Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire

Oxfordshire is in South-Central England.

584 Battle of Fethan Leag

752 Battle of Burford

1312 Capture, Trial and Execution of Piers Gaveston

1387 Battle of Radcot Bridge

1448 Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1664 Transit of Mercury

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Ardley [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Ascott-under-Wychwood

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Asthall Leigh

Around 1280 Edmund Cornwall was born to Richard Cornwall (age 28) and Joan Fitzalan (age 13) at Asthall Leigh, Oxfordshire. He a great grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Bampton

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Bampton, Black Bourton

After 1596 Bridget Hungerford was born to Anthony Hungerford of Black Bourton (age 28) and Lucy Hungerford at Black Bourton, Bampton.

In 1608 Anthony Hungerford was born to Anthony Hungerford of Black Bourton (age 40) and Sarah Crouch (age 34) at Black Bourton, Bampton.

On 27 Jun 1627 Anthony Hungerford of Black Bourton (age 59) died at Black Bourton, Bampton.

Around 1635 Rachel Hungerford Viscountess Falkland was born to Anthony Hungerford (age 27) and Rachel Jones at Black Bourton, Bampton.

On 14 Apr 1653 Henry Carey 4th Viscount Falkland (age 19) and Rachel Hungerford Viscountess Falkland (age 18) were married at Black Bourton, Bampton. She by marriage Viscountess Falkland.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Bampton, Black Bourton, St Mary the Virgin Church

On 20 Oct 1632 Edward Hungerford was born to Anthony Hungerford (age 24) and Rachel Jones. He was baptised at St Mary the Virgin Church, Black Bourton.

On 06 Mar 1650 Arthur Hopton Diplomat (age 62) died. He was at St Mary the Virgin Church, Black Bourton.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Bampton, Black Bourton, St Mary the Virgin Church, Hungerford Chapel

On 18 Aug 1657 Anthony Hungerford (age 49) died at Farleigh Hungerford Castle [Map]. He was buried at Hungerford Chapel, St Mary the Virgin Church, Black Bourton.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Bicester aka Bisseter

Around 1214 Egelina Courtenay (age 50) died in Bicester aka Bisseter, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Blewburton Hill [Map]

Blewburton Hill, Oxfordshire is also in Iron Age Hill Forts Oxfordshire.

Blewburton Hill, Oxfordshire [Map] is an univallate Iron Age hillfort in Oxfordshire.

An Iron Age settlement and hillfort. Excavations found the settlement to be palisaded and contained a number of pits and postholes. Finds including pottery was recovered. The hillfort was found to comprise two phases of occupation. Earlier occupation was indicated by a range of Neolithic and Bronze Age flint implements. An Anglo-Saxon cemetery was also recorded. It comprised 22 inhumation and one cremation burials . The majority of the burials were accompanied by grave goods which included brooches, buckles, knives, a spearhead, and glass and amber beads. The grave goods indicate an early Saxon date for the cemetery.

Excavation of the earthwork on Blewburton Hill by A.E.P.Collins in 1947-9, revealed an Iron Age 'A' settlement dating from circa 300 B.C., evidenced by much pottery, grain storage pits, post holes, and the trench of a timber palisade.

This was followed by the construction of typical bank and ditch hill-fort defences showing two periods of construction - 'AB' and 'B'. The bank had been fairly massive and the ditch measured 18-38 feet in width, being as little as 5 feet deep in the first period but reaching at least 15 feet in cutting J in the second period. The entrance on the southwest side was found to have a made causeway and the post-holes of double gates (cuttings H and J on plan; see AO/LP/63/61.)

Flints of Neolithic or Early Bronze Age type were found in the lower end of cutting G, and the blade of a polished stone axe in the ditch north of the entrance.

A small number of Roman sherds, (1st and 3rd-4th century) were found, but these may be considered strays the site being deserted during the Roman period.

Four Saxon burials were found in cuttings G and G1, and three more in cutting J. they may be part of a cemetery and are dated by Leeds as probably 5th century A.D. (2-3). Another Saxon burial was found just below the turf-crest of the hill-fort in July 1945. The associated grave goods: two bronze brooches (Leeds cross potent derivative group c) and nine glass beads are in the possession of Mrs.Mornington Higgs. (4-5)

Of the unusual terrace or lynchet-type features all that can be said is that they are definitely post Iron Age but that their function is still an open question. (2) (3) Scheduled (7) (2-8)

The bank and ditch of the hillfort defences do not exist as original features.

The rampart has been reduced to a negative lynchet which in the eastern half of the hillfort has been ploughed down and in part entirely destroyed. The course of the ditch is to some extent represented by a flat terrace in the western half but has been completely destroyed in the eastern half. Near the original entrance there are two short stretches of bank along the top of the upper lynchet and the lip of the terrace below but both may be the result of modern cultivation.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Bloxham

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Bloxham, St Mary's Church

On 08 Dec 1725 John Thornycroft 1st Baronet (age 66) died. He was buried at St Mary's Church, Bloxham. His son John Thornycroft 2nd Baronet (age 34) succeeded 2nd Baronet Thornycroft of Milcombe in Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Broughton

In 1541 Margaret Danvers Baroness Saye and Sele (age 37) died at Broughton, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Burford [Map]

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of þea Erle of Marche (age 18) unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to hem take,

and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche (age 18)." And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde [Map]; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the Duke of Yorke (age 49), and for hys good brother the Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Note a. the repeated in MS.

The River Windrush rises near Taddington [Map] in Gloucestershire. It travels broadly south-west through Bourton-on-the-Water [Map], Burford, Oxfordshire [Map], Minster Lovell, Oxfordshire [Map], Witney, Oxfordshire [Map] joining the River Thames at Nebridge.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Burford, Battle Edge [Map]

Battle Edge, Burford [Map] is a former field located beside Sheep Street and Tanners Lane and bounded by the River Windrush at the bottom of the hill in Burford.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 752. This year, the twelfth of his reign, Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, fought at Burford [Map]27 with Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, and put him to flight.

Note 27. Beorgforda, Ethelw.; Beorhtforda, Flor.; Hereford and Bereford, H. Hunt; Beorford, M. West. This battle of Burford has been considerably amplified by Henry of Huntingdon, and after him by Matthew of Westminster. The former, among other absurdities, talks of "Amazonian" battle-axes. They both mention the banner of the "golden dragon" etc.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Burford, St John the Baptist Church

On 01 Nov 1568 Archbishop Hugh Curwen (age 68) died at Swinbrook, Oxfordshire. He was buried at St John the Baptist Church, Burford.

In 1750 Charles Knollys 5th Earl Banbury (age 46) was appointed Vicar at St John the Baptist Church, Burford which office he held for life.

On 13 Mar 1771 Charles Knollys 5th Earl Banbury (age 67) died. He was buried on 19 Mar 1771 at St John the Baptist Church, Burford. His son William Knollys 6th Earl Banbury (age 44) de jure 6th Earl Banbury, 6th Viscount Wallingford, 6th Baron Knollys.

On 22 Jul 1932 John Meade Falkner (age 74) died. He was buried at St John the Baptist Church, Burford.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Cassington

Around 1262 William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison was born to Pierre Grandison at Cassington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1275 William Montagu 2nd Baron Montagu was born to Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu (age 25) and Hawise St Amand (age 23) at Cassington, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chastleton

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chastleton, St Mary's Church [Map]

On 01 Sep 1856 Richard Westmacott (age 81) died at 14 South Audley Street [Map]. He was buried in St Mary's Church, Chastleton [Map] where his son Hector Westmacott was Rector in 1878.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chinnor [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chipping Norton

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chipping Norton, Enstone

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chipping Norton, Enstone, Bushell's Wells

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Oct 1664. Hence, to see the famous wells, natural and artificial grots and fountains, called Bushell's Wells, at Enstone. This Bushell had been Secretary to my Lord Verulam. It is an extraordinary solitude. There he had two mummies; a grot where he lay in a hammock, like an Indian. Hence, we went to Dichley [Map], an ancient seat of the Lees, now Sir Henry Lee's (age 25); it is a low ancient timber-house, with a pretty bowling-green. My Lady gave us an extraordinary dinner. This gentleman's mother (age 49) was Countess of Rochester, who was also there, and Sir Walter St. John (age 42). There were some pictures of their ancestors, not ill painted; the great-grandfather had been Knight of the Garter [Note. Reference to Henry Lee of Ditchley who was not great-grandfather; he was second-cousin once-removed]; there was a picture of a Pope, and our Savior's head. So we returned to Cornbury.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chipping Norton, Enstone, Hoar Stone [Map]

Hoar Stone, Enstone is also in Cotswolds Neolithic Tombs.

Archaeologia Volume 37 On the Forest of Wychwood. The Hoar Stone [Map], near Enstone. This interesting monument, which gives the name to two villages in its neighbourhood, is a ruined cromlech. It stands near the three-mile stone north of the town of Charlbury, and is now protected by a stone fence from further injury. The antiquary will require no proofs of its remote age, of which the designation Hoar Stone is the best voucher. The frequent mention of hoar stones in land-limits prior to the Norman Conquest shows that our Saxon ancestors respected these monuments and adopted them as land-marks;b and it favours the supposition that they found these ancient sepulchres already desecrated and ruined on their arrival in this country.

Note b. Vide Codex Dipl. JEvi Saxon, passim.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Chorlebury

Around 12 Apr 1471 Richard Fiennes 4th Baron Saye and Sele was born to Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) and Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele at Chorlebury, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Clifton [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Crawley

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Crawley Long Barrow [Map]

Crawley Long Barrow is also in Cotswolds Neolithic Tombs.

Archaeologia Volume 37 On the Forest of Wychwood. Tumulus near Crawley [Crawley Long Barrow [Map]]. About half-way between the high road from Witney to Burford, and the village of Crawley, on the west side of the lane leading into the village, are the remains of what was once a barrow of considerable dimensions. It is one of the class termed by antiquaries Long Barrows. A considerable portion (nearly one-half) was removed some years ago, when several skeletons were laid bare, but no relics of any kind were discovered. On measuring the remaining portion, it was found to be 107 feet long, by 83 feet wide. By permis- sion of Mr. Stratton, the tenant of the land, I employed two labourers here for one day only, with a view to ascertain, if possible, the period at which this tumulus was formed, reserving its more complete examination for some future opportunity.

We commenced by an opening on the cast side which had already been recently broken into for the purpose of obtaining stone, on which occasion several skeletons, I was informed, had been discovered lying just below the surface. After clearing a vast number of stones, which had been dislodged by the excava- tions in question, we discovered, what did not appear from the general aspect of the mound, that the tumulus stood upon a rock, and was, in fact, much shallower than was suspected, being formed almost entirely of stone. The excavations were accordingly continued towards the centre, when three skeletons were found lying east and west, two of them of individuals in the prime of life, and the third apparently that of a woman who had attained a considerable age, the molar teeth being absent, and the alveolar processes being completely closed. These skeletons were lying nearly in contact with each other. They were well protected by some of the largest stones, placed over them with great care, so that the frames of the pelvis were not crushed, the pubic bones being entire. At the waist of one of them was a small bronze buckle, less than an inch in diameter, to which some decayed substance, resembling leather, still adhered. It was probably the fastening of a girdle.a Not a vestige of any other relic was observed, nor could I learn that anything had been found previously.

I am disposed to ascribe this and similar barrows to the later Romano-British period. A careful examination of the portion which remains may possibly test the soundness of this conjecture. The interments assimilate to many others which have come under my notice in the south of England.

Note a. This object is now in the Ashmolean Museum.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Cropredy [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Cuckhamsley Hill

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1006. This year Elfeah (age 53) was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived of all his property;51 Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf52 departed this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and slew as they went. Then the king (age 40) ordered out all the population from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than either any internal or external force could do. When winter approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their custom,-they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced. Thence they marched to Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map], which they entirely destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey, Oxfordshire. They then turned along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer; for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king (age 40) gone over the Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king (age 40) began to consult seriously with his council, what they all thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was utterly undone. Then advised the king (age 40) and his council for the advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it, that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king (age 40) then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them, that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and that tribute and provision should be given them. And they accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.

Note 51. See a more full and circumstantial account of these events, with some variation of names, in Florence of Worcester.

Note 52. The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the see of Winchester, on the translation of the latter to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Cuckhamsley Hill, Scutchamer Knob [Map]

Scutchamer Knob, Oxfordshire [Map] is an early Iron Age round barrow.

In 636 Cwichelm King of Wessex was killed at Scutchamer Knob, Oxfordshire [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Deddington

Around 1094 Hawise Cheney was born to Roger Cheney (age 24) at Deddington, Oxfordshire.

In 1096 Hugh Cheney was born to Roger Cheney (age 26) at Deddington, Oxfordshire.

In 1109 Roger Cheney (age 39) died at Deddington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1147 Roger Cheney (age 49) died at Deddington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1154 Ralph Cheney (age 54) died at Deddington, Oxfordshire.

In 1166 Hugh Cheney (age 70) died at Deddington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1170 William Cheney (age 68) died at Deddington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1507 Thomas Pope was born at Deddington, Oxfordshire. He was educated at Banbury School, Oxfordshire and Eton College [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Deddington, The Rectory

On 09 Jun 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 28), under the protection of Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 37), stayed at The Rectory, Deddington whilst en route south. Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 37) left Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 28) there whilst he left to visit his wife. The following morning Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 40), with Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel (age 27), Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex (age 36) and John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort (age 47) arrested Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 28) and took him to Warwick Castle [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Drayton

In 1368 Lodowick Greville was born to William Greville (age 31) at Drayton, Oxfordshire.

Around 1380 John Greville was born to William Greville (age 43) at Drayton, Oxfordshire.

In 1404 William Greville was born to Lodowick Greville (age 36) at Drayton, Oxfordshire.

In 1421 Ralph Greville was born to William Greville (age 17) at Drayton, Oxfordshire.

On 28 Aug 1438 Lodowick Greville (age 70) died at Drayton, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Duns Tew

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Duns Tew, Church of St Mary Magdalene

In 1650 Compton Reade 1st Baronet (age 24) and Mary Cornwall Lady Reade (age 20) were married at the Church of St Mary Magdalene, Duns Tew. They were half first cousins.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Enslow [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Ewelme

On 29 Sep 1343 John Burghesh was born to John Burghesh (age 21) and Maud Kerdeston (age 17) at Ewelme, Oxfordshire.

On 30 Jun 1349 John Burghesh (age 27) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire.

Around 1379 Maud Burghesh was born to John Burghesh (age 35) and Ismania Hanham at Ewelme, Oxfordshire.

On 21 Sep 1391 John Burghesh (age 47) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire.

On 27 Apr 1437 Maud Burghesh (age 58) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire. She was buried at St Mary's Church, Ewelme [Map].

On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick (age 4) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (age 44).

After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 44), Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 39), Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Latimer (age 31) and her full aunt Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 21), the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp (age 21) should succeed. Anne Beauchamp  (age 21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (age 19) by marriage Earl Warwick; the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.

The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 42) who was married to Anne's (age 21) half-sister Eleanor (age 39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Faringdon

On 18 May 1766 Colonel William Mitford Historian (age 22) and Fanny Molloy were married at Faringdon, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Faringdon, All Saints' Church

On 16 Sep 1582 Edward Unton (age 48) died. He was buried at All Saints' Church, Faringdon. The inscription on his monument ... Here lyeth Sir Edward Unton, Knight of the Noble Order of the Bathe, whoe married Anne Countess of Warwick (age 44), daughter of Edwarde Seymer Duke of Somersett and Protector of England, by whome he had ffive sonnes, whereof 3 died younge in the life of their father; Two, namelye Edwarde (age 26) and Henry (age 24) onely, survyved and succeeded him, the one after the other in their father's inheritance; and two daughters, Anne (age 27) married to Sir Valentine Knightley (age 27), Knight, and Scissil (age 21) married to John Wentworth (age 18), Esquire.

In 1701 Robert Pye (age 81) died. He was buried at All Saints' Church, Faringdon.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Farmoor Iron Age Settlement [Map]

Carbon Date. 410BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: charcoal; from a well stratified deposit in an Iron Age hut circle ditch - a typical Middle Iron Age penannular house gully.

ID: 15952, C14 ID: HAR 1374 Date BP: 2410 +/- 100, Start Date BP: 2510, End BP: 2310

Abstract: Farmoor [Map]; 1975-76

Reference Name: Jordan, D, Haddon-Reece, D, Bayliss, A 1994 'Radiocarbon dates: from samples funded by English Heritage and dated before 1981', London: English Heritage

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

Carbon Date. 410BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: Charcoal from penannular gully, F1007 (Area III) at Farmoor [Map], Oxfordshire, England.

ID: 157, C14 ID: HAR-1374 Date BP: 2410 +/- 100, Start Date BP: 2310, End BP: 2510

OS Letter: SP, OS East: 444, OS North: 56

Archaeologist Name: G Lambrick

Reference Name: CBA Res Rep, 32, 1979, 144

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

Carbon Date. 130BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: Bone from enclosure ditch, F528 (Area II) at Farmoor [Map], Oxfordshire, England.

ID: 158, C14 ID: HAR-1925 Date BP: 2130 +/- 80, Start Date BP: 2050, End BP: 2210

OS Letter: SP, OS East: 444, OS North: 56

Archaeologist Name: G Lambrick

Reference Name: CBA Res Rep, 32, 1979, 144

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

Carbon Date. 130BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: bone; from a Middle Iron Age penannular enclosure with a good group of Middle Iron Age pottery.

ID: 15954, C14 ID: HAR 1925 Date BP: 2130 +/- 80, Start Date BP: 2210, End BP: 2050

Abstract: Farmoor [Map]; 1976-77

Reference Name: Jordan, D, Haddon-Reece, D, Bayliss, A 1994 'Radiocarbon dates: from samples funded by English Heritage and dated before 1981', London: English Heritage

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

Carbon Date. 70BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: antler; from an Iron Age pit.

ID: 15953, C14 ID: HAR 1910 Date BP: 2070 +/- 70, Start Date BP: 2140, End BP: 2000

Abstract: Farmoor [Map]; 1976-77

Reference Name: Jordan, D, Haddon-Reece, D, Bayliss, A 1994 'Radiocarbon dates: from samples funded by English Heritage and dated before 1981', London: English Heritage

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

Carbon Date. 70BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: Antler, id as red deer, from EIA pit, F1053 (Area III) at Farmoor [Map], Oxfordshire, England.

ID: 160, C14 ID: HAR-1910 Date BP: 2070 +/- 70, Start Date BP: 2000, End BP: 2140

OS Letter: SP, OS East: 444, OS North: 56

Archaeologist Name: G Lambrick

Reference Name: CBA Res Rep, 32, 1979, 144

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

Carbon Date. 60BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: Bone from enclosure ditch, F1159 (Area III) at Farmoor [Map], Oxfordshire, England.

ID: 159, C14 ID: HAR-1926 Date BP: 2060 +/- 70, Start Date BP: 1990, End BP: 2130

OS Letter: SP, OS East: 444, OS North: 56

Archaeologist Name: G Lambrick

Reference Name: CBA Res Rep, 32, 1979, 144

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

Carbon Date. 60BC. Middle Iron Age Carbon Dates

Report: bone; from a waterlogged Iron Age enclosure with a small but useful group of pottery.

ID: 15955, C14 ID: HAR 1926 Date BP: 2060 +/- 70, Start Date BP: 2130, End BP: 1990

Abstract: Farmoor [Map]; 1976-77

Reference Name: Jordan, D, Haddon-Reece, D, Bayliss, A 1994 'Radiocarbon dates: from samples funded by English Heritage and dated before 1981', London: English Heritage

Council for British Archaeology (2012) Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1017767

1979. Iron Age and Roman [Map] riverside settlements at Farmoor, Oxfordshire. George Lambrick and Mark Robinson. CBA Research Report No 32 (1979). Oxfordshire Archaeological Unit: Report 2

Abstract

Extensive excavations coupled with intensive biological analysis of all types have provided important new evidence for the changing settlement patterns and land use of Iron Age and Roman settlements on the first gravel terrace and floodplain of the Thames Valley.

The original settlement of the early Iron Age was represented only by a group of storage or rubbish pits on the relatively dry ground of the gravel terrace. Daub suggested the existence of a building and slag and other evidence indicated small-scale ironworking, but there was little indication of the overall character of the settlement. A subsequent gap in the occupation of the site was evident from marked changes both in the fabric and style of the pottery and in the settlement pattern itself, indicating ditferent land use and farming practice.

In the middle Iron Age three farmsteads comprising small ditched enclosures for circular houses and subsidiary yards or stock pens were constructed on the open floodplain, while other small enclosures, probably for stock, were made on the edge of the gravel terrace. One of these incorporated a fenced yard with an unusual semicircular post-built structure, perhaps a workshop. One of the floodplain enclosures had heen stripped of turf (possibly used to build a round house) and was later crossed by raised gravel paths. The floodplain farmsteads were situated in wet open grassland, subject to flooding from the river and used principally for pasture. The economy was entirely pastoral, and because of the flooding the settlement must have been seasonal, maximizing the value of the rich grassland in the spring and summer. The absence of some common perennial plants liking disturbed ground shows that each farmstead was used for no more than about five years. After the middle Iron Age the rate of alluvial deposition on the floodplain greatly increased.

The settlement pattern underwent a further change in the 2nd century AD. During the Roman period the floodplain remained unenclosed, but was abandoned as an area of habitation while the gravel terrace was enclosed for the first time with small fields or paddocks and a droveway crossing the terrace and turning along its edge. This laid-out field system and the probable existence of thorn hedges, indicated by botanical remains, suggests a much more permanent settlement than that of the Iron Age. Roman occupation of the site probably dates from the late 3rd century and by the late 4th century gardens with box hedges were established. The economy was still largely pastoral, and it is likely that some paddocks were used for intensive stock management, while the floodplain was almost certainly used for hay as well as for grazing. Corn was probably brought in, and evidence for the de-husking and milling of spelt wheat was recovered from a corndrier and various pits.

In the medieval period the area formerly enclosed by the Roman field system was converted to open arable land. The floodplain remained grassland as the meadow for the nearby village of Cumnor. The site was no longer occupied, but was probahly farmed from a hamlet or farm near the edge of the new reservoir.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Finmere

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Finmere, St Michael and All Angels Church [Map]

In 1853 William Jocelyn Palmer (age 74) died. He was buried at St Michael and All Angels Church, Finmere [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Fringford [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Fritwell [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Fyfield

In 1406 John Golafre (age 41) gained possession of Fyfield, Oxfordshire where he subsequently lived.

On 23 Feb 1442 John Golafre (age 77) died at Fyfield, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, St Nicholas' Church Fyfield [Map]

St Nicholas' Church Fyfield, Oxfordshire [Map]. Tomb of Sir John Golafre (d.1442) at Fyfield in Oxfordshire. His arms are seen on the right of the photograph. Cadaver tombs are double-decker structures with a figure of the deceased clothed in regalia above but enshrouded in death beneath - it is a fitting 'memento mori' and a reminder of the transience of earthly glory..

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Godington [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Godstow

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Godstow Abbey [Map]

On 23 May 1190 Walter Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 77) died at Godstow Abbey [Map] where he was subsequently buried. His son Walter Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford (age 30) succeeded 2nd Baron Clifford Feudal. Agnes Cundy Baroness Clifford by marriage Baroness Clifford Feudal.

Around 1248 Isabella "Lady of Snowdon" Braose Princess Wales (age 26) died. She was buried at Godstow Abbey [Map].

In 1316 Margery Dyve Abbess was elected Abbot of Godstow.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Goring [Map]

Goring, Oxfordshire [Map] is on the left bank of the River Thames in the Goring Gap between the Berkshire Downs and Chiltern Hills.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Great Coxwell

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Great Coxwell, St Giles' Church [Map]

Life of William Morris. For a number of years before his death Mr. Morris had held a position of some consequence in the district, and was a well-known name in the City. In 1843 he obtained a grant of arms from the Herald's College: "Azure, a horse's head erased argent between three horseshoes or, and for crest, on a wreath of the colours, a horse's head couped argent, charged with three horseshoes in chevron sable." The boy of nine was already of an age to be keenly interested in heraldry; and whatever may have been the reasons which induced Garter and Clarenceux to assign these bearings, they became in his mind something deeply, if obscurely, associated with his life. He considered himself in some sense a tribesman of the White Horse. In the house which he built for himself afterwards the horse's head is pictured on tiles and glass painted by his own hand. To the White Horse of the Berkshire downs, which lies within a drive of his later home at Kelmscott, he made a regular yearly pilgrimage. "Not seldom I please myself," he wrote many years afterwards," with trying to realize the face of mediaeval England; the many chases and great woods, the stretches of common tillage and common pasture quite unenclosed; the rough husbandry of the tilled parts, the unimproved breeds of cattle, sheep, and swine, especially the latter, so lank and long and lathy, looking so strange to us; the strings of packhorses along the bridle-roads, the scantiness of the wheel-roads, scarce any except those left by the Romans, and those made from monastery to monastery; the scarcity of bridges, and people using ferries instead, or fords where they could; the little towns well bechurched, often walled; the villages just where they are now (except for those that have nothing but the church left to tell of them), but better and more populous; their churches, some big and handsome, some small and curious, but all crowded with altars and furniture, and gay with pictures and ornament; the many religious houses, with their glorious architecture; the beautiful manor-houses, some of them castles once, and survivals from an earlier period; some new and elegant; some out of all proportion small for the importance of their lords. How strange it would be to us if we could be landed in fourteenth-century England; unless we saw the crest of some familiar hill, like that which yet bears upon it a symbol of an English tribe, and from which, looking down on the plain where Alfred was born, I once had many such ponderings." In Great Coxwell church [Map], halfway between Kelmscott and the White Horse [Map], are two fifteenth-century brasses of William Morys, "sutym fermer of Cokyswell," and Johane his wife — the former with a figure of a man in a short gown, with a pouch hanging at his girdle. The discovery of these monuments gave him extraordinary delight. In spite of his Welsh blood and of that vein of romantic melancholy in him which it is customary to regard as of Celtic origin, his sympathies were throughout with the Teutonic stocks. Among all the mythologies of Europe the Irish mythology perhaps interested him least: for Welsh poetry he did not care deeply; and even the Arthurian legend never took the same hold on his mind, or meant as much to him, as the heroic cycle of the Teutonic race.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Hampton Poyle [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Hanwell

On 08 Apr 1602 William Cope 2nd Baronet (age 25) and Elizabeth Chaworth Lady Cope were married at Hanwell, Oxfordshire.

In 1606 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet (age 58) entertained King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 39) at Hanwell, Oxfordshire.

In 1612 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet (age 64) entertained King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 45) at Hanwell, Oxfordshire.

Before 22 Aug 1637 William Cope 2nd Baronet (age 60) died. On 22 Aug 1637 he was buried at Hanwell, Oxfordshire. His son John Cope 3rd Baronet (age 28) succeeded 3rd Baronet Cope of Hanwell in Oxfordshire.

Before 27 Feb 1755 Mary Jenkinson Lady Cope (age 64) died at Bath, Somerset [Map]. On 27 Feb 1755 she was buried at Hanwell, Oxfordshire.

On 18 Jun 1781 Charles Cope 2nd Baronet (deceased) was buried at Hanwell, Oxfordshire.

On 25 Dec 1781 Charles Cope 3rd Baronet (age 11) died. He was buried at Hanwell, Oxfordshire. His uncle Jonathan Cope 4th Baronet (age 23) succeeded 4th Baronet Cope of Bruern in Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Headington

In 1182 Thomas Basset (age 83) died at Headington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1182 Thomas Basset (age 52) died at Headington, Oxfordshire.

In 1216 Baudouin Acquigny (age 52) died at Headington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1232 Alan Basset (age 77) died at Headington, Oxfordshire.

On 08 Apr 1349 John St John Lagenham 3rd Baron St John Lagenham (age 41) died at Headington, Oxfordshire.

On 07 Mar 1852 Arthur Jewitt (age 80) died at Headington, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Headington, Garsington

In 1180 Roger Acquigny was born to Baudouin Acquigny (age 16) at Garsington, Headington.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Henley on Thames [Map]

On 23 Jan 1387 Maud Burghesh Baroness Grey Rotherfield (age 72) died at Henley on Thames, Oxfordshire [Map].

On 23 Apr 1474 Thomas Stonor (age 50) died at Henley on Thames, Oxfordshire [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1556. The xij even was at Henley a-pon Temes [Map] a mastores Lentall wedow mad a soper for master John Venor and ys wyff, and I and dyver odur neybors; and as we wher at soper, and or whe had supt, ther cam a xij wessells, with maydens syngyng with ther wessells, and after cam the cheyff wyffes syngyng with ther wessells; and the gentyll-woman had hordenyd [ordained] a grett tabull of bankett, dyssys [dishes] of spyssys and frut, as marmelad, gynbred, gele [jelly], comfett, suger plat, and dyver odur.... dwellyng in Ive-lane, stuard unto master G ... ser Rechard Recherdsun, prest, with ij whytt ...., xij stayfftorchys, and iiij grett tapurs, a dolle, and a knell at Powlles, and a-nodur at sant Feyths [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jul 1675. I went with Mrs. Howard (age 49) and her two daughters toward Northampton Assizes, about a trial at law, in which I was concerned for them as a trustee. We lay this night at Henley-on-the-Thames [Map], at our attorney, Mr. Stephens's, who entertained us very handsomely. Next day, dining at Shotover, Oxfordshire, at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (age 58), a sweet place, we lay at Oxford, where it was the time of the Act. Mr. Robert Spencer (age 46), uncle to the Earl of Sunderland (age 33), and my old acquaintance in France, entertained us at his apartment in Christ Church with exceeding generosity.

On 13 Dec 1688 Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth (age 48), along with the Earl of Pembroke (age 32), led a deputation to the Prince of Orange (age 38) who was at Henley on Thames, Oxfordshire [Map] after the flight of King James II (age 55).

On 14 Jan 1801 Barbara Slaney (age 83) died at Henley on Thames, Oxfordshire [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Henley on Thames, Henley Bridge [Map]

Henley Bridge [Map] is over the River Thames.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Heyford

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Upper Heyford [Map]

Around 1465 John Yonge was born in Upper Heyford, Oxfordshire [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Heythrop

On 20 Sep 1752 Mary Fitzwilliam (age 67) died in Heythrop, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Hook Norton

In 1065 Robert II Oili was born at Hook Norton, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Iffley

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Iffley, St Mary's Church

On or before 10 Feb 1901, the date he was baptised at St Mary's Church, Iffley, Lionel St George Gray was born to Harold St George Gray (age 29) and Florence Harriet Young (age 25).

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Islip [Map]

On 07 Dec 1888 William Lawrence Breese of New York (age 35) died at Islip, Oxfordshire [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Kelmscott

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Kelmscott Manor House

1901. The Census records Jane Morris nee Burden (age 61), Jane Alicia Morris (age 40), Louisa C Strong, companion, and three servants living at Kelmscott Manor House, Oxfordshire.

On 17 Oct 1938 Mary "May" Morris (age 76) diedat Kelmscott Manor House, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Kelmscott, St George's Church [Map]

On 26 Jan 1914 Jane Morris nee Burden (age 74) died at 5 Brock Street, Bath. She was buried at St George's Church, Kelmscott [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Kingston Lisle

Around 1248 Gerard Lisle was born to Robert Lisle (age 36) and Alice Fitzgerald at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1271 Warin Lisle was born to Gerard Lisle (age 23) and Alice Armentieres at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1304 Gerard Lisle 1st Baron Lisle was born to Warin Lisle (age 33) and Alice Tyeys at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1305 Henry Lisle was born to Warin Lisle (age 34) and Alice Tyeys at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1309 Alice Lisle Baroness Grey Codnor was born to Warin Lisle (age 38) and Alice Tyeys at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1311 Warin Lisle was born to Warin Lisle (age 40) and Alice Tyeys at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1330 Warin Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle was born to Gerard Lisle 1st Baron Lisle (age 26) and Eleanor Fitzalan (age 10) at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1360 Gerard Lisle was born to Warin Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle (age 30) and Margaret Pipard Baroness Lisle (age 37) at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Around 1362 Margaret Lisle Baroness Berkeley 3rd Baroness Lisle was born to Warin Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle (age 32) and Margaret Pipard Baroness Lisle (age 39) at Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Kirtlington

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 977. This year was that great council at Kirtlington46, after Easter; and there died Bishop Sideman a sudden death, on the eleventh day before the calends of May. He was Bishop of Devonshire; and he wished that his resting-place should be at Crediton, Devon, his episcopal residence; but King Edward (age 15) and Archbishop Dunstan (age 68) ordered men to carry him to St. Mary's minster [Map] that is at Abingdon. And they did so; and he is moreover honourably buried on the north side in St. Paul's porch.

Note 46. Florence of Worcester mentions three synods this year; Kyrtlinege, Calne, and Ambresbyrig.

In 1690 Richard Dashwood was born to Robert Dashwood 1st Baronet (age 27) and Penelope Chamberlayne Lady Dashwood (age 27) at Kirtlington, Oxfordshire.

On 06 Jul 1693 Elizabeth Lewes was born to Thomas Lewes at Kirtlington, Oxfordshire.

In 1712 Robert Dashwood was born to Richard Dashwood (age 22) and Elizabeth Lewes (age 18) at Kirtlington, Oxfordshire.

On 22 Feb 1735 Penelope Chamberlayne Lady Dashwood (age 72) died at Kirtlington, Oxfordshire.

Around 1740 Elizabeth Dashwood Duchess Manchester was born to James Dashwood 2nd Baronet (age 27) and Elizabeth Spencer Lady Dashwood (age 24) at Kirtlington, Oxfordshire.

In 1743 Anne Dashwood Countess Galloway was born to James Dashwood 2nd Baronet (age 30) and Elizabeth Spencer Lady Dashwood (age 27) at Kirtlington, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Kirtlington, St Mary the Virgin Church

On 01 Sep 1933 George John Egerton Dashwood 6th Baronet (age 81) died. He was buried at St Mary the Virgin Church, Kirkington. His son Robert Henry Seymour Dashwood 7th Baronet (age 57) succeeded 7th Baronet Dashwood of Kirtlington Park in Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Langley [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Leadwell

In 1746 Diana Dashwood was born to Samuel Dashwood at Leadwell, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Lewknor

On 28 May 1757 Francis Fane (age 59) died. He was buried at Lewknor, Oxfordshire.

On 18 Apr 1758 Charlotte Luther died. She was buried at Lewknor, Oxfordshire.

On 04 Jan 1759 Henry Fane (age 8) died. He was buried at Lewknor, Oxfordshire.

On 28 Mar 1759 Richard Fane died. He was buried at Lewknor, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Little Rollright

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Little Rollright, St Philip's Church

On 14 Jan 1868 John Chandos Reade 7th Baronet (age 83) died. He was buried at St Philip's Church, Little Rollright. His will makes no mention of any relative, but (to the exclusion of his heir at law) devises the Shipton Court estate and (with trifling exception) all his real and personal estate to Joseph Wakefield, apparently his servant, whom he directs to take his name. The will was declared valid, and pr. 24 June 1868 when the devise took effect. His great nephew Chandos Stanhope Reade 8th Baronet (age 16) succeeded 8th Baronet Reade of Barton in Berkshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Little Rollright, Whispering Knights Burial Chamber [Map]

Whispering Knights Burial Chamber is also in Cotswolds Neolithic Tombs.

The Natural History of Oxfordshire Chapter 10. 81 Beside the Circles of Earth cast up by the Danes there are others of Stone in many places of this Nation and particularly one here in the very Bounds of OxfordShire near Chipping norton in the Parish of Little Rollwright the Stones [Rollright Stones [Map]] being placed in Manner and Form and now remain as exactly engraven Tab 15 Fig 2222 in a Round of twixt 30 and 40 Paces over the tallest of them all which may be a Scale for the rest being about seven Foot high North of these about a Bolts shoot off on the other side the Hedge in the County of Warwick stands one singly alone upwards of nine Foot high in Form as described Fig 1 and Eastward five others as in Fig 3 about two Furlongs off the highest of them all about nine Foot also meeting formerly at the Top (as drawn by Mr Camden) with their tapering Ends almost in Shape of a Wedge since whose time there are two of them fallen down from the rest of which ancient Monument or what ever else it be he gives us in brief this following account.

82 Not far from Burford (he should have said Chipping Norton for Burford cannot be less than 7 or 8 Miles from it) upon the very Border of Oxfordshire is an ancient Monument to wit certain huge Stones placed in a Circle the common People call them Rollrich stones and dream they were sometimes Men by a miraculous Metamorphosis turned into hard Stones The highest of them all which without the Circle looketh into the Earth they call the King because he should have been King of England (forfooth) if he had once feen Long Compton a little Town lying beneath and which one may see if he go fome few Paces forward.

83 Other five standing [Whispering Knights Burial Chamber [Map]] on the other side touching as it were one another they imagine to have been Knights mounted on Horseback and the rest of the Army. These would I verily think says he to have been the Monument of some Victory and happily errected by Rollo the Dane who afterwards conquer'd Normandy; for what time he with his Danes troubled England with Depredations we read that the Danes joined Battle with the English at Hochnorton a place for no one thing more famous in old time than for the woful Slaughter of the English in that foughten Field under the Reign of King Edward the elder.

84 That this Monument might be erected by Rollo the Dane or rather Norwegian perhaps may be true but by no means about the time of Edward the elders for though it be true enough that he troubled England with Depredations yet that he made them in the Days of King Alfred I think all the ancient Historians agree, An 897 according to Florilegus but according to Abbot Bromton a much better Author in the Year 875 near 40 Years before that Slaughter of the English in King Edward's Days as will plainly appear upon Comparison of this with the 75 of the same Chapter.

Avebury by William Stukeley. 7. Mr. Camden writes further concerning our antiquity, that "the country people have a fond tradition, that they were once men, turned into stones. The highest of all, which lies out of the ring, they call the king [Map]. Five larger stones [Map], which are at some distance from the circle, set close together, they pretend were knights, the ring were common soldiers." This story the country people, for some miles round, are very fond of, and take it very ill if any one doubts of it; nay, they are in danger of being stoned for their unbelief. They have likewise rhymes and sayings relating thereto. Suchlike reports are to be met with in other like works, our Druid temples. They savour of the most ancient and heroic times. Like Perseus, turning men into stones; like Cadmus, producing men from serpents' teeth; like Deucalion, by throwing stones over his head, and such like, which we shall have occasion to mention again, chap. XIV.

Avebury by William Stukeley. 1724. Not far from the Druid's barrow I saw a square work, such as I call Druids' courts or houses. Such near Stonehenge and Abury. 'Tis a place 100 cubits square, double-ditched. The earth of the ditches is thrown inward between the ditches, so as to a raise a terrace, going quite round. The ditches are too inconsiderable to be made for defence. Within are seemingly remains of stone walls. 'Tis within sight of the temple, and has a fine prospect all around, being seated on the highest part of the ridge. A little further is a small round barrow, with stone-work at the east end, like that before spoken of near Rowldrich; a dry stone wall or fence running quite over it, across the heath.

Return we nearer to the temple, and we see 300 paces directly east from it in the same field, a remarkable monument [Whispering Knights Burial Chamber [Map]?] much taken notice of; 'tis what the old Britons call a Kist vaen or stone chest; I mean the Welsh, the descendants of those invaders from the continent, Belgæ, Gauls and Cimbrians, who drove away the aboriginal inhabitants, that made the works we are treating of, still northward. Hence they gave them these names from appearances; as Rowldrich, the wheel or circle of the Druids; as Stonehenge they called choir gaur, the giants' dance; as our saxon ancestors called it Stonehenge, the hanging-stones, or stone-gallows. Every succession of inhabitants being still further removed from a true notion and knowledge of the things.

Our Kist vaen is represented in plates VI. and VII. One shews the foreside, the other the backside; so that there needs but little description of it. 'Tis composed of six stones, one broader for the back-part, two and two narrower for the sides, set square to the former; and above all, as a cover, a still larger. The opening is full west, to the temple, or Rowldrich. It stands on a round tumulus, and has a fine prospect south-westward down the valley, where the head of the river Evenlode runs. I persuade myself this was merely monumental, erected over the grave of some great person there buried; most probably the king of the country, when this temple was built. And if there was any use of the building, it might possibly be some way accommodated to some anniversary commemoration of the deceased, by feasts, games, exercises, or the like, as we read in the classic poets, who describe customs ancienter than their own times. It is akin to that Kist vaen in Cornwall, which I have drawn in plate XXXVII.

Table VI.

Table VII. View of the Kistvaen of Rowldrich from the Southwest.

Table XXXVII. Kist vaen In Cornwal, In Cornwal, In Monkton field [Map] by Abury

Long Barrows of the Cotswolds. Whispering Knights Burial Chamber [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Lower Arncott [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Lyneham

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Lyneham Long Barrow [Map]

Lyneham Long Barrow is also in Cotswolds Neolithic Tombs.

The Natural History of Oxfordshire Chapter 10. 80 And so again for the Fortification commonly called Round castle West of Begbrook Church but in the Parish of Bladen and Lineham Barrow [Map]. (between which and Pudlicot a Seat of the ancient Family of the Lacy's there is Passage under Ground down to the River) I can s little of them but in general tis most probable they were made by the Danes (they being both round) but upon what particular Occasion, I could no where find.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Merton [Map]

Chronica Majora. 11 Feb 1236. When the nuptial rejoicings were concluded, the king (age 28) left London and went to Merton [Map], where he summoned the nobles to hear a message lately brought from the emperor (age 41), and to discuss the business of the kingdom. For messengers had come direct from the emperor to the king with letters, asking him without delay to send his brother Richard, earl of Cornwall (age 27), whose circumspect skill report had spread far and wide, to make war on the king of the French. He also promised, by way of assistance, to send all the Imperial forces, especially in order to enable the English king (age 28) not only to recover his continental possessions, but also, when they were regained, to extend his former possessions. To this, the king (age 28) and the nobles there assembled, after due deliberation, replied that it would not be safe or prudent to send one so young out of the kingdom and to expose him to the doubtful chances and dangers of war, since he was the only apparent heir of the king and kingdom, and the hopes of all were centred in him next to the king. For the king, although he was married, had no children, and the queen his wife (age 13) was still young, and did not know whether she was fruitful or barren. But if it was agreeable to his excellency the emperor to summon any other brave man he chose, from amongst the nobles of the kingdom, for the purpose, they, the king, and all his friends and subjects, in accordance with his request, would at once render him all the assistance in their power. The messengers, on receiving this reply, returned to inform their lord.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Merton, St Swithin's Church

On 27 Mar 1716 Edward Harington 5th Baronet (age 76) died without issue. He was buried at St Swithin's Church, Merton where there is an inscription: "Here lies interred the body of Sir EDWARD HARINGTON, who died November the 7th, 1717, aged 76 years. A noble birth, a fancy bright and fine A temper charming, sweet, and grace divine; These all did once conspire to beautify The dust that now beneath this stone doth lye.". His great nephew James Harington 6th Baronet succeeded 6th Baronet Harington of Ridlington in Rutlandshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Middleton Stoney

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Aug 1552. The iij day of August was ther born [in Oxford] shyre, at a towne callyd Myddylltun Stonny [eleven miles] from Oxford, dwellynge at the syne of the Egyll, was the good wyff of the howsse deleverd of a chyld be-gotten of her late hosband of John [Kenner] of the towne of Myddylltun Stonny late dyssessed, ... forme and shape as youe have sene and hard, and boyth the for parts and the hynder partes of the said ... sam chylderyn havyng ij heds, ij bodys, iiij armes, [iiij] hands, with one bely, on navyll, one fondamentt at [which] they voyd both uryne and ordure; and then thay have [ij] leges with ij fett, one syd, and on the odur syd, on leg [with] ij fette havyng butt ix tooys-monstrus!

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Middleton Stoney, All Saints' Church

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Middleton Stoney, All Saints' Church, Villiers Vault

On 25 Jul 1821 Frances Twysden (age 68) died in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. She was buried in the Villiers Vault, All Saints' Church, Middleton Stoney.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Mixbury

On 27 Nov 1812 Roundell Palmer 1st Earl Selborne was born to William Jocelyn Palmer (age 34) and Dorothea Roundell at Mixbury, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Newbridge [Map]

Around 1250. Newbridge, Oxfordshire [Map] is a 13th Century bridge over the River Thames one of three bridges built on the orders of King John to facilitate the wool trade; the other two being St John's Bridge Lechlade [Map] and Radcot Bridge [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, North Aston

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, North Aston, St Mary the Virgin Church [Map]

After 1554. St Mary the Virgin Church, North Aston [Map]. Believed to be a. Monument to John Anne but the armour would suggest it is around a hundred years or so earlier than his death in 1554. Finely carved in alabaster. Early Plate Bascinet and Gorget Period. Lancastrian Esses Collar. Lion Pendant. Fine Bedesmen on the chest. Dogs chewing at her dress. Possibly Harpur and Moorecock of Burton on Trent. Angels Supporting Pillow. Chest with Weepers. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields. Gabled Headress with Lappets.

John Anne: In 1554 he died.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, North Leigh

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, North Leigh, St Mary's Church [Map]

St Mary's Church, North Leigh [Map]. The tomb is thought to be that of Sir William Wilcote and his wife (c. 1442). Located in the Wilcote Chapel. 2: Memorial to Henry Perrot (died 1740) by Ricketts of Gloucester. On a high resolution image it is immediately apparent how many of these monuments could do with a really good 'spring-clean'. There are cobwebs everywhere! 3: Dr Robert Perrott, 1605 his wife Mary (Withington) with their 8 children The Perrott family were Lords of the Manor. The Perrott north aisle was later built c1690. 4: Monument to William Lenthall (father of Speaker Lenthall), died 1596 and wife.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Northbrook

On 14 Jul 1734 Robert Dashwood 1st Baronet (age 71) died at Northbrook, Oxfordshire. His grandson James Dashwood 2nd Baronet (age 21) succeeded 2nd Baronet Dashwood of Kirtlington Park in Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Nuneham Courtenay

On 07 Jan 1835 Montagu Bertie 6th Earl of Abingdon (age 26) and Elizabeth Lavinia Harcourt Countess Abingdon were married at Nuneham Courtenay, Oxfordshire. He the son of Montagu Bertie 5th Earl of Abingdon (age 50) and Emily Gage Countess of Abingdon.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Nuneham Courtenay, Nuneham House

On 16 Sep 1777 Simon Harcourt 1st Earl Harcourt (age 63) drowned in a well at Nuneham House, Oxfordshire whilst trying to rescue his dog. His son George Harcourt 2nd Earl Harcourt (age 41) succeeded 2nd Earl Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt, 3rd Viscount Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt in Oxfordshire. Elizabeth Venables-Vernon Countess Harcourt (age 31) by marriage Countess Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt.

On 31 Jan 1863 Lewis Vernon-Harcourt 1st Viscount Harcourt was born to William George Granville Harcourt (age 35) and Maria Thérese Lister at Nuneham House, Oxfordshire. His mother died a day after his birth.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Oddington [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Pusey

On 10 Dec 1849 Henry John George Herbert 3rd Earl Carnarvon (age 49) died at Pusey, Oxfordshire. His son Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert 4th Earl Carnarvon (age 18) succeeded 4th Earl Carnarvon, 4th Baron Porchester.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Pyrton

On 03 Apr 1891 Greville Arthur Bagot Chester was born to Reverend John Greville Chester (age 28) at Pyrton, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Radcot [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Radcot Bridge [Map]

Radcot Bridge [Map] is two adajcent bridges over the River Thames.

Around 1250. Newbridge, Oxfordshire [Map] is a 13th Century bridge over the River Thames one of three bridges built on the orders of King John to facilitate the wool trade; the other two being St John's Bridge Lechlade [Map] and Radcot Bridge [Map].

On 19 Dec 1387 the forces of the Lords Appellant led by the future Henry IV King England (age 20) prevented the forces of King Richard II of England (age 20) commanded by Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 25) from crossing the bridge [Map] over the River Thames at Radcot in Oxfordshire. When Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 32) arrived with further Lord Appellant forces the King's men were encircled. The King's men attempted to force the crossing of the bridge at which time the only casualties occurred including Thomas Molyneux (age 49) who was killed by Thomas Mortimer (age 37). Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 25) narrowly escaped to France. Around 800 of his men drowned in the marshes whilst trying to escape.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Radley

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Radley, Church of St James the Great

On 01 Jul 1860 George Bowyer 6th and 2nd Baronet (age 77) died at Dresden. He was buried at the Church of St James the Great, Radley. His son George Bowyer 7th and 3rd Baronet (age 48) succeeded 7th Baronet Bowyer of Denham Court, 3rd Baronet Bowyer of Radley.

On 07 Jun 1883 George Bowyer 7th and 3rd Baronet (age 71) died unmarried. He was buried at the Church of St James the Great, Radley. His brother William Bowyer 8th and 4th Baronet (age 70) succeeded 8th Baronet Bowyer of Denham Court, 4th Baronet Bowyer of Radley.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Radley Hall

On 06 Dec 1800 George Bowyer 5th and 1st Baronet (age 60) died at Radley Hall, Oxfordshire. His son George Bowyer 6th and 2nd Baronet (age 17) succeeded 6th Baronet Bowyer of Denham Court, 2nd Baronet Bowyer of Radley.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Rotherfield

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Segsbury Camp [Map]

Segsbury Camp is also in Iron Age Hill Forts Oxfordshire.

550BC. Segsbury Camp [Map] is a Multivallate Hill Fort with extensive ditch and ramparts and four gateways.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Shipton-on-Cherwell [Map]

Shipton-on-Cherwell [Map] is on the River Cherwell.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Shipton-under-Wychwood

On 17 Nov 1663 Compton Reade 1st Baronet (age 38) purchased the estate of Shipton-under-Wychwood, Oxfordshire.

Shirburn Castle

On 23 Aug 1733 Janet Carrier Countess Macclesfield (age 72) died at Shirburn Castle [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Shotover

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jul 1675. I went with Mrs. Howard (age 49) and her two daughters toward Northampton Assizes, about a trial at law, in which I was concerned for them as a trustee. We lay this night at Henley-on-the-Thames [Map], at our attorney, Mr. Stephens's, who entertained us very handsomely. Next day, dining at Shotover, Oxfordshire, at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (age 58), a sweet place, we lay at Oxford, where it was the time of the Act. Mr. Robert Spencer (age 46), uncle to the Earl of Sunderland (age 33), and my old acquaintance in France, entertained us at his apartment in Christ Church with exceeding generosity.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Shotover House

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (age 47) at Shotover. This gentleman married the daughter and heir (age 45) of Dr. James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, that learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain of the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and other timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's (age 47), principal of Magdalen-Hall (related to the Lord Chancellor (age 55)), brother to the Lord Chief Justice (age 69) and that Sir Henry Hyde, who lost his head for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of houses, came to visit Lord Cornbury his father (age 55) being now Chancellor of the University), and next day invited us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle (age 37) (now here), whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren, in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the passing of Mercury that day before it; but the latitude was so great that nothing appeared; so we went to see the rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's body. Thence, to the new theater, now building at an exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury [Sheldon (age 66)], to keep the Acts in for the future, till now being in St. Mary's Church. The foundation had been newly laid, and the whole designed by that incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in some particulars. Thence, to see the picture on the wall over the altar of All Souls, being the largest piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation of it, for it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by the hand of one Fuller; yet I fear it will not hold long. It seems too full of nakeds for a chapel.

On 23 Oct 1701 Timothy Tyrrell (age 84) died at Shotover House, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Somerton [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Spelsbury

In 1639 Francis Henry Lee 2nd Baronet (age 23) died in Spelsbury, Oxfordshire. His son Henry Lee 3rd Baronet (age 1) succeeded 3rd Baronet Lee of Quarrendon in Buckinghamshire.

On 15 Feb 1743 George Henry Lee 2nd Earl Lichfield (age 52) died at Spelsbury, Oxfordshire. His son George Henry Lee 3rd Earl Lichfield (age 24) succeeded 3rd Earl Lichfield, 7th Baronet Lee of Quarrendon in Buckinghamshire. Dinah Frankland Countess Lichfield (age 24) by marriage Countess Lichfield.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Standlake

Around 1172 Eve Grey was born to John Grey (age 22) and Elena de Clare (age 18) at Standlake, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Steeple Ashton

Around 1436 Margery Dynham was born to John Dynham (age 30) and Joan Arches (age 26) probably in Steeple Ashton, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Steeple Barton

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Steeple Barton, Hoar Stone [Map]

Hoar Stone, Steeple Barton is also in Cotswolds Neolithic Tombs.

Archaeological Journal Volume 6 Proceedings 01 Jun 1849. BY Mr. C. Faulkner.—A curious gold ring, discovered at Barton, Oxfordshire; it is octagonal, each side being irregularly lozenge-shaped. (See woodcut.) The facets appear to have been formed by placing the gold wire, formed into a hoop, on a tool similar to what is termed a beak iron, and hammering the upper part till each side had obtained the desired shape. This is shown by the indentations made by the rough instrument, the sharp edges between each lozenge on the inner side, and the hammer marks seen on the flat surface of each side externally. Weight, 3 dwts. 16 grains. Diameter, seven-eighths of an inch. It has been supposed to be a relic of the early British age9: it was found under the foundations of a wall, not far from a cromlech [Hoar Stone, Steeple Barton [Map]], which was broken in pieces and removed from the field where it stood some years since. This destruction of a venerable memorial having become known to the landlord, he compelled his tenant to bring back the fragments, which now form a heap, surrounded by a fence. No account of this cromlech appears to have been recorded.

Long Barrows of the Cotswolds. Hoar Stone, Steeple Barton [Map]

Paraochial History of Enstone. British And Roman Period 55 BC To AD 409. The great Roman emperor general and historian Julius Cæsar invaded Britain in the year 55 before the Christian era that is before the birth of Jesus Christ from whose birth we now reckon our years so that this is the year 1857 since He was born and is therefore called the year of our Lord or in Latin Anno Domini commonly written AD It is therefore now 1912 years since Britain was thus visited Some time however before this our country was known to the Romans by the name of Britannia but it was not discovered by them to be an island until the time when Agricola was governor and when he sailed round it The Romans continued to exercise dominion here for no less than 464 years that is from the year 55 BC till the year 409 AD It was during this period at least although very probably even before it that our most ancient monument the Enne Stan that is the Giant or Great Stone was erected for notwithstanding that that name is Saxon there can be no doubt of the monument so called being British or Romano British that is either founded in the most ancient times when Britons only knew and inhabited this island or during the period when the Romans reigned over the Britons and held them in subjection We can have little difficulty in conceiving what was the state and condition of this vicinity at that time It was like the uncleared forests of the United States of America or of Canada at this day or to come home to a nearer likeness still it was in much the same state as the yet disafforested remains of Wichwood now are. But with the exception of the surface of the earth and the single monument whence the parish now derives its name of Enstone no monument or memorial survives to tell us of the past and to point out to us where our British progenitors dwelt or lived. All that we know further is that in our immediate neighbourhood similar monuments to this have been erected and remain as the Hawk stone, or Hoar stone, at Dean the stone [Hoar Stone, Steeple Barton [Map]] at Barton and the very extensive and interesting British relics at Rollright commonly called the Rollright stones [Map]. It was at this period also that the tumuli to be found at Charlford must have been formed unless indeed they are to be regarded as of older date

History of Steeple Ashton. The etymology of the name appears to be the East town with a Steeple or Tower a Steeple or Stepull being simply a tower not necessarily attached to a church1 although at the present time the word generally designates the Spire of a Church many instances may be cited of Villages bearing the prefix of Steeple in which no spire ever existedb. The parish was probably named East from its situation in the eastern part of the ancient Hundred of Levecanole one of the divisions of the County named in the Doomsday survey or it may be in reference to its lying east of Steeple Barton a place of some importance in very early times Maiden Bower a spot in that parish well known to the foxhunter is a British earthwork the name being derived from the Celtic Maidian strong and beorgh fortress.c. Near this ancient fortress and in the same parish within a stone's throw of the turnpike road to Oxford was till the latter part of the year 1843 the ruin of a Druidical altar called the Hoar stone [Map] which originally consisted of two side pieces and a lintel as at Rollright and Stonehenge this venerable relic of a by gone race was at the time I mention broken to pieces by the farmer in occupation of the field but the fragments were collected and piled together on the spot the altar had occupied by order of the proprietor Henry Hall Esq

Note a. MS note by JH Parker Esq

Note b. See Stevens's Description of Malmesbury Abbey which is said to have had two Steeples one a Pyramid the other a Tower also Harward's Digcourse of a feareful Lightening which on Nov 17 1606 did in a very short time burne up the Spire of the Steeple of Blechingley in Surrey and at the same time melt into infinite fragments a goodly ring of bells

Note c. Warton's History of Kiddington page 71 edit 1815.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Stoke Lyne [Map]

In 584 Ceawlin King Wessex and his son Cutha Wessex defeated the Britons at the Battle of Fethan Leag which was probably fought at Stoke Lyne, Oxfordshire [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Stonor

On 21 May 1494 William Stonor (age 44) died in Stonor, Oxfordshire.

On 14 Jun 1518 Anne Stonor (age 34) died in Stonor, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Stratton Audley

Around 1291 Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester was born to Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley Stratton Audley (age 24) and Isolde le Rous (age 22) at Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 01 Feb 1689 John Borlase 2nd Baronet (age 47) died unmarried. He was buried at Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire. Baronet Borlase of Bockmer in Buckinghamshire extinct. His estates were inherited by his nephew Borlase Warren (age 12).

In 1703 Ann Borlase died. Her son Borlase Warren (age 26) inherited the Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire estates.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Sunningwell Oxfordshire

On or before 18 Mar 1668 Hannibal Baskerville (age 70) died. He was buried on 18 Mar 1668 at Sunningwell Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Swinbrook

On 01 Nov 1568 Archbishop Hugh Curwen (age 68) died at Swinbrook, Oxfordshire. He was buried at St John the Baptist Church, Burford.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Swinbrook, St Mary's Church [Map]

On 17 Feb 1706 Edmund Fettiplace 2nd Baronet (age 51) died unmarried. He was buried at St Mary's Church, Swinbrook [Map]. His brother Charles Fettiplace 3rd Baronet (age 44) succeeded 3rd Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

On 17 Mar 1713 Charles Fettiplace 3rd Baronet (age 51) died. He was buried at St Mary's Church, Swinbrook [Map]. His brother Lorenzo Fettiplace 4th Baronet (age 50) succeeded 4th Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

Before Sep 1725 Lorenzo Fettiplace 4th Baronet (age 62) died unmarried. He was buried at St Mary's Church, Swinbrook [Map]. His brother George Fettiplace 5th Baronet (age 56) succeeded 5th Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

Before 10 May 1743 George Fettiplace 5th Baronet (age 74) died unmarried. He was buried at St Mary's Church, Swinbrook [Map]. George Fettiplace 5th Baronet (age 74) extinct.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Swinford Bridge [Map]

1789. Swinford Bridge, Oxfordshire [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames in Oxfordshire which opened in 1789.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Swyncome [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Thame

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 970. This year died Archbishop Oskytel; who was first consecrated diocesan bishop at Dorchester, and afterwards it was by the consent of King Edred and all his council that he was consecrated Archbishop of York. He was bishop two and twenty winters; and he died on Alhallow-mas night, ten nights before Martinmas, at Thame. Abbot Thurkytel, his relative, carried the bishop's body to Bedford [Map], because he was the abbot there at that time.

On 14 Oct 1559 John Williams 1st Baron Williams (age 59) died at Ludlow Castle [Map]. He was buried at St Mary the Virgin Church, Thame. Isabel Williams (age 37) inherited Thame, Oxfordshire. His son Francis William 2nd Baron Thame succeeded 2nd Baron Williams of Thame although he died four months later at which time the Barony became extinct. Some sources don't mention Francis William 2nd Baron Thame regarding the Barony as extinct following the death of John Williams 1st Baron Williams (age 59).

In 1567 William Harvey (age 57) died at Thame, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Thame, St Mary the Virgin Church

On 14 Oct 1559 John Williams 1st Baron Williams (age 59) died at Ludlow Castle [Map]. He was buried at St Mary the Virgin Church, Thame. Isabel Williams (age 37) inherited Thame, Oxfordshire. His son Francis William 2nd Baron Thame succeeded 2nd Baron Williams of Thame although he died four months later at which time the Barony became extinct. Some sources don't mention Francis William 2nd Baron Thame regarding the Barony as extinct following the death of John Williams 1st Baron Williams (age 59).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1559. The xv day of November was bered at Tame my lord Wylliam of Tame (deceased), with a iij harold of armes, master Clarenshux (age 49), master Chester (age 61), and , with a standard, a grett baner of armes, and viij [8] baner-rolles of armes, and a xij [12] dosen skochyons, and a C [100] morners, and a lx [60] gownes for pore men, and grett dolle of money, and after a grett dener.

Note. P. 217. Funeral of lord Williams of Thame. Master of the jewel-house, temp. Edw. VI. He died on the 14th Oct. "within her majesties castell of Loudlowe in the conte of Sallop, wher he was late come, being lorde precydent ther appoincted of her grace's counsell in the said marches:" his body was brought to Thame, and a long account of his interment is preserved in I. 9, in Coll. Arm. f. 150b.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Twyford Wharf [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Uffington

On 10 Dec 1828 Jane "Jeanie" Elizabeth Hughes was born to John Hughes (age 38) at Uffington, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Uffington, Rams Hill Causewayed Enclosure [Map]

1200BC. Rams Hill [Map] is a possible causewayed enclosure although the date 1200BC suggests an early Iron Age Hill Fort:

A multi‐period enclosure site on the Berkshire Downs of south Oxfordshire overlooking the Vale of the White Horse and the middle Thames Valley. Extensively excavated between 1972 and 1975 by Richard Bradley and Ann Ellison, the site has four main structural phases and is critical for understanding the early development of hillforts in southern Britain. The earliest phase dates to the early 12th century bc and comprised a stone‐faced dump rampart inside a chalk‐cut ditch that defined a roughly oval‐shaped enclosure of about 1 ha. There were probably two or three entrances. In phase 2, the late 12th century bc, a timber‐laced rampart was constructed to replace the earlier defences. In the third phase, around the beginning of the 10th century bc, a double palisade was built on top of the former, by this time mainly silted‐up, ditch. In the final phase, dated to the 7th century bc, a much larger enclosure of 3.5 ha was built around the hilltop in the style of early hillforts. R. Bradley and A. Ellison, 1975, Ram's Hill: a Bronze Age defended enclosure and its landscape. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports British Series 19

Uffington Castle and White Horse

Magna Britannica Volume 1. Camps and Earth Works. — This county having been frequently the scene of military operations in remote times, exhibits the remains of many ancient camps. It is not an easy matter to determine by what people they have all been formed: it is probable, however, that those of an irregular shape, upon the Downs, as Letcombe and Uffington castles, both in very commanding situations, were originally British, and afterwards used by the Romans. The former, which is almost circular, has a double vallum, and incloses an area of nearly 26 acres: there is an entrance on the east fide. The entrenchments and ditches of this camp contain eight acres and a half. Uffington castle, a large camp on the White-Horse Hill, just above the village, from which it takes its name, nearly resembles that already described: it is about 700 feet in diameter, from east to west, and 500 from north to south, and is surrounded with a high vallum, and a slighter one on the outside. The views from the inner vallum are very extensive in every direction.

[Some text not included]

A little way to the westward of Uffington castle before-mentioned, near the ridgeway leading over the Downs, there is a considerable tumulus, commonly called Wayland-Smith; over which are, irregularly scattered, several of the large stones called Sarsden Stones, found in that neighbourhood; three of the largest have a fourth laid on them in the manner of the British cromlechs. It is most probable that this tumulus is British.

Near Uffington castle is also the rude figure of a horse which gives name to the hill, formed by cutting away the turf; this appears to be of great antiquity, and more likely to have been a work of the Britons than, as it has been usually supposed, a memorial for Alfred’s victory over the Danes: the figure of a horse, a good deal resembling that above-mentioned, frequently occurs on the British coins. Just under the White-Horse hill there is a round hill called Dragon-hill, which Mr. Aubrey and others have supposed to be the tumulus of some British chief; it is not however by any means certain that it is an artificial mount. Many tumuli are dispersed on the Berkshire downs, especially in the way from Uffington to Lambourn, where a groupe of them has obtained the name of the Seven Barrows.

a and d. Uffington Castle and White Horse [Map].

d. Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow [Map].

Uffington Castle

Uffington Castle is also in Iron Age Hill Forts Oxfordshire.

Uffington Castle [Map] is a Multivallate Hill Fort.

Colt Hoare 1812. Proceeding dong the line of the ridgeway, a high point of land, distinguished by strong ramparts, now attracts our attention: and on reaching the summit of the hill, we are gmatified by the appearance of a fine earthen-work of verdant turf uninjured by the plough, and affording from its ramparts a most interesting and it bears the the name of UFFINGTON CASTLE [Map] and is single comprehensive view ditched, having an entrance towards the south-west, and comprehending seven acres within its area. On the east side of this eminence is a very singular insulated knoll, which Mr. Wise, (page 46) denominates a barrow, undet the title of DRAGON HILL, and mentions some traditions concerning it, not worthy of our notice. I cannot consider this hill as entirely artificial, and thrown up like Silbury, but it appears to me that a part of the upper ridge has been cut away in order to form it. On the northern side of this hill, the rude figure of a horse has been traced in the chalk, from which circumstance an extensive valley running through Berkshire, has gained the appellation of the VALE WHITE HORSE.1 The Whitc horse was made use of the banner of the Saxons, and is described in the act of gallopping: it is supposed to have been cut on this hill in token of the signal victory gained by King Alfred over the Danes in the year 971.

Note 1. I conceive this to be the otiginal white horse its extreme rudeness. and incorrect outline seem to warrant this conjecture: there are others at Bratton, Calne, Marlborough, and Alton.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Uffington White Horse [Map]

Around 900BC, plus or minus fourhundred years, Uffington White Horse [Map] is a highly visible late Bronze Age, early Iron Age chalk stylised carving of a horse carved into the northen scarp slope.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wallingford [Map]

Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map] is on the River Thames.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1006. This year Elfeah (age 53) was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived of all his property;51 Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf52 departed this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and slew as they went. Then the king (age 40) ordered out all the population from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than either any internal or external force could do. When winter approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their custom,-they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced. Thence they marched to Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map], which they entirely destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey, Oxfordshire. They then turned along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer; for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king (age 40) gone over the Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king (age 40) began to consult seriously with his council, what they all thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was utterly undone. Then advised the king (age 40) and his council for the advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it, that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king (age 40) then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them, that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and that tribute and provision should be given them. And they accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.

Note 51. See a more full and circumstantial account of these events, with some variation of names, in Florence of Worcester.

Note 52. The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the see of Winchester, on the translation of the latter to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1126. All this year was the King Henry (age 58) in Normandy-all till after harvest. Then came he to this land, betwixt the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas. With him came the queen, and his daughter (age 23), whom he had formerly given to the Emperor Henry of Lorrain to wife. And he brought with him the Earl Waleram (age 22), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 28). And the earl (age 22) he sent to Bridgenorth [Map] in captivity: and thence he sent him afterwards to Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map]; and Hugh (age 28) to Windsor Castle [Map], whom he ordered to be kept in strong bonds.

In 1165 Gilbert Basset (age 70) died at Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map].

On 03 Aug 1271 John Plantagenet (age 5) died at Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map] whilst in the care of his great uncle Richard of Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall (age 62). He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Calendars. 16 Jan 1310 King Edward II of England (age 25). The Grove, Watford [Map]. To the Treasurer and the Barons of the Exchequer. Order to discharge the Abbot of Hayles of £100yearly, the rent of the manor of Lychelad [Map], as the King granted it to Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 26) and Margaret his wife.

To the same. Order to discharge the men of Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map] of the ferm of that town from August 5 last, to Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 26) and Margaret his wife.

On 11 Jul 1372 Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 31) and Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 17) were married at Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map]. She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of Constance (age 18) who had married Edmund's older brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 32) a year before. An example of Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. She the illegitmate daughter of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile and Maria Padilla. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 59) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wallingford, Cholsey

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1006. This year Elfeah (age 53) was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived of all his property;51 Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf52 departed this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and slew as they went. Then the king (age 40) ordered out all the population from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than either any internal or external force could do. When winter approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their custom,-they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced. Thence they marched to Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map], which they entirely destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey, Oxfordshire. They then turned along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer; for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king (age 40) gone over the Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king (age 40) began to consult seriously with his council, what they all thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was utterly undone. Then advised the king (age 40) and his council for the advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it, that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king (age 40) then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them, that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and that tribute and provision should be given them. And they accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.

Note 51. See a more full and circumstantial account of these events, with some variation of names, in Florence of Worcester.

Note 52. The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the see of Winchester, on the translation of the latter to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wallingford, Mongewell Park

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wallingford, Mongewell Park, St John the Baptist's Church

On 25 Mar 1826 Bishop Shute Barrington (age 91) died in Soho. He was buried in St John the Baptist's Church, Mongewell Park, Wallingford.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wargrave [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wargrave, Confluence of the Rivers Loddon and Thames [Map]

The River Loddon is a tributary of the River Thames which it joins just west of Wargrave [Map]. Its rises at Mapledurwell [Map] in Hampshire and flows broadly north passing Stratfield Saye House [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Water Eaton

On 21 Oct 1907 George Frederick Bodley (age 80) died at Water Eaton, Oxfordshire. He was buried in the churchyard of St James' Church, Kinnersley [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Watlington

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wedgenock

In Sep 1408 Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset was born to Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 26) and Elizabeth Berkeley Countess Warwick (age 22) at Wedgenock, Oxfordshire. Coefficient of inbreeding 1.71%.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wheatfield

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wheatfield, St Andrew's Church

Before 10 Dec 1615 Thomas Tipping was born. On 10 Dec 1615 Thomas Tipping was baptised in St Andrew's Church, Wheatfield.

On 01 Mar 1693 Thomas Tipping (age 77) died. He was buried in St Andrew's Church, Wheatfield.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Whitchurch-on-Thames

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Whitchurch-on-Thames, Church of St Mary the Virgin

On 05 Aug 1762 Philip Lybbe-Powys (age 27) and Caroline Girle (age 23) were married at the Church of St Mary the Virgin.

On 20 Apr 1809 Philip Lybbe-Powys (deceased) was buried at the Church of St Mary the Virgin.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wickham

In 1609 Thomas Chamberlayne 1st Baronet was born in Wickham, Oxfordshire.

In 1663 Penelope Chamberlayne Lady Dashwood was born to Thomas Chamberlayne 2nd Baronet (age 28) at Wickham, Oxfordshire and Margaret Prideaux..

Around 1668 Catherine Chamberlayne Viscountess Wenman was born to Thomas Chamberlayne 2nd Baronet (age 33) at Wickham, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Witham Chalgrave

Around 1472 Simon Harcourt was born to Christopher Harcourt (age 28) in Witham Chalgrave, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wormandsleigh

On 20 Mar 1633 Margaret Cornwall (age 60) died at Wormandsleigh, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wroxton

In 1520 John Pope was born at Wroxton, Oxfordshire.

On or before 16 Dec 1622 Thomas Pope 2nd Earl Downe was born to William Pope (age 27) and Elizabeth Watson Lady Penyston (age 22). On 16 Dec 1622 he was baptised at Wroxton, Oxfordshire.

On 20 Apr 1636 Thomas Pope 3rd Earl Downe (age 38) and Beatrix Poole were married at Wroxton, Oxfordshire. He the son of William Pope 1st Earl Downe and Anne Hopton Baroness Wentworth.

On 28 Dec 1660 Thomas Pope 2nd Earl Downe (age 38) died. On 11 Jan 1661 he was buried in Wroxton, Oxfordshire. His uncle Thomas Pope 3rd Earl Downe (age 62) succeeded 3rd Earl Downe.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wroxton Abbey [Map]

Wroxton Abbey [Map] was an Augustinian Priory.

In 1499 Ralph Greville (age 78) died at Wroxton Abbey [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1685. About 6 o'clock came Sl Dudley (age 44) and his brother Roger North (age 32), and brought the greate seale from my Lord Keeper (age 47), who died ye day before at his house [Map] in Oxfordshire. the King went immediately to Council; every body guessing who was most likely to succeed this greate officer; most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief Justice Jefferies (age 40), who had so vigorously prosecuted the late rebells, and was now gone the Western circuit, to punish the rest that were secur'd in the several counties, and was now neere upon his returne. I tooke my leave of his Ma* (age 51), who spake very graciously to me, and supping that night at Sr Stephen Fox's (age 58), I promis'd to dine there the next day.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wychwood

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wychwood, Churchill Plain Long Barrow [Map]

Churchill Plain Long Barrow is also in Cotswolds Neolithic Tombs.

Long Barrows of the Cotswolds. Churchill Plain Long Barrow [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Wychwood, Slatepits Copse Long Barrow [Map]

Slatepits Copse Long Barrow is also in Cotswolds Neolithic Tombs.

Archaeologia Volume 37 On the Forest of Wychwood. There are other barrows within the forest, which, it is to be hoped, may be explored in the course of the next summer by some person accustomed to such researches. That on Lychale Plain has been assailed. The situation of the rest are indicated on the map, with the exception of a large stone-chambered tumulus at Slate Pits [Map]. This last, however, was plundered by one of the keepers, a few years since.

Long Barrows of the Cotswolds. Slatepits Copse Long Barrow [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton

In 1586 Catherine Spencer was born to William Spencer (age 37) in Yarnton, Oxfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton, Church of St Bartholomew

On 06 Mar 1685 Thomas Spencer 3rd Baronet (age 46) died of apoplexy. He was buried in the Spencer Chapel at Church of St Bartholomew, Yarnton. His first cousin Thomas Spencer 4th Baronet succeeded 4th Baronet Spencer of Yarnton in Oxfordshire.