Biography of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Margaret Geneva Countess Savoy 1180-1252

Descendants Family Tree: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

1216 Death of King John

1236 Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1239 Christening of Edward I

1254 Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

1264 Battle of Northampton

1264 Battle of Lewes

1265 Prince Edward's Escape from Kenilworth Castle

1265 Battle of Evesham

1272 Death of Henry III

1274 Coronation Edward I

1277 Treaty of Aberconwy

1290 Death of Eleanor of Castile

1290 Eleanor Crosses

1295 Edward I Creates New Barons 36th Parliament

1297 Marriage of Princess Elizabeth and John of Holland

1298 Battle of Falkirk

1299 Edward I Creates New Barons

1299 Edward I and Margaret of France Wedding

1301 Edward II Created Prince of Wales

1302 Battle of Roslyn

1304 Siege of Stirling Castle

1305 Robert "The Bruce" murders John "Red" Comyn

1305 Execution of William Wallace

1306 Feast of the Swans

1307 Death of Edward I

1314 Battle of Bannockburn

1318 Death of Queen Consort Margaret of France

Death of King John

On 19 Oct 1216 [his grandfather] King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) died at Newark Castle [Map]. His son [his father] King Henry III of England (age 9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth (age 34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 - 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? - 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl of Derby (age 48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172-1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 - 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? - 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? - 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

On 14 Jan 1236 or 24 Jan 1236 [his father] King Henry III of England (age 28) and [his mother] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Canterbury Cathedral [Map] by Archbishop Edmund Rich (age 61). She the daughter of Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence (age 38) and Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence (age 38). He the son of King John "Lackland" of England and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 48). They were fourth cousins.

On 17 Jun 1239 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England was born to King Henry III of England (age 31) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 16) at Westminster Palace [Map].

Christening of Edward I

On 22 Jun 1239 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England was christened at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex (age 35) was godfather. He was named after King Edward "Confessor" of England.

Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

On 01 Nov 1254 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 15) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas. She the daughter of Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon and Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon (age 34). He the son of King Henry III of England (age 47) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 31). They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

Liber de Antiquis Legibus 1255. 30 Nov 1255. In the same year, Sir Edward (age 16), the King's eldest son, came to London from Gascoigne, on the Vigil of Saint Andrew [30 November], the City being handsomely hung with tapestry for the occasion.

In 1260 [his brother-in-law] Manuel Ivrea (age 26) and Constance Barcelona were married. She the daughter of James "The Just" II King Aragon and Blanche Capet Queen Consort Aragon. He the son of Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon and Elisabeth Hohenstaufen Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon. They were second cousin twice removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

In 1260 [his brother-in-law] Ferdinand Ivrea (age 21) died.

In 1261 [his brother-in-law] Sancho Ivrea Archbishop Toledo (age 28) died.

Battle of Northampton

On 06 Apr 1264 the future King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 24), Philip Marmion 5th Baron Marmion (age 30) and Roger Leybourne (age 49) fought for the King at Northampton Castle [Map] during the Battle of Northampton. Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Chester (age 56) fought for the rebels with his son Simon "Younger" Montfort (age 24) who was captured.

Battle of Lewes

On 14 May 1264 the army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Chester (age 56) including [his future son-in-law] Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 20), Henry Hastings (age 29) and Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave (age 26) defeated the army of [his father] King Henry III of England (age 56) during the Battle of Lewes at Lewes [Map]. King Henry III of England (age 56), his son the future King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 24), Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex (age 60), [his uncle] Richard of Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall (age 55), John "Red" Comyn 1st Lord Baddenoch (age 44), Philip Marmion 5th Baron Marmion (age 30) and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield (age 32) were captured. John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey (age 33), John Balliol (age 56), Robert Bruce 5th Lord Annandale (age 49), Roger Leybourne (age 49) and [his uncle] William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke fought for the King. [his uncle] Guy Lusignan was killed. Fulk IV Fitzwarin (age 44) drowned. Bishop Walter de Cantelupe (age 73) was present and blessed the Montfort army before the battle.

Prince Edward's Escape from Kenilworth Castle

On 28 May 1265 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 25), with the help of Roger Leybourne (age 50), escaped from Kenilworth Castle [Map] whilst on a hunting trip. He had been held there as a hostage following the Battle of Lewes as a condition of the Mise of Lewes (the now lost peace treaty).

Battle of Evesham

On 04 Aug 1265 the army loyal to [his father] King Henry III of England (age 57), led by his son the future King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 26), supported by [his future son-in-law] Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 21), Warin Basingburne and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield (age 33) defeated the rebel army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Chester (age 57) at the Battle of Evesham.

Roger Leybourne (age 50) fought and reputedly saved the King's life.

Adam Mohaut rescued the King.

Alan de Plugenet of Kilpec fought for the King.

Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Chester (age 57) and his son Henry Montfort (age 26) were killed. Earl of Leicester, Earl Chester forfeit.

Hugh Despencer (age 41) was killed by Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (age 34).

Simon Beauchamp (age 31), Ralph Basset (age 50), William Devereux (age 46), Hugh Troyes, Richard Trussel, Peter Montfort (age 60), William Mandeville, William Crepping, William Birmingham, Guy Balliol and Thomas Astley (age 50) were killed. Henry Hastings (age 30), Humphrey Bohun (age 44), Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave (age 27), John Vesci, John Fitzjohn and Guy Montfort Count Nola (age 21) were captured.

John Vesci was wounded and taken prisoner.

On 13 Jul 1266 [his son] John Plantagenet was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 27) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 25).

On 06 May 1268 [his son] Henry Plantagenet was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 28) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 27) at Windsor Castle [Map].

On 24 Jun 1268 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 29) took the cross at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], along with his brother [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster (age 23) and cousin Henry "Almain" Cornwall (age 32), from Papal Legate Ottobuono Fieschi (age 58).

In 1269 [his brother-in-law] Louis Ivrea (age 26) died.

On 18 Jun 1269 [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 30) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 28) at Windsor Castle [Map].

On 20 Aug 1270 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 31) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 29) sailed from Dover, Kent [Map] to Tunis via Sicily. On arrival at Sicily King Charles Capet of Sicily (age 43), brother of the recently deceased King Louis IX of France (age 56), had signed a treaty with the Emir so Edward returned to Sicily.

Before 09 May 1271 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 31) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 30) sailed from Palermo and travelled to Acre arriving on 09 May 1271. They were later joined by [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster (age 26), John "The Red" Capet I Duke Brittany (age 53) and Teobaldo Visconti Archdeacon of Liège (age 41) (who would become Pope a month later).

On 03 Aug 1271 [his son] John Plantagenet (age 5) died at Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map] whilst in the care of his great uncle [his uncle] Richard of Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall (age 62). He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

In Apr 1272 [his daughter] Joan of Acre Countess Gloucester and Hertford was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 32) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 31) at Acre.

On 16 Jun 1272 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 32) was attacked by an assasin who stabbed him with a poisoned dagger. He survived but was in a weakened state for some time.

On 22 Sep 1272 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 31) left Acre for Sicily where he spent the winter convalescing. Whilst there he learned of the death of his father King Henry III of England (age 64), his uncle Richard of Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall and his eldest son [his son] John Plantagenet.

Death of Henry III

On 16 Nov 1272 [his father] King Henry III of England (age 65) died at Westminster [Map]. His son King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) succeeded I King England. [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 31) by marriage Queen Consort England.

Before Apr 1273 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 32) were hosted by his old friend the recently appointed Pope Gregory X (age 43) at his Court in Orvieto at which Edward was awarded a tenth of the clergy for three years to pay for his recent Crusade.

Around Apr 1273 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) took part in a tournament at Chalon-sur-Saône [Map]. It isn't clear who made the invitation. Chroniclers appear to have confused Chalon-sur-Saône with Châlons-en-Champagne, and the invitee as the unknown Count of Châlons.

After Apr 1273 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 32) travelled to Gascony to deal with the revolt of Gaston VII Viscount of Béarn (age 48). They stayed in Gascony for a year.

After Apr 1273 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) travelled to Paris [Map] to pay homage to Philip "Bold" III King France (age 27) for his lands in Gascony.

On 24 Nov 1273 [his son] Alfonso Plantagenet was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 34) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 32) in Bayonne [Map]. Their ninth child. He was named after Eleanor's (age 32) half-brother [his brother-in-law] Alfonso X King Castile X King Leon (age 52) who was also the child's godfather and attended his christening.

In 1274 [his brother-in-law] Philip Ivrea (age 43) died.

In 1274 [his brother-in-law] Manuel Ivrea (age 40) and Beatrice Savoy (age 24) were married. She the daughter of Amedeo Savoy IV Count Savoy and Cecilia Baux Countess Savoy (age 44). He the son of Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon and Elisabeth Hohenstaufen Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 02 Aug 1274 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 35) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 33) arrived at Dover, Kent [Map] after an absence of four years. They travelled to London via Tonbridge Castle [Map], home of [his future son-in-law] Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 30) and Reigate Castle, Surrey [Map], home of John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey (age 43).

Coronation Edward I

On 19 Aug 1274 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 35) was crowned I King England at Westminster Abbey [Map]. [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 33) was crowned Queen Consort England.

Alexander III King Scotland (age 32) and [his sister] Margaret Queen of Scotland (age 33) attended.

On 14 Oct 1274 [his son] Henry Plantagenet (age 6) died. He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 15 Mar 1275 [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 35) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 34) at Windsor Castle [Map].

In 1277 Rhuddlan Castle was commissioned by King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 37). Work was initially started by Master Betram but was completed by James of St George Master Mason. It was completed in 1282.

Treaty of Aberconwy

In 1277 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 37) and Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44) signed the Treaty of Aberconwy by which Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44) agreed that Welsh self-rule would end with the death of Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44). As part of the Treaty Owain "The Red" Aberffraw (age 45) was released from Dolbadarn Castle [Map].

Letters. 1279. Letter XVII. [his mother] Eleanora Queen-Dowager of England (age 56) to her son Edward I (age 39).

Eleanora, by God's grace queen of England, to our dear son Edward, by the same grace king of England, health and our blessing.

Know, sweet son, that we have understood that a marriage is in agitation between the son of the King of Sicily (age 51) and the daughter of the King of Germany (age 60); and, if this alliance is made, we may well be disturbed in the right that we have to the fourth part of Provence, which thing would be great damage to us, and this damage would be both ours and yours. Where fore we pray and require you, that you will specially write to the aforesaid king, that since Provence is held from the empire, and his dignity demands that he should have right done to us about it, he will regard the right that we have, and cause us to hold it. Of this thing we especially require you, and we commend you to God.

Letters. 1279. Letter XVI. Constance Widow of Henry of Germany, the Nephew of Henry III to Edward I (age 39).

To the most serene prince, and, if it please him, her dearest lord, Edward, by God's grace king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine, his humble and devoted Constance, relict of the late noble man Henry of Germany, wishes health, and commends herself with devoted obsequiousness and honour.

Be it known to your excellency, that for some time last past I have not dared, through fear of you to write to your highness, nor to signify anything to you, whereof of good cause I grieved, and was beyond measure distressed at heart. But now, by the leave and counsel of the Lord Bishop of Bath (age 40), and Lord Otho de Grandison (age 41), I have dared to write to you, which gives me all possible joy, supplicating your royal majesty that you will deign diligently to search out and inquire the truth from the said lord bishop and Sir Otho concerning my estate, and about all things which have hitherto been done and at tempted about me; for they, if they choose, can for the most part certify you as to the premises. Yet I much desire, and long above all things, that I could speak face to face with your highness about my estate and other things concerning me. Wherefore I pray your lordship, as affectionately and humbly as I can, by that dear love which by your favour you were wont to bear me, and still bear as I hope, that if it would please you that I might come to your highness, you will command my lord and father (age 54), when he shall be in England, to send for me by his letters. And I believe he will do it willingly, if you will command or advise it. Please it your highness to give credence to our dear and trusty clerk, Master William R., of Miremont, the present bearer, in reference to the premises and all other things which he will say to you on our behalf. May the Most High long preserve your person and dominions, and give you increase of favour and honour!

Letters. After 1279. Letter XX. [his mother] Eleanora Queen-Dowager of England (age 56) to her son Edward I (age 39).

To the most noble prince and our dearest son, Edward, by God's grace king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Guienne, Eleanora, hoxnble nun of the order of Fontevraud of the convent of Amesbury, health and our blessing.

Sweetest son, our abbess of Fontevraud has prayed us that we would entreat the King of Sicily to guard and preserve the franchises of her house, which some people wish to damage. And, because we know well that he will do much more for your prayer than for ours, for you have better deserved it, we pray you, good son^ that for love of us you will request and especi-^ ally require this thing from him; and that he would command that the things which the abbess holds in his lordship may be in his protection and guard, and that neither she nor hers may be molested or grieved. Good son, if it please you, command that the billet be hastily delivered. We wish you health in the sweet Jesus, to whom we commend you.

Letters. After 1279. Letter XXI. [his mother] Eleanora Queen-Dowager of England (age 56) to her son Edward I (age 39).

To the most noble prince and her very dear son, Edward, by God's grace king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine, Eleanora, humble nun of the order of Fontevraud [Map], of the convent of Amesbury, wishes health and her blessing.

Sweetest son, we know well how great is the desire that a mother has to see her child when she has been long away from him, and that dame Margaret de Nevile (age 24), companion of Master John Painter Giffard (age 47), has not seen for a long time past her child, who is in the keeping of dame Margaret de Weyland, and has a great desire to see him. We pray you, sweetest son, that you will command and pray the aforesaid Margaret de Weyland, that she will suffer that the mother may have the solace of her child for some time, after her desire. Dearest son, we commend you to God. Given at Amesbury [Map], the 4th day of March.

On 11 Mar 1279 [his daughter] Mary Plantagenet was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 39) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 38) at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map].

Letters. 08 Jul 1279. Letter XVIII. Eleanora Princess of Wales (age 27) to her cousin Edward I (age 40).

To her excellent lord and well-beloved cousin, the Lord Edward, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and dake of Aquitaine, his devoted cousin Eleonora, princess of Wales, lady of Snowdon, with such sincere affection as becometh, sends health to so great and so near a kinsman.

Be it known to your excellency, that we desire to hear good and prosperous news concerning your state and condition: therefore we entreat your excellency, humbly and earnestly, for our love's sake, that you deign to make known to us, as your humble cousin, and one ready to do your good pleasures, your state; and whether you wish any thing within our power which may redound to your honour^ or may please your majesty.

Although, as we have heard, the contrary hereto hath been reported of us to your excellency by some; and we believe, notwithstanding, that you in no wise give credit to any who report unfavourably concerning our lord and ourself, until you learn from ourselves if such speeches contain truth: because you shewed, of your grace, so much honour and so much friendliness to our lord and ourself, when you were at the last time at Worcester.

Wherefore, whatever you shall demand from us in this, or other matters that you wish, we shall ever be ready, according to our ability, to execute and accomplish.

Given at Llanmaes [Map], the 8th day of July.

Letters. 18 Oct 1280. Letter XIX. Eleanora Princess of Wales (age 28) to her cousin Edward I (age 41).

To the most excellent prince, and also her very dear cousin, the Lord Edward, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine, his devoted Eleonora, princess of Wales, lady of Snowdon, sends health, with such sincere affection as becometh to so great a lord and so near a kinsman.

We make it known to your excellency by these presents, that we, blessed be God, enjoy good health and prosperity; which same we not only desire, but long to learn, concerning yourself.

And whereas it has been reported to us bj some that you propose to have it debated, in the present parliament, touching the relieving the condition of our very dear brother, the Lord Amalric (age 38), therefore, with clasped hands, and with bended knees and tearful groanings, we supplicate your majesty that, reverencing from your inmost soul the Divine mercy (which holds out the hand of pity to all, especially to those who seek Him with their whole heart), yoo would deign mercifully to jbake again to your grace and favour our aforesaid brother and your kinsman, who humbly craveth, as we understand, your kindness.

For if your excellency, as we have often known, mercifully condescends to strangers, with much more reason, as we think, ought you to hold out the hand of pity to one so near to you by the ties of nature.

May you long fare well in the Lord!

Given at Saint Anneir, on the feast of Saint Luke the Evangelist.

In Feb 1282 John Vesci was sent with Bishop Antony Bek (age 37) to negotiate a marriage between Alfonso (age 16), son of King Peter III of Aragon (age 42), and King Edward's (age 42) daughter [his daughter] Eleanor (age 12), which resulted in the signing of the contract as proxy at Huesca.

On 07 Aug 1282 [his daughter] Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Countess Essex, Hereford and Holland was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 43) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 41) at Rhuddlan Castle.

In 1283 Roger Mowbray 1st Baron Mowbray (age 26) was created 1st Baron Mowbray by King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 43).

On 22 Jun 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince of Wales (age 44) and Owain ap Dafydd Aberffraw (age 8) were captured at Nanhysglain Bangor [Map]. Dafydd (age 44), seriously wounded in the struggle, was brought to King Edward's (age 44) camp at Rhuddlan that same night. Dafydd (age 44) was taken from here to Chester [Map] and then on to Shrewsbury, Shropshire [Map]. Dafydd (age 44) and Dafydd's wife Elizabeth de Ferrers (age 43), their daughter Gwladys, infant niece Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn (age 1), and Dafydd's six illegitimate daughters were also taken prisoner at the same time.

On 25 Dec 1283 [his brother-in-law] Manuel Ivrea (age 49) died.

On 25 Apr 1284 [his son] King Edward II of England was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 44) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 43) at Caernarfon Castle [Map].

On 19 Aug 1284 [his son] Alfonso Plantagenet (age 10) died at Windsor [Map]. He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

In Jun 1285 John Vesci was sent with two others to negotiate the marriage between Edward's (age 45) daughter [his daughter] Elizabeth (age 2) and [his future son-in-law] John (age 1), son of Floris V Count of Holland (age 30).

In 1288 [his sister-in-law] Berengaria Ivrea (age 60) died.

On 30 Apr 1290 [his son-in-law] Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 46) and [his daughter] Joan of Acre Countess Gloucester and Hertford (age 18) were married at Clerkenwell [Map]. She by marriage Countess Gloucester, Countess Hertford. The difference in their ages was 28 years. She the daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 50) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 49). He the son of Richard de Clare 6th Earl Gloucester 5th Earl Hertford and Maud Lacy Countess Gloucester and Hertford. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 08 Jul 1290 [his son-in-law] John "Peaceful" Reginar II Duke Brabant (age 14) and [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant (age 15) were married. She the daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 51) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 49). He the son of John Reginar I Duke Brabant (age 37) and Margaret Dampierre Duchess Brabant.

Death of Eleanor of Castile

On 28 Nov 1290 [his wife] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 49) died at Harby Manor. Her viscera were buried at Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

Eleanor Crosses

After 28 Nov 1290 [his former wife] Eleanor of Castile's (age 49) body was taken from Harby [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map]. At each of the locations at which her body rested overnight King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 51) commissioned the building of an Eleanor Cross. Three remain. The best example being at Geddington, Northamptonshire [Map].

On 24 Jun 1291 [his mother] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 68) died at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire [Map] where she was subsequently buried. Her heart was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

In 1292 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 52) stayed overnight at Warkworth Castle [Map].

On 20 Dec 1292 King Edward I (age 53) stayed at Horton Castle [Map] for one night when returning from adjudicating the claim to the Scottish throne. The landholder, Sir Guiscard de Charron, had used the occasion of Edwards's visit to ask for the necessary permission to fortify his manor house, that Edward was currently a guest in. The license to crenelate was granted one week later in Newcastle.

On 20 Sep 1293 [his son-in-law] Henry of Bar III Count of Bar (age 34) and [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet (age 24) were married. She the daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 54) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England. He the son of Theobald of Bar II Count of Bar and Jeanne Toucy Countess Bar. He a great x 5 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

1295 Edward I Creates New Barons 36th Parliament

On 24 Jun 1295 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 56) created new baronies through writs for summons to his 36th Parliament

John Montfort 1st Baron Montfort (age 31) was created 1st Baron Montfort. Alice Plaunche Baroness Montfort by marriage Baroness Montfort.

Walter Fauconberg 1st Baron Fauconberg (age 75) was created 1st Baron Fauconberg.

Thomas Furnival 1st Baron Furnivall (age 35) was created 1st Baron Furnivall. Joan Despencer Baroness Furnivall (age 37) by marriage Baroness Furnivall.

Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter (age 48) was created 1st Baron Fitzwalter. Eleanor Ferrers Baroness Fitzwalter by marriage Baroness Fitzwalter.

Ralph Basset 1st Baron Basset Drayton (age 31) was created 1st Baron Basset Drayton. Hawise Grey Baroness Basset Drayton (age 40) by marriage Baroness Basset Drayton.

The following Baronies may have been created at the 36th Parliament or the 37th Parliament summoned on 30 Sep 1295.

John Wake 1st Baron Wake of Liddell (age 27) was created 1st Baron Wake of Liddell.

Andrew Astley 1st Baron Astley (age 49) was created 1st Baron Astley.

Thomas Berkeley 6th and 1st Baron Berkeley (age 49) was created 1st Baron Berkeley. Joan Ferrers Baroness Berkeley by marriage Baroness Berkeley.

Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey of Wilton (age 55) was created 1st Baron Grey of Wilton. Maud Fitzhugh Baroness Grey Wilton (age 73) by marriage Baroness Grey of Wilton.

John Hastings 13th Baron Bergavenny 1st Baron Hastings (age 33) was created 1st Baron Hastings by a summons to Parliament. Isabel Valence Baroness Bergavenny Baroness Hastings by marriage Baroness Hastings.

Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 32) was created 1st Baron Neville Raby. Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby (age 28) by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

John Beke 1st Baron Beke (age 72) was created 1st Baron Beke (although there is some doubt whether he was created Baron).

Fulk Fitzwarin 1st Baron Fitzwarin (age 43) was created 1st Baron Fitzwarin.

On 27 Jun 1296 Floris Gerulfing V Count Holland (age 42) was killed. His son [his future son-in-law] John Gerulfing I Count Holland (age 12) succeeded I Count Holland.

Floris (age 42) has transferred his allegiance to France inviting the enmity of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 57) who relied on him to support the valuable English wool trade. Edward conspired with Guy of Flanders to kidnap Floris. Floris was captured during a hunting party and taken to Muiderslot castle. Concerned about their safety the kidnappers attempted to take Floris to a safer location during which jounrney they were attacked by an angry mob of local peasants. Floris was killed.

In Jan 1297 [his son-in-law] Ralph Monthermer 1st Baron Monthermer (age 27) and [his daughter] Joan of Acre Countess Gloucester and Hertford (age 24) were married in secret greatly offending her father King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 57) who had been planning to marry her to Amadeus V "Great" Savoy (age 47) in March. Ralph Monthermer 1st Baron Monthermer (age 27) was imprisoned at Bristol Castle, Gloucestershire [Map]; he was released in Aug 1297. She the daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 57) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England.

Marriage of Princess Elizabeth and John of Holland

On 08 Jan 1297 [his son-in-law] John Gerulfing I Count Holland (age 13) and [his daughter] Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Countess Essex, Hereford and Holland (age 14) were married at Ipswich, Suffolk [Map]. She by marriage Countess Holland. The wedding was attended by her sister [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant (age 21), her father King Edward I (age 57), her brother [his son] Edward (age 12) and her future second husband [his future son-in-law] Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex (age 21). She the daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 57) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England. He the son of Floris Gerulfing V Count Holland and Beatrix Dampierre.

Battle of Falkirk

On 22 Jul 1298 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 59) defeated the Scottish army led by William Wallace during the Battle of Falkirk at Falkirk [Map] using archers to firstly attack the Scottish shiltrons with the heavy cavalry with infantry completing the defeat.

John de Graham and John Stewart of Bonkyll (age 52) were killed.

The English were described in the Falkirk Roll that lists 111 men with their armorials including:

Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 26).

Walter Beauchamp (age 55).

Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk (age 53).

Humphrey Bohun 3rd Earl Hereford 2nd Earl Essex (age 49).

Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 24).

Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester (age 37).

William Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 26).

Thomas Berkeley 6th and 1st Baron Berkeley (age 52).

Maurice Berkeley 7th and 2nd Baron Berkeley (age 27).

Henry Grey 1st Baron Grey of Codnor (age 43).

Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey of Wilton (age 58).

John Grey 2nd Baron Grey of Wilton (age 30).

John Mohun 1st Baron Dunster (age 29).

Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu (age 48).

Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 11).

William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley (age 43).

John Segrave 2nd Baron Segrave (age 42).

Nicholas Segrave (age 42).

Robert de Vere 6th Earl of Oxford (age 41).

Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby (age 30).

Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 20).

Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster (age 17).

John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey (age 67).

Henry Percy 9th and 1st Baron Percy (age 25).

Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon (age 21).

Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl Arundel (age 31).

Henry Beaumont Earl Buchan (age 19).

John Capet II Duke Brittany (age 59).

Philip Darcy (age 40).

Robert Fitzroger.

Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter (age 51), or possiby a Roger Fitzwalter?.

Simon Fraser.

Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 23).

John Wake 1st Baron Wake of Liddell (age 30), and.

Henry Lacy 4th Earl Lincoln, Earl Salisbury (age 47).

William Scrope (age 53) was knighted.

John Moels 1st Baron Moels (age 29) fought.

John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel (age 44) fought.

On 29 Aug 1298 [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet (age 29) died at Ghent [Map]. She was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

1299 Edward I Creates New Barons

On 06 Feb 1299 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 59) created a number of new Barons by writ of summons to Edward's 44th Parliament ...

John Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 27) was created 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley.

John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel (age 45) was created 1st Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh. Joan Ros Baroness Lovel (age 39) by marriage Baroness Lovel of Titchmarsh.

William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley (age 44) was created 1st Baron Ros Helmsley. Maud Vaux Baroness Ros (age 42) by marriage Baroness Ros Helmsley.

William Devereux 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall (age 55) was created 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall. Lucy Burnell Baroness Devereux Lyonshall by marriage Baroness Devereux Lyonshall.

Adam Welles 1st Baron Welles (age 50) was created 1st Baron Welles. Joan D'Engayne Baroness Welles and Ughtred by marriage Baroness Welles.

Robert Clinton 1st Baron Clinton (age 41) was created 1st Baron Clinton. Ida Odingsells Baroness Clinton (age 34) by marriage Baroness Clinton.

John Moels 1st Baron Moels (age 30) was created 1st Baron Moels.

The next baronies may not have been created on 06 Feb 1299 but were created in 1299 possibly for Edward's 45th and 46th Parliaments on 10 Apr 1299 and 21 Sep 1299 respectively.

Edmund Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt (age 49) was created 1st Baron Deincourt.

John Strange 1st Baron Strange Knockin (age 46) was created 1st Baron Strange Knockin. Maud Eiville Baroness Strange Knockin by marriage Baroness Strange Knockin.

John St John Lagenham 1st Baron St John Lagenham (age 49) was created 1st Baron St John Lagenham.

Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 24) was created 1st Baron de Clifford. Maud Clare Baroness Clifford Baroness Welles (age 23) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

Henry Grey 1st Baron Grey of Codnor (age 44) was created 1st Baron Grey of Codnor 1299. Eleanor Courtenay Baroness Grey Codnor by marriage Baroness Grey of Codnor 1299.

John Mohun 1st Baron Dunster (age 30) was created 1st Baron Mohun of Dunster. Ada Tiptoft Baroness Dunster (age 24) by marriage Baroness Mohun of Dunster.

Roger Scales 1st Baron Scales was created 1st Baron Scales.

John St John 1st Baron St John Basing (age 25) was created 1st Baron St John Basing.

John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset (age 24) was created 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset.

Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby (age 31) was created 1st Baron Zouche Ashby.

Henry Percy 9th and 1st Baron Percy (age 25) was created 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick. Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy (age 15) by marriage Baroness Percy of Alnwick.

William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison (age 37) was created 1st Baron Grandison. Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison by marriage Baroness Grandison. His brother was also created Baron Grandison on the same day.

Otto Grandison 1st Baron Grandison (age 61) was created 1st Baron Grandison. His brother was also created Baron Grandison on the same day.

Thomas de Multon 1st Baron Multon (age 22) was created 1st Baron Multon Egremont. Eleanor Burgh Baroness Multon Egremont (age 17) by marriage Baroness Multon Egremont.

Edward I and Margaret of France Wedding

On 08 Sep 1299 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 60) and Margaret of France Queen Consort England (age 20) were married at Canterbury Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 39 years. She the daughter of Philip "Bold" III King France and Maria Reginar Queen Consort France (age 43). He the son of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England. They were first cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 27) was present.

On 29 Dec 1299 William Morley 1st Baron Morley was created 1st Baron Morley by writ of summons to King Edward I's (age 60) 47th Parliament. Isabel Mohaut Baroness Morley by marriage Baroness Morley.

On 01 Jun 1300 [his son] Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 60) and [his wife] Margaret of France Queen Consort England (age 21) at Brotherton [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.81%.

On 25 Sep 1300 Edmund "Almain" 2nd Earl Cornwall (age 50) died. He was buried, heart and flesh, at Ashridge, Hertfordshire [Map]. His bones were interred at Hailes Abbey [Map] during a service attended by King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 61). Earl Cornwall extinct.

Edward II Created Prince of Wales

On 07 Feb 1301 [his son] King Edward II of England (age 16) was created Prince of Wales by his father King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 61); the first English heir to receive the title. He was created 1st Earl Chester the same day.

On 27 Jun 1301 King Edward I (age 62) visited Horton Castle [Map].

On 05 Aug 1301 [his son] Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent was born to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 62) and [his wife] Margaret of France Queen Consort England (age 22) at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.81%.

Battle of Roslyn

John of Fordun's Chronicle. On the 27th of July 1302, [Note. The date here confusing since the Battle of Roslyn] is reported to have taken place on 24 Feb 1303] took place the great and famous engagement between the Scots and English, at Roslyn [Map], where the English were defeated, though with great difficulty. From the beginning of the first war which ever broke out between the Scots and English, it is said, there never was so desperate a struggle, or one in which the stoutness of knightly prowess shone forth so brightly. The commander and leader in this struggle was John Comyn (age 33), the son. Now this was how this struggle came about, and the manner thereof. After the battle fought at Falkirk, the king of England (age 63) came not in person, for the nonce, this side of the water of Forth; but sent a good large force, which plundered the whole land of Fife, with all the lands lying near the town of Perth [Map], after having killed a great many of the dwellers in those lands. On the return of this force, with countless spoils, that king (age 63) hied him home again with his host. Now this was brought about, doubtless, by God's agency: for had he made a lengthened stay then, or after the battle of Dunbar and the seizure of King John (age 53), he would either have subjugated the whole land of Scotland, and the dwellers therein, to his sway, or made it a waste with naught but floods and stones. But the goodness of God, Who alone tends and heals after wounds, so governed the actions and time of that king, that, being stirred up to battle, and engrossed with sundry wars, he could not put off all other matters, and give himself up to subduing this kingdom. So that king of England (age 63) went back with his men, having first appointed the officers of the sheriffdoms, and the wardens of the castles, in the districts beyond the water of Forth, which were then fully and wholly subject unto his sway - with the exception of a few outlaws (or, indeed, robbers), of Scottish birth, who were lurking in the woods, and could not, because of their misdeeds, submit to the laws. But John Comyn (age 33), then guardian of Scotland, and Simon Eraser, with their followers, day and night did their best to harass and annoy, by their great prowess, the aforesaid king's officers and bailiffs; and from the time of that king's departure, for four years and more, the English and the Anglicized Scots were harried by them, in manifold ways, by mutual slaughter and carnage, according to the issue of various wars.

John of Fordun's Chronicle. 24 Feb 1303. When the aforesaid king (age 63) had got news of this, he sent off a certain nobleman, Ralph Confrere, his treasurer (Ralph de Manton, the Cofferer), a man stout in battle, and of tried judgment and wisdom, with a certain body of chosen knights, thoroughly well-armed, to seek out, in every hole and corner, those who troubled and disturbed the king's peace, and not to forbear punishing them with the penalty of death. So they entered Scotland, and went about ranging through the land, until they, at Roslyn, pitched their tents, split up into three lines apart, for want of free camping room. But the aforesaid John Comyn (age 34) and Simon, with their abettors, hearing of their arrival, and wishing to steal a march rather than have one stolen upon them, came briskly through from Biggar to Eoslyn, in one night, with some chosen men, who chose rather death before unworthy subjection to the English nation; and, all of a sudden, they fearlessly fell upon the enemy. But having been, a little before, roused by the sentries, all those of the first line seized their weapons, and manfully withstood the attacking foe. At length, however, the former were overcome. Some were taken, and some slain; while some, again, fled to the other line. But, while the Scots were sharing the booty, another line straightway appeared, in battle-array; so the Scots, on seeing it, slaughtered their prisoners, and armed their own vassals with the spoils of the slain; then, putting away their jaded horses, and taking stronger ones, they fearlessly hastened to the fray. When this second line had been, at length, overcome, though with difficulty, and the Scots thought they had ended their task, there appeared a third, mightier than the former, and more choice in their harness. The Scots were thunderstruck at the sight of them; and being both fagged out in manifold ways, - by the fatigues of travelling, watching, and want of food - and also sore distressed by the endless toil of fighting, began to be weary, and to quail in spirit, beyond belief. But, when the people were thus thrown into bewilderment, the aforesaid John and Simon, with, hearts undismayed, took up, with their weapons, the office of preachers; and, comforting them with their words, cheering them with their promises, and, moreover, reminding them of the nobleness of freedom, and the baseness of thraldom, and of the unwearied toil which their ancestors had willingly undertaken for the deliverance of their country, they, with healthful warnings, heartened them to the fray. So, being greatly emboldened by these and such-like words, the Scots laid aside all cowardice, and got back their strength. Then they slaughtered their prisoners, with whose horses and arms they were again - as it were - renewed; and, putting their trust in God, they and their armed vassals marched forward most bravely and dashingly to battle. The shock was so mighty and fierce, that many were run through, and bereft of life; and some of either host, after awful spear-thrusts, savage flail-strokes, and hard cudgelling, withdrew from the ranks, by hundreds, forties, and twenties, to the hills, time after time, fagged out and dazed by the day's fighting. There they would throw back their helmets, and let the winds blow upon them; and after having been thus cooled by the breeze, they would put away their wounded horses, and, mounting other fresh ones, would thus be made stronger against the onslaughts of the foe. So, after this manifold ordeal and awful struggle, the Scots, who, if one looked at the opposite side, were very few in number - as it were a handful of corn or flour compared with the multitude of the sea-sand - by the power, not of man, but of God, subdued their foes, and gained a happy and gladsome victory.

John of Fordun's Chronicle. In revenge for the foregoing outrages, the king of England (age 63), with a very large force, both by sea and by land, entered Scotland, in the year 1303, with the deliberate design of once for all fully bringing it, and the dwellers therein, under his yoke; or, of sweeping out the inhabitants altogether, and reducing the land itself to an utter and irreclaimable wilderness. Having, therefore, scoured the hills and plains, both on this side of the hills and beyond them, he, in person, reached Lochindorb [Map]; and, after making some stay there, he received the submission of the northern districts, and appointed officers of his in all the castles and fortified towns surrendered to him. Returning thence leisurely, he received the submission of all the communities, as well as fortresses and castles they passed through, with none to withstand or attack him; and, after much winding about through the land, he got to Dunfermline [Map], where he lingered a long time, wintering there until Candlemas. The same year, his son and heir, [his son] Edward of Carnarvon (age 18), Prince of Wales, made a long stay in the town of Perth [Map]. Food was in such plenty there, for the whole of the aforesaid time, that a laggen, Scottish measure, of good wine sold for fourpence.

John of Fordun's Chronicle. Just after Easter, in the year 1304, that same king besieged Strivelyn [Map] Castle for three months without a break. For this siege, he commanded all the lead of the refectory of Saint Andrews [Map] to be pulled down, and had it taken away for the use of his engines. At last, the aforesaid castle was surrendered and delivered unto him on certain conditions, drawn up in writing, and sealed with his seal. But when he had got the castle, the king (age 64) belied his troth, and broke through the conditions: for William Oliphant, the warden thereof, he threw bound into prison in London, and kept him a long time in thrall. The same year, when both great and small in the kingdom of Scotland (except William Wallace alone) had made their submission unto him; when the surrendered castles and fortified towns, which had formerly been broken down and knocked to pieces, had been all rebuilt, and he had appointed wardens of his own therein; and after all and sundry of Scottish birth had tendered him homage, the king (age 64), with the [his son] Prince of Wales (age 19), and his whole army, returned to England. He left, however, the chief warden as his lieutenant, to amend and control the lawlessness of all the rest, both Scots and English. He did not show his face in Scotland after this.

Siege of Stirling Castle

On 20 Jul 1304 William Oliphant Governor of surrendered Stirling Castle [Map] to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 65).

Betwee 31 Aug 1304 or 01 Sep 1304 to 06 Sep 1304 King Edward I (age 65) stayed at Horton Castle [Map].

Robert "The Bruce" murders John "Red" Comyn

John of Fordun's Chronicle. The same year, after the aforesaid Robert (age 30) had left the king of England (age 65) and returned home, no less miraculously than by God's grace, a day is appointed for him and the aforesaid John (age 36) to meet together at Dumfries [Map]; and both sides repair to the above-named place. John Comyn (age 36) is twitted with his treachery and belied troth. The lie is at once given. The evil-speaker is stabbed, and wounded unto death, in the church of the Friars [Map]; and the wounded man is, by the friars, laid behind the altar. On being asked by those around whether he could live, straightway his answer is: - "I can." His foes, hearing this, give him another wound; - and thus was he taken away from this world on the 10th of February.

On 10 Feb 1305 John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch (age 36) was murdered by Robert the Bruce (age 30), future King of Scotland, before the High Altar of the Greyfriars Monastery Chapel [Map]. Robert Comyn, John's uncle, was killed by Christopher Seton (age 27). Christopher's brother John Seton (age 27) was also present.

Murder, in a church, in front of the altar, regarded as a terrible crime. The act gave King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 65) cause to invade Scotland. Robert the Bruce was ex-communicated by the Pope for his actions.

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 65) charged Bishop David de Moravia as being complicit in the murder.

Execution of William Wallace

John of Fordun's Chronicle. In the year 1305, William Wallace was craftily and treacherously taken by John of Menteith (age 30), who handed him over to the king of England (age 66); and he was, in London, torn limb from limb, and, as a reproach to the Scots, his limbs were hung on towers in sundry places throughout England and Scotland.

Feast of the Swans

On 22 May 1306 the Feast of the Swans was a collective knighting of two hundred and sixty seven men at Westminster Abbey [Map].

At the feast following the knightings two swans were brought in. King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 66) swore before God and the swans to avenge the death of John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch - see Robert "The Bruce" murders John "Red" Comyn.

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 66) first knighted his son [his son] King Edward II of England (age 22).

King Edward II of England (age 22) then knighted the remaining two-hundred and sixty six including ...

Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 20)

Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel (age 21)

John le Blund, Mayor of London

William Brabazon

Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer of Chirk (age 50)

Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 22) - this may have been the first time Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 22) and King Edward II of England (age 22) met?

John Harrington 1st Baron Harington (age 25)

John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers (age 16)

Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 19)

William Montagu 2nd Baron Montagu (age 31)

John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray (age 19)

Thomas Multon 1st Baron Multon (age 30)

Roger Scales 2nd Baron Scales

John Warenne 7th Earl Surrey (age 19)

Before 12 Dec 1306 Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk (age 61) died. Earl Norfolk extinct. In 1302 Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk (age 57) had surrendered his Earldom to King Edward I (age 67) and was recreated Earl Norfolk with the remainder "to the heirs of his body" effectively disinheriting his brother John Bigod. Its not clear why he did so.

On 26 Feb 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 23) exiled by King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 67) for being his son [his son] Edward's (age 22) favourite.

Death of Edward I

On 07 Jul 1307 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 68) died at Burgh by Sands [Map] whilst on his way north to Scotland. His son [his son] King Edward II of England (age 23) succeeded II King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Edward (age 68) had gathered around him Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 29), Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 35), Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 32) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 33) and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 23) didn't return from exile.

Monument to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England at the location [Map] at which he died. By Thomas or John Longstaff for the Duke of Norfolk and John Aglionby. Red sandstone ashlar. Tall square column on moulded plinth, moulded cornice, shaped cap surmounted by cross. Latin inscription on south side to memory of Edward I, who died in his camp at Burgh by Sands, 7 July 1307; east side inscription giving titles of Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk and date 1685; west side inscription John Aglionby. Also had inscription, Tho Longstaff, Fecit 1685 (Ms 7/3f191, St Edmund Hall, Oxford). Bronze plaque records restoration by the Earl of Lonsdale 1803 (collapsed, March 1795); further restoration of 1876. For full inscription see W. Hutchinson, History of Cumberland, 1794, vol. 2, p504:

Mr. J. Norman, of Kirkandrews, favoured us with the annexed fouth view of King Edward's monument, with the infcriptions, which he took in 1793, which he assures us are very accurate. At that time it leaned much to the west, and on the 4th of March, 1795, it fell down:

South Side: MEMORIÆ ÆTERNÆ EDVARDI I. REGIS ANGLIÆ LONGE CLARISSIMI QVI IN BELLI APPARATV CONTRA SCOTOS OCCVPATVS HlC INI CASTRIS OBIIT 7. IVLII A. D. 1307.

East Side Side: NOBILISSIMVS PRINCEPS HENRIC. HOWARD DVX NORFOLC. COM. MARESCHAL ANGL. COM. ARVNDEL SVRR. NORFOLC. ET NORWIC. BARO HOWARD MOWBREY SEGRAVE BREWS DE GOWER FITSALAN WARREN ESCALES CLVN OSWALDTREE MALTRAVERS FVRNIVAL GRAYSTCH ET HOWARD DE CASTLRISING PRÆNO. ORD. GARTER. MIL. CONSTAB. ET GVBERNATOR REGAL. CASTRI ET HONOR. DE WINDSOR CVSTOS FOREST DE WINDSOR DOM. LOCVMTEN. NORFOLC. SVRR. BERKER. ET CIV. ET COM. CIV. NORWICI OB EDV. I. REGE ANGLIuE ORIVNDVS P. 1685.

West Side. JOHANNES AGLIONBY I. C. F. C.

A singularity which attends the above fact is, that the army must have lain, and the royal tent been pitched, in a most improper place, on marshy ground, on a dead level; when, within a quarter of a mile further fouthward, there was a fine inclining ground, dry and healthy, and not subject to any surprise or attack from superior heights. Any one who has viewed this place, would be inclined to believe a skillful general would not encamp an army on the spot that tradition and this monunnent point out.

Britannia Volume 3. On the spot where Edward I died, the memory of which event was preferved by fome great stones rolled on it, is erected a handsome square pillar nine yards and an half high with this inscription in Roman capitals on the west side:

Memoriæ æternæ Edvardi I. regis Angliæ longè clarissimi , qui in belli apparatu contra Scotos occupatus hic in castris obiit 7 Julii A. 0 . 1307.

On the south, Nobilissimus princeps Henricus Howard dux Norfolciæ comes mareshall. Anglia , comes Arund &c ...... ab Edvardo I. rege Angliæ oriundus. P. 1685.

On the north, Johannes Aglionby I. C. F. C. i. e. juris consultus fieri curavit.

After 07 Jul 1307 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 68) was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Battle of Bannockburn

Froissart. FIRST, the better to enter into the matter of this honourable and pleasant history of the noble Edward king of England (age 1), who was crowned at London the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday, living the king his father and the queen his mother, it is certain that the opinion of Englishmen most commonly was as then, and oftentimes it was seen in England after the time of king Arthur, how that between two valiant kings of England there was most commonly one between them of less sufficiency both of wit and of prowess: and this was right well apparent by the same King Edward the third (age 1); for his grandfather, called the good king Edward the first, was right valiant, sage, wise and hardy, adventurous and fortunate jn all feats of war, and had much ado against the Scots, and conquered them three or four times; for the Scots could never have victory nor endure against him: and after his decease his son of his first wife, who was father to the said good king Edward the third, was crowned king and called [his son] Edward the second (age 30), who resembled nothing to his father in wit nor in prowess, but governed and kept his realm right wildly, and ruled himself by sinister counsel of certain persons, whereby at length he had no profit nor land, as ye shall hear after; for anon after he was crowned, Robert Bruce king of Scotland, who had often before given much ado to the said good king Edward the first, conquered again all Scotland, and brent and wasted a great part of the realm of England, a four or five days' journey within the realm at two times, and discomfited the king and all the barons of England at a place in Scotland called Stirling [Map], by battle arranged the day of Saint John Baptist, in the seventh year of the reign of the same king Edward, in the year of our Lord MCCCXIV. The chase of this discomfiture endured two days and two nights, and the king of England (age 30) went with a small company to London and on mid-lent Sunday in the year of our Lord MCCCXVI. The Scots won again the city of Berwick [Map] by treason; but because this is no part of our matter, I will leave speaking thereof.

Death of Queen Consort Margaret of France

On 14 Feb 1318 [his former wife] Margaret of France Queen Consort England (age 39) died at Marlborough Castle [Map]. She was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map]. Her tomb was destroyed during the Reformation.

In 1339 William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl (age 39) visited King Edward "Longshanks" I of England at Château Gaillard [Map].

On 28 Feb 1347 John Graham Earl Menteith was hanged, drawn and quartered by direct orders of King Edward I to whom he had previously sworn fealty.

Archaeologia Volume 3 Section XLIII. An Account of the Body of King Edward the First, as it appeared on opening his Tomb in the Year 1774. By Sir Joseph Ayloffe (age 66), Bart. V. P. S. A. and F. R. S. Read at the Society of Antiquaries, May 12, 1774.

John of Fordun's Chronicle. So, in order that he might actually give effect to what he had gladly set his heart upon, for the good of the commonwealth, he humbly approached a certain noble, named John Comyn (who was then the most powerful man in the country), and faithfully laid before him the unworthy thraldom of the country, the cruel and endless tormenting of the people, and his own kind-hearted plan for giving them relief. Though, by right, and according to the laws and customs of the country, the honour of the kingly office and the succession to the governance of the kingdom were known to belong to him before any one else, yet, setting the public advantage before his own, Robert, in all purity and sincerity of purpose, gave John the choice of one of two courses: either that the latter should reign, and wholly take unto himself the kingdom, with its pertinents and royal honours, for ever, granting to the former all his own lands and possessions; or that all Robert's lands and possessions should come into the possession of John and his for ever, while the kingdom and the kingly honour were left to Robert. Thus, by their mutual advice as well as help, was to be brought to maturity the deliverance of the Scottish nation from the house of bondage and unworthy thraldom; and an indissoluble treaty of friendship and peace was to last between them. John was perfectly satisfied with the latter of the aforesaid courses; and thereupon a covenant was made between them, and guaranteed by means of sworn pledges, and by their indentures with their seals attached thereto. But John broke his word; and, heedless of the sacredness of his oath, kept accusing Robert before the king of England, through his ambassadors and private letters, and wickedly revealing that Robert's secrets. Although, however, Robert was more than once sounded thereupon by the aforesaid king, who even showed him the letters of his adversary who accused him, yet, inspired by God, he always returned an answer such that he over and over again softened the king's rage by his pleasant sayings and skilful words. The king, however, both because he was himself very wily and shrewd, and knew full well how to feign a sham friendship, and also because Robert was the true heir of the kingdom of Scotland, looked upon the latter with mistrust, - the more so because of John's accusations. So, because of his aforesaid grounds for mistrust, Edward bade Robert stay always at court; and he delayed putting him to death - or, at least, in prison - only until he could get the rest of this Robert's brothers together, and punish them and him at once, in one day, with sentence of death.

John of Fordun's Chronicle. After the withdrawal of the king of England, the English nation lorded it in all parts of the kingdom of Scotland, ruthlessly harrying the Scots in sundry and manifold ways, by insults, stripes, and slaughter, under the awful yoke of slavery. But God, in His mercy, as is the wont of His fatherly goodness, had compassion on the woes, the ceaseless crying and sorrow, of the Scots; so He raised up a saviour and champion unto them - one of their own fellows, to wit, named Robert of Bruce. This man, seeing them stretched in the slough of woe, and reft of all hope of salvation and help, was inwardly touched with sorrow of heart; and, putting forth his hand unto force, underwent the countless and unbearable toils of the heat of day, of cold and hunger, by land and sea, gladly welcoming weariness, fasting, dangers, and the snares not only of foes, but also of false friends, for the sake of freeing his brethren.

John of Fordun's Chronicle. As the said John's accusations were repeated, at length, one night, while the wine glittered in the bowl, and that king was hastening to sit down with his secretaries, he talked over Robert's death in earnest, - and shortly determined that he would deprive him of life on the morrow. But when the Earl of Gloucester, who was Robert's true and tried friend in his utmost need, heard of this, he hastily, that same night, sent the aforesaid Robert, by his keeper of the wardrobe, twelve pence and a pair of spurs. So the keeper of the wardrobe, who guessed his lord's wishes, presented these things to Robert, from his lord, and added these words: "My lord sends these to you, in return for what he, on his side, got from you yesterday." Robert understood, from the tokens offered him, that he was threatened by the danger of death; so he discreetly gave the pence to the keeper of the wardrobe, and forthwith sent him back to the Earl with greeting in answer, and with thanks.

Then, when twilight came on, that night, after having ostentatiously ordered his servants to meet him at Carlisle [Map], with his trappings, on the evening of the following day, he straightway hastened towards Scotland, without delay, and never stopped travelling, day or night, until he was safe from the aforesaid king's spite. Tor he was under the guidance of One of whom it is written: - "There is no wisdom, no foresight, no understanding against the Lord, who knoweth how to snatch the good from trial, and mercifully to deliver from danger those that trust in Him.".

John of Fordun's Chronicle. The same year, after the whole Estates of Scotland had made their submission to the king of England, John Comyn, then guardian, and all the magnates but William Wallace, little by little, one after another, made their submission unto him; and all their castles and towns - except Strivelyn Castle [Map], and the warden thereof - were surrendered unto him. That year, the king kept Lent at Saint Andrews [Map], where he called together all the great men of the kingdom, and held his parliament; and he made such decrees as he would, according to the state of the country - which, as he thought, had been gotten and won for him and his successors for ever - as well as about the dwellers therein.

John of Fordun's Chronicle. Now, when Robert was nearing the borders of the marches, there met him a messenger whom, when he sighted him afar off, he suspected, both from the fellow's gait and from his dress, to be a Scot. So, when he got nearer, he asked him whence he came and whither he was making his way. The messenger began to pour forth excuses for his sins; but Robert ordered his vassals to search him. Letters, sealed with Robert's seal about the covenant entered into between him and John Comyn, were found addressed to the king of England through this messenger, and were forthwith pulled out. The messenger's head was thereupon struck off, and God very much be praised for His guidance in this prosperous journey.

William de Clare was fatally poisoned by his steward whilst having breakfast with his brother Richard, who was also poisoned but survived, and Prince Edward.

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England 1133-1189

King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

King Henry III of England 1207-1272

Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204

Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence 1198-1245

Royal Ancestors of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

Kings Wessex: Great x 6 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings England: Son of King Henry III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 4 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 12 Grand Son of Louis "Pious" King Aquitaine I King Franks

Kings France: Great x 3 Grand Son of Louis "Fat" VI King France

Royal Descendants of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

Agnes La Marck Queen Consort Navarre x 1

King Edward II of England x 1

Yolande of Bar Queen Consort Aragon x 1

King Richard II of England x 1

King Henry V of England x 1

Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Denmark x 1

Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Charlotte Savoy Queen Consort France x 1

King Edward IV of England x 2

King Richard III of England x 2

Anne Neville Queen Consort England x 4

King Henry VII of England and Ireland x 2

Louis XII King France x 1

Bianca Maria Sforza Holy Roman Empress x 1

Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile x 2

Germaine Foix Queen Consort Aragon x 1

Marguerite Valois Orléans Queen Consort Navarre x 2

King Francis I of France x 2

Queen Anne Boleyn of England x 5

Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress x 1

Queen Jane Seymour x 2

Catherine Parr Queen Consort England x 5

Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England x 2

Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland x 4

Antoine King Navarre x 2

Queen Catherine Howard of England x 3

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 7

Louis VI Elector Palatine x 1

Louise Lorraine Queen Consort France x 2

Maximilian "The Great" Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria I Elector Bavaria x 3

Maria Anna Wittelsbach Holy Roman Empress x 3

Ferdinand of Spain II Holy Roman Emperor x 1

Margaret of Austria Queen Consort Spain x 1

Eleonora Gonzaga Queen Consort Bohemia x 1

Maria Leopoldine Habsburg Spain Queen Consort Bohemia x 1

Marie Françoise Élisabeth of Savoy Queen Consort of Portugal x 4

Victor Amadeus King Sardinia x 5

Maria Anna Neuburg Queen Consort Spain x 2

Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor x 2

Charles Habsburg Spain VI Holy Roman Emperor x 2

Francis I Holy Roman Emperor x 2

Elisabeth Therese Lorraine Queen Consort Sardinia x 2

President George Washington x 2

King George III of Great Britain and Ireland x 2

Caroline Matilda Hanover Queen Consort Denmark and Norway x 2

Caroline of Brunswick Queen Consort England x 2

King Christian I of Norway and VIII of Denmark x 4

Frederick VII King Denmark x 6

Queen Louise Hesse-Kassel of Denmark x 4

Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom x 4

Queen Sophia of Sweden and Norway x 2

Victoria Empress Germany Queen Consort Prussia x 12

King Edward VII of the United Kingdom x 12

Frederick Charles I King Finland x 4

Alexandrine Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark x 6

Victoria Eugénie Mountbatten Queen Consort Spain x 12

Louise Mountbatten Queen Consort Sweden x 12

Ingrid Bernadotte Queen Consort Denmark x 12

Philip Mountbatten Duke Edinburgh x 12

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 516

Carl XVI King Sweden x 24

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 159

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1551

Catherine Middleton Princess of Wales x 3

Ancestors of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandFather: King John "Lackland" of England Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: King Henry III of England Son of King John "Lackland" of England

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Alfonso Barcelona II Count Provence

GrandFather: Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence

Great x 1 Grandmother: Gersenda II Sabran Countess Provence

Mother: Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Savoy I Count Savoy

GrandMother: Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Geneva Countess Savoy