In 1043 Sweyn Godwinson 1st Earl Hereford (age 22) was created 1st Earl Hereford 1C 1043.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1046. This year went Earl Sweyne (age 25) into Wales; and Griffin, king of the northern men with him; and hostages were delivered to him. As he returned homeward, he ordered the Abbess of Leominster to be fetched him; and he had her as long as he list, after which he let her go home. In this same year was outlawed Osgod Clapa, the master of horse, before midwinter. And in the same year, after Candlemas, came the strong winter, with frost and with snow, and with all kinds of bad weather; so that there was no man then alive who could remember so severe a winter as this was, both through loss of men and through loss of cattle; yea, fowls and fishes through much cold and hunger perished.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1046. This year died Lifting, the eloquent bishop, on the tenth day before the calends of April. He had three bishoprics; one in Devonshire, one in Cornwall, and another in Worcestershire. Then succeeded Leofric, who was the king's priest, to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop Aldred to Worcestershire. This year died Elfwine, Bishop of Winchester, on the fourth day before the calends of September; and Stigand, Bishop of Norfolk, was raised to his see. Ere this, in the same year, died Grimkytel, Bishop of Sussex; and he lies at Christ-church, in Canterbury. And Heca, the king's priest, succeeded to the bishopric. Sweyne also sent hither, and requested the aid of fifty ships against Magnus (age 22), king of the Norwegians; but it was thought unwise by all the people, and it was prevented, because that Magnus (age 22) had a large navy: and he drove Sweyne (age 27) out, and with much slaughter won the land. The Danes then gave him much money, and received him as king. The same year Magnus (age 22) died. The same year also Earl Sweyne (age 25) went out to Baldwin's (age 33) land, to Bruges; and remained there all the winter. In the summer he departed.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. Then the king and all the army proclaimed Sweyne (age 28) an outlaw. A little before this the men of Hastings and thereabout fought his two ships with their ships, and slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich [Map] to the king. Eight ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn; afterwards they all forsook him except two; whereupon he went eastward to the land of Baldwin (age 36), and sat there all the winter at Bruges, in full security. In the same year came up from Ireland thirty-six ships on the Welsh coast, and thereabout committed outrages, with the aid of Griffin, the Welsh king. The people were soon gathered against them, and there was also with them Bishop Eldred, but they had too little assistance, and the enemy came unawares on them very early in the morning, and slew on the spot many good men; but the others burst forth with the bishop. This was done on the fourth day before the calends of August. This year died the good Bishop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; and Oswy, Abbot of Thomey; and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and King Edward (age 46) gave the bishopric which Ednoth had to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided him; and he was driven from it, because he did nought like a bishop therein, so that it shameth us now to say more. Bishop Siward also died who lies at Abingdon.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. In this same year King Edward (age 46) put nine ships out of pay; and the crews departed, and went away with the ships withal, leaving five ships only behind, for whom the king ordered twelve months pay. The same year went Bishops Hereman and Aldred to the pope at Rome on the king's errand. This year was also consecrated the great minster at Rheims [Map], in the presence of Pope Leo and the emperor. There was also a great synod at St. Remy;64 at which was present Pope Leo, with the Archbishops of Burgundy, of Besancon, of Treves, and of Rheims; and many wise men besides, both clergy and laity. A great synod there held they respecting the service of God, at the instance of St. Leo the pope. It is difficult to recognise all the bishops that came thither, and also abbots. King Edward (age 46) sent thither Bishop Dudoc, and Abbot Wulfric, of St. Augustine's, and Elfwin, Abbot of Ramsey, with the intent that they should report to the king what was determined there concerning Christendom. This same year came Earl Sweyne (age 28) into England.
Note 64. "Vid. Flor." A.D. 1049, and verbatim from him in the same year, Sim. Dunelm. "inter X. Script. p. 184, I, 10. See also Ordericus Vitalis, A.D. 1050. This dedication of the church of St. Remi, a structure well worth the attention of the architectural antiquary, is still commemorated by an annual loire, or fair, on the first of October, at which the editor was present in the year 1815, and purchased at a stall a valuable and scarce history of Rheims, from which he extracts the following account of the synod mentioned above:
"Il fut assemble a l'occasion de la dedicace de la nouvelle eglise qu' Herimar, abbe de ce monastere, avoit fait batir, seconde par les liberalites des citoyens, etc." ("Hist. de Reims", p. 226.) But, according to our Chronicle, the pope took occasion from this synod to make some general regulations which concerned all Christendom.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. Whilst [his father] Earl Godwin (age 48) and Earl Beorn lay at Pevensey [Map] with their ships, came Earl Sweyne (age 28), and with a pretence requested of Earl Beorn, who was his uncle's son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich [Map], and better his condition with him; adding, that he would swear oaths to him, and be faithful to him. Whereupon Beorn concluded, that he would not for their relationship betray him. He therefore took three companions with him, and they rode to Bosham, where his63 ships lay, as though they should proceed to Sandwich [Map]; but they suddenly bound him, and led him to the ships, and went thence with him to Dartmouth, where they ordered him to be slain and buried deep. He was afterwards found, and [his brother] Harold (age 27) his cousin fetched him thence, and led him to Winchester, to the old minster, where he buried him with King Knute, his uncle.
Note 63. i.e. The ships of Sweyne (age 28), who had retired thither, as before described.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. [Note 62] This year the emperor gathered an innumerable army against Baldwin of Bruges (age 36), because he had destroyed the palace of Nimeguen, and because of many other ungracious acts that he did against him. The army was immense that he had collected together. There was Leo, the Pope of Rome, and the patriarch, and many other great men of several provinces. He sent also to King Edward (age 46), and requested of him naval aid, that he might not permit him to escape from him by water. Whereupon he went to Sandwich [Map], and lay there with a large naval armament, until the emperor had all that he wished of Baldwin (age 36). Thither also came back again Earl Sweyne (age 28), who had gone from this land to Denmark, and there ruined his cause with the Danes. He came hither with a pretence, saying that he would again submit to the king, and be his man; and he requested Earl Beorn to be of assistance to him, and give him land to feed him on. But [his brother] Harold (age 27), his brother, and Earl Beorn resisted, and would give him nothing of that which the king had given them. The king also refused him everything. Whereupon Sweyne (age 28) retired to his ships at Bosham. Then, after the settlement between the emperor and Baldwin (age 36), many ships went home, and the king remained behind Sandwich [Map] with a few ships. [his father] Earl Godwin (age 48) also sailed forty-two ships from Sandwich [Map] to Pevensey [Map], and Earl Beorn went with him.
Note 62. So Florence of Worcester, whose authority we here follow for the sake of perspicuity, though some of these events are placed in the MSS. to very different years; as the story of Beorn.
John of Worcester. 1049. During these occurrences earl Sweyn (age 28) went to Pevensey [Map], and perfidiously requested earl Beorn, his cousin, to go with him to the port of Sandwich [Map], and make his peace with the king (age 46), according to promise. Beorn, relying on his relationship, accompanied him with only three attendants; but Sweyn (age 28) conducted him to Bosham, where his ships lay, and, taking him on board one of them, ordered him to be bound with thongs, and kept him on board until they reached the mouth of the river Dart. There they slew him, and threw him into a deep trench, and covered him with earth. They then sent away six of the ships, two of which were soon afterwards taken by the men of Hastings, who, having killed all on board, carried them to Sandwich [Map] and presented them to the king (age 46). Sweyn (age 28), however, escaped to Flanders with two ships, and remained there until he was brought back by Aldred, bishop of Worcester, who reconciled him with the king.
John of Worcester. 1049. The emperor Henry (age 31) assembled a vast army against Baldwin (age 36), count of Flanders, chiefly because he had burnt and ruined his stately palace at Nimeguen. In this expedition were pope Leo, and many great and noble men from various countries. Sweyn (age 30), king of Denmark, was also there with his fleet at the emperor's command, and swore fealty to the emperor for that occasion. He sent also to Edward (age 46), king of England, and requested him not to let Baldwin (age 36) escape, if he should retreat to the sea. In consequence, the king went with a large fleet to the port of Sandwich [Map], and remained there until the emperor had obtained of Baldwin (age 36) all he desired. Meanwhile, earl Sweyn (age 28), son of earl Godwin (age 48) and [his mother] Githa, who had left England and gone to Denmark, because he was not permitted to marry Edgiva, abbess of the monastery of Leominster, whom he had debauched, returned with eight ships, alleging falsely that he would now remain loyally with the king.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1050. This year returned the bishops home from Rome;65 and Earl Sweyne (age 29) had his sentence of outlawry reversed. The same year died Edsy, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the fourth day before the calends of November; and also in the same year Elfric, Archbishop of York, on the eleventh before the calends of February, a very venerable man and wise, and his body lies at Peterborough. Then had King Edward (age 47) a meeting of the great council in London, in mid-lent, at which he appointed Robert the Frank, who was before Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury; and he, during the same Lent, went to Rome after his pall. The king (age 47) meanwhile gave the see of London to Sparhawk, Abbot of Abingdon, but it was taken from him again before he was consecrated. The king (age 47) also gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulph his cousin. The same year he put all the lightermen out of pay.66 The pope held a council again, at Vercelli; and Bishop Ulf came thither, where he nearly had his staff broken, had he not paid more money, because he could not perform his duties so well as he should do. The same year King Edward (age 47) abolished the Danegeld which King Ethelred imposed. That was in the thirty-ninth year after it had begun. That tribute harassed all the people of England so long as is above written; and it was always paid before other imposts, which were levied indiscriminately, and vexed men variously.
Note 66. Nine ships were put out of commission the year before; but five being left on the pay-list for a twelvemonth, they were also now laid up.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (age 36), who had the Goda Wessex Countess Boulogne of King Edward (age 48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover [Map]. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover [Map], he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (age 36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (age 36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (age 48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (age 48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off [his father] Earl Godwin (age 50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover [Map]. For Eustace (age 36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (age 50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (age 50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (age 30), his son, over his; and [his brother] Harold (age 29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, Gloucestershire, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (age 36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (age 48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (age 41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (age 48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (age 48), that they would seek Godwin's (age 50) army if the king (age 48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (age 41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (age 50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, Surrey [Map], and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (age 48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (age 29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (age 30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (age 48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (age 48) held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (age 50) and his [his mother] wife, and all his three sons - Sweyne (age 30) and [his brother] Tosty (age 25) and [his brother] Grith (age 19). And he went south to Thorney67, with his wife, and Sweyne (age 30) his son, and Tosty (age 25) and his wife (age 18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (age 38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria (age 18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38)], and his son Grith (age 19). Earl Harold (age 29) with [his brother] Leofwine (age 16) went to Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map] in the ship that Earl Sweyne (age 30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (age 48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (age 30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (age 48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (age 50), and Earl Sweyne (age 30), and Earl Harold (age 29), together at Beverstone [Map], and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (age 48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (age 48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (age 48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (age 48). There was now assembled before the king (age 48)68 Earl Siward (age 41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (age 50) and his sons, that the king (age 48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (age 48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (age 48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (age 48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (age 30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Harold (age 29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (age 48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (age 48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (age 48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Sweyne (age 30) to Bosham [Map], and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (age 38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (age 29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (age 48) security.
It was from Thorney69 that Godwin (age 50) and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's (age 38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (age 48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (age 48) darlings; and his [his sister] daughter (age 25) wedded and united to the king (age 48). Soon after this took place, the king (age 48) dismissed the lady (age 25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his Unamed Wessex Abbess Wherwell at Wherwell [Map]. Soon after came Earl William (age 23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (age 48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (age 23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (age 29) before possessed.
Note 67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.
Note 68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.
Note 69. Now Westminster.
John of Worcester. 08 Sep 1051. Meanwhile, [his father] Godwin (age 50) and his sons [Note. Sweyn (age 30), [his brother] Harold (age 29), [his brother] Tostig (age 25), [his brother] Gyrth (age 19), [his brother] Leofwine (age 16) and [his brother] Wulfnoth Godwinson (age 11); it isn't clear whether all were present?], with their respective armies, entered Gloucestershire after the feast of the nativity of St. Mary [8th September], and encamping at a place called Langtreo, sent envoys to the king at Gloucester, demanding the surrender of count Eustace (age 36) and his followers, as well as of the Normans and men of Boulogne, who were in possession of the castle on the cliff at Dover [Map], on pain of hostilities. The king, alarmed for a time at this message, was in great distress, and in the utmost perplexity what to do. But when he found that the troops of the earls Leofric, Siward (age 41), and Ralph were on their march, he replied with firmness that he would by no means consent to give up Eustace (age 36) and the rest who were demanded. On hearing this, the envoys returned from their bootless errand. As they were departing, the army entered Gloucester, so exasperated, and unanimously ready to fight, that, if the king had given permission, they would have instantly engaged earl Godwin's (age 50) army. But earl Leofric considering that all the men of greatest note in England were assembled either on his side or the other, it appeared to him and some others a great folly to fight with their own countrymen, and he proposed that, hostages having been given by both parties, the king and Godwin (age 50) should meet at London on a day appointed, and settle their controversy in a legal way. This advice being approved, and after the exchange of messages, hostages having been given and received, the earl (age 50) returned into Wessex; and the king assembled a more powerful army from the whole of Mercia and Northumbria, and led it to London. Meanwhile, Godwin (age 50) and his sons came to Southwark with a vast multitude of the people of Wessex; but his army gradually dwindling away and deserting him, he did not venture to abide the judgment of the king's court, but fled, under cover of night. When, therefore, the morning came, the king, in his witan, with the unanimous consent of the whole army, made a decree that Godwin (age 50) and his five sons should be banished. Thereupon he and his wife [his mother] Githa, and Tosti (age 25) and his wife Judith (age 18), the daughter of Baldwin, count of Flanders, and two of his. other sons, namely, Sweyn (age 30) and Gurth (age 19), went, without loss of time, to Thorney, where a ship had been got ready for them. They quickly laded her with as much gold, silver, and other valuable articles as she could hold, and, embarking in great haste, directed her course towards Flanders and Baldwin (age 39) the count. His sons Harold (age 29) and Leofwine (age 16), making their way to Brycgstowe [Map], went on board a ship which their brother Sweyn (age 30) had prepared for them, and crossed over to Ireland. The king (age 48) repudiated the queen [his sister] Edgitha (age 25), on account of his wrath against her father Godwin (age 50), and sent her in disgrace, with only a single handmaid, to Wherwell [Map], where she was committed to the custody of the Unamed Wessex Abbess Wherwell.67
Note 67. She was a sister of the king.
John of Worcester. 1052. As soon as his arrival was known in the king's fleet, which lay at Sandwich [Map], it went in chase of him; but he escaped and concealed himself wherever he could, and the fleet returned to Sandwich [Map], and thence sailed to London. On hearing this, [his father] Godwin (age 51) shaped his course again for the Isle of Wight [Map], and kept hovering about along the shore until his sons [his brother] Harold (age 30) and [his brother] Leofwine (age 17) joined him with their fleet. After this junction, they desisted from plundering and wasting the country, taking only such provisions as necessity required for the subsistence of their troops. Having increased their force by enlisting as many men as they could on the sea-coast and in other places, and by collecting all the mariners they met with in every direction, they directed their course towards the port of Sandwich [Map]. Their arrival there was notified to king Edward (age 49), who was then at London, and he lost no time sending messengers requiring all persons, who had not revolted from him, to hasten to his succour; but they were too slow in their movements, and did not arrive in time. Meanwhile, earl Godwin (age 51), having sailed up the Thames against the current, reached Southwark, Surrey [Map] on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14th September], being Monday, and waited there until the flood-tide came up. In the interval, he so dealt with the citizens of London, some in person, others through his emissaries, having before seduced them by a variety of promises, that he persuaded nearly all of them to enter heartily into his designs. At last, everything being duly planned and set in order, on the tide's flowing up they quickly weighed anchor, and, no one offering them any resistance at the bridge, sailed upwards along the south bank of the river. The land army also arrived, and, being drawn up on the river-bank, formed a close and formidable column. Then the fleet drew towards the northern bank, with the intention, apparently, of enclosing the king's fleet, for the king had also a fleet, as well as a numerous land army. But as there were very few men of any courage, either on the king's or Godwin's (age 51) side, who were not Englishmen, nearly all shrunk from fighting against their kinsfolk and countrymen; so that the wiser sort on both sides interfered to restore peace between the king and the earl, and both armies received orders to lay down their arms. The next morning the king (age 49) held a council, and fully restored to their former honours Godwin (age 51), and his [his mother] wife, and all his sons, except Sweyn (age 31), who, touched with repentance for the murder of his cousin Beorn, mentioned before, had undertaken a journey barefoot from Flanders to Jerusalem, and who, on his return, died in Lycia70 from illness brought on by the severity of the cold. The king, also, took back with due honour queen [his sister] Edgitha (age 26), the earl's (age 51) daughter, and restored her to her former dignity.
Note 70. According to the Saxon Chronicle, Sweyn died at Constantinople on his journey home. Malmesbury relates that he was slain by the Saracens.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. At the council therefore they gave [his father] Godwin (age 51) fairly his earldom, so full and so free as he at first possessed it; and his sons also all that they formerly had; and his [his mother] wife and his [his sister] daughter (age 26) so full and so free as they formerly had. And they fastened full friendship between them, and ordained good laws to all people. Then they outlawed all Frenchmen-who before instituted bad laws, and judged unrighteous judgment, and brought bad counsels into this land-except so many as they concluded it was agreeable to the king (age 49) to have with him, who were true to him and to all his people. It was with difficulty that Bishop Robert, and Bishop William, and Bishop Ulf, escaped with the Frenchmen that were with them, and so went over sea. Earl Godwin (age 51), and [his brother] Harold (age 30), and the queen, sat in their stations. Sweyne (age 31) had before gone to Jerusalem from Bruges, and died on his way home at Constantinople, at Michaelmas. It was on the Monday after the festival of St. Mary, that Godwin (age 51) came with his ships to Southwark, Surrey [Map]: and on the morning afterwards, on the Tuesday, they were reconciled as it stands here before recorded. Godwin (age 51) then sickened soon after he came up, and returned back. But he made altogether too little restitution of God's property, which he acquired from many places.
On 29 Sep 1052 Sweyn Godwinson 1st Earl Hereford (age 31) died at Constantinople on his return from the Holy Land. Earl Hereford 1C 1043 extinct.
Charter S1000 King Edward to Coventry Abbey. A.D. 1043. King Edward to Coventry Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander] Latin
Pace regnante, largiflua Christi omnipotentis bonitas semper ab omnibus est laudanda omnique laude praeferenda, quia nullo bonitatis termino ualet concludi in saeculorum saecula, utpote quia idem deus ipse sit suae propriae bonitatis bonitas, distribuens gratis non tantum dignis uerum etiam indignis partem suae bonitatis; est quippe rex regum et dominus dominantium omniumque subsistentium uisibilium atque inuisibilium creator, et suae creationis discretissimus dispositor, attingens a fine usque ad finem suauiterque disponens omnem creaturam ut competit diuinae dominationi eius. Nam quosdam libero arbitrio quibusdam praefecit dignitate huius saeculi et operibus diuersis, quibus rursum mandat ut ipsi sua sufficienta et bonorum habundantia illorum releuare et sustentare debeant inopiam qui minus saecularibus habundant negotiis, ut pro hoc maiori possint mercede ab eo donari. Unde ego Eadwardus Anglorum rex omnibus post me futuris regibus, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, ducibus, omnibusque Christi fidelibus notum fieri uolo quod uenerabilis dux Leofricus, diuina inspirante gratia monitisque gloriosi ac deo dilecti summi pontificis Alexandri, monasterium sanctae dei genitricis Mariae sanctique Petri et omnium sanctorum in uilla quae dicitur Couentre extruxit largisque muneribus adornauit, atque subscripta maneria ad uictuale subsidium abbatis et monachorum in eodem loco deo perpetue seruientium mea larga donatione et concessione ibidem contulit; uidelicet medietatem eiusdem uillae in qua fundata est ipsa aecclesia, deinde Sou∂am, Greneburgan, Icketonam, Hunitonam, Neowenham, Hulhtune, Chadeleshunte, Herdewyk, Cestretune, Waspertune, Suohham, Byrtingabirig iuxta Auen, Merston, item Merstuna, in Gloecestria, medietatem uillae de Ruitune, Sowe, Salewarp, Eatuna iuxta fluuium Dee, Kildesbig, Winewican, Burhbeca, Barwalle, Scrapetoft, Pakinton, pro reuerentia itaque et honore sanctae dei genitricis Mariae sanctique aduocati mei apostoli Petri, do et concedo abbati Leofwino, et omnibus futuris ibidem post eum abbatibus, in tota possessione monasterii, sakam et socnam, et theloneum suum in terra et in aqua, in urbe et extra, et omnes leges et consuetudines tam plene et tam libere sicut eas praefatus dux honorificentius et liberius de me tenuit. Praecipio itaque ut omnia quae ad ipsam aecclesiam pertinent sint omnino libera, terrae cultae et incultae, cum exitibus atque redditibus praedictorum necnon maneria et aecclesiae, cimiteria, decimae, redditus, et seruitia debita, oblationes, luminaria, causarum discussiones, emendationes aecclesiasticae uel saeculares, et quicquid illi loco collatum est sub integra inmunitate concedimus et perpetuo firmamus. Et ne quis praesentium uel magis futurorum ambiget quae sit illa libertas quam amabiliter et firmiter concedo, omnimodis cuncta illius aecclesiae possessio nullis sit unquam grauata oneribus nec expeditionis nec pontis et arcis aedificatione, nec iuris regalis fragimine nec furis apprehensione. Et ut omnia simul comprehendam, nil debet exsolui nec regi nec regis praeposito uel episcopo uel ulli homini, sed omnia debita exsoluantur iugiter quae in ipsa ditione fuerint ad supradictum sanctum locum secundum quod ordinauerint fratres eiusdem coenobii. Ut autem cunctis haec transgredientibus ad damnationem suam euidenter possit ostendi literas summi pontificis papae Alexandri quas ab eo suscepimus, directas tam posteris quam praesentibus hic manifestari curauimus. Alexander episcopus seruus seruorum dei dilecto filio Eadwardo regi Anglorum salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Scriptorum uestrorum eloquia incolumitatem uestram significantia laeti suscepimus, gratias itaque omnipotenti deo retulimus qui cordis uestri sinceritatem ad omnia utilia sanctae matris aecclesiae compungit. Proinde iuxta scripta uestra monasterio sanctae Mariae de Couentria ubi seruorum dei constituta est congregatio a reuerendae memoriae Leofrico duce nuper exstructo, huiusmodi priuilegia praesentis authoritatis nostrae indulgemus, concedimus, atque confirmamus, statuentes ut ipse locus regiis praeceptis et priuilegiis apostolicis fultus per omnia tempora sine conuexatione cuiuscumque diocesani episcopi, aut alicuius iudiciariae potestatis cuiuscumque ordinis uel dignitatis sit, sed semper sicut praeoptat et expetit beneuolentia tua regalis futuro tempore permaneat. Fratres igitur eiusdem loci idoneos ex se uel ex qua uoluerint congregatione abbates siue decanos sibi per successiones eligendi habeant potestatem, et ne impediantur auctoritate apostolica prohibemus. Praeterea quicquid illi loco contuleris, uel collatum est, uel conferetur, diuina et nostra auctoritate roboramus; necnon priuilegia uestra ad honorem dei pertinentia quae ibi instituere uolueris gratanti affectu annuimus, confirmamus, et confirmando imperpetuum stare decreuimus; et infractores eorum aeterna maledictione damnamus. Anno incarnationis dominicae .m.xliii. scripta est haec syngrapha, hiis consentientibus ierarchis qui subter notati: uidelicet,
Ego Eadwardus rex hanc meam libertatem regali stabilimento affirmaui.
Ego Ælfgyfa mater eiusdem regis assensum accommodaui.
Ego [his sister] Eadgi∂ regina eiusdem collateralis regis eiusdem donationi regali consensi [The queen of the same collateral agreed to the king's royal donation of the same.].
Ego Eadsinus Dorobernensis aecclesiae archiepiscopus adquieui.
Ego Ælfricus Eboracensis aecclesiae archipraesul corroboraui.
Ego Ælfwoldus Londoniensis episcopus subposui.
Ego Ealdredus episcopus Wygornensis impressi.
Ego Duduco episcopus Willensis adnotaui.
Ego Wlfinus episcopus Lichesfeldensis consolidaui.
Ego Æ∂elstanus episcopus Herfordensis stabiliui.
Ego Liuingus episcopus Cridiensis adposui.
Ego Eadno∂us episcopus Dorcensis consensum praebui.
Ego Brihtwinus episcopus Scirbernensis confirmaui.
Ego Berhtwold episcopus Wiltuniensis conclusi.
Ego Manni abbas.
Ego Siward abbas.
Ego Ælfwinus abbas.
Ego Godwinus abbas.
Ego Ælfstanus abbas.
Ego [his father] Godwinus dux.
Ego [his brother] Haroldus dux.
Ego Leofricus dux.
Ego Siward dux.
Ego Sweyn dux.
Ego [his brother] Tostig dux.
Ego Radulphus More.
Ego Rodbord minister.
Ego Hulfketel minister.
Ego Godwine minister.
Ego Frewine minister.
Ego Leofric minister.
Ego Morcere minister.
Ego Ælfgar minister.
Ego Godric minister.
Ego Leofric minister.
Ego Siwerd minister.
Ego Æ∂elsi minister.
[his son] Hakon Godwinson was born to Sweyn Godwinson 1st Earl Hereford.