leofwinus dux testificaui.

Ego Swegenus dux testificaui.

Ego Tostig dux testificaui.

Ego Gyrdus dux testificaui.

Ego Eadwinus abbas Westminsteriensis.

Ego Wuluoldus abbas Certesige.

Ego Ælsi abbas sancti Augustini.

Ego Godwine abbas Wincelcumbe.

Ego Manny abbas Eoueshamensis.

Ego Ælfricus abbas Perscorensis.

Ego Hugelinus camerarius.

Ego Esgar stallere.

Ego Roldbertus filius Wimarc stallere.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Karl minister.

Ego ˘ured minister.

Ego Æ∂elwig minister.

Ego Ædridg minister.

Ego Ordulf minister.

Ego Duduco minister.

Ego Siward minister.

Charter S1008 King Edward to Ælfwine. 1045. King Edward to Ælfwine, bishop of Winchester; grant of 7 hides (cassati) at Millbrook, Hants. Latin with English bounds

Endorsement: + ˘is is ˇæra .vii. hyda landboc to Mylebroce ˇe Eadward cing gebocade Ælfwine b'. on ece yrfe. Px In nomine domini nostri Iesu Christi qui cuncta gubernat et regit quique sua multimoda potentia omnibus ut uoluerit finem imponit . et de secretis humanae naturae mysteriis docet . ut cum his fugitiuis et sine dubio transitoriis possessiunculis . iugiter mansura . et eternaliter regna mercanda dei suffragio adipiscenda sunt . Qua de re ego Eaduueardus diuina mihi arridente gratia rex Anglorum . et eque totius Albionis aliquam ruris partem septem uidelicet cassatos illo in loco qui uulgariter Melebroc dicitur . cuidam episcoporum meorum perpetualiter trado . Ælfuuino uidelicet Uuentane ciuitatis episcopo . ut hoc nostrum donum habeat quamdiu uiuat . et post se cuicumque uoluerit heredi derelinquat . cum campis . pascuis . pratis . siluis; Haec igitur tellus a cuncta sit sequestrata seruitute . nisi pontis . et arcis . ac expeditionis iuuamine; Si quis autem hoc nostrum donum infringere temtauerit . nullius aduentantis consolationem uspiam repperiat . nisi ante obitum suum emendauerit . quod hic contra nostrum decretum peregit; Istis namque terminis ambitur predicta tellus; ˘is synd ˇa landgemæra to Mylebroc. Ærest of hreod bricge on tærstan stream . andlang streames on hnut scyllinga mearce . 7 swa andlang mearce on ˇone holan weg . of ˇan holan wege 7lang mearce on fearninga broc . and swa andlang mearce on mylebroces ford . 7 swa east andlang mearce on ˇunres lea nor∂eweardne . ˇanan 7lang weges on cyninges dic . and swa 7lang mearce on ˇone o∂erne holan weg . of ˇam wege on ∂a ea 7 se werstede be su∂an hreaod bricge ut ˇurh ˇone stream on ˇæs cynges stæ∂ . and swa 7lang streames eft on hreod bricge 7 se haga on Hamtune ˇe ˇærto gebyra∂. Anno dominice incarnationis . millesimo quadragesimo quinto . indictione .xiii. et nullis epactis atque uno concurrente rotantibus . haec regalis concessio atque donatio facta est . sub astipulatione primatum quorum nomina hic caraxata sunt.

Ego Eaduueardus rex totius Bryttanniae prefatam meam donationem cum sigillo sancte crucis regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego Eadgy∂ eiusdem regis conlaterana hanc regalem donationem gaudenter stabiliui.

Ego Siweardus archiepiscopus triumphalem agiae crucis tropheum hic regie munere gaudenter inpressi.

Ego Ælfricus archipresul hanc territoriam scedulam signo sancte crucis diligenter adsignare curaui.

Ego Ælfwinus Wintoniensis episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Lyfingus Cridiensis episcopus coadunaui.

Ego Heremannus Uuiltuniensis episcopus corroboraui.

Ego Æˇelstanus Herfordensis episcopus confirmaui.

Ego Eadno∂us Dorcensis episcopus consensi.

Ego Duduco Uuillensis episcopus consigillaui.

Ego Grimkillus Australium Saxonum episcopus conscripsi.

Ego Wulfsinus Licetfeldensis episcopus condixi.

Ego Brihtwinus Scirburnensis episcopus conclusi.

Ego Godwine dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Siwerd dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Harold dux.

Ego Beorn dux.

Ego Ælfwine abbas.

Ego Æˇelwerd abbas.

Ego Æˇelstan abbas.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Brihtric minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Ælfstan minister.

Ego Carl minister.

Ego Ælfric minister.

Ego Godric minister.

Charter S1007 King Edward to Ælfwine. 1045. King Edward to Ælfwine, bishop of Winchester; grant of 8 hides (mansae) at Hinton Ampner, Hants. Latin with English bounds

Rubric: ˘is is ∂æra eahta hida landboc to Heantune ∂æ Eadweard cing gebocade Ælfwine bisceope on æce yrfe. + Regnante imperpetuum domino nostro Ihesu Christo super omnia quae in coelo et in terra ab eo mirabiliter gubernantur. Ego Eadwardus rex Anglorum priuilegii huius descriptionem omnibus innotesco me Wentanae ciuitatis episcopo nomine Ælfwino, quandam ruris partem octo, uidelicet, mansarum illo in loco quem solicolae Heantun uocitant in possessionem sempiternam dedisse, ita prorsus, ita plane, quatinus hoc donum nostrum sicut sibi uoluntas fuerit, quamdiu uixerit possideat; postque se quemcunque elegerit haeredem succedaneum praeficiat. Et quicunque eum libertatis huius dignitate exhaeredauerit maledictione perpetua dampnetur, nisi nequitiae suae prauitatem poenitudine correxerit digna. Sit uero libertas haec in uniuersis rebus, paruis et magnis, absque omni humana seruitute liberrima, exceptis tribus causis, arcis, scilicet, pontisue constructione, et expeditione. Praenotatae uero telluris limites hi sunt. ˘is synd ∂a landgemæro to Heantune. Ærest on ∂one su∂an hlinc; of ∂am hlince on ellenford upp on ∂one hricg; andlang hricges on wines heafdes ˇorn; of ∂am ˇorne on colan treow; of colan treowe on crawan ˇorn; of crawan ˇorne innan ∂a bæc; of ∂am bæce on ∂one middemestan beorh on bromdæne; andlang bromdæne innan smalan dæne; of smalan dæne on clinca leage; of clinca leage on ∂a greatan bæce innon næddærheall; of nedderheale on linleage; of linleage on hyrdes treow; of hurdes treowe on ∂one grætan hlincg; of ∂am greatan hlince on acstede leage; of acstede leage on ∂one rugan beorh; of ∂am beorga on weoleage; of weoleage on Wulfredes wyr∂; of Wulfredes wyr∂e on cadan hangre; of cadan hangran on ræling beorgas; of reling beorgan on ∂one greatan hlincg. Anno dominicae incarnationis millesimo quadragesimo quinto, indictione .xiii. et nullis epactis, atque uno concurrente rotantibus, haec regalis concessio atque donatio facta est, sub astipulatione primatum quorum nomina hic caraxata sunt.

Ego Eadweardus rex totius Brittanniae praefatam meam donationem cum sigillo sanctae crucis regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego Eadgy∂ eiusdem regis conlaterana hanc regalem donationem gaudenter stabiliui.

Ego Siweardus archiepiscopus triumphalem agiae crucis trophaeum huic regio muneri gaudenter impressi.

Ego Ælfricus archipraesul hanc territoriam scedulam signo sanctae crucis diligenter adsignare curaui.

Ego Ælfwinus Wintoniensis episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Lyfingus Cridiensis episcopus coadunaui.

Ego Æ∂elstanus Herfordensis episcopus corroboraui.

Ego Eadno∂us Dorcensis episcopus confirmaui.

Ego Heremannus Wiltuniensis episcopus consigillaui.

Ego Duduco Willensis episcopus conscripsi.

Ego Grimkillus Australium Saxonum episcopus condixi.

Ego Wulfsinus Licetfeldensis episcopus consensi.

Ego Brightwinus Scirburnensis episcopus conclusi.

Ego Godwine dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Siwerd dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Ælfwine dux.

Ego Æ∂elweard dux.

Ego Æ∂elstan dux.

Ego Ælfstan dux.

Ego Siwerd dux.

Ego Harold minister.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Brihtric minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Ælfstan minister.

Ego Carl minister.

Ego ˘ured minister.

Charter S1010 King Edward to Thorth. 1045. King Edward to Thorth, his minister; grant of 2.5 hides (mansae) at Ditchampton, Wilts. Latin with English bounds

Rubric (from facsimile): ˝is hys ˇære ∂riddan healfere hide boc æt Dichæmatune ˇe Eadweard cyning gebocude ∂or∂ his ˇegene on eche yrfe. Regnante inperpetuum domino nostro Iesu Christo . Cum cuncta cotidie fugitiue uite tempora prosperis et aduersis causis consistere cernimus rapidissimoque cursu annorum spacia et regnorum ubique gaudia finita esse manifestissimis signis declaratum est . Quapropter ego Eadwardus rex dei nutu tocius Albionis quandam telluris partiunculam uidelicet . duas mansas et dimidiam in illo loco cui solicole æt Dichæmatune . antiquum nomen indiderunt meo ministro cui uocabulum est .˘or∂. in perpetuam hereditatem libenter tribuo . cum campis . pratis . pascuis . riuulis omnibusque ad eam rite pertinentibus . quatinus sine aliquo exose seruitutis iugo preter communem expeditionis laborem pontis arcisue instructionem habeat quamdiu uiuat . post generale uero istius decursus exitium hac prefata conditione cuicumque maluerit heredi perpetualiter derelinquat . Si quis autem quod absit . diabolico inflatus spiritu hoc meum regale donum infringere temptauerit . sciat se proculdubio ante districti tribunal iudicis titubantem tremebundumque tuba archangeli perstrepente anathematizatum nisi prius digna satisfactione emendare uoluerit . Prefata autem tellus hiis limitibus circumcincta clarescit . Aeryst of brytta pole on ∂one ealdan weall . andlang welles on ˇa ea . of ˇare ea on ˇane port weg andlang weges on uggafordinga landscore . andlang ˇære landscore on ˇone wudu weg . andlang ˇæs wudu weges on ˇone grene pa∂ . of ˇam paˇe on ˇane greatan ˇorn ˇe stynt wi∂ grimes dic . andlang ˇære diche on ˇone haran ∂orn . of ˇan ˇorne ˇreora ækera brade be westan ˇan greatan beorhge 7 ˇreora ækera bræde be nor∂an ˇan beorhge on gerihte ofer ˇone hæ∂ feld in stan wale . andlang ˇære wale on ∂one port weg~. of ˇan port wege on ˇa ealdan lake on ˇa ealdan ea . of ˇære ealdan ea on wili stream . andlang stremes eft on bryttan pol. Anno dominice incarnationis .m.xl.v. indictione .xiii. scripta est hec carta hiis testibus consentientibus quorum inferius nomina notantur.

Ego Eadwardus rex hanc donationem meam cum signo sancte crucis roboraui.

Ego Eadgy∂ regina eiusdem regis donationem confirmaui .

Ego Edsige archiepiscopus .

Ego Ælfric archiepiscopus .

Ego Siweard episcopus .

Ego Ælwine episcopus .

Ego Brithwold episcopus .

Ego Lyfing episcopus .

Ego Æ∂elstan episcopus .

Ego Dodica episcopus .

Ego Grimkytel episcopus .

Ego Eadno∂ episcopus .

Ego Ælfwine abbas

Ego Æ∂estan abbas .

Ego Leofsige abbas

Ego Siweard abbas .

Ego Wulfsie abbas .

Ego Wulfweard abbas .

Ego Ælfwig abbas .

Ego Æ∂elwig abbas .

Ego Ælfric abbas .

Ego Ælfwig abbas

Ego Godwine dux .

Ego Leofric dux .

Ego Siweard dux .

Ego Swegen dux .

Ego Beorn dux .

Ego Odo minister .

Ego Osgod minister .

Ego Ordgar minister .

Ego Osolf minister .

Ego Brihtric minister .

Ego Carl minister .

Ego Ælfgar minister .

Ego Urc minister .

Ego Ælfget minister .

Ego Osbern minister .

Ego Ælfstan minister .

Ego ˝uri minister .

Ego Ælfwer∂ minister .

Ego Toti minister .

Ego Leofsige minister .

John of Worcester. 1051. Ælfric, archbishop of York, died at Southwell, and was buried at Peterborough [Map]; Kinsige, the king's chaplain, succeeded him. King Edward (age 48) released the English from the heavy tax payable to the Danish troops, in the thirty-eighth year after his father Ethelred had first imposed it. After this, in the month of September, Eustace (age 36) the elder, count of Boulogne, who had married a sister of king Edward, named Goda, sailed to Dover, Kent [Map] with a small fleet.66 His soldiers, while they were bluntly and indiscreetly inquiring for lodgings, killed one of the townsmen. A neighbour of his witnessing this, slew one of the soldiers in revenge. At this the count and his followers were much enraged, and put many men and women to the sword, trampling their babes and children under their horses' hoofs. But seeing the townsmen flocking together to resist them, they made their escape, like cowards, with some difficulty, and leaving seven of their number slain, they fled to king Edward (age 48), who was then at Gloucester. Earl Godwin (age 50), being indignant that such things should be done within his jurisdiction, in great wrath raised an immense army from the whole of his earldom, that is, from Kent, Sussex, and Wessex; his eldest son, Sweyn, also assembled the men of his earldom, that is, of the counties of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and Berks; and his other son, Harold (age 29), assembled the men of his earldom, namely, Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon, and Cambridge. This did not escape the notice of king Edward (age 48), and he therefore sent messages to Leofric, earl of Mercia, and Siward (age 41), earl of Northumbria, begging them to hasten to him with all the men they could muster, as he was in great peril. They came at first with only a few followers but when they learnt the real state of affairs, they sent swift messengers throughout their earldoms and gathered a large army. Likewise earl Ralph, son of Goda, king Edward's sister, assembled as many as he could from his county.

Note 66. Cf. Saxon Chronicle under the years 1048 and 1052.

On 22 Jan 1051 Archbishop Ælfric died.

Charter S1000 King Edward to Coventry Abbey. A.D. 1043. King Edward to Coventry Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander] Latin

Pace regnante, largiflua Christi omnipotentis bonitas semper ab omnibus est laudanda omnique laude praeferenda, quia nullo bonitatis termino ualet concludi in saeculorum saecula, utpote quia idem deus ipse sit suae propriae bonitatis bonitas, distribuens gratis non tantum dignis uerum etiam indignis partem suae bonitatis; est quippe rex regum et dominus dominantium omniumque subsistentium uisibilium atque inuisibilium creator, et suae creationis discretissimus dispositor, attingens a fine usque ad finem suauiterque disponens omnem creaturam ut competit diuinae dominationi eius. Nam quosdam libero arbitrio quibusdam praefecit dignitate huius saeculi et operibus diuersis, quibus rursum mandat ut ipsi sua sufficienta et bonorum habundantia illorum releuare et sustentare debeant inopiam qui minus saecularibus habundant negotiis, ut pro hoc maiori possint mercede ab eo donari. Unde ego Eadwardus Anglorum rex omnibus post me futuris regibus, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, ducibus, omnibusque Christi fidelibus notum fieri uolo quod uenerabilis dux Leofricus, diuina inspirante gratia monitisque gloriosi ac deo dilecti summi pontificis Alexandri, monasterium sanctae dei genitricis Mariae sanctique Petri et omnium sanctorum in uilla quae dicitur Couentre extruxit largisque muneribus adornauit, atque subscripta maneria ad uictuale subsidium abbatis et monachorum in eodem loco deo perpetue seruientium mea larga donatione et concessione ibidem contulit; uidelicet medietatem eiusdem uillae in qua fundata est ipsa aecclesia, deinde Sou∂am, Greneburgan, Icketonam, Hunitonam, Neowenham, Hulhtune, Chadeleshunte, Herdewyk, Cestretune, Waspertune, Suohham, Byrtingabirig iuxta Auen, Merston, item Merstuna, in Gloecestria, medietatem uillae de Ruitune, Sowe, Salewarp, Eatuna iuxta fluuium Dee, Kildesbig, Winewican, Burhbeca, Barwalle, Scrapetoft, Pakinton, pro reuerentia itaque et honore sanctae dei genitricis Mariae sanctique aduocati mei apostoli Petri, do et concedo abbati Leofwino, et omnibus futuris ibidem post eum abbatibus, in tota possessione monasterii, sakam et socnam, et theloneum suum in terra et in aqua, in urbe et extra, et omnes leges et consuetudines tam plene et tam libere sicut eas praefatus dux honorificentius et liberius de me tenuit. Praecipio itaque ut omnia quae ad ipsam aecclesiam pertinent sint omnino libera, terrae cultae et incultae, cum exitibus atque redditibus praedictorum necnon maneria et aecclesiae, cimiteria, decimae, redditus, et seruitia debita, oblationes, luminaria, causarum discussiones, emendationes aecclesiasticae uel saeculares, et quicquid illi loco collatum est sub integra inmunitate concedimus et perpetuo firmamus. Et ne quis praesentium uel magis futurorum ambiget quae sit illa libertas quam amabiliter et firmiter concedo, omnimodis cuncta illius aecclesiae possessio nullis sit unquam grauata oneribus nec expeditionis nec pontis et arcis aedificatione, nec iuris regalis fragimine nec furis apprehensione. Et ut omnia simul comprehendam, nil debet exsolui nec regi nec regis praeposito uel episcopo uel ulli homini, sed omnia debita exsoluantur iugiter quae in ipsa ditione fuerint ad supradictum sanctum locum secundum quod ordinauerint fratres eiusdem coenobii. Ut autem cunctis haec transgredientibus ad damnationem suam euidenter possit ostendi literas summi pontificis papae Alexandri quas ab eo suscepimus, directas tam posteris quam praesentibus hic manifestari curauimus. Alexander episcopus seruus seruorum dei dilecto filio Eadwardo regi Anglorum salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Scriptorum uestrorum eloquia incolumitatem uestram significantia laeti suscepimus, gratias itaque omnipotenti deo retulimus qui cordis uestri sinceritatem ad omnia utilia sanctae matris aecclesiae compungit. Proinde iuxta scripta uestra monasterio sanctae Mariae de Couentria ubi seruorum dei constituta est congregatio a reuerendae memoriae Leofrico duce nuper exstructo, huiusmodi priuilegia praesentis authoritatis nostrae indulgemus, concedimus, atque confirmamus, statuentes ut ipse locus regiis praeceptis et priuilegiis apostolicis fultus per omnia tempora sine conuexatione cuiuscumque diocesani episcopi, aut alicuius iudiciariae potestatis cuiuscumque ordinis uel dignitatis sit, sed semper sicut praeoptat et expetit beneuolentia tua regalis futuro tempore permaneat. Fratres igitur eiusdem loci idoneos ex se uel ex qua uoluerint congregatione abbates siue decanos sibi per successiones eligendi habeant potestatem, et ne impediantur auctoritate apostolica prohibemus. Praeterea quicquid illi loco contuleris, uel collatum est, uel conferetur, diuina et nostra auctoritate roboramus; necnon priuilegia uestra ad honorem dei pertinentia quae ibi instituere uolueris gratanti affectu annuimus, confirmamus, et confirmando imperpetuum stare decreuimus; et infractores eorum aeterna maledictione damnamus. Anno incarnationis dominicae .m.xliii. scripta est haec syngrapha, hiis consentientibus ierarchis qui subter notati: uidelicet,

Ego Eadwardus rex hanc meam libertatem regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego Ælfgyfa mater eiusdem regis assensum accommodaui.

Ego Eadgi∂ regina eiusdem collateralis regis eiusdem donationi regali consensi [The queen of the same collateral agreed to the king's royal donation of the same.].

Ego Eadsinus Dorobernensis aecclesiae archiepiscopus adquieui.

Ego Ælfricus Eboracensis aecclesiae archipraesul corroboraui.

Ego Ælfwoldus Londoniensis episcopus subposui.

Ego Ealdredus episcopus Wygornensis impressi.

Ego Duduco episcopus Willensis adnotaui.

Ego Wlfinus episcopus Lichesfeldensis consolidaui.

Ego Æ∂elstanus episcopus Herfordensis stabiliui.

Ego Liuingus episcopus Cridiensis adposui.

Ego Eadno∂us episcopus Dorcensis consensum praebui.

Ego Brihtwinus episcopus Scirbernensis confirmaui.

Ego Berhtwold episcopus Wiltuniensis conclusi.

Ego Manni abbas.

Ego Siward abbas.

Ego Ælfwinus abbas.

Ego Godwinus abbas.

Ego Ælfstanus abbas.

Ego Godwinus dux.

Ego Haroldus dux.

Ego Leofricus dux.

Ego Siward dux.

Ego Sweyn dux.

Ego Tostig dux.

Ego Radulphus More.

Ego Esgar.

Ego Rodbord minister.

Ego Hulfketel minister.

Ego Godwine minister.

Ego Frewine minister.

Ego Leofric minister.

Ego Morcere minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Godric minister.

Ego Leofric minister.

Ego Siwerd minister.

Ego Æ∂elsi minister.