Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Threadneedle Street, Royal Exchange [Map]

Royal Exchange is in Threadneedle Street.

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1664 Great Plague of London

1665 Sinking of The London

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 Great Fire of London

1666 Paper Bill

In 1565 Thomas Gresham (age 46) founded the Royal Exchange [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1660. Saturday. I went to Mr Downing (age 35) and carried him three characters, and then to my office and wrote another, while Mr. Frost staid telling money. And after I had done it Mr. Hawly came into the office and I left him and carried it to Mr Downing (age 35), who then told me that he was resolved to be gone for Holland this morning. So I to my office again, and dispatch my business there, and came with Mr. Hawly to Mr Downing's (age 35) lodging, and took Mr. Squib from White Hall in a coach thither with me, and there we waited in his chamber a great while, till he came in; and in the mean time, sent all his things to the barge that lay at Charing-Cross Stairs. Then came he in, and took a very civil leave of me, beyond my expectation, for I was afraid that he would have told me something of removing me from my office; but he did not, but that he would do me any service that lay in his power. So I went down and sent a porter to my house for my best fur cap, but he coming too late with it I did not present it to him. Thence I went to Westminster Hall [Map], and bound up my cap at Mrs. Michell's, who was much taken with my cap, and endeavoured to overtake the coach at the Exchange [Map] and to give it him there, but I met with one that told me that he was gone, and so I returned and went to Heaven1, where Luellin and I dined on a breast of mutton all alone, discoursing of the changes that we have seen and the happiness of them that have estates of their own, and so parted, and I went by appointment to my office and paid young Mr. Walton £500; it being very dark he took £300 by content. He gave me half a piece and carried me in his coach to St. Clement's [Map], from whence I went to Mr. Crew's (age 62) and made even with Mr. Andrews, and took in all my notes and gave him one for all. Then to my Lady Wright and gave her Lord's (age 34) letter which he bade me give her privately. So home and then to Will's for a little news, then came home again and wrote to Lord, and so to Whitehall and gave them to the post-boy. Back again home and to bed.

Note 1. A place of entertainment within or adjoining Westminster Hall [Map]. It is called in "Hudibras", "False Heaven, at the end of the Hall". There were two other alehouses near Westminster Hall, called Hell and Purgatory. "Nor break his fast In Heaven and Hell". Ben Jonson's Alchemist, act V. SC. 2.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1660. No sooner out of bed but troubled with abundance of clients, seamen. My landlord Vanly's man came to me by my direction yesterday, for I was there at his house as I was going to London by water, and I paid him rent for my house for this quarter ending at Lady day, and took an acquittance that he wrote me from his master. Then to Mr. Sheply, to the Rhenish Tavern House, where Mr. Pim, the tailor, was, and gave us a morning draft and a neat's tongue. Home and with my wife to London, we dined at my father's (age 59), where Joyce Norton and Mr. Armiger dined also. After dinner my wife took leave of them in order to her going to-morrow to Huntsmore. In my way home I went to the Chapel in Chancery Lane to bespeak papers of all sorts and other things belonging to writing against my voyage. So home, where I spent an hour or two about my business in my study. Thence to the Admiralty, and staid a while, so home again, where Will Bowyer came to tell us that he would bear my wife company in the coach to-morrow. Then to Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard how the Parliament had this day dissolved themselves, and did pass very cheerfully through the Hall, and the Speaker without his mace. The whole Hall was joyful thereat, as well as themselves, and now they begin to talk loud of the King (age 29). To-night I am told, that yesterday, about five o'clock in the afternoon, one came with a ladder to the Great Exchange [Map], and wiped with a brush the inscription that was upon King Charles, and that there was a great bonfire made in the Exchange, and people called out "God bless. King Charles the Second!"

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1660. We lie still a little below Gravesend, Kent [Map]. At night Mr. Sheply returned from London, and told us of several elections for the next Parliament. That the King's effigies was new making to be set up in the Exchange [Map] again. This evening was a great whispering of some of the Vice-Admiral's captains that they were dissatisfied, and did intend to fight themselves, to oppose the General (age 51). But it was soon hushed, and the Vice-Admiral did wholly deny any such thing, and protested to stand by the General. At night Mr. Sheply, W. Howe, and I supped in my cabin. So up to the Master's cabin, where we sat talking, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1661. Waked in the morning about six o'clock, by people running up and down in Mr. Davis's house, talking that the Fanatiques were up in arms in the City. And so I rose and went forth; where in the street I found every body in arms at the doors. So I returned (though with no good courage at all, but that I might not seem to be afeared), and got my sword and pistol, which, however, I had no powder to charge; and went to the door, where I found Sir R. Ford (age 47), and with him I walked up and down as far as the Exchange [Map], and there I left him.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1661. At the office all the morning. At noon to the Exchange [Map] to meet Mr. Warren the timber merchant, but could not meet with him. Here I met with many sea commanders, and among others Captain Cuttle, and Curtis, and Mootham, and I, went to the Fleece Tavern, Cornhill to drink; and there we spent till four o'clock, telling stories of Algiers, and the manner of the life of slaves there! And truly Captn. Mootham and Mr. Dawes (who have been both slaves there) did make me fully acquainted with their condition there: as, how they eat nothing but bread and water. At their redemption they pay so much for the water they drink at the public fountaynes, during their being slaves. How they are beat upon the soles of their feet and bellies at the liberty of their padron. How they are all, at night, called into their master's Bagnard; and there they lie. How the poorest men do use their slaves best. How some rogues do live well, if they do invent to bring their masters in so much a week by their industry or theft; and then they are put to no other work at all. And theft there is counted no great crime at all.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1661. At the office all the morning, dined at home with a very good dinner, only my wife and I, which is not yet very usual. In the afternoon my wife and I and Mrs. Martha Batten, my Valentine, to the Exchange [Map], and there upon a payre of embroydered and six payre of plain white gloves I laid out 40s. upon her. Then we went to a mercer's at the end of Lombard Street [Map], and there she bought a suit of lutestring1 for herself, and so home.

Note 1. More properly called "lustring"; a fine glossy silk.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1661. At the office about business all the morning, so to the Exchange [Map], and there met with Nick Osborne lately married, and with him to the Fleece, where we drank a glass of wine. So home, where I found Mrs. Hunt in great trouble about her husband's losing of his place in the Excise. From thence to Guildhall [Map], and there set my hand to the book before Colonel King for my sea pay, and blessed be God! they have cast me at midshipman's pay, which do make my heart very glad. So, home, and there had Sir W. Batten (age 60) and my Lady and all their company and Capt. Browne and his wife to a collation at my house till it was late, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1661. That being done (which was very pleasant to see their habits), I carried my Lady back, and I found my Lord angry, for that his page had let my Lord's new beaver be changed for an old hat; then I went away, and with Mr. Creed to the Exchange [Map] and bought some things, as gloves and bandstrings, &c. So back to the Cockpitt [Map], and there, by the favour of one Mr. Bowman, he and I got in, and there saw the King and Duke of York (age 27) and his Duchess (age 24) (which is a plain woman, and like her mother, my Lady Chancellor). And so saw "The Humersome Lieutenant" acted before the King (age 30), but not very well done.

Coronation of Charles II

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. KING'S GOING FROM YE TOWER TO WHITE HALL1. Up early and made myself as fine as I could, and put on my velvet coat, the first day that I put it on, though made half a year ago. And being ready, Sir W. Batten (age 60), my Lady, and his two daughters and his son and wife, and Sir W. Pen (age 39) and his son and I, went to Mr. Young's, the flag-maker, in Corne-hill2; and there we had a good room to ourselves, with wine and good cake, and saw the show very well.

Note 1. The king in the early morning of the 22nd went from Whitehall to the Tower by water, so that he might proceed from thence through the City to Westminster Abbey, there to be crowned.

Note 2. The members of the Navy Office appear to have chosen Mr. Young's house on account of its nearness to the second triumphal arch, situated near the Royal Exchange [Map], which was dedicated to the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1661. In the morning to Mr. Coventry (age 33), Sir G. Carteret (age 51), and my Lord's to give them an account of my return. My Lady, I find, is, since my going, gone to the Wardrobe. Then with Mr. Creed into London, to several places about his and my business, being much stopped in our way by the City traynebands, who go in much solemnity and pomp this day to muster before the King and the Duke (age 27), and shops in the City are shut up every where all this day. He carried me to an ordinary by the Old Exchange [Map], where we come a little too late, but we had very good cheer for our 18d a-piece, and an excellent droll too, my host, and his wife so fine a woman; and sung and played so well that I staid a great while and drunk a great deal of wine. Then home and staid among my workmen all day, and took order for things for the finishing of their work, and so at night to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and there supped and so home and to bed, having sent my Lord a letter to-night to excuse myself for not going with him to-morrow to the Hope, whither he is to go to see in what condition the fleet is in.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1661. All the morning at home among my workmen. At noon Mr. Creed and I went to the ordinary behind the Exchange [Map], where we lately were, but I do not like it so well as I did. So home with him and to the office, where we sat late, and he did deliver his accounts to us. The office being done I went home and took pleasure to see my work draw to an end.

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1661. All the morning at home. At noon Lieutenant Lambert came to me, and he and I to the Exchange [Map], and thence to an ordinary over against it, where to our dinner we had a fellow play well upon the bagpipes and whistle like a bird exceeding well, and I had a fancy to learn to whistle as he do, and did promise to come some other day and give him an angell to teach me.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1661. At noon Mr. Creed came to me, and he and I to the Exchange [Map], and so to an ordinary to dinner, and after dinner to the Mitre [Map], and there sat drinking while it rained very much.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1661. This morning to the Wardrobe, and thence to a little alehouse hard by, to drink with John Bowies, who is now going to Hinchinbroke this day. Thence with Mr. Shepley to the Exchange [Map] about business, and there, by Mr. Rawlinson's (age 47) favour, got into a balcone over against the Exchange [Map]; and there saw the hangman burn, by vote of Parliament, two old acts, the one for constituting us a Commonwealth, and the others I have forgot. Which still do make me think of the greatness of this late turn, and what people will do tomorrow against what they all, through profit or fear, did promise and practise this day.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1661. All the morning almost at home, seeing my stairs finished by the painters, which pleases me well. So with Mr. Moore to Westminster Hall [Map], it being term, and then by water to the Wardrobe, where very merry, and so home to the office all the afternoon, and at night to the Exchange [Map] to my uncle Wight about my intention of purchasing at Brampton. So back again home and at night to bed. Thanks be to God I am very well again of my late pain, and to-morrow hope to be out of my pain of dirt and trouble in my house, of which I am now become very weary. One thing I must observe here while I think of it, that I am now become the most negligent man in the world as to matters of news, insomuch that, now-a-days, I neither can tell any, nor ask any of others.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1661. Midsummer-Day. We kept this a holiday, and so went not to the office at all. All the morning at home. At noon my father came to see my house now it is done, which is now very neat. He and I and Dr. Williams (who is come to see my wife, whose soare belly is now grown dangerous as she thinks) to the ordinary over against the Exchange [Map], where we dined and had great wrangling with the master of the house when the reckoning was brought to us, he setting down exceeding high every thing. I home again and to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and there sat a good while. So home.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1661. From thence to the Exchange [Map] at night, and then went with my uncle Wight to the Mitre [Map] and were merry, but he takes it very ill that my father would go out of town to Brampton on this occasion and would not tell him of it, which I endeavoured to remove but could not. Here Mr. Batersby the apothecary was, who told me that if my uncle had the emerods [Haemorrhoids or piles.] (which I think he had) and that now they are stopped, he will lay his life that bleeding behind by leeches will cure him, but I am resolved not to meddle in it. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1661. This morning came my box of papers from Brampton of all my uncle's papers, which will now set me at work enough. At noon I went to the Exchange [Map], where I met my uncle Wight, and found him so discontented about my father (whether that he takes it ill that he has not been acquainted with things, or whether he takes it ill that he has nothing left him, I cannot tell), for which I am much troubled, and so staid not long to talk with him.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I, waited upon the Duke of York (age 27) in his chamber, to give him an account of the condition of the Navy for lack of money, and how our own very bills are offered upon the Exchange [Map], to be sold at 20 in the 100 loss. He is much troubled at it, and will speak to the King and Council of it this morning.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1661. At home all the morning setting papers in order. At noon to the Exchange [Map], and there met with Dr. Williams by appointment, and with him went up and down to look for an attorney, a friend of his, to advise with about our bond of my aunt Pepys of £200, and he tells me absolutely that we shall not be forced to pay interest for the money yet. I do doubt it very much. I spent the whole afternoon drinking with him and so home. This day I counterfeited a letter to Sir W. Pen (age 40), as from the thief that stole his tankard lately, only to abuse and laugh at him.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1661. Thus ends the month. My maid Jane newly gone, and Pall left now to do all the work till another maid comes, which shall not be till she goes away into the country with my mother. Myself and wife in good health. My Lord Sandwich (age 36) in the Straits and newly recovered of a great sickness at Alicante. My father gone to settle at Brampton, and myself under much business and trouble for to settle things in the estate to our content. But what is worst, I find myself lately too much given to seeing of plays, and expense, and pleasure, which makes me forget my business, which I must labour to amend. No money comes in, so that I have been forced to borrow a great deal for my own expenses, and to furnish my father, to leave things in order. I have some trouble about my brother Tom (age 27), who is now left to keep my father's trade, in which I have great fears that he will miscarry for want of brains and care. At Court things are in very ill condition, there being so much emulacion, poverty, and the vices of drinking, swearing, and loose amours, that I know not what will be the end of it, but confusion. And the Clergy so high, that all people that I meet with do protest against their practice. In short, I see no content or satisfaction any where, in any one sort of people. The Benevolence1 proves so little, and an occasion of so much discontent every where; that it had better it had never been set up. I think to subscribe £20. We are at our Office quiet, only for lack of money all things go to rack. Our very bills offered to be sold upon the Exchange [Map] at 10 per cent. loss. We are upon getting Sir R. Ford's (age 47) house added to our Office. But I see so many difficulties will follow in pleasing of one another in the dividing of it, and in becoming bound personally to pay the rent of £200 per annum, that I do believe it will yet scarce come to pass. The season very sickly every where of strange and fatal fevers.

Note 1. A voluntary contribution made by the subjects to their sovereign. Upon this occasion the clergy alone gave £33,743: See May 31st, 1661.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1661. From him by water to the bridge, and thence to the Mitre [Map], where I met my uncle and aunt Wight come to see Mrs. Rawlinson (in her husband's absence out of town), and so I staid with them and Mr. Lucas and other company, very merry, and so home, Where my wife has been busy all the day making of pies, and had been abroad and bought things for herself, and tells that she met at the Change [Map] with my young ladies of the Wardrobe and there helped them to buy things, and also with Mr. Somerset, who did give her a bracelet of rings, which did a little trouble me, though I know there is no hurt yet in it, but only for fear of further acquaintance.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1661. At the office all the morning, at noon to the Change [Map], and then home again. To dinner, where my uncle Fenner by appointment came and dined with me, thinking to go together to my aunt Kite's that is dead; but before we had dined comes Sir R. Slingsby (age 50) and his lady, and a great deal of company, to take my wife and I out by barge to shew them the King's and Duke's yachts. So I was forced to leave my uncle and brother Tom (age 27) at dinner and go forth with them, and we had great pleasure, seeing all four yachts, viz., these two and the two Dutch ones. And so home again, and after writing letters by post, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1661. Thence Cocke and I to the Sun tavern behind the Exchange [Map], and there met with others that are come from the same church, and staid and drank and talked with them a little, and so broke up, and I to the Wardrobe and there dined, and staid all the afternoon with my Lady alone talking, and thence to see Madame Turner, who, poor lady, continues very ill, and I begin to be afraid of her.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1661. So we drank and at last parted, and Mr. Moore and I into Cornhill [Map], it being dark night, and in the street and on the Exchange [Map] discoursed about Dominion of the Sea, wherein I am lately so much concerned, and so I home and sat late up reading of Mr. Selden, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1662. From thence home, and they sat with us till late at night at cards very merry, but the jest was Mr. W. Pen (age 40) had left his sword in the coach, and so my boy and he run out after the coach, and by very great chance did at the Exchange [Map] meet with the coach and got his sword again.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1662. So to the Exchange [Map], and there all the news is of the French and Dutch joyning against us; but I do not think it yet true.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1662. Thence to the Exchange [Map] to hire a ship for the Maderas, but could get none.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1662. All the morning at the office by myself about setting things in order there, and so at noon to the Exchange [Map] to see and be seen, and so home to dinner and then to the office again till night, and then home and after supper and reading a while to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1662. At my office all the morning, at noon to the Exchange [Map], and so home to dinner, and then all the afternoon at the office till late at night, and so home and to bed, my mind in good ease when I mind business, which methinks should be a good argument to me never to do otherwise.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1662. So back again and took my wife, calling at my brother Tom's (age 28), whom I found full of work, which I am glad of, and thence at the New Exchange [Map] and so home, and I to Sir W. Batten's (age 61), and supped there out of pure hunger and to save getting anything ready at home, which is a thing I do not nor shall not use to do. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1662. So home again, and took water with them towards Westminster; but as we put off with the boat Griffin came after me to tell me that Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and the rest were at the office, so I intended to see them through the bridge [Map] and come back again, but the tide being against us, when we were almost through we were carried back again with much danger, and Mrs. Pierce was much afeard and frightened. So I carried them to the other side and walked to the Beare [Map], and sent them away, and so back again myself to the office, but finding nobody there I went again to the Old Swan [Map], and thence by water to the New Exchange [Map], and there found them, and thence by coach carried my wife to Bowes to buy something, and while they were there went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there bought Mr. Grant's (age 41) book of observations upon the weekly bills of mortality, which appear to me upon first sight to be very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1662. Then with my wife abroad, she to the Wardrobe and there dined, and I to the Exchange [Map] and so to the Wardrobe, but they had dined.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1662. Then with my wife abroad, she to the Wardrobe and there dined, and I to the Exchange [Map] and so to the Wardrobe, but they had dined.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1662. Thence by water to Tom's, and there with my wife took coach and to the old Exchange [Map], where having bought six large Holland bands, I sent her home, and myself found out my uncle Wight and Mr. Rawlinson (age 48), and with them went to the tatter's house to dinner, and there had a good dinner of cold meat and good wine, but was troubled in my head after the little wine I drank, and so home to my office, and there did promise to drink no more wine but one glass a meal till Whitsuntide next upon any score. Mrs. Bowyer and her daughters being at my house I forbore to go to them, having business and my head disturbed, but staid at my office till night, and then to walk upon the leads with my wife, and so to my chamber and thence to bed. The great talk is, that the Spaniards and the Hollanders do intend to set upon the Portuguese by sea, at Lisbon, as soon as our fleet is come away; and by that means our fleet is not likely to come yet these two months or three; which I hope is not true.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1662. So to the Exchange [Map], Mrs. Turner (age 39) (who I found sick in bed), and several other places about business, and so home. Supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Apr 1662. So to dinner at the Globe, and Captain Lambert of the Duke's pleasure boat came to us and dined with us, and were merry, and so home, and I in the evening to the Exchange [Map], and spoke with uncle Wight, and so home and walked with my wife on the leads late, and so the barber came to me, and so to bed very weary, which I seldom am.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1662. At the office all the morning. Dined at home. Again at the office in the afternoon to despatch letters and so home, and with my wife, by coach, to the New Exchange [Map], to buy her some things; where we saw some new-fashion pettycoats of sarcenett, with a black broad lace printed round the bottom and before, very handsome, and my wife had a mind to one of them, but we did not then buy one. But thence to Mr. Bowyer's, thinking to have spoke to them for our Sarah to go to Huntsmore for a while to get away her ague, but we had not opportunity to do it, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1662. This morning I got my seat set up on the leads, which pleases me well. So to the office, and thence to the Change [Map], but could not meet with my uncle Wight. So home to dinner and then out again to several places to pay money and to understand my debts, and so home and walked with my wife on the leads, and so to supper and to bed. I find it a hard matter to settle to business after so much leisure and pleasure.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. At the office all the morning doing business alone, and then to the Wardrobe, where my Lady going out with the children to dinner I staid not, but returned home, and was overtaken in St. Paul's Churchyard by Sir G. Carteret (age 52) in his coach, and so he carried me to the Exchange [Map], where I staid awhile. He told me that the Queen (age 23) and the fleet were in Mount's Bay on Monday last, and that the Queen (age 23) endures her sickness pretty well. He also told me how Sir John Lawson (age 47) hath done some execution upon the Turks in the Straight, of which I am glad, and told the news the first on the Exchange [Map], and was much followed by merchants to tell it.

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1662. After a morning draft at the Star in Cheapside, I took him to the Exchange [Map], thence home, but my wife having dined, I took him to Fish Street, and there we had a couple of lobsters, and dined upon them, and much discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1662. Thence to the Temple [Map], and there spoke with my cozen Roger (age 45), who gives me little hopes in the business between my Uncle Tom and us. So Mr. Pett (age 51) (who staid at his son's chamber) and I by coach to the old Exchange [Map], and there parted, and I home and at the office till night. My windows at my office are made clean to-day and a casement in my closet.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1662.Then he and I to Alderman Backwell's (age 44) and did the like there, and I gave one receipt for all the money I have received thence upon the receipt of my Lord's crusados. Then I went to the Exchange [Map], and hear that the merchants have a great fear of a breach with the Spaniard; for they think he will not brook our having Tangier, Dunkirk, and Jamaica; and our merchants begin to draw home their estates as fast as they can.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1662. At noon to the Exchange [Map] to meet Dr. Williams, who sent me this morning notice of his going into the country tomorrow, but could not find him, but meeting with Frank Moore, my Lord Lambeth's man formerly, we, and two or three friends of his did go to a tavern, and there they drank, but I nothing but small beer. In the next room one was playing very finely of the dulcimer, which well played I like well, but one of our own company, a talking fellow, did in discourse say much of this Act against Seamen1, for their being brought to account; and that it was made on purpose for my Lord Sandwich (age 36), who was in debt £100,000, and hath been forced to have pardon oftentimes from Oliver for the same: at which I was vexed at him, but thought it not worth my trouble to oppose what he said, but took leave and went home, and after a little dinner to my office again, and in the evening Sir W. Warren came to me about business, and that being done, discoursing of deals, I did offer to go along with him among his deal ships, which we did to half a score, where he showed me the difference between Dram, Swinsound, Christiania, and others, and told me many pleasant notions concerning their manner of cutting and sawing them by watermills, and the reason how deals become dearer and cheaper, among others, when the snow is not so great as to fill up the values that they may pass from hill to hill over the snow, then it is dear carriage. From on board he took me to his yard, where vast and many places of deals, sparrs, and bulks, &c., the difference between which I never knew before, and indeed am very proud of this evening's work. He had me into his house, which is most pretty and neat and well furnished. After a glass, not of wine, for I would not be tempted to drink any, but a glass of mum, I well home by water, but it being late was forced to land at the Custom House and so home and to bed, and after I was a-bed, letters came from the Duke for the fitting out of four ships forthwith from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] (I know not yet for what) so I was forced to make Will get them wrote, and signed them in bed and sent them away by express. And so to sleep.

Note 1. In 1662 was passed "An Act for providing of carriage by land and by water for the use of His Majesty's Navy and Ordinance" (13-14 Gar. II, cap. 20), which gave power for impressing seamen, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1662. At noon to the Change [Map], where I begin to be known also, and so home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon dispatching business. At night news is brought me that Field the rogue hath this day cast me at Guildhall [Map] in £30 for his imprisonment, to which I signed his commitment with the rest of the officers; but they having been parliament-men, that he hath begun the law with me; and threatens more, but I hope the Duke of York (age 28) will bear me out.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1662. So home to dinner, and then to the Change [Map], and so home again, and at the office preparing business against to-morrow all the afternoon. At night walked with my wife upon the leads, and so to supper and to bed. My wife having lately a great pain in her ear, for which this night she begins to take physique, and I have got cold and so have a great deal of my old pain.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1662. At noon Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I by his coach to the Exchange [Map] together; and in Lumbard-street [Map] met Captain Browne of the Rosebush: at which he was cruel angry: and did threaten to go to-day to the Duke at Hampton Court [Map], and get him turned out because he was not sailed. But at the Exchange [Map] we resolved of eating a bit together, which we did at the Ship behind the Exchange [Map], and so took boat to Billingsgate, and went down on board the Rosebush at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and found all things out of order, but after frightening the officers there, we left them to make more haste, and so on shore to the yard, and did the same to the officers of the yard, that the ship was not dispatched. Here we found Sir W. Batten (age 61) going about his survey, but so poorly and unlike a survey of the Navy, that I am ashamed of it, and so is Mr. Coventry (age 34). We found fault with many things, and among others the measure of some timber now serving in which Mr. Day the assistant told us of, and so by water home again, all the way talking of the office business and other very pleasant discourse, and much proud I am of getting thus far into his books, which I think I am very much in.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1662. I staid up late, putting things in order for my going to Chatham, Kent [Map] to-morrow, and so to bed, being in pain... with the little riding in a coach to-day from the Exchange [Map], which do trouble me.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1662. Up, my head aching, and to my office, where Cooper read me another lecture upon my modell very pleasant. So to my business all the morning, which increases by people coming now to me to the office. At noon to the Exchange [Map], where meeting Mr. Creed and Moore we three to a house hard by (which I was not pleased with) to dinner, and after dinner and some discourse ordinary by coach home, it raining hard, and so at the office all the afternoon till evening to my chamber, where, God forgive me, I was sorry to hear that Sir W. Pen's (age 41) maid Betty was gone away yesterday, for I was in hopes to have had a bout with her before she had gone, she being very pretty. I had also a mind to my own wench, but I dare not for fear she should prove honest and refuse and then tell my wife.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1662. At noon to the Change [Map], and there hear of some Quakers that are seized on, that would have blown up the prison in Southwark, Surrey [Map] where they are put.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1662. We took boat again at the Falcon, and there parted, and I to the Old Swan [Map], and so to the Change [Map], and there meeting Sir W. Warren did step to a tavern, and there sat and talked about price of masts and other things, and so broke up and to my office to see what business, and so we took water again, and at the Tower I over to Redriffe [Map], and there left him in the boat and walked to Deptford, and there up and down the yard speaking with people, and so Sir W. Pen (age 41) coming out of the payhouse did single me out to tell me Sir J. Minnes' (age 63) dislike of my blinding his lights over his stairs (which indeed is very bad) and blocking up the house of office on the leads.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1662. So walked home and in my way at the Exchange [Map] found my uncle Wight, and he and I to an alehouse to drink a cup of beer, and so away, and I home and at the office till 9 o'clock and past, and so to my lodgings. I forgot that last night Mr. Cooke came to me to make his peace for inviting my brother lately out of town without my leave, but he do give me such a character of the lady that he has found out for him that I do much rejoice at, and did this night write a letter to her, which he enclosed in one of his, and by the report that I hear of her I confess I am much pleased with the match.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1662. Up and to my workmen, and then to the office, and there we sat till noon; then to the Exchange [Map], and in my way met with the housekeeper of this office, and he did give me so good an account of my chamber in my house about which I am so much troubled that I am well at ease in my mind.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Sep 1662. At my office all the morning, and at noon to the Exchange [Map], where meeting Mr. Moore and Mr. Stucky, of the Wardrobe, we to an ordinary to dinner, and after dinner Mr. Moore and I about 3 o'clock to Paul's school, to wait upon Mr. Crumlum (Mr. Moore having a hopeful lad, a kinsman of his, there at school), who we take very luckily, and went up to his chamber with him, where there was also an old fellow student of Mr. Crumlum's, one Mr. Newell, come to see him, of whom he made so much, and of me, that the truth is he with kindness did drink more than I believe he used to do, and did begin to be a little impertinent, the more when after all he would in the evening go forth with us and give us a bottle of wine abroad, and at the tavern met with an acquaintance of his that did occasion impertinent discourse, that though I honour the man, and he do declare abundance of learning and worth, yet I confess my opinion is much lessened of him, and therefore let it be a caution to myself not to love drink, since it has such an effect upon others of greater worth in my own esteem. I could not avoid drinking of 5 glasses this afternoon with him, and after I had parted with him Mr. Moore and I to my house, and after we had eaten something to my lodgings, where the master of the house, a very ordinary fellow, was ready to entertain me and took me into his dining-room where his wife was, a pretty and notable lady, too fine surely for him, and too much wit too. Here I was forced to stay with them a good while and did drink again, there being friends of theirs with them.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1662. So towards the New Exchange [Map], and there while my wife was buying things I walked up and down with Dr. Williams, talking about my law businesses, and thence took him to my brother's, and there gave him a glass of wine, and so parted, and then by coach with my wife home, and Sir J. M. and Sir W. B. being come from Chatham, Kent [Map] Pay I did go see them for complaisance, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. So walk to the Exchange [Map], and there took many turns with him; among other things, observing one very pretty Exchange [Map] lass, with her face full of black patches, which was a strange sight. So bid him good-night and away by coach to Mr. Moore, with whom I staid an hour, and found him pretty well and intends to go abroad tomorrow, and so it raining hard by coach home, and having visited both Sir Williams, who are both sick, but like to be well again, I to my office, and there did some business, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall [Map] and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple [Map] and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change [Map], and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt [Map], and we had excellent places, and saw the King (age 32), Queen (age 23), Duke of Monmouth (age 13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1662. Lord's Day. To church in the morning, and Mr. Mills made a pretty good sermon. It is a bitter cold frost to-day. Dined alone with my wife to-day with great content, my house being quite clean from top to bottom. In the afternoon I to the French church here1 in the city, and stood in the aisle all the sermon, with great delight hearing a very admirable sermon, from a very young man, upon the article in our creed, in order of catechism, upon the Resurrection.

Note 1. The French Protestant Church was founded by Edward VI in the church of St. Anthony's Hospital in Threadneedle Street. This was destroyed in the Great Fire, and rebuilt, but demolished for the approaches of the new Royal Exchange [Map]. The church was then removed to St. Martin's-le-Grand, but this was also removed in 1888 to make room for the new Post Office buildings.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1662. So to the office, and there Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I sat till noon, and then I stept to the Exchange [Map], and so home to dinner, and after dinner with my wife to the Duke's Theatre, and saw the second part of "Rhodes", done with the new Roxalana (age 20); which do it rather better in all respects for person, voice, and judgment, then the first Roxalana (age 20).

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, whither Sir W. Pen (age 41) came, the first time that he has come downstairs since his late great sickness of the gout. We with Mr. Coventry (age 34) sat till noon, then I to the Change [Map] ward, to see what play was there, but I liked none of them, and so homeward, and calling in at Mr. Rawlinson's (age 48), where he stopped me to dine with him and two East India officers of ships and Hovell our turner. With the officers I had good discourse, particularly of the people at the Cape of Good Hope, of whom they of their own knowledge do tell me these one or two things: viz .... that they never sleep lying, but always sitting upon the ground, that their speech is not so articulate as ours, but yet [they] understand one another well, that they paint themselves all over with the grease the Dutch sell them (who have a fort there) and soot.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1663. Twelfth Day. Up and Mr. Creed brought a pot of chocolate ready made for our morning draft, and then he and I to the Duke's, but I was not very willing to be seen at this end of the town, and so returned to our lodgings, and took my wife by coach to my brother's, where I set her down, and Creed and I to St. Paul's Church-yard, to my bookseller's, and looked over several books with good discourse, and then into St. Paul's Church, and there finding Elborough, my old schoolfellow at Paul's, now a parson, whom I know to be a silly fellow, I took him out and walked with him, making Creed and myself sport with talking with him, and so sent him away, and we to my office and house to see all well, and thence to the Exchange [Map], where we met with Major Thomson, formerly of our office, who do talk very highly of liberty of conscience, which now he hopes for by the King's declaration, and that he doubts not that if he will give him, he will find more and better friends than the Bishopps can be to him, and that if he do not, there will many thousands in a little time go out of England, where they may have it. But he says that they are well contented that if the King (age 32) thinks it good, the Papists may have the same liberty with them. He tells me, and so do others, that Dr. Calamy is this day sent to Newgate for preaching, Sunday was se'nnight, without leave, though he did it only to supply the place; when otherwise the people must have gone away without ever a sermon, they being disappointed of a minister but the Bishop of London will not take that as an excuse.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. After dinner to the 'Change [Map] to buy some linen for my wife, and going back met our two boys. Mine had struck down Creed's boy in the dirt, with his new suit on, and the boy taken by a gentlewoman into a house to make clean, but the poor boy was in a pitifull taking and pickle; but I basted my rogue soundly.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1663. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and so home with him by coach, and I to see how my wife do, who is pretty well again, and so to dinner to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) to a cod's head, and so to my office, and after stopping to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), where was Sir J. Lawson (age 48) and his lady and daughter, which is pretty enough, I came back to my office, and there set to business pretty late, finishing the margenting my Navy-Manuscript. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1663. To the office all the morning, sat till noon, then to the Exchange [Map] to look out for a ship for Tangier, and delivered my manuscript to be bound at the stationer's.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1663. So home, and being called by a coachman who had a fare in him, he carried me beyond the Old Exchange [Map], and there set down his fare, who would not pay him what was his due, because he carried a stranger with him, and so after wrangling he was fain to be content with 6d., and being vexed the coachman would not carry me home a great while, but set me down there for the other 6d., but with fair words he was willing to it, and so I came home and to my office, setting business in order, and so to supper and to bed, my mind being in disorder as to the greatness of this day's business that I have done, but yet glad that my trouble therein is like to be over.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Feb 1663. Thence by water from the New Exchange [Map] home to the Tower, and so sat at the office, and then writing letters till 11 at night. Troubled this evening that my wife is not come home from Chelsey, whither she is gone to see the play at the school where Ashwell is, but she came at last, it seems, by water, and tells me she is much pleased with Ashwell's acting and carriage, which I am glad of. So home and to supper and bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1663. Lady-day. Up betimes and to my office, where all the morning, at noon dined and to the Exchange [Map], and thence to the Sun Tavern, to my Lord Rutherford, and dined with him, and some others, his officers, and Scotch gentlemen, of fine discourse and education. My Lord used me with great respect, and discoursed upon his business as with one that he did esteem of, and indeed I do believe that this garrison is likely to come to something under him.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1663. This morning my uncle Thomas was with me according to agreement, and I paid him the £50, which was against my heart to part with, and yet I must be contented; I used him very kindly, and I desire to continue so voyd of any discontent as to my estate, that I may follow my business the better. At the Change [Map] I met him again, with intent to have met with my uncle Wight to have made peace with him, with whom by my long absence I fear I shall have a difference, but he was not there, so we missed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1663. Up betimes and at my office all the morning, at noon to the Exchange [Map], and there by appointment met my uncles Thomas and Wight, and from thence with them to a tavern, and there paid my uncle Wight three pieces of gold for himself, my aunt, and their son that is dead, left by my uncle Robert, and read over our agreement with my uncle Thomas and the state of our debts and legacies, and so good friendship I think is made up between us all, only we have the worst of it in having so much money to pay.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1663. At noon to the Exchange [Map], and so home to dinner, where I found my wife had been with Ashwell to La Roche's to have her tooth drawn, which it seems aches much, but my wife could not get her to be contented to have it drawn after the first twich, but would let it alone, and so they came home with it undone, which made my wife and me good sport.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1663. Home to dinner, and then by water abroad to Whitehall, my wife to see Mrs. Ferrers, I to Whitehall and the Park, doing no business. Then to my Lord's lodgings, met my wife, and walked to the New Exchange [Map]. There laid out 10s. upon pendents and painted leather gloves, very pretty and all the mode. So by coach home and to my office till late, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1663. Up very betimes and to my office, where most hard at business alone all the morning. At noon to the Exchange [Map], where I hear that after great expectation from Ireland, and long stop of letters, there is good news come, that all is quiett after our great noise of troubles there, though some stir hath been as was reported. Off the Exchange [Map] with Sir J. Cutler (age 60) and Mr. Grant (age 42) to the Royall Oak Tavern, in Lumbard Street, where Alexander Broome the poet was, a merry and witty man, I believe, if he be not a little conceited, and here drank a sort of French wine, called Ho Bryan1, that hath a good and most particular taste that I never met with.

Note 1. Haut Brion, a claret; one of the first growths of the red wines of Medoc.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office very busy all the morning there, entering things into my Book Manuscript, which pleases me very much. So to the Change [Map], and so to my uncle Wight's, by invitation, whither my father, wife, and Ashwell came, where we had but a poor dinner, and not well dressed; besides, the very sight of my aunt's hands and greasy manner of carving, did almost turn my stomach.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1663. At last pretending to go to the Change [Map] we walked thither together, and there I left him and home to dinner, sending my boy by the way to enquire after two dancing masters at our end of the town for my wife to learn, of whose names the boy brought word.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1663. At noon we rose, Sir W. Batten (age 62) ashamed and vexed, and so home to dinner, and after dinner walked to the old Exchange [Map] and so all along to Westminster Hall [Map], White Hall, my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, and going by water back to the Temple [Map] did pay my debts in several places in order to my examining my accounts tomorrow to my great content. So in the evening home, and after supper (my father at my brother's) and merrily practising to dance, which my wife hath begun to learn this day of Mr. Pembleton1, but I fear will hardly do any great good at it, because she is conceited that she do well already, though I think no such thing.

Note 1. Pembleton, the dancing-master, made Pepys very jealous, and there are many allusions to him in the following pages. His lessons ceased on May 27th.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1663. So to my office, where till towards noon, and then to the Exchange [Map], and back home to dinner, where Mrs. Hunt, my father, and W. Stankes; but, Lord! what a stir Stankes makes with his being crowded in the streets and wearied in walking in London, and would not be wooed by my wife and Ashwell to go to a play, nor to White Hall, or to see the lyons1, though he was carried in a coach. I never could have thought there had been upon earth a man so little curious in the world as he is.

Note 1. The Tower menagerie, with its famous lions, which was one of the chief sights of London, and gave rise to a new English word, was not abolished until the early part of the present century.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1663. So to the Exchange [Map] and then home to dinner, and very merry and well pleased with my wife, and so to the office again, where we met extraordinary upon drawing up the debts of the Navy to my Lord Treasurer (age 56). So rose and up to Sir W. Pen (age 42) to drink a glass of bad syder in his new far low dining room, which is very noble, and so home, where Captain Ferrers and his lady are come to see my wife, he being to go the beginning of next week to France to sea and I think to fetch over my young Lord Hinchinbroke. They being gone I to my office to write letters by the post, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1663. He being gone to Chelsey by coach I to his lodgings, where my wife staid for me, and she from thence to see Mrs. Pierce and called me at Whitehall stairs (where I went before by land to know whether there was any play at Court to-night) and there being none she and I to Mr. Creed to the Exchange [Map], where she bought something, and from thence by water to White Fryars, and wife to see Mrs. Turner (age 40), and then came to me at my brother's, where I did give him order about my summer clothes, and so home by coach, and after supper to bed to my wife, with whom I have not lain since I used to lie with my father till to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1663. Up betimes and to my office a good while at my new rulers, then to business, and towards noon to the Exchange [Map] with Creed, where we met with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) coming in his coach from Westminster, who tells us, in great heat, that, by God, the Parliament will make mad work; that they will render all men incapable of any military or civil employment that have borne arms in the late troubles against the King, excepting some persons; which, if it be so, as I hope it is not, will give great cause of discontent, and I doubt will have but bad effects.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1663. I left them at the Exchange [Map] and walked to Paul's Churchyard to look upon a book or two, and so back, and thence to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], and there dined, where, among other discourse worth hearing among the old seamen, they tell us that they have catched often in Greenland in fishing whales with the iron grapnells that had formerly been struck into their bodies covered over with fat; that they have had eleven hogsheads of oyle out of the tongue of a whale.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1663. At noon Mr. Creed comes to me, and he and I to the Exchange [Map], where I had much discourse with several merchants, and so home with him to dinner, and then by water to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and calling at the little alehouse at the end of the town to wrap a rag about my little left toe, being new sore with walking, we walked pleasantly to Woolwich, Kent [Map], in our way hearing the nightingales sing.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1663. Then to the Exchange [Map], where I hear that the King (age 32) had letters yesterday from France that the King (age 24) there is in a [way] of living again, which I am glad to hear. At the coffee-house in Exchange Alley I bought a little book, "Counsell to Builders", by Sir Balth. Gerbier. It is dedicated almost to all the men of any great condition in England, so that the Epistles are more than the book itself, and both it and them not worth a turd, that I am ashamed that I bought it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1663. At noon, hearing that the trial is done, and Sir W. Batten (age 62) come to the Sun behind the Exchange [Map] I went thither, where he tells me that he had much ado to carry it on his side, but that at last he did, but the jury, by the judge's favour, did give us but; £10 damages and the charges of the suit, which troubles me; but it is well it went not against us, which would have been much worse.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1663. So to the Exchange [Map], and thence home to dinner, taking Deane (age 29) of Woolwich along with me, and he dined alone with my wife being undressed, and he and I spent all the afternoon finely, learning of him the method of drawing the lines of a ship, to my great satisfaction, and which is well worth my spending some time in, as I shall do when my wife is gone into the country.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1663. Up and all the morning helping my wife to put up her things towards her going into the country and drawing the wine out of my vessel to send. This morning came my cozen Thomas Pepys to desire me to furnish him with some money, which I could not do till his father has wrote to Piggott his consent to the sale of his lands, so by and by we parted and I to the Exchange [Map] a while and so home and to dinner, and thence to the Royal Theatre by water, and landing, met with Captain Ferrers his friend, the little man that used to be with him, and he with us, and sat by us while we saw "Love in a Maze". The play is pretty good, but the life of the play is Lacy's part, the clown, which is most admirable; but for the rest, which are counted such old and excellent actors, in my life I never heard both men and women so ill pronounce their parts, even to my making myself sick therewith.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1663. At noon to the Exchange [Map] and so home to dinner, and abroad with my wife by water to the Royall Theatre [Map]; and there saw "The Committee", a merry but indifferent play, only Lacey's part, an Irish footman, is beyond imagination. Here I saw my Lord Falconbridge (age 36), and his Lady, my Lady Mary Cromwell (age 26), who looks as well as I have known her, and well clad; but when the House began to fill she put on her vizard1, and so kept it on all the play; which of late is become a great fashion among the ladies, which hides their whole face.

Note 1. Masks were commonly used by ladies in the reign of Elizabeth, and when their use was revived at the Restoration for respectable women attending the Theatre [Map], they became general. They soon, however, became the mark of loose women, and their use was discontinued by women of repute. On June 1st, 1704, a song was sung at the Theatre [Map] in Lincoln's Inn Fields called "The Misses' Lamentation for want of their Vizard Masques at the Theatre [Map]". Mr. R. W. Lowe gives several references to the use of vizard masks at the Theatre [Map] in his interesting biography, "Thomas Betterton (age 27)"..

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1663. So to the Exchange [Map], to buy things with my wife; among others, a vizard for herself. And so by water home and to my office to do a little business, and so to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), but being going to bed and not well I could not see him.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1663. Thence with Mr. Wayth after drinking a cupp of ale at the Swan [Map], talking of the corruption of the Navy, by water. I landed him at Whitefriars, and I to the Exchange [Map], and so home to dinner, where I found my wife's brother, and thence after dinner by water to the Royall Theatre [Map], where I resolved to bid farewell, as shall appear by my oaths tomorrow against all plays either at publique houses or Court till Christmas be over. Here we saw "The Faithfull Sheepheardesse", a most simple thing, and yet much thronged after, and often shown, but it is only for the scenes' sake, which is very fine indeed and worth seeing; but I am quite out of opinion with any of their actings, but Lacy's, compared with the other house.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1663. Lay till 6 o'clock, and then up and to my office, where all the morning, and at noon to the Exchange [Map], and coming home met Mr. Creed, and took him back, and he dined with me, and by and by came Mr. Moore, whom I supplied with £30, and then abroad with them by water to Lambeth, expecting to have seen the Archbishop (deceased) lie in state; but it seems he is not laid out yet.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1663. Thence by water home, and to the 'Change [Map]; and by and by comes the King (age 33) and the Queen (age 24) by in great state, and the streets full of people. I stood in Mr.----'s balcone. They dine all at my Lord Mayor's; but what he do for victuals, or room for them, I know not.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1663. Up betimes to my office, and there all the morning doing business, at noon to the Change [Map], and there met with several people, among others Captain Cox, and with him to a Coffee House, and drank with him and some other merchants. Good discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1663. Thence to the Change [Map], and meeting Sir J. Minnes (age 64) there, he and I walked to look upon Backwell's design of making another alley from his shop through over against the Exchange [Map] door, which will be very noble and quite put down the other two.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1663. Up a little late, last night recovering my sleepiness for the night before, which was lost, and so to my office to put papers and things to right, and making up my journal from Wednesday last to this day. All the morning at my office doing of business; at noon Mr. Hunt came to me, and he and I to the Exchange [Map], and a Coffee House, and drank there, and thence to my house to dinner, whither my uncle Thomas came, and he tells me that he is going down to Wisbech [Map], there to try what he can recover of my uncle Day's estate, and seems to have good arguments for what he do go about, in which I wish him good speed. I made him almost foxed, the poor man having but a bad head, and not used I believe nowadays to drink much wine.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1663. Thence to the Exchange [Map], and so home to dinner, and then to my office, where a full board, and busy all the afternoon, and among other things made a great contract with Sir W. Warren for 40,000 deals Swinsound, at £3 17s. od. per hundred. In the morning before I went on the water I was at Thames Street about some pitch, and there meeting Anthony Joyce, I took him and Mr. Stacy, the Tarr merchant, to the tavern, where Stacy told me many old stories of my Lady Batten's former poor condition, and how her former husband broke, and how she came to her state.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1663. Thence to the Change [Map], and so home, Creed and I to dinner, and after dinner Sir W. Warren came to me, and he and I in my closet about his last night's contract, and from thence to discourse of measuring of timber, wherein I made him see that I could understand the matter well, and did both learn of and teach him something. Creed being gone through my staying talking to him so long, I went alone by water down to Redriffe [Map], and so to sit and talk with Sir W. Pen (age 42), where I did speak very plainly concerning my thoughts of Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64). So as it may cost me some trouble if he should tell them again, but he said as much or more to me concerning them both, which I may remember if ever it should come forth, and nothing but what is true and my real opinion of them, that they neither do understand to this day Creed's accounts, nor do deserve to be employed in their places without better care, but that the King (age 33) had better give them greater salaries to stand still and do nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1663. Thence to my office doing business, and at noon to my viall maker's, who has begun it and has a good appearance, and so to the Exchange [Map], where I met James Pearce Surgeon, who tells me of his good luck to get to be Groom of the Privy Chamber to the Queen (age 24), and without my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) help; but only by his good fortune, meeting a man that hath let him have his right for a small matter, about £60, for which he can every day have £400.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1663. So to the Exchange [Map], and thence home to dinner with my brother, and in the afternoon to Westminster Hall [Map], and there found Mrs. Lane, and by and by by agreement we met at the Parliament stairs (in my way down to the boat who should meet us but my lady Jemimah, who saw me lead her but said nothing to me of her, though I ought to speak to her to see whether she would take notice of it or no) and off to Stangate and so to the King's Head at Lambeth marsh, and had variety of meats and drinks, but I did so towse her and handled her, but could get nothing more from her though I was very near it; but as wanton and bucksome as she is she dares not adventure upon the business, in which I very much commend and like her. Staid pretty late, and so over with her by water, and being in a great sweat with my towsing of her durst not go home by water, but took coach, and at home my brother and I fell upon Des Cartes, and I perceive he has studied him well, and I cannot find but he has minded his book, and do love it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1663. At noon I to the 'Change [Map], and meeting with Sir W. Warren, to a coffee-house, and there finished a contract with him for the office, and so parted, and I to my cozen Mary Joyce's at a gossiping, where much company and good cheer. There was the King's Falconer, that lives by Paul's, and his wife, an ugly pusse, but brought him money. He speaking of the strength of hawkes, which will strike a fowle to the ground with that force that shall make the fowle rebound a great way from ground, which no force of man or art can do, but it was very pleasant to hear what reasons he and another, one Ballard, a rich man of the same Company of Leathersellers of which the Joyces are, did give for this. Ballard's wife, a pretty and a very well-bred woman, I took occasion to kiss several times, and she to carve, drink, and show me great respect.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1663. Thence to the Exchange [Map] about several businesses, and so home to dinner, and in the afternoon took my brother John (age 22) and Will down to Woolwich, Kent [Map] by water, and after being there a good while, and eating of fruit in Sheldon's (age 65) garden, we began our walk back again, I asking many things in physiques of my brother John (age 22), to which he gives me so bad or no answer at all, as in the regions of the ayre he told me that he knew of no such thing, for he never read Aristotle's philosophy and Des Cartes ownes no such thing, which vexed me to hear him say. But I shall call him to task, and see what it is that he has studied since his going to the University.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1663. Up and to my office, whither, by and by, my brother Tom (age 29) came, and I did soundly rattle him for his neglecting to see and please the Joyces as he has of late done. I confess I do fear that he do not understand his business, nor will do any good in his trade, though he tells me that he do please every body and that he gets money, but I shall not believe it till I see a state of his accounts, which I have ordered him to bring me before he sees me any more. We met and sat at the office all the morning, and at noon I to the 'Change [Map], where I met James Pearce Surgeon, who tells me that the King (age 33) comes to towne this day, from Tunbridge [Map], to stay a day or two, and then fetch the Queen (age 24) from thence, who he says is grown a very debonnaire lady, and now hugs him, and meets him gallopping upon the road, and all the actions of a fond and pleasant lady that can be, that he believes has a chat now and then of Mrs. Stewart (age 16), but that there is no great danger of her, she being only an innocent, young, raw girl; but my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), who rules the King (age 33) in matters of state, and do what she list with him, he believes is now falling quite out of favour.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1663. Upon the 'Change [Map] my brother, and Will bring me word that Madam Turner (age 40) would come and dine with me to-day, so I hasted home and found her and Mrs. Morrice there (The. Joyce being gone into the country), which is the reason of the mother rambling. I got a dinner for them, and after dinner my uncle Thomas and aunt Bell came and saw me, and I made them almost foxed with wine till they were very kind (but I did not carry them up to my ladies).

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1663. Thence to White Hall, and there met Mr. Moore, and fell a-talking about my Lord's folly at Chelsey, and it was our discourse by water to London and to the great coffee house against the Exchange [Map], where we sat a good while talking; and I find that my lord is wholly given up to this wench, who it seems has been reputed a common strumpett. I have little encouragement from Mr. Moore to meddle with it to tell my Lord, for fear it may do him no good, but me hurt.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1663. This noon going to the Exchange [Map], I met a fine fellow with trumpets before him in Leadenhall-street [Map], and upon enquiry I find that he is the clerk of the City Market; and three or four men carried each of them an arrow of a pound weight in their hands. It seems this Lord Mayor begins again an old custome, that upon the three first days of Bartholomew Fayre, the first, there is a match of wrestling, which was done, and the Lord Mayor (age 48) there and Aldermen in Moorefields [Map] yesterday: to-day, shooting: and to-morrow, hunting. And this officer of course is to perform this ceremony of riding through the city, I think to proclaim or challenge any to shoot. It seems that the people of the fayre cry out upon it as a great hindrance to them.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1663. Up very early and removed the things out of my chamber into the dining room, it being to be new floored this day. So the workmen being come and falling to work there, I to the office, and thence down to Lymehouse [Map] to Phin. Pett's about masts, and so back to the office, where we sat; and being rose, and Mr. Coventry (age 35) being gone, taking his leave, for that he is to go to the Bath, Somerset [Map] with the Duke (age 29) to-morrow, I to the 'Change [Map] and there spoke with several persons, and lastly with Sir W. Warren, and with him to a Coffee House, and there sat two hours talking of office business and Mr. Wood's knavery, which I verily believe, and lastly he tells me that he hears that Captain Cocke (age 46) is like to become a principal officer, either a Controller or a Surveyor, at which I am not sorry so either of the other may be gone, and I think it probable enough that it may be so.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1663. Home again, and after seeing Sir W. Pen (age 42), to my office, and there till late doing of business, being mightily encouraged by every body that I meet withal upon the 'Change [Map] and every where else, that I am taken notice of for a man that do the King's business wholly and well. For which the Lord be praised, for I know no honour I desire more.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Aug 1663. Thence to my wife, and calling at both the Exchanges [Map], buying stockings for her and myself, and also at Leadenhall, where she and I, it being candlelight, bought meat for to-morrow, having never a mayde to do it, and I myself bought, while my wife was gone to another shop, a leg of beef, a good one, for six pense, and my wife says is worth my money. So walked home with a woman carrying our things. I am mightily displeased at a letter Tom sent me last night, to borrow £20 more of me, and yet gives me no account, as I have long desired, how matters stand with him in the world. I am troubled also to see how, contrary to my expectation, my brother John (age 22) neither is the scholler nor minds his studies as I thought would have done, but loiters away his time, so that I must send him soon to Cambridge again.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Sep 1663. So at noon to the Exchange [Map], and so home to dinner, where I met Creed, who dined with me, and after dinner mightily importuned by Captain Hicks, who came to tell my wife the names and story of all the shells, which was a pretty present he made her the other day. He being gone, Creed, my wife, and I to Cornhill [Map], and after many tryalls bought my wife a chintz, that is, a painted Indian callico, for to line her new study, which is very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1663. Thence by water to my office, in here all the morning, and so to the 'Change [Map] at noon, and there by appointment met and bring home my uncle Thomas, who resolves to go with me to Brampton on Monday next. I wish he may hold his mind. I do not tell him, and yet he believes that there is a Court to be that he is to do some business for us there. The truth is I do find him a much more cunning fellow than I ever took him for, nay in his very drink he has his wits about him. I took him home to dinner, and after dinner he began, after a glass of wine or two, to exclaim against Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and his family in Jersey, bidding me to have a care of him, and how high, proud, false, and politique a fellow he is, and how low he has been under his command in the island.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1663. Up and to my office, and there we sat till noon, and then I to the Exchange [Map], but did little there, but meeting Mr. Rawlinson (age 49) he would needs have me home to dinner, and Mr. Deane (age 29) of Woolwich being with me I took him with me, and there we dined very well at his own dinner, only no invitation, but here I sat with little pleasure, considering my wife at home alone, and so I made what haste home I could, and was forced to sit down again at dinner with her, being unwilling to neglect her by being known to dine abroad. My doing so being only to keep Deane (age 29) from dining at home with me, being doubtful what I have to eat.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1663. Up betimes and by water to St. James's, and there visited Mr. Coventry (age 35) as a compliment after his new coming to town, but had no great talk with him, he being full of business. So back by foot through London, doing several errands, and at the 'Change [Map] met with Mr. Cutler, and he and I to a coffee-house, and there discoursed, and he do assure me that there is great likelyhood of a war with Holland, but I hope we shall be in good condition before it comes to break out. I like his company, and will make much of his acquaintance.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1663. Up (though slept well) and made some water in the morning [as] I used to do, and a little pain returned to me, and some fears, but being forced to go to the Duke (age 29) at St. James's, I took coach and in my way called upon Mr. Hollyard (age 54) and had his advice to take a glyster. At St. James's we attended the Duke all of us. And there, after my discourse, Mr. Coventry (age 35) of his own accord begun to tell the Duke how he found that discourse abroad did run to his prejudice about the fees that he took, and how he sold places and other things; wherein he desired to appeal to his Highness, whether he did any thing more than what his predecessors did, and appealed to us all. So Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did answer that some fees were heretofore taken, but what he knows not; only that selling of places never was nor ought to be countenanced. So Mr. Coventry (age 35) very hotly answered to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and appealed to himself whether he was not one of the first that put him upon looking after this taking of fees, and that he told him that Mr. Smith should say that he made £5000 the first year, and he believed he made £7000. This Sir G. Carteret (age 53) denied, and said, that if he did say so he told a lie, for he could not, nor did know, that ever he did make that profit of his place; but that he believes he might say £2500 the first year. Mr. Coventry (age 35) instanced in another thing, particularly wherein Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did advise with him about the selling of the Auditor's place of the stores, when in the beginning there was an intention of creating such an office. This he confessed, but with some lessening of the tale Mr. Coventry (age 35) told, it being only for a respect to my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 33). In fine, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did put into the Duke's hand a list of above 250 places that he did give without receiving one farthing, so much as his ordinary fees for them, upon his life and oath; and that since the Duke's establishment of fees he had never received one token more of any man; and that in his whole life he never conditioned or discoursed of any consideration from any commanders since he came to the Navy. And afterwards, my Lord Barkeley merrily discoursing that he wished his profit greater than it was, and that he did believe that he had got £50,000 since he came in, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did openly declare that his Lordship, or any of us, should have not only all he had got, but all that he had in the world (and yet he did not come a beggar into the Navy, nor would yet be thought to speak in any contempt of his Royall Highness's bounty), and should have a year to consider of it too, for £25,000. The Duke's answer was, that he wished we all had made more profit than he had of our places, and that we had all of us got as much as one man below stayres in the Court, which he presently named, and it was Sir George Lane (age 43)! This being ended, and the list left in the Duke's hand, we parted, and I with Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to the Exchange [Map], and there a while, and so home, and whether it be the jogging, or by having my mind more employed (which I believe is a great matter) I know not, but.... I begin to be suddenly well, at least better than I was.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1663. So home and to dinner, and thence by coach to the Old Exchange [Map], and there cheapened some laces for my wife, and then to Mr.---the great laceman in Cheapside, and bought one cost me £4. more by 20s. than I intended, but when I came to see them I was resolved to buy one worth wearing with credit, and so to the New Exchange, and there put it to making, and so to my Lord's lodgings and left my wife, and so I to the Committee of Tangier, and then late home with my wife again by coach, beginning to be very well, and yet when I came home.... The little straining which I thought was no strain at all at the present did by and by bring me some pain for a good while. Anon, about 8 o'clock, my wife did give me a clyster which Mr. Hollyard (age 54) directed, viz., a pint of strong ale, 4 oz. of sugar, and 2 oz. of butter. It lay while I lay upon the bed above an hour, if not two, and then thinking it quite lost I rose, and by and by it began with my walking to work, and gave me three or four most excellent stools and carried away wind, put me in excellent ease, and taking my usual walnut quantity of electuary at my going into bed I had about two stools in the night....

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1663. This morning at the office, and at noon with Creed to the Exchange [Map], where much business, but, Lord! how my heart, though I know not reason for it, began to doubt myself, after I saw Stint, Field's one-eyed solicitor, though I know not any thing that they are doing, or that they endeavour any thing further against us in the business till the terme.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1663. Up and to my office, where all the morning, and part of it Sir J. Minnes (age 64) spent, as he do every thing else, like a fool, reading the Anatomy of the body to me, but so sillily as to the making of me understand any thing that I was weary of him, and so I toward the 'Change [Map] and met with Mr. Grant (age 43), and he and I to the Coffee-house, where I understand by him that Sir W. Petty (age 40) and his vessel are coming, and the King (age 33) intends to go to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to meet it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1663. Up and to my office, where all the morning doing business, and at noon home to dinner, and then up to remove my chest and clothes up stairs to my new wardrobe, that I may have all my things above where I lie, and so by coach abroad with my wife, leaving her at my Lord's till I went to the Tangier Committee, where very good discourse concerning the Articles of peace to be continued with Guyland, and thence took up my wife, and with her to her tailor's, and then to the Exchange [Map] and to several places, and so home and to my office, where doing some business, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1663. Up, and by and by comes my brother Tom (age 29) to me, though late (which do vex me to the blood that I could never get him to come time enough to me, though I have spoke a hundred times; but he is very sluggish, and too negligent ever to do well at his trade I doubt), and having lately considered with my wife very much of the inconvenience of my going in no better plight, we did resolve of putting me into a better garb, and, among other things, to have a good velvet cloake; that is, of cloth lined with velvet and other things modish, and a perruque, and so I sent him and her out to buy me velvet, and I to the Exchange [Map], and so to Trinity House, Deptford [Map], and there dined with Sir W. Batten (age 62), having some business to speak with him, and Sir W. Rider.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1663. Thence, having my belly full, away on foot to my brother's, all along Thames Streete, and my belly being full of small beer, I did all alone, for health's sake, drink half a pint of Rhenish wine at the Still-yard [Map], mixed with beer. From my brother's with my wife to the Exchange [Map], to buy things for her and myself, I being in a humour of laying out money, but not prodigally, but only in clothes, which I every day see that I suffer for want of, I so home, and after a little at my office, home to supper and to bed. Memorandum: This morning one Mr. Commander, a scrivener, came to me from Mr. Moore with a deed of which. Mr. Moore had told me, that my Lord had made use of my name, and that I was desired by my Lord to sign it. Remembering this very well, though understanding little of the particulars, I read it over, and found it concern Sir Robt. Bernard and Duckinford, their interest in the manor of Brampton. So I did sign it, declaring to Mr. Commander that I am only concerned in having my name at my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) desire used therein, and so I sealed it up after I had signed and sealed the deed, and desired him to give it so sealed to Mr. Moore. I did also call at the Wardrobe this afternoon to have told Mr. Moore of it, but he was not within, but knowing Mr. Commander to have the esteem of a good and honest man with my Lord Crew, I did not doubt to intrust him with the deed after I had signed it. This evening after I came home I begun to enter my wife in arithmetique, in order to her studying of the globes, and she takes it very well, and, I hope, with great pleasure, I shall bring her to understand many fine things.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1663. Lay long in bed with my wife, and then up and a while at my office, and so to the Change [Map], and so [home] again, and there I found my wife in a great passion with her mayds. I upstairs to set some things in order in our chamber and wardrobe, and so to dinner upon a good dish of stewed beef, then up again about my business.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1663. Thence, meeting with Creed, walked with him to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence by coach took up Mrs. Hunt, and carried her towards my house, and we light at the 'Change [Map], and sent her to my house, Creed and I to the Coffeehouse, and then to the 'Change [Map], and so home, and carried a barrel of oysters with us, and so to dinner, and after a good dinner left Mrs. Hunt and my wife making marmalett of quinces, and Creed and I to the perriwigg makers, but it being dark concluded of nothing, and so Creed went away, and I with Sir W. Pen (age 42), who spied me in the street, in his coach home.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and there discoursed with many people, and I hope to settle again to my business and revive my report of following of business, which by my being taken off for a while by sickness and, laying out of money has slackened for a little while.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. Thence, he being gone, to my office and there dispatched many people, and at noon to the 'Change [Map] to the coffee-house, and among other things heard Sir John Cutler say, that of his owne experience in time of thunder, so many barrels of beer as have a piece of iron laid upon them will not be soured, and the others will.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1663. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and being put off a meeting with T. Trice, he not coming, I home to dinner, and after dinner by coach with my wife to my periwigg maker's for my second periwigg, but it is not done, and so, calling at a place or two, home, and there to my office, and there taught my wife a new lesson in arithmetique and so sent her home, and I to several businesses; and so home to supper and to bed, being mightily troubled with a cold in my stomach and head, with a great pain by coughing.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat till noon, and then to the Exchange [Map], where spoke with several and had my head casting about how to get a penny and I hope I shall, and then home, and there Mr. Moore by appointment dined with me, and after dinner all the afternoon till night drawing a bond and release against to-morrow for T. Trice, and I to come to a conclusion in which I proceed with great fear and jealousy, knowing him to be a rogue and one that I fear has at this time got too great a hank [hold] over me by the neglect of my lawyers. But among other things I am come to an end with Mr. Moore for a £32, a good while lying in my hand of my Lord Privy Seal's (age 57) which he for the odd £7 do give me a bond to secure me against, and so I got £25 clear.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1663. To the 'Change [Map] and did several businesses there and so home with Mr. Moore to dinner, my wife having dined, with Mr. Hollyard (age 54) with her to-day, he being come to advise her about her hollow sore place.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1663. Up and to my office, busy all the morning with Commissioner Pett (age 53); at noon I to the Exchange [Map], and meeting Shales, he and I to the Coffee-house and there talked of our victualling matters, which I fear will come to little. However I will go on and carry it as far as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1663. Thence to my Lord's lodgings thinking to find Mr. Moore, in order to the sending away my letter of reproof to my Lord, but I do not find him, but contrary do find my Lord come to Court, which I am glad to hear and should be more glad to hear that he do follow his business that I may not have occasion to venture upon his good nature by such a provocation as my letter will be to him. So by coach home, to the Exchange [Map], where I talked about several businesses with several people, and so home to dinner with my wife, and then in the afternoon to my office, and there late, and in the evening Mr. Hollyard (age 54) came, and he and I about our great work to look upon my wife's malady, which he did, and it seems her great conflux of humours, heretofore that did use to swell there, did in breaking leave a hollow which has since gone in further and further; till now it is near three inches deep, but as God will have it do not run into the bodyward, but keeps to the outside of the skin, and so he must be forced to cut it open all along, and which my heart I doubt will not serve for me to see done, and yet she will not have any body else to see it done, no, not her own mayds, and so I must do it, poor wretch, for her. To-morrow night he is to do it. He being gone, I to my office again a little while, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1663. So we broke up, and I to the office, where we sat all the forenoon doing several businesses, and at noon I to the 'Change [Map] where Mr. Moore came to me, and by and by Tom Trice and my uncle Wight, and so we out to a taverne (the New Exchange taverne over against the 'Change [Map] where I never was before, and I found my old playfellow Ben Stanley master of it), and thence to a scrivener to draw up a bond, and to another tavern (the King's Head) we went, and calling on my cozen Angier at the India House there we eat a bit of pork from a cookes together, and after dinner did seal the bond, and I did take up the old bond of my uncle's to my aunt, and here T. Trice before them do own all matters in difference between us is clear as to this business, and that he will in six days give me it under the hand of his attorney that there is no judgment against the bond that may give me any future trouble, and also a copy of their letters of his Administration to Godfrey, as much of it as concerns me to have.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1663. Up, and to the office, where (Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]) the rest of us met, and rode at noon. So I to the 'Change [Map], where little business, and so home to dinner, and being at dinner Mr. Creed in and dined with us, and after dinner Mr. Gentleman, my Jane's father, to see us and her. And after a little stay with them, I was sent for by Sir G. Carteret (age 53) by agreement, and so left them, and to him and with him by coach to my Lord Treasurer (age 56), to discourse with him about Mr. Gauden's having of money, and to offer to him whether it would not be necessary, Mr. Gauden's credit being so low as it is, to take security of him if he demands any great sum, such as £20,000, which now ought to be paid him upon his next year's declaration. Which is a sad thing, that being reduced to this by us, we should be the first to doubt his credit; but so it is. However, it will be managed with great tenderness to him. My Lord Treasurer (age 56) we found in his bed-chamber, being laid up of the goute. I find him a very ready man, and certainly a brave servant to the King (age 33): he spoke so quick and sensibly of the King's charge. Nothing displeased me in him but his long nails, which he lets grow upon a pretty thick white short hand, that it troubled me to see them.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1663. By and by to the Exchange [Map], and there met by agreement Mr. Howe, and took him with a barrel of oysters home to dinner, where we were very merry, and indeed I observe him to be a very hopeful young man, but only a little conceited.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1663. Back to the Coffee-house, and then to the 'Change [Map], where Sir W. Rider and I did bid 15 per cent., and nobody will take it under 20 per cent., and the lowest was 15 per cent. premium, and 15 more to be abated in case of losse, which we did not think fit without order to give, and so we parted, and I home to a speedy, though too good a dinner to eat alone, viz., a good goose and a rare piece of roast beef.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], where everybody joyed me in our hemp ship's coming safe, and it seems one man, Middleburgh, did give 20 per cent. in gold last night, three or four minutes before the newes came of her being safe.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. Back by coach to the Exchange [Map], there spoke with Sir W. Rider about insuring, and spoke with several other persons about business, and shall become pretty well known quickly.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. I left him in good humour, and I to White Hall, to the Duke of York (age 30) and Mr. Coventry (age 35), and there advised about insuring the hempe ship at 12 per cent., notwithstanding her being come to Newcastle [Map], and I do hope that in all my three places which are now my hopes and supports I may not now fear any thing, but with care, which through the Lord's blessing I will never more neglect, I don't doubt but to keep myself up with them all. For in the Duke (age 30), and Mr. Coventry (age 35), my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and Sir G. Carteret (age 53) I place my greatest hopes, and it pleased me yesterday that Mr. Coventry (age 35) in the coach (he carrying me to the Exchange [Map] at noon from the office) did, speaking of Sir W. Batten (age 62), say that though there was a difference between them, yet he would embrace any good motion of Sir W. Batten (age 62) to the King's advantage as well as of Mr. Pepys' or any friend he had. And when I talked that I would go about doing something of the Controller's work when I had time, and that I thought the Controller would not take it ill, he wittily replied that there was nothing in the world so hateful as a dog in the manger.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Nov 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon I to the 'Change [Map], and there met with Mr. Cutler the merchant, who would needs have me home to his house by the Dutch Church, and there in an old but good house, with his wife and mother, a couple of plain old women, I dined a good plain dinner, and his discourse after dinner with me upon matters of the navy victualling very good and worth my hearing, and so home to my office in the afternoon with my mind full of business, and there at it late, and so home to supper to my poor wife, and to bed, myself being in a little pain.... by a stroke.... in pulling up my breeches yesterday over eagerly, but I will lay nothing to it till I see whether it will cease of itself or no.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1663. Up and to my office, where busy with great delight all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner with my poor wife, and with great content to my office again, and there hard at work upon stating the account of the freights due to the King (age 33) from the East India Company till late at night, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1663. Up and at the office sat all the morning, and at noon by Mr. Coventry's (age 35) coach to the 'Change [Map], and after a little while there where I met with Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who tells me for good newes that my Lord Sandwich (age 38) is resolved to go no more to Chelsy, and told me he believed that I had been giving my Lord some counsel, which I neither denied nor affirmed, but seemed glad with him that he went thither no more, and so I home to dinner, and thence abroad to Paul's Church Yard, and there looked upon the second part of Hudibras, which I buy not, but borrow to read, to see if it be as good as the first, which the world cry so mightily up, though it hath not a good liking in me, though I had tried by twice or three times reading to bring myself to think it witty.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. From him and Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I back again and 'light at the 'Change [Map], and to the Coffee-house, where I heard the best story of a cheate intended by a Master of a ship, who had borrowed twice his money upon the bottomary, and as much more insured upon his ship and goods as they were worth, and then would have cast her away upon the coast of France, and there left her, refusing any pilott which was offered him; and so the Governor of the place took her and sent her over hither to find an owner, and so the ship is come safe, and goods and all; they all worth £500, and he had one way or other taken £3000. The cause is to be tried to-morrow at Guildhall [Map], where I intend to be.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1663. This day Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did tell us at the table, that the Navy (excepting what is due to the Yards upon the quarter now going on, and what few bills he hath not heard of) is quite out of debt; which is extraordinary good newes, and upon the 'Change [Map] to hear how our creditt goes as good as any merchant's upon the 'Change [Map] is a joyfull thing to consider, which God continue! I am sure the King (age 33) will have the benefit of it, as well as we some peace and creditt.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where all the forenoon, and then (by Mr. Coventry's (age 35) coach) to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, very pleasant with my poor wife. Somebody from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], I know not who, has this day sent me a Runlett of Tent.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1663. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and among other businesses did discourse with Captain Taylor, and I think I shall safely get £20 by his ship's freight at present, besides what it may be I may get hereafter.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1663. To the Exchange [Map], where I had sent Luellin word I would come to him, and thence brought him home to dinner with me. He tells me that W. Symon's wife is dead, for which I am sorry, she being a good woman, and tells me an odde story of her saying before her death, being in good sense, that there stood her uncle Scobell.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1663. At noon to the 'Change [Map] and there met with Mr. Wood by design, and got out of him to my advantage a condition which I shall make good use of against Sir W. Batten (age 62) (vide my book of Memorandums touching the contract of masts of Sir W. Warren about which I have had so much trouble).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1663. This day I hear for certain that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) is turned Papist, which the Queene (age 54) for all do not much like, thinking that she do it not for conscience sake. I heard to-day of a great fray lately between Sir H. Finch's (age 41) coachman, who struck with his whip a coachman of the King's to the losse of one of his eyes; at which the people of the Exchange [Map] seeming to laugh and make sport with some words of contempt to him, my Lord Chamberlin (age 61) did come from the King (age 33) to shut up the 'Change [Map], and by the help of a justice, did it; but upon petition to the King (age 33) it was opened again.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1663. Up betimes and my wife; and being in as mourning a dress as we could, at present, without cost, put ourselves into, we by Sir W. Pen's (age 42) coach to Mrs. Turner's (age 40), at Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, where I find my Lord's coach and six horses. We staid till almost eleven o'clock, and much company came, and anon, the corps being put into the hearse, and the scutcheons set upon it, we all took coach, and I and my wife and Auditor Beale in my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) coach, and went next to Mrs. Turner's (age 40) mourning coach, and so through all the City and Shoreditch, I believe about twenty coaches, and four or five with six and four horses. Being come thither, I made up to the mourners, and bidding them a good journey, I took leave and back again, and setting my wife into a hackney out of Bishopsgate Street, I sent her home, and I to the 'Change [Map] and Auditor Beale about his business.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1663. Did much business at the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, and then to my office, and there late doing business also to my great content to see God bless me in my place and opening honest ways, I hope to get a little money to lay up and yet to live handsomely.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where all the morning sitting, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and there I found and brought home Mr. Pierse the surgeon to dinner. Where I found also Mr. Luellin and Mount, and merry at dinner, but their discourse so free.... that I was weary of them. But after dinner Luellin took me up to my chamber to give me £50 for the service I did him, though not so great as he expected and I intended. But I told him that I would not sell my liberty to any man. If he would give me any thing by another's hand I would endeavour to deserve it, but I will never give him himself thanks for it, not acknowledging the receiving of any, which he told me was reasonable. I did also tell him that neither this nor any thing should make me to do any thing that should not be for the King's service besides.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1663. So home to dinner, and after being upon the 'Change [Map] awhile I dined with my wife, who took physique to-day, and so to my office, and there all the afternoon till late at night about office business, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1663. At noon we broke up and I to the 'Change [Map] awhile, and so home again to dinner, my head aching mightily with being overcharged with business. We had to dinner, my wife and I, a fine turkey and a mince pie, and dined in state, poor wretch, she and I, and have thus kept our Christmas together all alone almost, having not once been out, but to-morrow my vowes are all out as to plays and wine, but I hope I shall not be long before I come to new ones, so much good, and God's blessing, I find to have attended them.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1664. From the 'Change [Map] I brought him home and dined with us, and after dinner I took my wife out, for I do find that I am not able to conquer myself as to going to plays till I come to some new vowe concerning it, and that I am now come, that is to say, that I will not see above one in a month at any of the publique theatres till the sum of 50s. be spent, and then none before New Year's Day next, unless that I do become worth £1000 sooner than then, and then am free to come to some other terms, and so leaving him in Lombard Street [Map] I took her to the King's house [Map], and there met Mr. Nicholson, my old colleague, and saw "The Usurper", which is no good play, though better than what I saw yesterday. However, we rose unsatisfied, and took coach and home, and I to the office late writing letters, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, and there sitting all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], in my going met with Luellin and told him how I had received a letter and bill for £50 from Mr. Deering, and delivered it to him, which he told me he would receive for me. To which I consented, though professed not to desire it if he do not consider himself sufficiently able by the service I have done, and that it is rather my desire to have nothing till he be further sensible of my service.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1664. At noon home and to the 'Change [Map], where I met with Luellin, who went off with me and parted to meet again at the Coffeehouse, but missed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], but did little, and so home to dinner with my poor wife, and after dinner read a lecture to her in Geography, which she takes very prettily and with great pleasure to her and me to teach her, and so to the office again, where as busy as ever in my life, one thing after another, and answering people's business, particularly drawing up things about Mr. Wood's masts, which I expect to have a quarrel about with Sir W. Batten (age 63) before it be ended, but I care not.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1664. Upon the 'Change [Map] a great talke there was of one Mr. Tryan, an old man, a merchant in Lyme-Streete [Map], robbed last night (his man and mayde being gone out after he was a-bed), and gagged and robbed of £1050 in money and about £4000 in jewells, which he had in his house as security for money. It is believed by many circumstances that his man is guilty of confederacy, by their ready going to his secret till in his desk, wherein the key of his cash-chest lay.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and there long, and from thence by appointment took Luellin, Mount, and W. Symons, and Mr. Pierce, the chirurgeon, home to dinner with me and were merry. But, Lord! to hear how W. Symons do commend and look sadly and then talk bawdily and merrily, though his wife was dead but the other day, would make a dogg laugh.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map] awhile, and so home, getting things against dinner ready, and anon comes my uncle Wight (age 62) and my aunt, with their cozens Mary and Robert, and by chance my uncle Thomas Pepys. We had a good dinner, the chief dish a swan roasted, and that excellent meate. At, dinner and all day very merry.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1664. So to the 'Change [Map], and thence with Sir W. Rider to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] to dinner, and then home and to my office till night, and then with Mr. Bland to Sir T. Viner's (age 75) about pieces of eight for Sir J. Lawson (age 49), and so back to my office, and there late upon business, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and there met my uncle Wight (age 62), who was very kind to me, and would have had me home with him, and so kind that I begin to wonder and think something of it of good to me.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1664. At noon I to the 'Change [Map] about some pieces of eight for Sir J. Lawson (age 49). There I hear that Collonell Turner (age 55) is found guilty of felony at the Sessions in Mr. Tryan's business, which will save his life.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1664. Thence home by coach to the 'Change [Map], after having been at the Coffee-house, where I hear Turner (age 55) is found guilty of felony and burglary; and strange stories of his confidence at the barr, but yet great indiscretion in his argueing. All desirous of his being hanged.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1664. Up, without any kindness to my wife, and so to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon I to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Mr. Cutler's with Sir W. Rider to dinner, and after dinner with him to the Old James upon our reference of Mr. Bland's, and, having sat there upon the business half an hour, broke up, and I home and there found Madame Turner and her sister Dike come to see us, and staid chatting till night, and so away, and I to my office till very late, and my eyes began to fail me, and be in pain which I never felt to now-a-days, which I impute to sitting up late writing and reading by candle-light.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. So to the 'Change [Map] and walked home, thence with Sir Richard Ford (age 50), who told me that Turner (age 55) is to be hanged to-morrow, and with what impudence he hath carried out his trial; but that last night, when he brought him newes of his death, he began to be sober and shed some tears, and he hopes will die a penitent; he having already confessed all the thing, but says it was partly done for a joke, and partly to get an occasion of obliging the old man by his care in getting him his things again, he having some hopes of being the better by him in his estate at his death.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1664. Up, and after sending my wife to my aunt Wight's (age 45) to get a place to see Turner (age 55) hanged, I to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon going to the 'Change [Map]; and seeing people flock in the City, I enquired, and found that Turner (age 55) was not yet hanged. And so I went among them to Leadenhall Street [Map], at the end of Lyme Street [Map], near where the robbery was done; and to St. Mary Axe, where he lived. And there I got for a shilling to stand upon the wheel of a cart, in great pain, above an houre before the execution was done; he delaying the time by long discourses and prayers one after another, in hopes of a reprieve; but none came, and at last was flung off the ladder in his cloake. A comely-looked man he was, and kept his countenance to the end: I was sorry to see him. It was believed there were at least 12 or 14,000 people in the street.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1664. Up and by coach to Whitehall to my Lord's lodgings, and seeing that knowing that I was in the house, my Lord did not nevertheless send for me up, I did go to the Duke's lodgings, and there staid while he was making ready, in which time my Lord Sandwich (age 38) came, and so all into his closet and did our common business, and so broke up, and I homeward by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 63), and staid at Warwick Lane and there called upon Mr. Commander and did give him my last will and testament to write over in form, and so to the 'Change [Map], where I did several businesses.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1664. To 'Change [Map] and there did much business, so home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], after being at the Coffee-house, where I sat by Tom Killigrew (age 51), who told us of a fire last night in my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) lodging, where she bid £40 for one to adventure the fetching of a cabinet out, which at last was got to be done; and the fire at last quenched without doing much wrong.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and after doing much business, home, taking Commissioner Pett (age 53) with me, and all alone dined together. He told me many stories of the yard, but I do know him so well, and had his character given me this morning by Hempson, as well as my own too of him before, that I shall know how to value any thing he says either of friendship or other business. He was mighty serious with me in discourse about the consequence of Sir W. Petty's (age 40) boat, as the most dangerous thing in the world, if it should be practised by endangering our losse of the command of the seas and our trade, while the Turkes and others shall get the use of them, which, without doubt, by bearing more sayle will go faster than any other ships, and, not being of burden, our merchants cannot have the use of them and so will be at the mercy of their enemies. So that I perceive he is afeard that the honour of his trade will down, though (which is a truth) he pretends this consideration to hinder the growth of this invention.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning sitting, and at noon upon several things to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Sir G. Carteret's (age 54) to dinner of my own accord, and after dinner with Mr. Wayth down to Deptford, Kent [Map] doing several businesses, and by land back again, it being very cold, the boat meeting me after my staying a while for him at an alehouse by Redriffe [Map] stairs.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1664. Thence with Alderman Maynell by his coach to the 'Change [Map], and there with several people busy, and so home to dinner, and took my wife out immediately to the King's Theatre [Map], it being a new month, and once a month I may go, and there saw "The Indian Queen" acted; which indeed is a most pleasant show, and beyond my expectation; the play good, but spoiled with the ryme, which breaks the sense. But above my expectation most, the eldest Marshall did do her part most excellently well as I ever heard woman in my life; but her voice not so sweet as Ianthe's (age 27); but, however, we came home mightily contented. Here we met Mr. Pickering (age 46) and his mistress, Mrs. Doll Wilde (age 31); he tells me that the business runs high between the Chancellor (age 54) and my Lord Bristoll (age 51) against the Parliament; and that my Lord Lauderdale (age 47) and Cooper (age 42) open high against the Chancellor (age 54); which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1664. Then to the 'Change [Map] again, and thence off to the Sun Taverne with Sir W. Warren, and with him discoursed long, and had good advice, and hints from him, and among other things he did give me a payre of gloves for my wife wrapt up in paper, which I would not open, feeling it hard; but did tell him that my wife should thank him, and so went on in discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1664. At noon by coach to the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Coventry (age 36), thence to the Coffee-house with Captain Cocke (age 47), who discoursed well of the good effects in some kind of a Dutch warr and conquest (which I did not consider before, but the contrary) that is, that the trade of the world is too little for us two, therefore one must down: 2ndly, that though our merchants will not be the better husbands by all this, yet our wool will bear a better price by vaunting of our cloths, and by that our tenants will be better able to pay rents, and our lands will be more worth, and all our owne manufactures, which now the Dutch outvie us in; that he thinks the Dutch are not in so good a condition as heretofore because of want of men always, and now from the warrs against the Turke more than ever.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1664. Up, and after a long discourse with my cozen Thomas Pepys (age 53), the executor, I with my wife by coach to Holborn, where I 'light, and she to her father's, I to the Temple [Map] and several places, and so to the 'Change [Map], where much business, and then home to dinner alone; and so to the Mitre Taverne by appointment (and there met by chance with W. Howe come to buy wine for my Lord against his going down to Hinchingbroke [Map], and I private with him a great while discoursing of my Lord's strangeness to me; but he answers that I have no reason to think any such thing, but that my Lord is only in general a more reserved man than he was before) to meet Sir W. Rider and Mr. Clerke (age 41), and there after much ado made an end, giving Mr. Custos £202 against Mr. Bland, which I endeavoured to bring down but could not, and think it is well enough ended for Mr. Bland for all that.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1664. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and so at noon to the 'Change [Map], where I met Mr. Coventry (age 36), the first time I ever saw him there, and after a little talke with him and other merchants, I up and down about several businesses, and so home, whither came one Father Fogourdy, an Irish priest, of my wife's and her mother's acquaintance in France, a sober, discreet person, but one that I would not have converse with my wife for fear of meddling with her religion, but I like the man well.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map] by coach, and after some business done, home to dinner, and thence to Guildhall [Map], thinking to have heard some pleading, but there were no Courts, and so to Cade's, the stationer, and there did look upon some pictures which he promised to give me the buying of, but I found he would have played the Jacke with me, but at last he did proffer me what I expected, and I have laid aside £10 or £12 worth, and will think of it, but I am loth to lay out so much money upon them.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Feb 1664. At noon by coach with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to the 'Change [Map], where busy with several people. Great talke of the Dutch proclaiming themselves in India, Lords of the Southern Seas, and deny traffick there to all ships but their owne, upon pain of confiscation; which makes our merchants mad. Great doubt of two ships of ours, the "Greyhound" and another, very rich, coming from the Streights, for fear of the Turkes. Matters are made up between the Pope and the King of France (age 25); so that now all the doubt is, what the French will do with their armies.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1664. All the morning thinking how to behave myself in the business, and at noon to the Coffee-house; thence by his appointment met him upon the 'Change [Map], and with him back to the Coffee-house, where with great seriousness and strangeness on both sides he said his part and I mine, he sometimes owning my favour and assistance, yet endeavouring to lessen it, as that the success of his business was not wholly or very much to be imputed to that assistance: I to allege the contrary, and plainly to tell him that from the beginning I never had it in my mind to do him all that kindnesse for nothing, but he gaining 5 or £600, I did expect a share of it, at least a real and not a complimentary acknowledgment of it. In fine I said nothing all the while that I need fear he can do me more hurt with them than before I spoke them. The most I told him was after we were come to a peace, which he asked me whether he should answer the Board's letter or no. I told him he might forbear it a while and no more. Then he asked how the letter could be signed by them without their much enquiry. I told him it was as I worded it and nothing at all else of any moment, whether my words be ever hereafter spoken of again or no. So that I have the same neither better nor worse force over him that I had before, if he should not do his part. And the peace between us was this: Says he after all, well, says he, I know you will expect, since there must be some condescension, that it do become me to begin it, and therefore, says he, I do propose (just like the interstice between the death of the old and the coming in of the present king, all the time is swallowed up as if it had never been) so our breach of friendship may be as if it had never been, that I should lay aside all misapprehensions of him or his first letter, and that he would reckon himself obliged to show the same ingenuous acknowledgment of my love and service to him as at the beginning he ought to have done, before by my first letter I did (as he well observed) put him out of a capacity of doing it, without seeming to do it servilely, and so it rests, and I shall expect how he will deal with me.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1664. Thence to his closet and there did our business, and thence Mr. Coventry (age 36) and I down to his chamber and spent a little time, and so parted, and I took my wife homeward, I stopping at the Coffee-house, and thence a while to the 'Change [Map], where great newes of the arrivall of two rich ships, the Greyhound (age 30) and another, which they were mightily afeard of, and great insurance given, and so home to dinner, and after an houre with my wife at her globes, I to the office, where very busy till 11 at night, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map] a little and thence brought Mr. Barrow to dinner with me, where I had a haunch of venison roasted, given me yesterday, and so had a pretty dinner, full of discourse of his business, wherein the poor man is mightily troubled, and I pity him in it, but hope to get him some ease.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1664. Thence I to White Hall and there walked up and down talking with Mr. Pierce, who tells me of the King's giving of my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 34) two leases which belong indeed to the Queene (age 54), worth £20,000 to him; and how people do talk of it, and other things of that nature which I am sorry to hear. He and I walked round the Park with great pleasure, and back again, and finding no time to speak with my Lord of Albemarle (age 55), I walked to the 'Change [Map] and there met my wife at our pretty Doll's, and so took her home, and Creed also whom I met there, and sent her hose, while Creed and I staid on the 'Change [Map], and by and by home and dined, where I found an excellent mastiffe, his name Towser, sent me by a chyrurgeon.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1664. By and by, the 'Change [Map] filling, I did many businesses, and about 2 o'clock went off with my uncle Wight (age 62) to his house, thence by appointment we took our wives (they by coach with Mr. Mawes) and we on foot to Mr. Jaggard, a salter, in Thames Street, for whom I did a courtesy among the poor victuallers, his wife, whom long ago I had seen, being daughter to old Day, my uncle Wight's (age 62) master, is a very plain woman, but pretty children they have. They live methought at first in but a plain way, but afterward I saw their dinner, all fish, brought in very neatly, but the company being but bad I had no great pleasure in it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1664. Up in good order in my head again and shaved myself, and then to the office, whither Mr. Cutler came, and walked and talked with me a great while; and then to the 'Change [Map] together; and it being early, did tell me several excellent examples of men raised upon the 'Change [Map] by their great diligence and saving; as also his owne fortune, and how credit grew upon him; that when he was not really worth £1100, he had credit for £100,000 of Sir W. Rider how he rose; and others.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and thence home to dinner, after dinner by a gaily down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where with Mr. Falconer, and then at the other yard doing some business to my content, and so walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], it being a very fine evening and brought right home with me by water, and so to my office, where late doing business, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. Thence, meeting Mr. Moore, and to the Exchange [Map] and there found my wife at pretty Doll's, and thence by coach set her at my uncle Wight's (age 62), to go with my aunt to market once more against Lent, and I to the Coffee-house, and thence to the 'Change [Map], my chief business being to enquire about the manner of other countries keeping of their masts wet or dry, and got good advice about it, and so home, and alone ate a bad, cold dinner, my people being at their washing all day, and so to the office and all the afternoon upon my letter to Mr. Coventry (age 36) about keeping of masts, and ended it very well at night and wrote it fair over.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. Thence to take a turn in St. James's Park, and meeting with Anth. Joyce walked with him a turn in the Pell Mell [Map] and so parted, he St. James's ward and I out to Whitehall ward, and so to a picture-sellers by the Half Moone [Map] in the street over against the Exchange [Map], and there looked over the maps of several cities and did buy two books of cities stitched together cost me 9s. 6d., and when I came home thought of my vowe, and paid 5s. into my poor box for it, hoping in God that I shall forfeit no more in that kind.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1664. Up, it being Shrove Tuesday, and at the office sat all the morning, at noon to the 'Change [Map] and there met with Sir W. Rider, and of a sudden knowing what I had at home, brought him and Mr. Cutler and Mr. Cooke, clerk to Mr. Secretary Morrice (age 61), a sober and pleasant man, and one that I knew heretofore, when he was my Lord 's secretary at Dunkirke. I made much of them and had a pretty dinner for a sudden. We talked very pleasantly, and they many good discourses of their travels abroad.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1664. Thence by water to the Coffee-house, and there sat with Alderman Barker talking of hempe and the trade, and thence to the 'Change [Map] a little, and so home and dined with my wife, and then to the office till the evening, and then walked a while merrily with my wife in the garden, and so she gone, I to work again till late, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. Thence I to the 'Change [Map], and thence to a Coffee-house with Sir W. Warren, and did talk much about his and Wood's business, and thence homewards, and in my way did stay to look upon a fire in an Inneyard in Lombard Street [Map]. But, Lord! how the mercers and merchants who had Ware, Hertfordshire [Map]houses there did carry away their cloths and silks.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], and after much business and meeting my uncle Wight (age 62), who told me how Mr. Maes had like to have been trapanned yesterday, but was forced to run for it; so with Creed and Mr. Hunt home to dinner, and after a good and pleasant dinner, Mr. Hunt parted, and I took Mr. Creed and my wife and down to Deptford, Kent [Map], it being most pleasant weather, and there till night discoursing with the officers there about several things, and so walked home by moonshine, it being mighty pleasant, and so home, and I to my office, where late about getting myself a thorough understanding in the business of masts, and so home to bed, my left eye being mightily troubled with rheum.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1664. Thence to my Lord's, and took up my wife, whom my Lady hath received with her old good nature and kindnesse, and so homewards, and she home, I 'lighting by the way, and upon the 'Change [Map] met my uncle Wight (age 62) and told him my discourse this afternoon with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) in Maes' business, but much to his discomfort, and after a dish of coffee home, and at my office a good while with Sir W. Warren talking with great pleasure of many businesses, and then home to supper, my wife and I had a good fowle to supper, and then I to the office again and so home, my mind in great ease to think of our coming to so good a respect with my Lord again, and my Lady, and that my Lady do so much cry up my father's usage of her children, and the goodness of the ayre there, found in the young ladies' faces at their return thence, as she says, as also my being put into the commission of the Fishery1, for which I must give my Lord thanks, and so home to bed, having a great cold in my head and throat tonight from my late cutting my hair so close to my head, but I hope it will be soon gone again.

Note 1. There had been recently established, under the Great Seal of England, a Corporation for the Royal Fishing, of which the Duke of York (age 30) was Governor, Lord Craven Deputy-Governor, and the Lord Mayor and Chamberlain of London, for the time being, Treasurers, in which body was vested the sole power of licensing lotteries ("The Newes", October 6th, 1664). The original charter (dated April 8th, 1664), incorporating James, Duke of York (age 30), and thirty-six assistants as Governor and Company of the Royal Fishing of Great Britain and Ireland, is among the State Papers. The duke was to be Governor till February 26th, 1665.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1664. We broke up and I to the 'Change [Map], where with several people and my uncle Wight (age 62) to drink a dish of coffee, and so home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon, my eye and my throat being very bad, and my cold increasing so as I could not speak almost at all at night. So at night home to supper, that is a posset, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1664. Up betimes, and the Duke (age 30) being gone abroad to-day, as we heard by a messenger, I spent the morning at my office writing fair my yesterday's work till almost 2 o'clock (only Sir G. Carteret (age 54) coming I went down a little way by water towards Deptford, Kent [Map], but having more mind to have my business done I pretended business at the 'Change [Map], and so went into another boat), and then, eating a bit, my wife and I by coach to the Duke's house, where we saw "The Unfortunate Lovers" but I know not whether I am grown more curious than I was or no, but I was not much pleased with it, though I know not where to lay the fault, unless it was that the house was very empty, by reason of a new play at the other house. Yet here was my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23) in a box, and it was pleasant to hear an ordinary lady hard by us, that it seems did not know her before, say, being told who she was, that "she was well enough".

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1664. I to the office, where we sat all the morning, doing not much business through the multitude of counsellors, one hindering another. It was Mr. Coventry's (age 36) own saying to me in his coach going to the 'Change [Map], but I wonder that he did give me no thanks for my letter last night, but I believe he did only forget it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning doing business, and at noon to the 'Change [Map] and there very busy, and so home to dinner with my wife, to a good hog's harslet1, a piece of meat I love, but have not eat of I think these seven years, and after dinner abroad by coach set her at Mrs. Hunt's and I to White Hall, and at the Privy Seale I enquired, and found the Bill come for the Corporation of the Royall Fishery; whereof the Duke of Yorke (age 30) is made present Governor, and several other very great persons, to the number of thirty-two, made his assistants for their lives: whereof, by my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) favour, I am one; and take it not only as a matter of honour, but that, that may come to be of profit to me, and so with great content went and called my wife, and so home and to the office, where busy late, and so home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. Harslet or haslet, the entrails of an animal, especially of a hog, as the heart, liver, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1664. Thence home, and by and by to the Coffee-house, and thence to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, and after a little chat with my wife to the office, where all the afternoon till very late at the office busy, and so home to supper and to bed, hoping in God that my diligence, as it is really very useful for the King (age 33), so it will end in profit to myself. In the meantime I have good content in mind to see myself improve every day in knowledge and being known.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, and then down to Deptford, Kent [Map], where busy a while, and then walking home it fell hard a raining. So at Halfway house put in, and there meeting Mr. Stacy with some company of pretty women, I took him aside to a room by ourselves, and there talked with him about the several sorts of tarrs, and so by and by parted, and I walked home and there late at the office, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1664. So to the 'Change [Map], and thence home, where my wife and I fell out about my not being willing to have her have her gowne laced, but would lay out the same money and more on a plain new one. At this she flounced away in a manner I never saw her, nor which I could ever endure. So I away to the office, though she had dressed herself to go see my Lady Sandwich (age 39). She by and by in a rage follows me, and coming to me tells me in spitefull manner like a vixen and with a look full of rancour that she would go buy a new one and lace it and make me pay for it, and then let me burn it if I would after she had done it, and so went away in a fury. This vexed me cruelly, but being very busy I had, not hand to give myself up to consult what to do in it, but anon, I suppose after she saw that I did not follow her, she came again to the office, where I made her stay, being busy with another, half an houre, and her stomach coming down we were presently friends, and so after my business being over at the office we out and by coach to my Lady Sandwich's (age 39), with whom I left my wife, and I to White Hall, where I met Mr. Delsety, and after an hour's discourse with him met with nobody to do other business with, but back again to my Lady, and after half an hour's discourse with her to my brother's (age 30), who I find in the same or worse condition. The doctors give him over and so do all that see him. He talks no sense two, words together now; and I confess it made me weepe to see that he should not be able, when I asked him, to say who I was. I went to Mrs. Turner's (age 41), and by her discourse with my brother's Doctor, Mr. Powell, I find that she is full now of the disease which my brother (age 30) is troubled with, and talks of it mightily, which I am sorry for, there being other company, but methinks it should be for her honour to forbear talking of it, the shame of this very thing I confess troubles me as much as anything. Back to my brother's (age 30) and took my wife, and carried her to my uncle Fenner's and there had much private discourse with him. He tells me of the Doctor's thoughts of my brother's little hopes of recovery, and from that to tell me his thoughts long of my brother's bad husbandry, and from that to say that he believes he owes a great deal of money, as to my cozen Scott I know not how much, and Dr. Thos. Pepys £30, but that the Doctor confesses that he is paid £20 of it, and what with that and what he owes my father and me I doubt he is in a very sad condition, that if he lives he will not be able to show his head, which will be a very great shame to me.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1664. Thence home and trimmed myself, and then to the 'Change [Map], and told my uncle Wight (age 62) of my brother's (deceased) death, and so by coach to my cozen Turner's and there dined very well, but my wife.... in great pain we were forced to rise in some disorder, and in Mrs. Turner's (age 41) coach carried her home and put her to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1664. Up and to my brother's (deceased), where all the morning doing business against to-morrow, and so to my cozen Stradwicke's about the same business, and to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, where my wife in bed sick still, but not so bad as yesterday. I dined by her, and so to the office, where we sat this afternoon, having changed this day our sittings from morning to afternoons, because of the Parliament which returned yesterday; but was adjourned till Monday next; upon pretence that many of the members were said to be upon the road; and also the King (age 33) had other affairs, and so desired them to adjourn till then. But the truth is, the King (age 33) is offended at my Lord of Bristol (age 51), as they say, whom he hath found to have been all this while (pretending a desire of leave to go into France, and to have all the difference between him and the Chancellor (age 55) made up,) endeavouring to make factions in both Houses to the Chancellor (age 55). So the King (age 33) did this to keep the Houses from meeting; and in the meanwhile sent a guard and a herald last night to have taken him at Wimbleton, where he was in the morning, but could not find him: at which the King (age 33) was and is still mightily concerned, and runs up and down to and from the Chancellor's (age 55) like a boy: and it seems would make Digby's articles against the Chancellor (age 55) to be treasonable reflections against his Majesty. So that the King (age 33) is very high, as they say; and God knows what will follow upon it!

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1664. So to the office, where very busy all the morning, and so to the 'Change [Map], and off hence with Sir W. Rider to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], and there dined very well: and good discourse among the old men of Islands now and then rising and falling again in the Sea, and that there is many dangers of grounds and rocks that come just up to the edge almost of the sea, that is never discovered and ships perish without the world's knowing the reason of it. Among other things, they observed, that there are but two seamen in the Parliament house, viz., Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 42), and not above twenty or thirty merchants; which is a strange thing in an island, and no wonder that things of trade go no better nor are better understood.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1664. That being done Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and I sat all the morning, and then I to the 'Change [Map], and there got away by pretence of business with my uncle Wight (age 62) to put off Creed, whom I had invited to dinner, and so home, and there found Madam Turner (age 41), her daughter The., Joyce Norton, my father and Mr. Honywood, and by and by come my uncle Wight (age 62) and aunt. This being my solemn feast for my cutting of the stone, it being now, blessed be God! this day six years since the time; and I bless God I do in all respects find myself free from that disease or any signs of it, more than that upon the least cold I continue to have pain in making water, by gathering of wind and growing costive, till which be removed I am at no ease, but without that I am very well. One evil more I have, which is that upon the least squeeze almost my cods begin to swell and come to great pain, which is very strange and troublesome to me, though upon the speedy applying of a poultice it goes down again, and in two days I am well again. Dinner not being presently ready I spent some time myself and shewed them a map of Tangier left this morning at my house by Creed, cut by our order, the Commissioners, and drawn by Jonas Moore (age 47), which is very pleasant, and I purpose to have it finely set out and hung up. Mrs. Hunt coming to see my wife by chance dined here with us.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map] a great while, and had good discourse with Captain Cocke (age 47) at the Coffee-house about a Dutch warr, and it seems the King's design is by getting underhand the merchants to bring in their complaints to the Parliament, to make them in honour begin a warr, which he cannot in honour declare first, for fear they should not second him with money.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1664. So with Creed to the 'Change [Map], and there took up my wife and left him, and we two home, and I to walk in the garden with W. Howe, whom we took up, he having been to see us, he tells me how Creed has been questioned before the Council about a letter that has been met with, wherein he is mentioned by some fanatiques as a serviceable friend to them, but he says he acquitted himself well in it, but, however, something sticks against him, he says, with my Lord, at which I am not very sorry, for I believe he is a false fellow. I walked with him to Paul's, he telling me how my Lord is little at home, minds his carding and little else, takes little notice of any body; but that he do not think he is displeased, as I fear, with me, but is strange to all, which makes me the less troubled. So walked back home, and late at the office.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1664. Up and to my office, where busy till noon, and then to the 'Change [Map], where I found all the merchants concerned with the presenting their complaints to the Committee of Parliament appointed to receive them this afternoon against the Dutch.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1664. I went to the 'Change [Map], and there found most people gone, and so home to dinner, and thence to Sir W. Warren's, and with him past the whole afternoon, first looking over two ships' of Captain Taylor's and Phin. Pett's now in building, and am resolved to learn something of the art, for I find it is not hard and very usefull, and thence to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and after seeing Mr. Falconer, who is very ill, I to the yard, and there heard Mr. Pett (age 53) tell me several things of Sir W. Batten's (age 63) ill managements, and so with Sir W. Warren walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], having good discourse, and thence by water, it being now moonshine and 9 or 10 o'clock at night, and landed at Wapping, and by him and his man safely brought to my door, and so he home, having spent the day with him very well.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], but having at this discourse long afterwards with Sir Thomas Chamberlin (age 29), who tells me what I heard from others, that the complaints of most Companies were yesterday presented to the Committee of Parliament against the Dutch, excepting that of the East India, which he tells me was because they would not be said to be the first and only cause of a warr with Holland, and that it is very probable, as well as most necessary, that we fall out with that people.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1664. So away he went, and I all the morning in my office busy, and at noon home to dinner mightily oppressed with wind, and after dinner took coach and to Paternoster Row [Map], and there bought a pretty silke for a petticoate for my wife, and thence set her down at the New Exchange, and I leaving the coat at Unthanke's, went to White Hall, but the Councell meeting at Worcester House I went thither, and there delivered to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55) a paper touching some Tangier business, and thence to the 'Change [Map] for my wife, and walked to my father's, who was packing up some things for the country. I took him up and told him this business of Tom, at which the poor wretch was much troubled, and desired me that I would speak with J. Noble, and do what I could and thought fit in it without concerning him in it. So I went to Noble, and saw the bond that Cave did give and also Tom's letter that I mentioned above, and upon the whole I think some shame may come, but that it will be hard from any thing I see there to prove the child to be his.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1664. So to my office busy till noon and then to the 'Change [Map], where high talke of the Dutch's protest against our Royall Company in Guinny, and their granting letters of marke against us there, and every body expects a warr, but I hope it will not yet be so, nor that this is true.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1664. Thence a little to the 'Change [Map], and thence took him to my uncle Wight's (age 62), where dined my father, poor melancholy man, that used to be as full of life as anybody, and also my aunt's brother, Mr. Sutton, a merchant in Flanders, a very sober, fine man, and Mr. Cole and his lady; but, Lord! how I used to adore that man's talke, and now methinks he is but an ordinary man, his son a pretty boy indeed, but his nose unhappily awry. Other good company and an indifferent, and but indifferent dinner for so much company, and after dinner got a coach, very dear, it being Easter time and very foul weather, to my Lord's, and there visited my Lady, and leaving my wife there I and W. Howe to Mr. Pagett's, and there heard some musique not very good, but only one Dr. Walgrave, an Englishman bred at Rome, who plays the best upon the lute that I ever heard man.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where I met with Mr. Hill (age 34), the little merchant, with whom, I perceive, I shall contract a musical acquaintance; but I will make it as little troublesome as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1664. So I, after discoursing with the Joyces, away by coach to the 'Change [Map]; and there, among other things, do hear that a Jew hath put in a policy of four per cent. to any man, to insure him against a Dutch warr for four months; I could find in my heart to take him at this offer, but however will advise first, and to that end took coach to St. James's, but Mr. Coventry (age 36) was gone forth, and I thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where Mrs. Lane was gone forth, and so I missed of my intent to be with her this afternoon, and therefore meeting Mr. Blagrave, went home with him, and there he and his kinswoman sang, but I was not pleased with it, they singing methought very ill, or else I am grown worse to please than heretofore.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1664. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence by water to the Temple [Map], and so walked to the 'Change [Map], and there find the 'Change [Map] full of news from Guinny, some say the Dutch have sunk our ships and taken our fort, and others say we have done the same to them. But I find by our merchants that something is done, but is yet a secret among them.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Apr 1664. But I perceive the Lords are ashamed of her, and so I away calling with my wife at a place or two to inquire after a couple of mayds recommended to us, but we found both of them bad. So set my wife at my uncle Wight's (age 62) and I home, and presently to the 'Change [Map], where I did some business, and thence to my uncle's and there dined very well, and so to the office, we sat all the afternoon, but no sooner sat but news comes my Lady Sandwich (age 39) was come to see us, so I went out, and running up (her friend however before me) I perceive by my dear Lady blushing that in my dining-room she was doing something upon the pott, which I also was ashamed of, and so fell to some discourse, but without pleasure through very pity to my Lady. She tells me, and I find true since, that the House this day have voted that the King (age 33) be desired to demand right for the wrong done us by the Dutch, and that they will stand by him with their lives fortunes: which is a very high vote, and more than I expected. What the issue will be, God knows!

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1664. So home and to the 'Change [Map], where I met with Mr. Coventry (age 36), who himself is now full of talke of a Dutch warr; for it seems the Lords have concurred in the Commons' vote about it; and so the next week it will be presented to the King (age 33), insomuch that he do desire we would look about to see what stores we lack, and buy what we can.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1664. Thence up, and after a turn or two in the 'Change [Map], home to the Old Exchange [Map] by coach, where great newes and true, I saw by written letters, of strange fires seen at Amsterdam in the ayre, and not only there, but in other places thereabout. The talke of a Dutch warr is not so hot, but yet I fear it will come to it at last.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1664. Home by coach with Alderman Backewell (age 46) in his coach, whose opinion is that the Dutch will not give over the business without putting us to some trouble to set out a fleete; and then, if they see we go on well, will seek to salve up the matter. Upon the 'Change [Map] busy.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1664. Up and close at my office all the morning. To the 'Change [Map] busy at noon, and so home to dinner, and then in the afternoon at the office till night, and so late home quite tired with business, and without joy in myself otherwise than that I am by God's grace enabled to go through it and one day, hope to have benefit by it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and there, after some business, home to dinner, where Luellin and Mount came to me and dined, and after dinner my wife and I by coach to see my Lady Sandwich (age 39), where we find all the children and my Lord removed, and the house so melancholy that I thought my Lady had been dead, knowing that she was not well; but it seems she hath the meazles, and I fear the small pox, poor lady. It grieves me mightily; for it will be a sad houre to the family should she miscarry.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where, after business done, Sir W. Rider and Cutler took me to the Old James and there did give me a good dish of mackerell, the first I have seen this year, very good, and good discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1664. Lay pretty long in bed. So up and by water to St. James's, and there attended the Duke (age 30) with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and having done our work with him walked to Westminster Hall [Map], and after walking there and talking of business met Mr. Rawlinson (age 50) and by coach to the 'Change [Map], where I did some business, and home to dinner, and presently by coach to the King's Play-house to see "The Labyrinth", but, coming too soon, walked to my Lord's to hear how my Lady do, who is pretty well; at least past all fear.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1664. I in the evening to my uncle Wight's (age 62), and not finding them come home, they being gone to the Parke and the Mulberry garden, I went to the 'Change [Map], and there meeting with Mr. Hempson, whom Sir W. Batten (age 63) has lately turned out of his place, merely because of his coming to me when he came to town before he went to him, and there he told me many rogueries of Sir W. Batten (age 63), how he knows and is able to prove that Captain Cox of Chatham, Kent [Map] did give him £10 in gold to get him to certify for him at the King's coming in, and that Tom Newborne did make [the] poor men give him £3 to get Sir W. Batten (age 63) to cause them to be entered in the yard, and that Sir W. Batten (age 63) had oftentimes said: "by God, Tom, you shall get something and I will have some on't". His present clerk that is come in Norman's' room has given him something for his place; that they live high and (as Sir Francis Clerk's lady told his wife) do lack money as well as other people, and have bribes of a piece of sattin and cabinetts and other things from people that deal with him, and that hardly any body goes to see or hath anything done by Sir W. Batten (age 63) but it comes with a bribe, and that this is publickly true that his wife was a whore, and that he had libells flung within his doors for a cuckold as soon as he was married; that he received £100 in money and in other things to the value of £50 more of Hempson, and that he intends to give him back but £50; that he hath abused the Chest and hath now some £1000 by him of it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1664. I met also upon the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Cutler, and he told me how for certain Lawson (age 49) hath proclaimed warr again with Algiers, though they had at his first coming given back the ships which they had taken, and all their men; though they refused afterwards to make him restitution for the goods which they had taken out of them.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1664. Thence to the Coffee-house and to the 'Change [Map] a while. News uncertain how the Dutch proceed. Some say for, some against a war. The plague increases at Amsterdam.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1664. He being gone I to the 'Change [Map], Mr. Creed with me, after we had been by water to see a vessell we have hired to carry more soldiers to Tangier, and also visited a rope ground, wherein I learnt several useful things. The talk upon the 'Change [Map] is, that De Ruyter (age 57) is dead, with fifty men of his own ship, of the plague, at Cales: that the Holland Embassador here do endeavour to sweeten us with fair words; and things likely to be peaceable.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map] and Coffee-house, where great talke of the Dutch preparing of sixty sayle of ships. The plague grows mightily among them, both at sea and land. From the 'Change [Map] to dinner to Trinity House, Deptford [Map] with Sir W. Rider and Cutler, where a very good dinner. Here Sir G. Ascue (age 48) dined also, who I perceive desires to make himself known among the seamen.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1665. Up and to the office, where all the morning, and so to my house and eat a bit of victuals, and so to the 'Change [Map], where a little business and a very thin Exchange [Map]; and so walked through London to the Temple [Map], where I took water for Westminster to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to wait on him, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there paid for my newes-books, and did give Mrs. Michell, who is going out of towne because of the sicknesse, and her husband, a pint of wine, and so Sir W. Warren coming to me by appointment we away by water home, by the way discoursing about the project I have of getting some money and doing the King (age 35) good service too about the mast docke at Woolwich, Kent [Map], which I fear will never be done if I do not go about it.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1665. Back to White Hall, and by and by comes the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and there, after a little discourse, I by coach home, not meeting with but two coaches, and but two carts from White Hall to my own house, that I could observe; and the streets mighty thin of people. I met this noon with Dr. Burnett, who told me, and I find in the newsbook this week that he posted upon the 'Change [Map], that whoever did spread the report that, instead of the plague, his servant was by him killed, it was forgery, and shewed me the acknowledgment of the master of the pest-house, that his servant died of a bubo on his right groine, and two spots on his right thigh, which is the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], which was very thin, and thence homeward, and was called in by Mr. Rawlinson (age 51), with whom I dined and some good company very harmlessly merry. But sad the story of the plague in the City, it growing mightily. This day my Lord Bruncker (age 45) did give me Mr. Grant's' (age 45) book upon the Bills of Mortality, new printed and enlarged.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1665. Thence mighty full of the honour of this day, I took coach and to Kate Joyce's, but she not within, but spoke with Anthony, who tells me he likes well of my proposal for Pall to Harman (age 28), but I fear that less than £500 will not be taken, and that I shall not be able to give, though I did not say so to him. After a little other discourse and the sad news of the death of so many in the parish of the plague, forty last night, the bell always going, I back to the Exchange [Map], where I went up and sat talking with my beauty, Mrs. Batelier, a great while, who is indeed one of the finest women I ever saw in my life. After buying some small matter, I home, and there to the office and saw Sir J. Minnes (age 66) now come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], I home to set my Journall for these four days in order, they being four days of as great content and honour and pleasure to me as ever I hope to live or desire, or think any body else can live. For methinks if a man would but reflect upon this, and think that all these things are ordered by God Almighty to make me contented, and even this very marriage now on foot is one of the things intended to find me content in, in my life and matter of mirth, methinks it should make one mightily more satisfied in the world than he is. This day poor Robin Shaw at Backewell's died, and Backewell himself now in Flanders. The King (age 35) himself asked about Shaw, and being told he was dead, said he was very sorry for it. The sicknesse is got into our parish this week, and is got, indeed, every where; so that I begin to think of setting things in order, which I pray God enable me to put both as to soul and body.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Up, and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there fitted myself in several businesses to go to London, where I have not been now a pretty while. But before I went from the office newes is brought by word of mouth that letters are now just now brought from the fleete of our taking a great many more of the Dutch fleete, in which I did never more plainly see my command of my temper in my not admitting myself to receive any kind of joy from it till I had heard the certainty of it, and therefore went by water directly to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I find a letter of the Lath from Solebay [Map], from my Lord Sandwich (age 40), of the fleete's meeting with about eighteen more of the Dutch fleete, and his taking of most of them; and the messenger says, they had taken three after the letter was wrote and sealed; which being twenty-one, and the fourteen took the other day, is forty-five sail; some of which are good, and others rich ships, which is so great a cause of joy in us all that my Lord and everybody is highly joyed thereat. And having taken a copy of my Lord's letter, I away back again to the Beare [Map] at the bridge foot, being full of wind and out of order, and there called for a biscuit and a piece of cheese and gill of sacke, being forced to walk over the Bridge [Map], toward the 'Change [Map], and the plague being all thereabouts.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1665. Up betimes and finished my journall for five days back, and then after being ready to my Lord Bruncker (age 45) by appointment, there to order the disposing of some money that we have come into the office, and here to my great content I did get a bill of imprest to Captain Cocke (age 48) to pay myself in part of what is coming to me from him for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) satisfaction and my owne, and also another payment or two wherein I am concerned, and having done that did go to Mr. Pierce's, where he and his wife made me drink some tea, and so he and I by water together to London. Here at a taverne in Cornhill [Map] he and I did agree upon my delivering up to him a bill of Captain Cocke's (age 48), put into my hand for Pierce's use upon evening of reckonings about the prize goods, and so away to the 'Change [Map], and there hear the ill news, to my great and all our great trouble, that the plague is encreased again this week, notwithstanding there hath been a day or two great frosts; but we hope it is only the effects of the late close warm weather, and if the frosts continue the next week, may fall again; but the town do thicken so much with people, that it is much if the plague do not grow again upon us. Off the 'Change [Map] invited by Sheriff Hooker (age 53), who keeps the poorest, mean, dirty table in a dirty house that ever I did see any Sheriff of London; and a plain, ordinary, silly man I think he is, but rich; only his son, Mr. Lethulier (age 32), I like, for a pretty, civil, understanding merchant; and the more by much, because he happens to be husband to our noble, fat, brave lady in our parish, that I and my wife admire so.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1666. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and there hear to our grief how the plague is encreased this week from seventy to eighty-nine. We have also great fear of our Hambrough fleete, of their meeting the Dutch; as also have certain newes, that by storms Sir Jer. Smith's fleet is scattered, and three of them come without masts back to Plymouth, Devon [Map], which is another very exceeding great disappointment, and if the victualling ships are miscarried will tend to the losse of the garrison of Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 05 May 1664. So to the 'Change [Map], and meeting Sir W. Warren, with him to a taverne, and there talked, as we used to do, of the evils the King suffers in our ordering of business in the Navy, as Sir W. Batten (age 63) now forces us by his knavery.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and there did some business, and thence home to dinner, and so abroad with my wife by coach to the New Exchange, and there laid out almost 40s. upon her, and so called to see my Lady Sandwich (age 39), whom we found in her dining-room, which joyed us mightily; but she looks very thin, poor woman, being mightily broke. She told us that Mr. Montagu (age 29) is to return to Court, as she hears, which I wonder at, and do hardly believe.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1664. He being gone I to the office late, and so home to supper and to bed. But, Lord! to see how my very going to the 'Change [Map], and being without my gowne, presently brought me wind and pain, till I came home and was well again; but I am come to such a pass that I shall not know what to do with myself, but I am apt to think that it is only my legs that I take cold in from my having so long worn a gowne constantly.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1664. At noon I to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Mr. Cutler's, where I heard Sir W. Rider was, where I found them at dinner and dined with them, he having yesterday and to-day a fit of a pain like the gout, the first time he ever had it. A good dinner. Good discourse, Sir W. Rider especially much fearing the issue of a Dutch warr, wherein I very highly commend him.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and then to the 'Change [Map], where after some stay by coach with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) to St. James's, and there dined with Mr. Coventry (age 36) very finely, and so over the Parke to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier about providing provisions, money, and men for Tangier. At it all the afternoon, but it is strange to see how poorly and brokenly things are done of the greatest consequence, and how soon the memory of this great man is gone, or, at least, out of mind by the thoughts of who goes next, which is not yet knowne. My Lord of Oxford (age 37), Muskerry, and several others are discoursed of. It seems my Lord Tiviott's design was to go a mile and half out of the towne, to cut down a wood in which the enemy did use to lie in ambush. He had sent several spyes; but all brought word that the way was clear, and so might be for any body's discovery of an enemy before you are upon them. There they were all snapt, he and all his officers, and about 200 men, as they say; there being left now in the garrison but four captains. This happened the 3d of May last, being not before that day twelvemonth of his entering into his government there: but at his going out in the morning he said to some of his officers, "Gentlemen, let us look to ourselves, for it was this day three years that so many brave Englishmen were knocked on the head by the Moores, when Fines made his sally out". Here till almost night, and then home with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) by coach, and so to my office a while, and home to supper and bed, being now in constant pain in my back, but whether it be only wind or what it is the Lord knows, but I fear the worst.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1664. To the 'Change [Map], and thence home and dined, and then by coach to White Hall, sending my wife to Mrs. Hunt's.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1664. At noon a little to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, my wife being ill still in bed.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jun 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, where some discourse arose from Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Mr. Coventry (age 36), which gives me occasion to think that something like a war is expected now indeed, though upon the 'Change [Map] afterwards I hear too that an Embassador is landed from Holland, and one from their East India Company, to treat with ours about the wrongs we pretend to. Mr. Creed dined with me, and thence after dinner by coach with my wife only to take the ayre, it being very warm and pleasant, to Bowe and Old Ford; and thence to Hackney. There 'light, and played at shuffle-board, eat cream and good churies; and so with good refreshment home.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1664. So I to the office, where all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], so home and to my office, where Mr. Ackworth came to me (though he knows himself and I know him to be a very knave), yet he came to me to discover the knavery of other people like the most honest man in the world. However, good use I shall make of his discourse, for in this he is much in the right.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1664. Home after I had spoke with my cozen Richard Pepys upon the 'Change [Map], about supplying us with bewpers from Norwich, which I should be glad of, if cheap. So home to supper and bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1664. So to the 'Change [Map], and then home to dinner and to my office, where till 10 at night very busy, and so home to supper and to bed. My cozen, Thomas Pepys, was with me yesterday and I took occasion to speak to him about the bond I stand bound for my Lord Sandwich (age 38) to him in £1000. I did very plainly, obliging him to secrecy, tell him how the matter stands, yet with all duty to my Lord my resolution to be bound for whatever he desires me for him, yet that I would be glad he had any other security. I perceive by Mr. Moore today that he hath been with my Lord, and my Lord how he takes it I know not, but he is looking after other security and I am mighty glad of it. W. Howe was with me this afternoon, to desire some things to be got ready for my Lord against his going down to his ship, which will be soon; for it seems the King (age 34) and both the Queenes (age 54) intend to visit him. The Lord knows how my Lord will get out of this charge; for Mr. Moore tells me to-day that he is £10,000 in debt and this will, with many other things that daily will grow upon him (while he minds his pleasure as he do), set him further backward. But it was pretty this afternoon to hear W. Howe mince the matter, and say that he do believe that my Lord is in debt £2000 or £3000, and then corrected himself and said, No, not so, but I am afraid he is in debt £1000. I pray God gets me well rid of his Lordship as to his debt, and I care not.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1664. To the office all the morning, at noon to dinner at home, then to my office till the evening, then out about several businesses and then by appointment to the 'Change [Map], and thence with my uncle Wight (age 62) to the Mum house, and there drinking, he do complain of his wife most cruel as the most troublesome woman in the world, and how she will have her will, saying she brought him a portion and God knows what. By which, with many instances more, I perceive they do live a sad life together.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1664. By and by comes Dr. Burnett, who assures me that I have an ulcer either in the kidneys or bladder, for my water, which he saw yesterday, he is sure the sediment is not slime gathered by heat, but is a direct pusse. He did write me down some direction what to do for it, but not with the satisfaction I expected. Dr. Burnett's advice to mee. The Originall is fyled among my letters. "Take of ye Rootes of Marsh-Mallows foure ounces, of Cumfry, of Liquorish, of each two ounces, of ye Mowers of St. John's Wort two Handsfull, of ye Leaves of Plantan, of Alehoofe, of each three handfulls, of Selfeheale, of Red Roses, of each one Handfull, of Cynament, of Nutmegg, of each halfe an ounce. Beate them well, then powre upon them one Quart of old Rhenish wine, and about Six houres after strayne it and clarify it with ye white of an Egge, and with a sufficient quantity of sugar, boyle it to ye consistence of a Syrrup and reserve it for use. Dissolve one spoonefull of this Syrrup in every draught of Ale or beere you drink. Morning and evening swallow ye quantity of an hazle-nutt of Cyprus Terebintine. If you are bound or have a fit of ye Stone eate an ounce of Cassia new drawne, from ye poynt of a knife. Old Canary or Malaga wine you may drinke to three or 4 glasses, but noe new wine, and what wine you drinke, lett it bee at meales".1. I did give him a piece, with good hopes, however, that his advice will be of use to me, though it is strange that Mr. Hollyard (age 55) should never say one word of this ulcer in all his life to me. He being gone, I to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, and so to my office, busy till the evening, and then by agreement came Mr. Hill (age 34) and Andrews and one Cheswicke, a maister who plays very well upon the Spinette, and we sat singing Psalms till 9 at night, and so broke up with great pleasure, and very good company it is, and I hope I shall now and then have their company. They being gone, I to my office till towards twelve o'clock, and then home and to bed. Upon the 'Change [Map], this day, I saw how uncertain the temper of the people is, that, from our discharging of about 200 that lay idle, having nothing to do, upon some of our ships, which were ordered to be fitted for service, and their works are now done, the towne do talk that the King (age 34) discharges all his men, 200 yesterday and 800 to-day, and that now he hath got £100,000 in his hand, he values not a Dutch warr. But I undeceived a great many, telling them how it is.

Note 1. From a slip of paper inserted in the Diary at this place.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and there, which is strange, I could meet with nobody that I could invite home to my venison pasty, but only Mr. Alsopp and Mr. Lanyon, whom I invited last night, and a friend they brought along with them.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1664. After dinner I walked homeward, still doing business by the way, and at home find my wife this day of her owne accord to have lain out 25s. upon a pair of pendantes for her eares, which did vex me and brought both me and her to very high and very foule words from her to me, such as trouble me to think she should have in her mouth, and reflecting upon our old differences, which I hate to have remembered. I vowed to breake them, or that she should go and get what she could for them again. I went with that resolution out of doors; the poor wretch afterwards in a little while did send out to change them for her money again. I followed Besse her messenger at the 'Change [Map], and there did consult and sent her back; I would not have them changed, being satisfied that she yielded. So went home, and friends again as to that business; but the words I could not get out of my mind, and so went to bed at night discontented, and she came to bed to me, but all would not make me friends, but sleep and rise in the morning angry. This day the King (age 34) and the Queene (age 54) went to visit my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and the fleete, going forth in the Hope1.

Note 1. "Their Majesties were treated at Tilbury Hope by the Earl of Sandwich, returning the same day, abundantly satisfied both with the dutiful respects of that honourable person and with the excellent condition of all matters committed to his charge" ("The Newes", July 7th, 1664). B.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1664. Late home to supper and to bed, being full of thoughts of a sudden resolution this day taken upon the 'Change [Map] of going down to-morrow to the Hope.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning. At noon to the 'Change [Map] a little, then with W. Howe home and dined. So after dinner to my office, and there busy till late at night, having had among other things much discourse with young Gregory about the Chest business, wherein Sir W. Batten (age 63) is so great a knave, and also with Alsop and Lanyon about the Tangier victualling, wherein I hope to get something for myself.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jul 1664. So to the 'Change [Map] and home to dinner, and so to my office till 5 o'clock, and then came Mr. Hill (age 34) and Andrews, and we sung an houre or two. Then broke up and Mr. Alsop and his company came and consulted about our Tangier victualling and brought it to a good head. So they parted, and I to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and from the 'Change [Map] over with Alsopp and the others to the Pope's Head tavern, and there staid a quarter of an hour, and concluded upon this, that in case I got them no more than 3s. per week per man I should have of them but £150 per ann., but to have it without any adventure or charge, but if I got them 3s. 2d., then they would give me £300 in the like manner. So I directed them to draw up their tender in a line or two against the afternoon, and to meet me at White Hall.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. Thence I to the Half Moone [Map], against the 'Change [Map], to acquaint Lanyon and his friends of our proceedings, and thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), and there heard several tryals, wherein I perceive my Lord is a most able and ready man. After all done, he himself called, "Come, Mr. Pepys, you and I will take a turn in the garden". So he was led down stairs, having the goute, and there walked with me, I think, above an houre, talking most friendly, yet cunningly. I told him clearly how things were; how ignorant I was of his Lordship's concernment in it; how I did not do nor say one word singly, but what was done was the act of the whole Board. He told me by name that he was more angry with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) than with me, and also with the whole body of the Board. But thinking who it was of the Board that knew him least, he did place his fear upon me; but he finds that he is indebted to none of his friends there. I think I did thoroughly appease him, till he thanked me for my desire and pains to satisfy him; and upon my desiring to be directed who I should of his servants advise with about this business, he told me nobody, but would be glad to hear from me himself. He told me he would not direct me in any thing, that it might not be said that the Chancellor (age 55) did labour to abuse the King (age 34); or (as I offered) direct the suspending the Report of the Purveyors but I see what he means, and I will make it my worke to do him service in it. But, Lord! to see how he is incensed against poor Deane (age 30), as a fanatique rogue, and I know not what: and what he did was done in spite to his Lordship, among all his friends and tenants. He did plainly say that he would not direct me in any thing, for he would not put himself into the power of any man to say that he did so and so; but plainly told me as if he would be glad I did something. Lord! to see how we poor wretches dare not do the King (age 34) good service for fear of the greatness of these men. He named Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and the rest; and that he was as angry with them all as me. But it was pleasant to think that, while he was talking to me, comes into the garden Sir G. Carteret (age 54); and my Lord avoided speaking with him, and made him and many others stay expecting him, while I walked up and down above an houre, I think; and would have me walk with my hat on. And yet, after all this, there has been so little ground for this his jealousy of me, that I am sometimes afeard that he do this only in policy to bring me to his side by scaring me; or else, which is worse, to try how faithfull I would be to the King (age 34); but I rather think the former of the two. I parted with great assurance how I acknowledged all I had to come from his Lordship; which he did not seem to refuse, but with great kindness and respect parted. So I by coach home, calling at my Lord's, but he not within.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map] by coach, and so home to dinner and then to my office.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. At noon rose and did some necessary business at the 'Change [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1664. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), but he being busy I went away to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, and then down by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], where coming too soon, I spent an houre in looking round the yarde, and putting Mr. Shish (age 59)1 to measure a piece or two of timber, which he did most cruelly wrong, and to the King's losse 12 or 13s. in a piece of 28 feet in contents.

Note 1. Jonas Shish (age 59), master-shipwright at Deptford, Kent [Map]. There are several papers of his among the State Papers. "I was at the funeral of old Mr. Shish, Master Shipwright of His Majesty's Yard here, an honest and remarkable man, and his death a public loss, for his excellent success in building ships (though altogether illiterate) and for bringing up so many of his children to be able artists. I held up the pall with three knights who did him that honour, and he was worthy of it. It was the custom of this good man to rise in the night and pray, kneeling in his own coffin, which he had lying by him for many years. He was born that famous year, the Gunpowder- plot, 1605" (Evelyn's "Diary", May 13th, 1680).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where I took occasion to break the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber to Mr. Coventry (age 36) in the best manner I could. He professed to me, that, till, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) did speake of it at the table, after our officers were gone to survey it, he did not know that my Chancellor (age 55) had any thing to do with it; but now he says that he had been told by the Duke (age 30) that Sir G. Carteret (age 54) had spoke to him about it, and that he had told the Duke that, were he in my Chancellor's (age 55) case, if he were his father, he would rather fling away the gains of two or £3,000, than have it said that the timber, which should have been the King's, if it had continued the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55), was concealed by us in favour of my Chancellor (age 55); for, says he, he is a great man, and all such as he, and he himself particularly, have a great many enemies that would be glad of such an advantage against him. When I told him it was strange that Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir G. Carteret (age 54), that knew my Chancellor's (age 55) concernment therein, should not at first inform us, he answered me that for Sir J. Minnes (age 65), he is looked upon to be an old good companion, but by nobody at the other end of the towne as any man of business, and that my Chancellor (age 55), he dares say, never did tell him of it, only Sir G. Carteret (age 54), he do believe, must needs know it, for he and Sir J. Shaw are the greatest confidants he hath in the world. So for himself, he said, he would not mince the matter, but was resolved to do what was fit, and stand upon his owne legs therein, and that he would speak to the Duke, that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 54) might be appointed to attend my Chancellor (age 55) in it. All this disturbs me mightily. I know not what to say to it, nor how to carry myself therein; for a compliance will discommend me to Mr. Coventry (age 36), and a discompliance to my Chancellor (age 55). But I think to let it alone, or at least meddle in it as little more as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1664. Thence to St. James's, but Mr. Coventry (age 36) being ill and in bed I did not stay, but to White Hall a little, walked up and down, and so home to fit papers against this afternoon, and after dinner to the 'Change [Map] a little, and then to White Hall, where anon the Duke of Yorke (age 30) came, and a Committee we had of Tangier, where I read over my rough draught of the contract for Tangier victualling, and acquainted them with the death of Mr. Alsopp, which Mr. Lanyon had told me this morning, which is a sad consideration to see how uncertain a thing our lives are, and how little to be presumed of in our greatest undertakings. The words of the contract approved of, and I home and there came Mr. Lanyon to me and brought my neighbour, Mr. Andrews, to me, whom he proposes for his partner in the room of Mr. Alsopp, and I like well enough of it. We read over the contract together, and discoursed it well over and so parted, and I am glad to see it once over in this condition again, for Mr. Lanyon and I had some discourse to-day about my share in it, and I hope if it goes on to have my first hopes of £300 per ann.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1664. At the office all the morning, dined, after 'Change [Map], at home, and then abroad, and seeing "The Bondman" upon the posts, I consulted my oaths and find I may go safely this time without breaking it; I went thither, notwithstanding my great desire to have gone to Fleet Alley, God forgive me, again. There I saw it acted. It is true, for want of practice, they had many of them forgot their parts a little; but Betterton (age 28) and my poor Ianthe (age 27) outdo all the world. There is nothing more taking in the world with me than that play.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1664. At the office all the morning dispatching of business, at noon to the 'Change [Map] after dinner, and thence to Tom Trice about Dr. Pepys's business, and thence it raining turned into Fleet Alley, and there was with Cocke an hour or so. The jade, whether I would not give her money or not enough; she would not offer to invite to do anything, but on the contrary saying she had no time, which I was glad of, for I had no mind to meddle with her, but had my end to see what a cunning jade she was, to see her impudent tricks and ways of getting money and raising the reckoning by still calling for things, that it come to 6 or 7 shillings presently.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1664. All the morning at the office; at noon to the 'Change [Map], where great talke of a rich present brought by an East India ship from some of the Princes of India, worth to the King (age 34) £70,000 in two precious stones.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Aug 1664. At the office all the morning. At noon dined, and then to, the 'Change [Map], and there walked two hours or more with Sir W. Warren, who after much discourse in general of Sir W. Batten's (age 63) dealings, he fell to talk how every body must live by their places, and that he was willing, if I desired it, that I should go shares with him in anything that he deals in. He told me again and again, too, that he confesses himself my debtor too for my service and friendship to him in his present great contract of masts, and that between this and Christmas he shall be in stocke and will pay it me. This I like well, but do not desire to become a merchant, and, therefore, put it off, but desired time to think of it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, and down by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to the rope yard, and there visited Mrs. Falconer, who tells me odd stories of how Sir W. Pen (age 43) was rewarded by her husband with a gold watch (but seems not certain of what Sir W. Batten (age 63) told me, of his daughter having a life given her in £80 per ann.) for his helping him to his place, and yet cost him £150 to Mr. Coventry (age 36) besides. He did much advise it seems Mr. Falconer not to marry again, expressing that he would have him make his daughter his heire, or words to that purpose, and that that makes him, she thinks, so cold in giving her any satisfaction, and that W. Boddam hath publickly said, since he came down thither to be Clerk of the Ropeyard of Woolwich that it hath this week cost him £100, and would be glad that it would cost him but half as much more for the place, and that he was better before than now, and that if he had been to have bought it, he would not have given so much for it. Now I am sure that Mr. Coventry (age 36) hath again and again said that he would take nothing, but would give all his part in it freely to him, that so the widow might have something. What the meaning of this is I know not, but that Sir W. Pen (age 43) do get something by it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Aug 1664. So I walked homeward and met with Mr. Spong, and he with me as far as the Old Exchange [Map] talking of many ingenuous things, musique, and at last of glasses, and I find him still the same ingenuous man that ever he was, and do among other fine things tell me that by his microscope of his owne making he do discover that the wings of a moth is made just as the feathers of the wing of a bird, and that most plainly and certainly. While we were talking came by several poor creatures carried by, by constables, for being at a conventicle. They go like lambs, without any resistance. I would to God they would either conform, or be more wise, and not be catched!

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map] a little, and so to dinner and then out by coach, setting my wife and mayde down, going to Stevens the silversmith to change some old silver lace and to go buy new silke lace for a petticoat; I to White Hall and did much business at a Tangier Committee; where, among other things, speaking about propriety of the houses there, and how we ought to let the Portugeses I have right done them, as many of them as continue, or did sell the houses while they were in possession, and something further in their favour, the Duke (age 30) in an anger I never observed in him before, did cry, says he, "All the world rides us, and I think we shall never ride anybody".

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1664. To the Coffee-house I, and so to the 'Change [Map] a little, and then home to dinner with Creed, whom I met at the Coffee-house, and after dinner by coach set him down at the Temple [Map], and I and my wife to Mr. Blagrave's. They being none of them at home; I to the Hall, leaving her there, and thence to the Trumpett, whither came Mrs. Lane, and there begins a sad story how her husband, as I feared, proves not worth a farthing, and that she is with child and undone, if I do not get him a place. I had my pleasure here of her, and she, like an impudent jade, depends upon my kindness to her husband, but I will have no more to do with her, let her brew as she has baked, seeing she would not take my counsel about Hawly.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1664. At noon busy at the 'Change [Map] about one business or other, and thence home to dinner, and so to my office all the afternoon very busy, and so to supper anon, and then to my office again a while, collecting observations out of Dr. Power's booke of microscopes, and so home to bed, very stormy weather to-night for winde.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1664. Thence to the office, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], where very busy getting ships for Guinny and for Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Aug 1664. So after 'Change [Map] home and a good dinner, and then to White Hall to a Committee of the Fishery, where my Lord Craven (age 56) and Mr. Gray mightily against Mr. Creed's being joined in the warrant for Secretary with Mr. Duke. However I did get it put off till the Duke of Yorke (age 30) was there, and so broke up doing nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], among other things busy to get a little by the hire of a ship for Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1664. Thence to the Dockyarde, and there saw the new ship in very great forwardness, and so by water to Deptford, Kent [Map] a little, and so home and shifting myself, to the 'Change [Map], and there did business, and thence down by water to White Hall, by the way, at the Three Cranes, putting into an alehouse and eat a bit of bread and cheese. There I could not get into the Parke, and so was fain to stay in the gallery over the gate to look to the passage into the Parke, into which the King (age 34) hath forbid of late anybody's coming, to watch his coming that had appointed me to come, which he did by and by with his lady and went to Guardener's Lane, and there instead of meeting with one that was handsome and could play well, as they told me, she is the ugliest beast and plays so basely as I never heard anybody, so that I should loathe her being in my house. However, she took us by and by and showed us indeed some pictures at one Hiseman's (age 31), a picture drawer, a Dutchman, which is said to exceed Lilly (age 45), and indeed there is both of the Queenes (age 54) and Mayds of Honour (particularly Mrs. Stewart's (age 17) in a buff doublet like a soldier) as good pictures, I think, as ever I saw. The Queene (age 54) is drawn in one like a shepherdess, in the other like St. Katharin, most like and most admirably. I was mightily pleased with this sight indeed, and so back again to their lodgings, where I left them, but before I went this mare that carried me, whose name I know not but that they call him Sir John, a pitiful fellow, whose face I have long known but upon what score I know not, but he could have the confidence to ask me to lay down money for him to renew the lease of his house, which I did give eare to there because I was there receiving a civility from him, but shall not part with my money.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and there almost made my bargain about a ship for Tangier, which will bring me in a little profit with Captain Taylor. Off the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Cutler and Sir W. Rider to Cutler's house, and there had a very good dinner, and two or three pretty young ladies of their relations there.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1664. So he and I to walk to the 'Change [Map] a while, talking from one pleasant discourse to another, and so home, and thither came my uncle Wight (age 62) and aunt, and supped with us mighty merry. And Creed lay with us all night, and so to bed, very merry to think how Mr. Holliard (age 55) (who came in this evening to see me) makes nothing, but proving as a most clear thing that Rome is Antichrist.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map] and thence brought Mr. Pierce, the Surgeon, and Creed, and dined very merry and handsomely; but my wife not being well of those she not with us; and we cut up the great cake Moorcocke lately sent us, which is very good.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1664. Walked home, doing very many errands by the way to my great content, and at the 'Change [Map] met and spoke with several persons about serving us with pieces of eight at Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Sep 1664. And so I to the 'Change [Map], where a while, and so home and to dinner, and thither came W. Bowyer and dined with us; but strange to see how he could not endure onyons in sauce to lamb, but was overcome with the sight of it, and so-was forced to make his dinner of an egg or two. He tells us how Mrs. Lane is undone, by her marrying so bad, and desires to speak with me, which I know is wholly to get me to do something for her to get her husband a place, which he is in no wise fit for.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1664. So home, having called upon Doll, our pretty 'Change [Map] woman, for a pair of gloves trimmed with yellow ribbon, to [match the] petticoate my wife bought yesterday, which cost me 20s.; but she is so pretty, that, God forgive me! I could not think it too much-which is a strange slavery that I stand in to beauty, that I value nothing near it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1664. Thence back to the 'Change [Map], where great talke of the forwardnesse of the Dutch, which puts us all to a stand, and particularly myself for my Lord Sandwich (age 39), to think him to lie where he is for a sacrifice, if they should begin with us.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1664. At the office all the morning and at noon to the 'Change [Map], and there went off with Sir W. Warren and took occasion to desire him to lend me £100, which he said he would let the have with all his heart presently, as he had promised me a little while ago to give me for my pains in his two great contracts for masts £100, and that this should be it. To which end I did move it to him, and by this means I hope to be, possessed of the £100 presently within 2 or 3 days.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Sep 1664. At the office all the morning, then to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, where Luellin dined with us, and after dinner many people came in and kept me all the afternoon, among other the Master and Wardens of Chyrurgeon's Hall, who staid arguing their cause with me; I did give them the best answer I could, and after their being two hours with me parted, and I to my office to do business, which is much on my hands, and so late home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1664. So home with it and to dinner; after dinner I forth with my boy to buy severall things, stools and andirons and candlesticks, &c., household stuff, and walked to the mathematical instrument maker in Moorefields [Map] and bought a large pair of compasses, and there met Mr. Pargiter, and he would needs have me drink a cup of horse-radish ale, which he and a friend of his troubled with the stone have been drinking of, which we did and then walked into the fields as far almost as Sir G. Whitmore's, all the way talking of Russia, which, he says, is a sad place; and, though Moscow is a very great city, yet it is from the distance between house and house, and few people compared with this, and poor, sorry houses, the Emperor himself living in a wooden house, his exercise only flying a hawk at pigeons and carrying pigeons ten or twelve miles off and then laying wagers which pigeon shall come soonest home to her house. All the winter within doors, some few playing at chesse, but most drinking their time away. Women live very slavishly there, and it seems in the Emperor's court no room hath above two or three windows, and those the greatest not a yard wide or high, for warmth in winter time; and that the general cure for all diseases there is their sweating houses, or people that are poor they get into their ovens, being heated, and there lie. Little learning among things of any sort. Not a man that speaks Latin, unless the Secretary of State by chance. Mr. Pargiter and I walked to the 'Change [Map] together and there parted, and so I to buy more things and then home, and after a little at my office, home to supper and to bed. This day old Hardwicke came and redeemed a watch he had left with me in pawne for 40s. seven years ago, and I let him gave it. Great talk that the Dutch will certainly be out this week, and will sail directly to Guinny, being convoyed out of the Channel with 42 sail of ships.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where by appointment I met Sir W. Warren, and afterwards to the Sun taverne, where he brought to me, being all alone; £100 in a bag, which I offered him to give him my receipt for, but he told me, no, it was my owne, which he had a little while since promised me and was glad that (as I had told him two days since) it would now do me courtesy; and so most kindly he did give it me, and I as joyfully, even out of myself, carried it home in a coach, he himself expressly taking care that nobody might see this business done, though I was willing enough to have carried a servant with me to have received it, but he advised me to do it myself.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1664. After dinner walked to Westminster (tiring them by the way, and so left them, Anthony in Cheapside and the other in the Strand), and there spent all the afternoon in the Cloysters as I had agreed with Jane Welsh, but she came not, which vexed me, staying till 5 o'clock, and then walked homeward, and by coach to the Old Exchange [Map], and thence to my aunt Wight's (age 45), and invited her and my uncle to supper, and so home, and by and by they came, and we eat a brave barrel of oysters Mr. Povy (age 50) sent me this morning, and very merry at supper, and so to prayers and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Sep 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and there met by appointment with Captain Poyntz, who hath some place, or title to a place, belonging to gameing, and so I discoursed with him about the business of our improving of the Lotterys, to the King's benefit, and that of the Fishery, and had some light from him in the business, and shall, he says, have more in writing from him.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1664. Thence to White Hall with him, and so walked to the Old Exchange [Map] and back to Povy's (age 50) to dinner, where great and good company; among others Sir John Skeffington, whom I knew at Magdalen College, a fellow-commoner, my fellow-pupil, but one with whom I had no great acquaintance, he being then, God knows, much above me. Here I was afresh delighted with Mr. Povy's (age 50) house and pictures of perspective, being strange things to think how they do delude one's eye, that methinks it would make a man doubtful of swearing that ever he saw any thing.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1664. Up and at the office all the morning. To the 'Change [Map] at noon, and among other things discoursed with Sir William Warren what I might do to get a little money by carrying of deales to Tangier, and told him the opportunity I have there of doing it, and he did give me some advice, though not so good as he would have done at any other time of the year, but such as I hope to make good use of, and get a little money by.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1664. At noon, after dinner, to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to my office again, where busy, well employed till 10 at night, and so home to supper and to bed, my mind a little troubled that I have not of late kept up myself so briske in business; but mind my ease a little too much and my family upon the coming of Mercer and Tom. So that I have not kept company, nor appeared very active with Mr. Coventry (age 36), but now I resolve to settle to it again, not that I have idled all my time, but as to my ease something. So I have looked a little too much after Tangier and the Fishery, and that in the sight of Mr. Coventry (age 36), but I have good reason to love myself for serving Tangier, for it is one of the best flowers in my garden.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1664. Thence with our heads full of business we broke up, and I to my barber's, and there only saw Jane and stroked her under the chin, and away to the Exchange [Map], and there long about several businesses, hoping to get money by them, and thence home to dinner and there found Hawly. But meeting Bagwell's wife at the office before I went home I took her into the office and there kissed her only. She rebuked me for doing it, saying that did I do so much to many bodies else it would be a stain to me. But I do not see but she takes it well enough, though in the main I believe she is very honest.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Oct 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map] and thence home, where I found my aunt James and the two she joyces. They dined and were merry with us.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1664. Up betimes and to my office, and thence by coach to New Bridewell to meet with Mr. Poyntz to discourse with him (being Master of the Workhouse there) about making of Bewpers for us. But he was not within; however his clerke did lead me up and down through all the house, and there I did with great pleasure see the many pretty works, and the little children employed, every one to do something, which was a very fine sight, and worthy encouragement. I cast away a crowne among them, and so to the 'Change [Map] and among the Linnen Wholesale Drapers to enquire about Callicos, to see what can be done with them for the supplying our want of Bewpers for flaggs, and I think I shall do something therein to good purpose for the King (age 34).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1664. To the Coffee-house, and thence to the 'Change [Map], and therewith Sir W. Warren to the Coffee-house behind the 'Change [Map], and sat alone with him till 4 o'clock talking of his businesses first and then of business in general, and discourse how I might get money and how to carry myself to advantage to contract no envy and yet make the world see my pains; which was with great content to me, and a good friend and helpe I am like to find him, for which God be thanked!

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1664. Thence my Lord to Court, and I with Creed to the 'Change [Map], and thence with Sir W. Warren to a cook's shop and dined, discoursing and advising him about his great contract he is to make tomorrow, and do every day receive great satisfaction in his company, and a prospect of a just advantage by his friendship.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1664. Thence to the Coffee-house and 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon, whither comes W. Howe to see me, being come from, and going presently back to sea with my Lord. Among other things he tells me Mr. Creed is much out of favour with my Lord from his freedom of talke and bold carriage, and other things with which my Lord is not pleased, but most I doubt his not lending my Lord money, and Mr. Moore's reporting what his answer was I doubt in the worst manner. But, however, a very unworthy rogue he is, and, therefore, let him go for one good for nothing, though wise to the height above most men I converse with.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. Thence home to the office till noon, and then dined and to the 'Change [Map] and off with Sir W. Warren for a while, consulting about managing his contract.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map] a little, and thence home with Luellin to dinner, where Deane (age 30) met me by appointment, and after dinner he and I up to my chamber, and there hard at discourse, and advising him what to do in his business at Harwich [Map], and then to discourse of our old business of ships and taking new rules of him to my great pleasure, and he being gone I to my office a little, and then to see Sir W. Batten (age 63), who is sick of a greater cold than I, and thither comes to me Mr. Holliard (age 55), and into the chamber to me, and, poor man (beyond all I ever saw of him), was a little drunk, and there sat talking and finding acquaintance with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and my Lady by relations on both sides, that there we staid very long. At last broke up, and he home much overcome with drink, but well enough to get well home. So I home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence by appointment was met with Bagwell's wife, and she followed me into Moorfields [Map], and there into a drinking house, and all alone eat and drank together. I did there caress her, but though I did make some offer did not receive any compliance from her in what was bad, but very modestly she denied me, which I was glad to see and shall value her the better for it, and I hope never tempt her to any evil more.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1664. Waked very betimes and lay long awake, my mind being so full of business. Then up and to St. James's, where I find Mr. Coventry (age 36) full of business, packing up for his going to sea with the Duke (age 31). Walked with him, talking, to White Hall, where to the Duke's lodgings, who is gone thither to lodge lately. I appeared to the Duke (age 31), and thence Mr. Coventry (age 36) and I an hour in the Long gallery, talking about the management of our office, he tells me the weight of dispatch will lie chiefly on me, and told me freely his mind touching Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), the latter of whom, he most aptly said, was like a lapwing; that all he did was to keepe a flutter, to keepe others from the nest that they would find. He told me an old story of the former about the light-houses, how just before he had certified to the Duke (age 31) against the use of them, and what a burden they are to trade, and presently after, at his being at Harwich [Map], comes to desire that he might have the setting one up there, and gets the usefulness of it certified also by the Trinity House, Deptford [Map]. After long discoursing and considering all our stores and other things, as how the King (age 34) hath resolved upon Captain Taylor1 and Colonell Middleton, the first to be Commissioner for Harwich [Map] and the latter for Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], I away to the 'Change [Map], and there did very much business, so home to dinner, and Mr. Duke, our Secretary for the Fishery, dined with me.

Note 1. Coventry (age 36), writing to Secretary Bennet (age 46) (November 14th, 1664), refers to the objections made to Taylor, and adds: "Thinks the King (age 34) will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham, Kent [Map] on the Duchess of Albemarle's (age 45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them" ("Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1664-65, p. 68).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, and so with my wife to the Duke's house to a play, "Macbeth", a pretty good play, but admirably acted.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1664. Thence I by coach to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, my head akeing mightily with much business. Our little girl better than she was yesterday.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1664. There all the morning, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, Mr. Wayth with me, and then to the office, where mighty busy till very late, but I bless God I go through with it very well and hope I shall.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1664. And so to the 'Change [Map], where mighty busy; and so home to dinner, where Mr. Creed and Moore: and after dinner I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 57), to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) there, and then to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), about Tangier; and then homeward to the Coffee-house to hear newes. And it seems the Dutch, as I afterwards found by Mr. Coventry's (age 36) letters, have stopped a ship of masts of Sir W. Warren's, coming for us in a Swede's ship, which they will not release upon Sir G. Downing's (age 39) claiming her: which appears as the first act of hostility; and is looked upon as so by Mr. Coventry (age 36).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1664. That I might not be too fine for the business I intend this day, I did leave off my fine new cloth suit lined with plush and put on my poor black suit, and after office done (where much business, but little done), I to the 'Change [Map], and thence Bagwell's wife with much ado followed me through Moorfields [Map] to a blind alehouse, and there I did caress her and eat and drink, and many hard looks and sooth the poor wretch did give me, and I think verily was troubled at what I did, but at last after many protestings by degrees I did arrive at what I would, with great pleasure, and then in the evening, it raining, walked into town to where she knew where she was, and then I took coach and to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier, where, and every where else, I thank God, I find myself growing in repute; and so home, and late, very late, at business, nobody minding it but myself, and so home to bed, weary and full of thoughts. Businesses grow high between the Dutch and us on every side.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and then home with Creed to dinner, and thence I to the office, where close at it all the afternoon till 12 at night, and then home to supper and to bed. This day I received from Mr. Foley, but for me to pay for it, if I like it, an iron chest, having now received back some money I had laid out for the King (age 34), and I hope to have a good sum of money by me, thereby, in a few days, I think above £800.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map] and thence home to dinner, and thence to the office a good while, and thence to the Council chamber at White Hall to speake with Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and here by accident heard a great and famous cause between Sir G. Lane (age 44) and one Mr. Phill. Whore, an Irish business about Sir G. Lane's (age 44) endeavouring to reverse a decree of the late Commissioners of Ireland in a Rebells case for his land, which the King (age 34) had given as forfeited to Sir G. Lane (age 44), for whom the Sollicitor did argue most angell like, and one of the Commissioners, Baron, did argue for the other and for himself and his brethren who had decreed it. But the Sollicitor do so pay the Commissioners, how four all along did act for the Papists, and three only for the Protestants, by which they were overvoted, but at last one word (which was omitted in the Sollicitor's repeating of an Act of Parliament in the case) being insisted on by the other part, the Sollicitor was put to a great stop, and I could discern he could not tell what to say, but was quite out.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1664. I to the 'Change [Map] and there staid long doing business, and this day for certain newes is come that Teddiman hath brought in eighteen or twenty Dutchmen, merchants, their Bourdeaux fleete, and two men of wary to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]1.

Note 1. Captain Sir Thomas Captain Sir Thomas Teddiman (or Tyddiman) had been appointed Rear-Admiral of Lord Sandwich's (age 39) squadron of the English fleet. In a letter from Sir William Coventry (age 36) to Secretary Bennet (age 46), dated November 13th, 1664, we read, "Rear Admiral Teddeman with four or five ships has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen will teach them their duty" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664.-65, p. 66).

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1664. From the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Deering and Luellin to the White Horse Tavern in Lombard Street [Map], and there dined with them, he giving me a dish of meat to discourse in order to my serving Deering, which I am already obliged to do, and shall do it, and would be glad he were a man trusty that I might venture something along with him.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1664. Thence to the Parliament House, and there did give it to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54); the House being hot upon giving the King (age 34) a supply of money, and I by coach to the 'Change [Map] and took up Mr. Jenings along with me (my old acquaintance), he telling me the mean manner that Sir Samuel Morland (age 39) lives near him, in a house he hath bought and laid out money upon, in all to the value of £1200, but is believed to be a beggar; and so I ever thought he would be.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and there hear the certainty and circumstances of the Dutch having called in their fleete and paid their men half-pay, the other to be paid them upon their being ready upon beat of drum to come to serve them again, and in the meantime to have half-pay. This is said.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1664. Thence by coach to the Old Exchange [Map], and there hear that the Dutch are fitting their ships out again, which puts us to new discourse, and to alter our thoughts of the Dutch, as to their want of courage or force.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1664. At the office all the morning, where comes my Lord Brunkard (age 44) with his patent in his hand, and delivered it to Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and myself, we alone being there all the day, and at noon I in his coach with him to the 'Change [Map], where he set me down; a modest civil person he seems to be, but wholly ignorant in the business of the Navy as possible, but I hope to make a friend of him, being a worthy man.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1664. Thence homeward, called at my bookseller's and bespoke some books against the year's out, and then to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, and then to the office, where my Lord Brunkard (age 44) comes and reads over part of our Instructions in the Navy-and I expounded it to him, so he is become my disciple. He gone, comes Cutler to tell us that the King of France (age 26) hath forbid any canvass to be carried out of his kingdom, and I to examine went with him to the East India house to see a letter, but came too late.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1664. Then to the 'Change [Map], and I home to dinner, where Creed and Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute master, who plays indeed mighty finely, and after dinner I abroad, parting from Creed, and away to and fro, laying out or preparing for laying out more money, but I hope and resolve not to exceed therein, and to-night spoke for some fruit for the country for my father against Christmas, and where should I do it, but at the pretty woman's, that used to stand at the doore in Fanchurch Streete [Map], I having a mind to know her.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1664. Thence home, and having dressed myself, to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, and so abroad by coach with my wife, and bought a looking glasse by the Old Exchange [Map], which costs me £5 5s. and 6s. for the hooks. A very fair glasse.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1664. At noon I to the 'Change [Map], and there, among others, had my first meeting with Mr. L'Estrange (age 48), who hath endeavoured several times to speak with me. It is to get, now and then, some newes of me, which I shall, as I see cause, give him. He is a man of fine conversation, I think, but I am sure most courtly and full of compliments.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1664. Thence home, and not finding Bagwell's wife as I expected, I to the 'Change [Map] and there walked up and down, and then home, and she being come I bid her go and stay at Mooregate for me, and after going up to my wife (whose eye is very bad, but she is in very good temper to me), and after dinner I to the place and walked round the fields again and again, but not finding her I to the 'Change [Map], and there found her waiting for me and took her away, and to an alehouse, and there I made much of her, and then away thence and to another and endeavoured to caress her, but 'elle ne voulait pas [she didn't want to]', which did vex me, but I think it was chiefly not having a good easy place to do it upon.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map]; and there, among the merchants, I hear fully the news of our being beaten to dirt at Guinny, by De Ruyter (age 57) with his fleete. The particulars, as much as by Sir G. Carteret (age 54) afterwards I heard, I have said in a letter to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) this day at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; it being most wholly to the utter ruine of our Royall Company, and reproach and shame to the whole nation, as well as justification to them in their doing wrong to no man as to his private [property], only takeing whatever is found to belong to the Company, and nothing else.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], to the Coffee-house; and there heard Sir Richard Ford (age 50) tell the whole story of our defeat at Guinny. Wherein our men are guilty of the most horrid cowardice and perfidiousness, as he says and tells it, that ever Englishmen were. Captain Raynolds, that was the only commander of any of the King's ships there, was shot at by De Ruyter (age 57), with a bloody flag flying. He, instead of opposing (which, indeed, had been to no purpose, but only to maintain honour), did poorly go on board himself, to ask what De Ruyter (age 57) would have; and so yielded to whatever Ruyter would desire. The King (age 34) and Duke (age 31) are highly vexed at it, it seems, and the business deserves it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jan 1665. Thence to the 'Change [Map] a while, and so home to dinner and to the office, where we sat late, and then I to write my letters, and then to Sir W. Batten's (age 64), who is going out of towne to Harwich [Map] to-morrow to set up a light-house there, which he hath lately got a patent from the King (age 34) to set up, that will turne much to his profit. Here very merry, and so to my office again, where very late, and then home to supper and to bed, but sat up with my wife at cards till past two in the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1665. Lay long, and then up and to my Lord of Oxford's (age 37), but his Lordshipp was in bed at past ten o'clock: and, Lord helpe us! so rude a dirty family I never saw in my life. He sent me out word my business was not done, but should against the afternoon. I thence to the Coffee-house, there but little company, and so home to the 'Change [Map], where I hear of some more of our ships lost to the Northward.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1665. Up, and to White Hall about getting a privy seal for felling of the King's timber for the navy, and to the Lords' House to speak with my Lord Privy Seale about it, and so to the 'Change [Map], where to my last night's ill news I met more. Spoke with a Frenchman who was taken, but released, by a Dutch man-of-war of thirty-six guns (with seven more of the like or greater ships), off the North Foreland, by Margett [Map]. Which is a strange attempt, that they should come to our teeth; but the wind being easterly, the wind that should bring our force from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], will carry them away home. God preserve us against them, and pardon our making them in our discourse so contemptible an enemy!

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1665. So to the Hall awhile and thence to the Exchange [Map], where yesterday's newes confirmed, though in a little different manner; but a couple of ships in the Straights we have lost, and the Dutch have been in Margaret [Margate] Road [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1665. Up and to White Hall, where long waited in the Duke's chamber for a Committee intended for Tangier, but none met, and so I home and to the office, where we met a little, and then to the 'Change [Map], where our late ill newes confirmed in loss of two ships in the Straights, but are now the Phoenix and Nonsuch!

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1665. Thence with Creed to the 'Change [Map] and Coffee-house, and so home, where a brave dinner, by having a brace of pheasants and very merry about Povy's (age 51) folly.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1665. Thence to Jervas's, my mind, God forgive me, running too much after some folly, but 'elle' not being within I away by coach to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner. And finding Mrs. Bagwell waiting at the office after dinner, away she and I to a cabaret where she and I have eat before, and there I had her company 'tout' and had 'mon plaisir' of 'elle'. But strange to see how a woman, notwithstanding her greatest pretences of love 'a son mari' and religion, may be 'vaincue'.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1665. Up and by coach to Westminster Hall [Map] and the Parliament House, and there spoke with Mr. Coventry (age 37) and others about business and so back to the 'Change [Map], where no news more than that the Dutch have, by consent of all the Provinces, voted no trade to be suffered for eighteen months, but that they apply themselves wholly to the warr1. And they say it is very true, but very strange, for we use to believe they cannot support themselves without trade. Thence home to dinner and then to the office, where all the afternoon, and at night till very late, and then home to supper and bed, having a great cold, got on Sunday last, by sitting too long with my head bare, for Mercer to comb my hair and wash my eares.

Note 1. This statement of a total prohibition of all trade, and for so long a period as eighteen months, by a government so essentially commercial as that of the United Provinces, seems extraordinary. The fact was, that when in the beginning of the year 1665 the States General saw that the war with England was become inevitable, they took several vigorous measures, and determined to equip a formidable fleet, and with a view to obtain a sufficient number of men to man it, prohibited all navigation, especially in the great and small fisheries as they were then called, and in the whale fishery. This measure appears to have resembled the embargoes so commonly resorted to in this country on similar occasions, rather than a total prohibition of trade. B.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1665. Thence away to boat again and landed her at the Three Cranes again, and I to the Bridge [Map], and so home, and after shifting myself, being dirty, I to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Mr. Povy's (age 51) and there dined, and thence with him and Creed to my Lord Bellasses' (age 50), and there debated a great while how to put things in order against his going, and so with my Lord in his coach to White Hall, and with him to my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 56), finding him at cards. After a few dull words or two, I away to White Hall again, and there delivered a letter to the Duke of Yorke (age 31) about our Navy business, and thence walked up and down in the gallery, talking with Mr. Slingsby (age 44), who is a very ingenious person, about the Mint and coynage of money. Among other things, he argues that there being £700,000 coined in the Rump time, and by all the Treasurers of that time, it being their opinion that the Rump money was in all payments, one with another, about a tenth part of all their money. Then, says he, to my question, the nearest guess we can make is, that the money passing up and down in business is £7,000,000. To another question of mine he made me fully understand that the old law of prohibiting bullion to be exported, is, and ever was a folly and an injury, rather than good. Arguing thus, that if the exportations exceed importations, then the balance must be brought home in money, which, when our merchants know cannot be carried out again, they will forbear to bring home in money, but let it lie abroad for trade, or keepe in foreign banks: or if our importations exceed our exportations, then, to keepe credit, the merchants will and must find ways of carrying out money by stealth, which is a most easy thing to do, and is every where done; and therefore the law against it signifies nothing in the world. Besides, that it is seen, that where money is free, there is great plenty; where it is restrained, as here, there is a great want, as in Spayne. These and many other fine discourses I had from him.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1665. Called up by Mr. Creed to discourse about some Tangier business, and he gone I made me ready and found Jane Welsh, Mr. Jervas his mayde, come to tell me that she was gone from her master, and is resolved to stick to this sweetheart of hers, one Harbing (a very sorry little fellow, and poor), which I did in a word or two endeavour to dissuade her from, but being unwilling to keep her long at my house, I sent her away and by and by followed her to the Exchange [Map], and thence led her about down to the 3 Cranes, and there took boat for the Falcon, and at a house looking into the fields there took up and sat an hour or two talking and discoursing ...

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], back by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 64), and thence to the Crowne, a taverne hard by, with Sir W. Rider and Cutler, where we alone, a very good dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1665. Going home I put in to an ordinary by Temple Barr and there with my boy Tom eat a pullet, and thence home to the office, being still angry with my wife for yesterday's foolery. After a good while at the office, I with the boy to the Sun behind the Exchange [Map], by agreement with Mr. Young the flag-maker, and there was met by Mr. Hill (age 35), Andrews, and Mr. Hubland, a pretty serious man. Here two very pretty savoury dishes and good discourse. After supper a song, or three or four (I having to that purpose carried Lawes's book), and staying here till 12 o'clock got the watch to light me home, and in a continued discontent to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1665. Lay long in bed, which made me, going by coach to St. James's by appointment to have attended the Duke of Yorke (age 31) and my Lord Bellasses (age 50), lose the hopes of my getting something by the hire of a ship to carry men to Tangier. But, however, according to the order of the Duke (age 31) this morning, I did go to the 'Change [Map], and there after great pains did light of a business with Mr. Gifford and Hubland [Houblon] for bringing me as much as I hoped for, which I have at large expressed in my stating the case of the "King's Fisher", which is the ship that I have hired, and got the Duke of Yorke's (age 31) agreement this afternoon after much pains and not eating a bit of bread till about 4 o'clock.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1665. Then up and to my office, where till noon and then to the 'Change [Map], and at the Coffee-house with Gifford, Hubland, the Master of the ship, and I read over and approved a charter-party for carrying goods for Tangier, wherein I hope to get some money.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1665. So back again on foot to the 'Change [Map], in my way taking my books from binding from my bookseller's. My bill for the rebinding of some old books to make them suit with my study, cost me, besides other new books in the same bill, £3; but it will be very handsome. At the 'Change [Map] did several businesses, and here I hear that newes is come from Deale [Map], that the same day my Lord Sandwich (age 39) sailed thence with the fleete, that evening some Dutch men of warr were seen on the back side of the Goodwin [Map], and, by all conjecture, must be seen by my Lord's fleete; which, if so, they must engage.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1665. At noon being invited, I to the Sun behind the 'Change [Map], to dinner to my Lord Bellasses (age 50), where a great deal of discourse with him, and some good, among others at table he told us a very handsome passage of the King's sending him his message about holding out the town of Newarke [Map], of which he was then governor for the King (age 34). This message he sent in a sluggbullet, being writ in cypher, and wrapped up in lead and swallowed. So the messenger come to my Lord and told him he had a message from the King (age 34), but it was yet in his belly; so they did give him some physique, and out it come. This was a month before the King's flying to the Scotts; and therein he told him that at such a day, being the 3d or 6th of May, he should hear of his being come to the Scotts, being assured by the King of France (age 26) that in coming to them he should be used with all the liberty, honour, and safety, that could be desired. And at the just day he did come to the Scotts.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1665. So to White Hall to him, and there I spoke with him, and so to Westminster, did a little business, and then home to the 'Change [Map], where also I did some business, and went off and ended my contract with the "Kingfisher" I hired for Tangier, and I hope to get something by it.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Feb 1665. Up and to my office, where all the morning. At noon to 'Change [Map] by coach with my Lord Brunkard (age 45), and thence after doing much business home to dinner, and so to my office all the afternoon till past 12 at night very busy. So home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1665. St. Valentine. This morning comes betimes Dicke Pen, to be my wife's Valentine, and come to our bedside. By the same token, I had him brought to my side, thinking to have made him kiss me; but he perceived me, and would not; so went to his Valentine: a notable, stout, witty boy. I up about business, and, opening the door, there was Bagwell's wife, with whom I talked afterwards, and she had the confidence to say she came with a hope to be time enough to be my Valentine, and so indeed she did, but my oath preserved me from loosing any time with her, and so I and my boy abroad by coach to Westminster, where did two or three businesses, and then home to the 'Change [Map], and did much business there. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) is, it seems, with his fleete at Alborough Bay [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1665. Thence with Creed to Gresham College, where I had been by Mr. Povy (age 51) the last week proposed to be admitted a member1 and was this day admitted, by signing a book and being taken by the hand by the President, my Lord Brunkard (age 45), and some words of admittance said to me. But it is a most acceptable thing to hear their discourse, and see their experiments; which were this day upon the nature of fire, and how it goes out in a place where the ayre is not free, and sooner out where the ayre is exhausted, which they showed by an engine on purpose. After this being done, they to the Crowne Taverne, behind the 'Change [Map], and there my Lord and most of the company to a club supper; Sir P. Neale (age 52), Sir R. Murrey, Dr. Clerke, Dr. Whistler, Dr. Goddard, and others of most eminent worth. Above all, Mr. Boyle (age 38) to-day was at the meeting, and above him Mr. Hooke (age 29), who is the most, and promises the least, of any man in the world that ever I saw. Here excellent discourse till ten at night, and then home, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 64), where I hear that Sir Thos. Harvy intends to put Mr. Turner out of his house and come in himself, which will be very hard to them, and though I love him not, yet for his family's sake I pity him. So home and to bed.

Note 1. According to the minutes of the Royal Society for February 15th, 1664-65, "Mr. Pepys was unanimously elected and admitted". Notes of the experiments shown by Hooke and Boyle are given in Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., p. 15.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1665. Up, and with Mr. Andrews to White Hall, where a Committee of Tangier, and there I did our victuallers' business for some more money, out of which I hope to get a little, of which I was glad; but, Lord! to see to what a degree of contempt, nay, scorn, Mr. Povy (age 51), through his prodigious folly, hath brought himself in his accounts, that if he be not a man of a great interest, he will be kicked out of his employment for a foole, is very strange, and that most deservedly that ever man was, for never any man, that understands accounts so little, ever went through so much, and yet goes through it with the greatest shame and yet with confidence that ever I saw man in my life. God deliver me in my owne business of my bill out of his hands, and if ever I foul my fingers with him again let me suffer for it! Back to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, where Mrs. Hunt dined with me, and poor Mrs. Batters; who brought her little daughter with her, and a letter from her husband, wherein, as a token, the foole presents me very seriously with his daughter for me to take the charge of bringing up for him, and to make my owne. But I took no notice to her at all of the substance of the letter, but fell to discourse, and so went away to the office, where all the afternoon till almost one in the morning, and then home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1665. Up, and to the office, where sat all the morning; at noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence to the Royall Oake taverne in Lombard Street, where Sir William Petty (age 41) and the owners of the double-bottomed boat (The Experiment) did entertain my Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir R. Murrey, myself, and others, with marrow bones and a chine of beefe of the victuals they have made for this ship; and excellent company and good discourse: but, above all, I do value Sir William Petty (age 41).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1665. Thence I to the House of Lords and spoke with my Lord Bellasses (age 50), and so to the 'Change [Map], and there did business, and so to the Sun taverne, haling in the morning had some high words with Sir J. Lawson (age 50) about his sending of some bayled goods to Tangier, wherein the truth is I did not favour him, but being conscious that some of my profits may come out by some words that fell from him, and to be quiet, I have accommodated it. Here we dined merry; but my club and the rest come to 7s. 6d., which was too much.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], and off of the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Wayth to a cook's shop, and there dined again for discourse with him about Hamaccos and the abuse now practised in tickets, and more like every day to be. Also of the great profit Mr. Fen makes of his place, he being, though he demands but 5 per cent. of all he pays, and that is easily computed, but very little pleased with any man that gives him no more.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1665. At noon at the 'Change [Map], busy; where great talk of a Dutch ship in the North put on shore, and taken by a troop of horse.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where I hear the most horrid and astonishing newes that ever was yet told in my memory, that De Ruyter (age 57) with his fleete in Guinny hath proceeded to the taking of whatever we have, forts, goods, ships, and men, and tied our men back to back, and thrown them all into the sea, even women and children also. This a Swede or Hamburgher is come into the River and tells that he saw the thing done1. But, Lord! to see the consternation all our merchants are in is observable, and with what fury and revenge they discourse of it. But I fear it will like other things in a few days cool among us. But that which I fear most is the reason why he that was so kind to our men at first should afterward, having let them go, be so cruel when he went further. What I fear is that there he was informed (which he was not before) of some of Holmes's dealings with his countrymen, and so was moved to this fury. God grant it be not so! But a more dishonourable thing was never suffered by Englishmen, nor a more barbarous done by man, as this by them to us.

Note 1. Similar reports of the cruelty of the English to the Dutch in Guinea were credited in Holland, and were related by Downing in a letter to Clarendon from the Hague, dated April 14th, 1665 (Lister's "Life of Clarendon", vol. iii., p. 374).

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map]; where just before I come, the Swede that had told the King (age 34) and the Duke (age 31) so boldly this great lie of the Dutch flinging our men back to back into the sea at Guinny, so particularly, and readily, and confidently, was whipt round the 'Change [Map]: he confessing it a lie, and that he did it in hopes to get something. It is said the judges, upon demand, did give it their opinion that the law would judge him to be whipt, to lose his eares, or to have his nose slit but I do not hear that anything more is to be done to him. They say he is delivered over to the Dutch Embassador to do what he pleased with him. But the world do think that there is some design on one side or other, either of the Dutch or French, for it is not likely a fellow would invent such a lie to get money whereas he might have hoped for a better reward by telling something in behalf of us to please us.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map] to inquire what wages the Dutch give in their men-of-warr at this day, and I hear for certain they give but twelve guilders at most, which is not full 24s., a thing I wonder at. At home to dinner, and then in Sir J. Minnes's (age 65) coach, my wife and I with him, and also Mercer, abroad, he and I to White Hall, and he would have his coach to wait upon my wife on her visits, it being the first time my wife hath been out of doors (but the other day to bathe her) several weeks. We to a Committee of the Council to discourse concerning pressing of men; but, Lord! how they meet; never sit down: one comes, now another goes, then comes another; one complaining that nothing is done, another swearing that he hath been there these two hours and nobody come. At last it come to this, my Lord Annesly (age 43), says he, "I think we must be forced to get the King (age 34) to come to every committee; for I do not see that we do any thing at any time but when he is here". And I believe he said the truth and very constant he is at the council table on council-days; which his predecessors, it seems, very rarely did; but thus I perceive the greatest affair in the world at this day is likely to be managed by us. But to hear how my Lord Barkeley (age 63) and others of them do cry up the discipline of the late times here, and in the former Dutch warr is strange, wishing with all their hearts that the business of religion were not so severely carried on as to discourage the sober people to come among us, and wishing that the same law and severity were used against drunkennesse as there was then, saying that our evil living will call the hand of God upon us again.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1665. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and to several places, and so home to dinner and to my office, where till 12 at night writing over a discourse of mine to Mr. Coventry (age 37) touching the Fishermen of the Thames upon a reference of the business by him to me concerning their being protected from presse. Then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1665. At night home to supper and to bed. This day was proclaimed at the 'Change [Map] the war with Holland.

Sinking of The London

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1665. Though a bitter cold day, yet I rose, and though my pain and tenderness in my testicle remains a little, yet I do verily think that my pain yesterday was nothing else, and therefore I hope my disease of the stone may not return to me, but void itself in pissing, which God grant, but I will consult my physitian. This morning is brought me to the office the sad newes of "The London", in which Sir J. Lawson's (age 50) men were all bringing her from Chatham, Kent [Map] to the Hope, and thence he was to go to sea in her; but a little a'this side the buoy of the Nower, she suddenly blew up. About 24 [men] and a woman that were in the round-house and coach saved; the rest, being above 300, drowned: the ship breaking all in pieces, with 80 pieces of brass ordnance. She lies sunk, with her round-house above water. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) hath a great loss in this of so many good chosen men, and many relations among them. I went to the 'Change [Map], where the news taken very much to heart.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1665. Up, and to the office all the morning. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where very hot, people's proposal of the City giving the King' (age 34) another ship for "The London", that is lately blown up, which would be very handsome, and if well managed, might be done; but I fear if it be put into ill hands, or that the courtiers do solicit it, it will never be done.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1665. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and thence with Captain Tayler and Sir W. Warren dined at a house hard by for discourse sake, and so I home, and there meeting a letter from Mrs. Martin desiring to speak with me, I (though against my promise of visiting her) did go, and there found her in her childbed dress desiring my favour to get her husband a place. I staid not long, but taking Sir W. Warren up at White Hall home, and among other discourse fell to a business which he says shall if accomplished bring me £100.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1665. So home to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, where my wife being gone down upon a sudden warning from my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) daughters to the Hope with them to see "The Prince", I dined alone.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1665. Thence to the Committee of Tangier, where the Duke (age 31) a little, and then left us and we staid. A very great Committee, the Lords Albemarle (age 56), Sandwich (age 39), Barkely (age 63), Fitzharding (age 35), Peterborough (age 43), Ashley (age 43), Sir Thos. Ingram (age 50), Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and others. The whole business was the stating of Povy's (age 51) accounts, of whom to say no more, never could man say worse himself nor have worse said of him than was by the company to his face; I mean, as to his folly and very reflecting words to his honesty. Broke up without anything but trouble and shame, only I got my businesses done to the signing of two bills for the Contractors and Captain Taylor, and so come away well pleased, and home, taking up my wife at the 'Change [Map], to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Mar 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and took Mr. Hill (age 35) along with me to Mr. Povy's (age 51), where we dined, and shewed him the house to his good content, and I expect when we meet we shall laugh at it. But I having business to stay, he went away, and Povy (age 51) and Creed and I to do some business upon Povy's (age 51) accounts all the afternoon till late at night, where, God help him! never man was so confounded, and all his people about him in this world as he and his are. After we had done something [to the] purpose we broke up, and Povy (age 51) acquainted me before Creed (having said something of it also this morning at our office to me) what he had done in speaking to the Duke and others about his making me Treasurer, and has carried it a great way, so as I think it cannot well be set back. Creed, I perceive, envies me in it, but I think as that will do me no hurte, so if it did I am at a great losse to think whether it were not best for me to let it wholly alone, for it will much disquiett me and my business of the Navy, which in this warr will certainly be worth all my time to me.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and brought home Mr. Andrews, and there with Mr. Sheply dined and very merry, and a good dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1665. Thence to Mr. Povy's (age 51), and with Creed to the 'Change [Map] and to my house, but, it being washing day, dined not at home, but took him (I being invited) to Mr. Hubland's, the merchant, where Sir William Petty (age 41), and abundance of most ingenious men, owners and freighters of "The Experiment", now going with her two bodies to sea. Most excellent discourse. Among others, Sir William Petty (age 41) did tell me that in good earnest he hath in his will left such parts of his estate to him that could invent such and such things. As among others, that could discover truly the way of milk coming into the breasts of a woman; and he that could invent proper characters to express to another the mixture of relishes and tastes. And says, that to him that invents gold, he gives nothing for the philosopher's stone; for (says he) they that find out that, will be able to pay themselves. But, says he, by this means it is better than to give to a lecture; for here my executors, that must part with this, will be sure to be well convinced of the invention before they do part with their money.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map]. Home, and Lewellin dined with me.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1665. Up betimes and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and I did most of the business there, God wot. Then to the 'Change [Map], and thence to the Coffee-house with Sir W. Warren, where much good discourse for us both till 9 o'clock with great pleasure and content, and then parted and I home to dinner, having eat nothing, and so to my office. At night supped with my wife at Sir W. Pen's (age 43), who is to go back for good and all to the fleete to-morrow. Took leave and to my office, where till 12 at night, and then home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1665. All the morning at the office busy, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and then went up to the 'Change [Map] to buy a pair of cotton stockings, which I did at the husband's shop of the most pretty woman there, who did also invite me to buy some linnen of her, and I was glad of the occasion, and bespoke some bands of her, intending to make her my seamstress, she being one of the prettiest and most modest looked women that ever I did see.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and there set my business of lighters' buying for the King (age 34), to Sir W. Warren, and I think he will do it for me to very great advantage, at which I am mightily rejoiced.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1665. So called my wife at the 'Change [Map] and home, and at my office writing letters till one o'clock in the morning, that I was ready to fall down asleep again. Great talke of a new Comett; and it is certain one do now appear as bright as the late one at the best; but I have not seen it myself.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1665. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and up and down, doing not much; then to London, but to prevent Povy's (age 51) dining with me (who I see is at the 'Change [Map]) I went back again and to Herbert's at Westminster, there sent for a bit of meat and dined, and then to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and there with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55), and thence to White Hall in my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) till dark night, about fower hours talking of the business of the Navy Charge, and how Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do order business, keeping us in ignorance what he do with his money, and also Sir Philip did shew me nakedly the King's condition for money for the Navy; and he do assure me, unless the King (age 34) can get some noblemen or rich money-gentlemen to lend him money, or to get the City to do it, it is impossible to find money: we having already, as he says, spent one year's share of the three-years' tax, which comes to £2,500,000. Being very glad of this day's discourse in all but that I fear I shall quite lose Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who knows that I have been privately here all this day with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55). However, I will order it so as to give him as little offence as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1665. At noon dined with Mr. Povy (age 51), and then to the getting some business looked over of his, and then I to my Chancellor's (age 56), where to have spoke with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), but the King (age 34) and Council busy, I could not; then to the Old Exchange [Map] and there of my new pretty seamstress bought four bands, and so home, where I found my house mighty neat and clean. Then to my office late, till past 12, and so home to bed. The French Embassadors1 are come incognito before their train, which will hereafter be very pompous. It is thought they come to get our King to joyne with the King of France (age 26) in helping him against Flanders, and they to do the like to us against Holland. We have laine a good while with a good fleete at Harwich [Map]. The Dutch not said yet to be out. We, as high as we make our shew, I am sure, are unable to set out another small fleete, if this should be worsted. Wherefore, God send us peace! I cry.

Note 1. The French ambassadors were Henri de Bourbon, Duc de Verneuil (age 63), natural son of Henry IV. and brother of Henrietta Maria, and M. de Courtin. B.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1665. So home and to the 'Change [Map], and thence to the "Old James" to dine with Sir W. Rider, Cutler, and Mr. Deering, upon the business of hemp, and so hence to White Hall to have attended the King (age 34) and Chancellor (age 56) about the debts of the navy and to get some money, but the meeting failed. So my Lord Brunkard (age 45) took me and Sir Thomas Harvy (age 39) in his coach to the Parke, which is very troublesome with the dust; and ne'er a great beauty there to-day but Mrs. Middleton (age 20), and so home to my office, where Mr. Warren proposed my getting of £100 to get him a protection for a ship to go out, which I think I shall do.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1665. Thence very much joyed to London back again, and found out Mr. Povy (age 51); told him this; and then went and left my Privy Seale at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58); and so to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Trinity-House; where a great dinner of Captain Crisp, who is made an Elder Brother.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1665. Thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I was sorry to find myself to come a little late, and so home, and at noon going to the 'Change [Map] I met my Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir Robert Murry (age 57), Deane Wilkins (age 51), and Mr. Hooke (age 29), going by coach to Colonell Blunts (age 61) to dinner. So they stopped and took me with them. Landed at the Tower-wharf, and thence by water to Greenwich, Kent [Map]; and there coaches met us; and to his house, a very stately sight for situation and brave plantations; and among others, a vineyard, the first that ever I did see. No extraordinary dinner, nor any other entertainment good; but only after dinner to the tryall of some experiments about making of coaches easy. And several we tried; but one did prove mighty easy (not here for me to describe, but the whole body of the coach lies upon one long spring), and we all, one after another, rid in it; and it is very fine and likely to take. These experiments were the intent of their coming, and pretty they are.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1665. So to the 'Change [Map] and thence home to dinner, and so out to Gresham College, and saw a cat killed with the Duke of Florence's poyson, and saw it proved that the oyle of tobacco1 drawn by one of the Society do the same effect, and is judged to be the same thing with the poyson both in colour and smell, and effect. I saw also an abortive child preserved fresh in spirits of salt.

Note 1. "Mr. Daniel Coxe read an account of the effects of tobacco-oil distilled in a retort, by one drop of which given at the mouth he had killed a lusty cat, which being opened, smelled strongly of the oil, and the blood of the heart more strongly than the rest.... One drop of the Florentine 'oglio di tobacco' being again given to a dog, it proved stupefying and vomitive, as before" (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol, ii., pp. 42, 43).

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1665. Thence with Sir W. Batten (age 64) to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) and there did much business, and then to the 'Change [Map], and thence off with Sir W. Warren to an ordinary, where we dined and sat talking of most usefull discourse till 5 in the afternoon, and then home, and very busy till late, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1665. So to the 'Change [Map] and did much business, and then home to dinner, and there find my poor mother come out of the country today in good health, and I am glad to see her, but my business, which I am sorry for, keeps me from paying the respect I ought to her at her first coming, she being grown very weak in her judgement, and doating again in her discourse, through age and some trouble in her family. I left her and my wife to go abroad to buy something, and then I to my office.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1665. To the 'Change [Map] and thence to my watchmaker, where he has put it [i.e. The watch] in order, and a good and brave piece it is, and he tells me worth £14 which is a greater present than I valued it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1665. Up, and all day in some little gruntings of pain, as I used to have from winde, arising I think from my fasting so long, and want of exercise, and I think going so hot in clothes, the weather being hot, and the same clothes I wore all winter. To the 'Change [Map] after office, and received my watch from the watchmaker, and a very fine [one] it is, given me by Briggs, the Scrivener.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1665. Lay long, and very busy all the morning, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence to dinner to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), to talk upon the business of insuring our goods upon the Hambrough [ships]. Here a very fine, neat French dinner, without much cost, we being all alone with my Lady and one of the house with her; thence home and wrote letters, and then in the evening, by coach, with my wife and mother and Mercer, our usual tour by coach, and eat at the old house at Islington [Map]; but, Lord! to see how my mother found herself talk upon every object to think of old stories. Here I met with one that tells me that Jack Cole, my old schoolefellow, is dead and buried lately of a consumption, who was a great crony of mine. So back again home, and there to my closet to write letters. Hear to my great trouble that our Hambrough ships1, valued of the King's goods and the merchants' (though but little of the former) to £200,000 [are lost].

Note 1. On May 29th Sir William Coventry wrote to Lord Arlington: "Capt. Langhorne has arrived with seven ships, and reports the taking of the Hamburg fleet with the man of war their convoy; mistaking the Dutch fleet for the English, he fell into it" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 393).

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1665. Up, and to my office, and to Westminster, doing business till noon, and then to the 'Change [Map], where great the noise and trouble of having our Hambrough ships lost; and that very much placed upon Mr. Coventry's (age 37) forgetting to give notice to them of the going away of our fleete from the coast of Holland. But all without reason, for he did; but the merchants not being ready, staid longer than the time ordered for the convoy to stay, which was ten days.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1665. Up and to the office, where sat all the morning, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and there did some business, and home to dinner, whither Creed comes, and after dinner I put on my new silke camelott sute; the best that ever I wore in my life, the sute costing me above £24. In this I went with Creed to Goldsmiths' Hall, to the burial of Sir Thomas Viner (deceased); which Hall, and Haberdashers also, was so full of people, that we were fain for ease and coolness to go forth to Pater Noster Row [Map], to choose a silke to make me a plain ordinary suit.

Battle of Lowestoft

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1665. Thence home to dinner, after 'Change [Map], where great talke of the Dutch being fled and we in pursuit of them, and that our ship Charity1 is lost upon our Captain's, Wilkinson, and Lieutenant's yielding, but of this there is no certainty, save the report of some of the sicke men of the Charity, turned adrift in a boat out of the Charity and taken up and brought on shore yesterday to Sole Bay [Map], and the newes hereof brought by Sir Henry Felton.

Note 1. Sir William Coventry (age 37) and Sir William Pen (age 44) to the Navy Commissioners, June 4th: "Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m. Chased them all the rest of the day and night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (deceased), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Captain Kirby are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 50) wounded" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 406).

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1665. This morning my wife and mother rose about two o'clock; and with Mercer, Mary, the boy, and W. Hewer (age 23), as they had designed, took boat and down to refresh themselves on the water to Gravesend, Kent [Map]. Lay till 7 o'clock, then up and to the office upon Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) accounts again, where very busy; thence abroad and to the 'Change [Map], no news of certainty being yet come from the fleete.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1665. So after a good supper they parted, walking to the 'Change [Map] for a coach, and I with them to see them there.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1665. So to the Old Exchange [Map], and there at my pretty seamstresses bought a pair of stockings of her husband, and so home, where by and by comes Mr. Honiwood and Mrs. Wilde, and Roger Pepys (age 48) and, after long time spent, Mrs. Turner (age 42), The. and Joyce. We had a very good venison pasty, this being instead of my stone-feast the last March, and very merry we were, and the more I know the more I like Mr. Honiwood's conversation.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1665. Thence, wife and Mercer and I to the Old Exchange [Map], and there bought two lace bands more, one of my semstresse, whom my wife concurs with me to be a pretty woman. So down to Deptford, Kent [Map] and Woolwich, Kent [Map], my boy and I At Woolwich, Kent [Map], discoursed with Mr. Sheldon about my bringing my wife down for a month or two to his house, which he approves of, and, I think, will be very convenient.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1665. Thence home to the 'Change [Map] and dined alone (my wife gone to her mother's), after dinner to my little new goldsmith's1, whose wife indeed is one of the prettiest, modest black women that ever I saw. I paid for a dozen of silver salts £6 14s. 6d.

Note 1. John Colvill of Lombard Street [Map], see ante, May 24th. He lost £85,832 17s. 2d. by the closing of the Exchequer in 1672, and he died between 1672 and 1677 (Price's "Handbook of London Bankers ").

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. Thence home to the 'Change [Map], and so to dinner, and thence by coach to Mr. Povy's (age 51).

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], and home to dinner. In the afternoon I down to Woolwich, Kent [Map] and after me my wife and Mercer, whom I led to Mr. Sheldon's to see his house, and I find it a very pretty place for them to be at.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map] and thence to the Dolphin, where a good dinner at the cost of one Mr. Osbaston, who lost a wager to Sir W. Batten (age 64), Sir W. Rider, and Sir R. Ford (age 51), a good while since and now it is spent. The wager was that ten of our ships should not have a fight with ten of the enemy's before Michaelmas. Here was other very good company, and merry, and at last in come Mr. Buckeworth, a very fine gentleman, and proves to be a Huntingdonshireshire man.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. So to the office, where all the morning till noon, and so to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner. In the afternoon I abroad to St. James's, and there with Mr. Coventry (age 37) a good while, and understand how matters are ordered in the fleete: that is, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) goes Admiral; under him Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and Sir T. Teddiman; Vice-Admiral, Sir W. Pen (age 44); and under him Sir W. Barkeley (age 26), and Sir Jos. Jordan: Reere-Admiral, Sir Thomas Allen (age 32); and under him Sir Christopher Mings (age 39)1, and Captain Harman (age 40). We talked in general of business of the Navy, among others how he had lately spoken to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and professed great resolution of friendship with him and reconciliation, and resolves to make it good as well as he can, though it troubles him, he tells me, that something will come before him wherein he must give him offence, but I do find upon the whole that Mr. Coventry (age 37) do not listen to these complaints of money with the readiness and resolvedness to remedy that he used to do, and I think if he begins to draw in it is high time for me to do so too.

Note 1. The son of a shoemaker, bred to the sea-service; he rose to the rank of an admiral, and was killed in the fight with the Dutch, June, 1666. B. See post June 10th, 1666.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1665. So I to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and there with much ado did get his consent in part to my having the money promised for Tangier, and the other part did not concur. So being displeased with this, I back to the office and there sat alone a while doing business, and then by a solemn invitation to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], where a great dinner and company, Captain Dobbin's feast for Elder Brother. But I broke up before the dinner half over and by water to the Harp and Ball, and thence had Mary meet me at the New Exchange, and there took coach and I with great pleasure took the ayre to Highgate, and thence to Hampstead, much pleased with her company, pretty and innocent, and had what pleasure almost I would with her, and so at night, weary and sweaty, it being very hot beyond bearing, we back again, and I set her down in St. Martin's Lane, and so I to the evening 'Change [Map], and there hear all the towne full that Ostend is delivered to us, and that Alderman Backewell (age 47)1 did go with £50,000 to that purpose. But the truth of it I do not know, but something I believe there is extraordinary in his going. So to the office, where I did what I could as to letters, and so away to bed, shifting myself, and taking some Venice treakle, feeling myself out of order, and thence to bed to sleep.

Note 1. Among the State Papers is a letter from the King (age 35) to the Lord General (dated August 8th, 1665): "Alderman Backwell (age 47) being in great straits for the second payment he has to make for the service in Flanders, as much tin is to be transmitted to him as will raise the sum. Has authorized him and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with the tin farmers for 500 tons of tin to be speedily transported under good convoy; but if, on consulting with Alderman Backwell (age 47), this plan of the tin seems insufficient, then without further difficulty he is to dispose for that purpose of the £10,000 assigned for pay of the Guards, not doubting that before that comes due, other ways will be found for supplying it; the payment in Flanders is of such importance that some means must be found of providing for it" (Calendar, Domestic, 1664-65, pp. 508, 509).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1665. Thence to the Old Exchange [Map], by water, and there bespoke two fine shirts of my pretty seamstress, who, she tells me, serves Jacke Fenn.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1665. Upon the 'Change [Map] all the news is that guns have been heard and that news is come by a Dane that my Lord was in view of De Ruyter (age 58), and that since his parting from my Lord of Sandwich (age 39) he hath heard guns, but little of it do I think true.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1665. At noon to dinner, where I hear that my Will is come in thither and laid down upon my bed, ill of the headake, which put me into extraordinary fear; and I studied all I could to get him out of the house, and set my people to work to do it without discouraging him, and myself went forth to the Old Exchange [Map] to pay my fair Batelier for some linnen, and took leave of her, they breaking up shop for a while; and so by coach to Kate Joyce's, and there used all the vehemence and rhetorique I could to get her husband to let her go down to Brampton, but I could not prevail with him; he urging some simple reasons, but most that of profit, minding the house, and the distance, if either of them should be ill. However, I did my best, and more than I had a mind to do, but that I saw him so resolved against it, while she was mightily troubled at it. At last he yielded she should go to Windsor, to some friends there.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1665. Thence to the Exchange [Map], where I have not been a great while. But, Lord! how sad a sight it is to see the streets empty of people, and very few upon the 'Change [Map]. Jealous of every door that one sees shut up, lest it should be the plague; and about us two shops in three, if not more, generally shut up. From the 'Change [Map] to Sir G. Smith's (age 50) with Mr. Fenn, to whom I am nowadays very complaisant, he being under payment of my bills to me, and some other sums at my desire, which he readily do. Mighty merry with Captain Cocke (age 48) and Fenn at Sir G. Smith's (age 50), and a brave dinner, but I think Cocke is the greatest epicure that is, eats and drinks with the greatest pleasure and liberty that ever man did.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1665. Very contrary newes to-day upon the 'Change [Map], some that our fleete hath taken some of the Dutch East India ships, others that we did attaque it at Bergen and were repulsed, others that our fleete is in great danger after this attaque by meeting with the great body now gone out of Holland, almost 100 sayle of men of warr. Every body is at a great losse and nobody can tell.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1665. Up, and being ready I out to Mr. Colvill, the goldsmith's, having not for some days been in the streets; but now how few people I see, and those looking like people that had taken leave of the world. I there, and made even all accounts in the world between him and I, in a very good condition, and I would have done the like with Sir Robert Viner (age 34), but he is out of towne, the sicknesse being every where thereabouts. I to the Exchange [Map], and I think there was not fifty people upon it, and but few more like to be as they told me, Sir G. Smith (age 50) and others. Thus I think to take adieu to-day of the London streets, unless it be to go again to Viner's (age 34).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Here my news was highly welcome, and I did wonder to see the 'Change [Map] so full, I believe 200 people; but not a man or merchant of any fashion, but plain men all. And Lord! to see how I did endeavour all I could to talk with as few as I could, there being now no observation of shutting up of houses infected, that to be sure we do converse and meet with people that have the plague upon them. I to Sir Robert Viner's (age 34), where my main business was about settling the business of Debusty's £5000 tallys, which I did for the present to enable me to have some money, and so home, buying some things for my wife in the way.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Here I took boat (leaving him there) and down to the Tower [Map], where I hear the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) is, and I to Lombard Street [Map], but can get no money. So upon the Exchange [Map], which is very empty, God knows! and but mean people there. The newes for certain that the Dutch are come with their fleete before Margett [Map], and some men were endeavouring to come on shore when the post come away, perhaps to steal some sheep.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1665. Up, and, leaving my guests to make themselves ready, I to the office, and thither comes Sir Jer. Smith and Sir Christopher Mings (age 39) to see me, being just come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and going down to the Fleete. Here I sat and talked with them a good while and then parted, only Sir Christopher Mings (age 39) and I together by water to the Tower [Map]; and I find him a very witty well-spoken fellow, and mighty free to tell his parentage, being a shoemaker's son, to whom he is now going, and I to the 'Change [Map], where I hear how the French have taken two and sunk one of our merchant-men in the Streights, and carried the ships to Toulon; so that there is no expectation but we must fall out with them.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1665. The 'Change [Map] pretty full, and the town begins to be lively again, though the streets very empty, and most shops shut. So back again I and took boat and called for Sir Christopher Mings (age 39) at St. Katharine's, who was followed with some ordinary friends, of which, he says, he is proud, and so down to Greenwich, Kent [Map], the wind furious high, and we with our sail up till I made it be taken down. I took him, it being 3 o'clock, to my lodgings and did give him a good dinner and so parted, he being pretty close to me as to any business of the fleete, knowing me to be a servant of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], and thence I by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and there much company, but I staid and dined, and he makes mighty much of me; and here he tells us the Dutch are gone, and have lost above 160 cables and anchors, through the last foule weather. Here he proposed to me from Mr. Coventry (age 37), as I had desired of Mr. Coventry (age 37), that I should be Surveyor-Generall of the Victualling business, which I accepted. But, indeed, the terms in which Mr. Coventry (age 37) proposes it for me are the most obliging that ever I could expect from any man, and more; it saying me to be the fittest man in England, and that he is sure, if I will undertake, I will perform it; and that it will be also a very desirable thing that I might have this encouragement, my encouragement in the Navy alone being in no wise proportionable to my pains or deserts.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1665. Up, and by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and there did some little business, but most to shew myself, and mightily I am yet in his and Lord Craven's (age 57) books, and thence to the Swan [Map] and there drank and so down to the bridge, and so to the 'Change [Map], where spoke with many people, and about a great deale of business, which kept me late.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1665. Fear that our Hambro' ships at last cannot go, because of the great frost, which we believe it is there, nor are our ships cleared at the Pillow [Pillau], which will keepe them there too all this winter, I fear. From the 'Change [Map], which is pretty full again, I to my office and there took some things, and so by water to my lodging at Greenwich, Kent [Map] and dined, and then to the office awhile and at night home to my lodgings, and took T. Willson and T. Hater with me, and there spent the evening till midnight discoursing and settling of our Victualling business, that thereby I might draw up instructions for the Surveyours and that we might be doing something to earne our money.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], where very busy with several people, and mightily glad to see the 'Change [Map] so full, and hopes of another abatement still the next week. Off the 'Change [Map] I went home with Sir G. Smith (age 50) to dinner, sending for one of my barrels of oysters, which were good, though come from Colchester [Map], where the plague hath been so much. Here a very brave dinner, though no invitation; and, Lord! to see how I am treated, that come from so mean a beginning, is matter of wonder to me. But it is God's great mercy to me, and His blessing upon my taking pains, and being punctual in my dealings.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1665. Upon the 'Change [Map] to-day Colvill tells me, from Oxford, that the King (age 35) in person hath justified my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the highest degree; and is right in his favour to the uttermost.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1665. So out and by water to London and to the 'Change [Map], and up and down about several businesses, and after the observing (God forgive me!) one or two of my neighbour Jason's women come to towne, which did please me very well, home to my house at the office, where my wife had got a dinner for me: and it was a joyfull thing for us to meet here, for which God be praised! Here was her brother come to see her, and speake with me about business. It seems my recommending of him hath not only obtained his presently being admitted into the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) guards, and present pay, but also by the Duke's and Sir Philip Howard's (age 34) direction, to be put as a right-hand man, and other marks of special respect, at which I am very glad, partly for him, and partly to see that I am reckoned something in my recommendations, but wish he may carry himself that I may receive no disgrace by him.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1665. So to the 'Change [Map]. Up and down again in the evening about business and to meet Captain Cocke (age 48), who waited for Mrs. Pierce (with whom he is mightily stricken), to receive and hide for her her rich goods she saved the other day from seizure.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. That done I to the 'Change [Map], and among many other things, especially for getting of my Tangier money, I by appointment met Mr. Gawden, and he and I to the Pope's Head Taverne, and there he did give me alone a very pretty dinner. Our business to talk of his matters and his supply of money, which was necessary for us to talk on before the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) this afternoon and Sir G. Carteret (age 55). After that I offered now to pay him the £4000 remaining of his £8000 for Tangier, which he took with great kindnesse, and prayed me most frankly to give him a note for £3500 and accept the other £500 for myself, which in good earnest was against my judgement to do, for [I] expected about £100 and no more, but however he would have me do it, and ownes very great obligations to me, and the man indeed I love, and he deserves it. This put me into great joy, though with a little stay to it till we have time to settle it, for for so great a sum I was fearfull any accident might by death or otherwise defeate me, having not now time to change papers.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Dec 1665. Lay long with great pleasure talking. So I left him and to London to the 'Change [Map], and after discoursed with several people about business; met Mr. Gawden at the Pope's Head, where he brought Mr. Lewes and T. Willson to discourse about the Victualling business, and the alterations of the pursers' trade, for something must be done to secure the King (age 35) a little better, and yet that they may have wherewith to live.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1665. Up, and to the office a while with my Lord Bruncker (age 45), where we directed Sir W. Warren in the business of the insurance as I desired, and ended some other businesses of his, and so at noon I to London, but the 'Change [Map] was done before I got thither, so I to the Pope's Head Taverne, and there find Mr. Gawden and Captain Beckford and Nick Osborne going to dinner, and I dined with them and very exceeding merry we were as I had [not] been a great while, and dinner being done I to the East India House and there had an assignment on Mr. Temple for the £2,000 of Cocke's (age 48), which joyed my heart; so, having seen my wife in the way, I home by water and to write my letters and then home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Dec 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], hoping to see them in the streete, and missing them, went back again thither and back to the 'Change [Map], but no sight of them, so went after my business again, and, though late, was sent to by Sir W. Warren (who heard where I was) to intreat me to come dine with him, hearing that I lacked a dinner, at the Pope's Head; and there with Mr. Hinton, the goldsmith, and others, very merry; but, Lord! to see how Dr. Hinton (age 61) come in with a gallant or two from Court, and do so call "Cozen" Mr. Hinton, the goldsmith, but I that know him to be a beggar and a knave, did make great sport in my mind at it1.

Note 1. John Hinton, M.D. (age 61), a strong royalist, who attended Henrietta Maria in her confinement at Exeter when she gave birth to the Princess Henrietta (age 21). He was knighted by Charles II, and appointed physician in ordinary to the King (age 35) and Queen (age 27). His knighthood was a reward for having procured a private advance of money from his kinsman, the goldsmith, to enable the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) to pay the army (see "Memorial to King Charles II (age 35). from Sir John Hinton, A.D. 1679", printed in Ellis's "Original Letters", 3rd series, vol. iv., p 296).

Pepy's Diary. 18 Dec 1665. So to London, and there visited my wife, and was a little displeased to find she is so forward all of a spurt to make much of her brother and sister since my last kindnesse to him in getting him a place, but all ended well presently, and I to the 'Change [Map] and up and down to Kingdon and the goldsmith's to meet Mr. Stephens, and did get all my money matters most excellently cleared to my complete satisfaction. Passing over Cornhill [Map] I spied young Mrs. Daniel and Sarah, my landlady's daughter, who are come, as I expected, to towne, and did say they spied me and I dogged them to St. Martin's, where I passed by them being shy, and walked down as low as Ducke Lane [Map] and enquired for some Spanish books, and so back again and they were gone.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1665. Up, and was trimmed, but not time enough to save my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach or Sir J. Minnes's (age 66), and so was fain to walk to Lambeth, Surrey [Map] on foot, but it was a very fine frosty walke, and great pleasure in it, but troublesome getting over the River for ice. I to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), whither my brethren were all come, but I was not too late. There we sat in discourse upon our Navy business an houre, and thence in my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach alone, he walking before (while I staid awhile talking with Sir G. Downing (age 40) about the Act, in which he is horrid troublesome) to the Old Exchange [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1665. After dinner I to the Exchange [Map] to see whether my pretty seamstress be come again or no, and I find she is, so I to her, saluted her over her counter in the open Exchange [Map] above, and mightily joyed to see her, poor pretty woman! I must confess I think her a great beauty. After laying out a little money there for two pair of thread stockings, cost 8s., I to Lombard Street [Map] to see some business to-night there at the goldsmith's, among others paying in £1258 to Viner (age 34) for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) use upon Cocke's (age 48) account.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1665. Thence about many businesses, particularly with Sir W. Warren on the 'Change [Map], and he and I dined together and settled our Tangier matters, wherein I get above £200 presently. We dined together at the Pope's Head to do this, and thence to the goldsmiths, I to examine the state of my matters there too, and so with him to my house, but my wife was gone abroad to Mrs. Mercer's, so we took boat, and it being darke and the thaw having broke the ice, but not carried it quite away, the boat did pass through so much of it all along, and that with the crackling and noise that it made me fearfull indeed. So I forced the watermen to land us on Redriffe [Map] side, and so walked together till Sir W. Warren and I parted near his house and thence I walked quite over the fields home by light of linke, one of my watermen carrying it, and I reading by the light of it, it being a very fine, clear, dry night.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1666. So my Lord and he and I much talke about the Act, what credit we find upon it, but no private talke between him and I So I to the 'Change [Map], and there met Mr. Povy (age 52), newly come to town, and he and I to Sir George Smith's (age 51) and there dined nobly. He tells me how my Lord Bellases (age 51) complains for want of money and of him and me therein, but I value it not, for I know I do all that can be done. We had no time to talk of particulars, but leave it to another day, and I away to Cornhill [Map] to expect my Lord Bruncker's (age 46) coming back again, and I staid at my stationer's house, and by and by comes my Lord, and did take me up and so to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and after sitting with them a while at their house, home, thinking to get Mrs. Knipp, but could not, she being busy with company, but sent me a pleasant letter, writing herself "Barbary Allen".

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1666. Up, and my wife and I by coach to Bennett's, in Paternoster Row [Map], few shops there being yet open, and there bought velvett for a coate, and camelott for a cloake for myself; and thence to a place to look over some fine counterfeit damasks to hang my wife's closett, and pitched upon one, and so by coach home again, I calling at the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner and all the afternoon look after my papers at home and my office against to-morrow, and so after supper and considering the uselessness of laying out so much money upon my wife's closett, but only the chamber, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1666. Thence to the 'Change [Map] and there met Mr. Moore, newly come to towne, and took him home to dinner with me and after dinner to talke, and he and I do conclude my Lord's case to be very bad and may be worse, if he do not get a pardon for his doings about the prizes and his business at Bergen, and other things done by him at sea, before he goes for Spayne. I do use all the art I can to get him to get my Lord to pay my cozen Pepys, for it is a great burden to my mind my being bound for my Lord in £1000 to him. Having done discourse with him and directed him to go with my advice to my Lord expresse to-morrow to get his pardon perfected before his going, because of what I read the other night in Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) letter, I to the office, and there had an extraordinary meeting of Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Sir W. Batten (age 65), and Sir W. Pen (age 44), and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I to hear my paper read about pursers, which they did all of them with great good will and great approbation of my method and pains in all, only Sir W. Pen (age 44), who must except against every thing and remedy nothing, did except against my proposal for some reasons, which I could not understand, I confess, nor my Lord Bruncker (age 46) neither, but he did detect indeed a failure or two of mine in my report about the ill condition of the present pursers, which I did magnify in one or two little things, to which, I think, he did with reason except, but at last with all respect did declare the best thing he ever heard of this kind, but when Sir W. Batten (age 65) did say, "Let us that do know the practical part of the Victualling meet Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 44) and I and see what we can do to mend all", he was so far from offering or furthering it, that he declined it and said, he must be out of towne. So as I ever knew him never did in his life ever attempt to mend any thing, but suffer all things to go on in the way they are, though never so bad, rather than improve his experience to the King's advantage.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1666. After dinner Cocke (age 49) and I together by coach to the Exchange [Map], in our way talking of our matters, and do conclude that every thing must breake in pieces, while no better counsels govern matters than there seem to do, and that it will become him and I and all men to get their reckonings even, as soon as they can, and expect all to breake. Besides, if the plague continues among us another yeare, the Lord knows what will become of us. I set him down at the 'Change [Map], and I home to my office, where late writing letters and doing business, and thence home to supper and to bed. My head full of cares, but pleased with my wife's minding her worke so well, and busying herself about her house, and I trust in God if I can but clear myself of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) bond, wherein I am bound with him for £1000 to T. Pepys, I shall do pretty well, come what will come.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1666. Thus late at work, and so to supper and to bed. This afternoon, after sermon, comes my dear fair beauty of the Exchange [Map], Mrs. Batelier, brought by her sister, an acquaintance of Mercer's, to see my wife. I saluted her with as much pleasure as I had done any a great while. We sat and talked together an houre, with infinite pleasure to me, and so the fair creature went away, and proves one of the modestest women, and pretty, that ever I saw in my life, and my [wife] judges her so too.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1666. To the office, where, among other things, vexed with Major Norwood's (age 52) coming, who takes it ill my not paying a bill of Exchange [Map] of his, but I have good reason for it, and so the less troubled, but yet troubled, so as at noon being carried by my Lord Bruncker (age 46) to Captain Cocke's (age 49) to dinner, where Mrs. Williams was, and Mrs. Knipp, I was not heartily merry, though a glasse of wine did a little cheer me.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1666. To the 'Change [Map] and so home to dinner and the office, whither anon comes Sir H. Cholmley (age 33) to me, and he and I to my house, there to settle his accounts with me, and so with great pleasure we agreed and great friends become, I think, and he presented me upon the foot of our accounts for this year's service for him £100, whereof Povy (age 52) must have half.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1666. I back presently to the Crowne taverne behind the Exchange [Map] by appointment, and there met the first meeting of Gresham College since the plague. Dr. Goddard (age 49) did fill us with talke, in defence of his and his fellow physicians going out of towne in the plague-time; saying that their particular patients were most gone out of towne, and they left at liberty; and a great deal more, &c. But what, among other fine discourse pleased me most, was Sir G. Ent about Respiration; that it is not to this day known, or concluded on among physicians, nor to be done either, how the action is managed by nature, or for what use it is. Here late till poor Dr. Merriot was drunk, and so all home, and I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1666. Thence with Sir J. Bankes (age 39) and Mr. Gawden to the 'Change [Map], they both very wise men. After 'Change [Map] and agreeing with Houblon about our ships, D. Gawden and I to the Pope's Head and there dined and little Chaplin (age 39) (who a rich man grown).

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1666. By and by to the 'Change [Map], and there did several businesses, among others brought home my cozen Pepys, whom I appointed to be here to-day, and Mr. Moore met us upon the business of my Lord's bond. Seeing my neighbour Mr. Knightly walk alone from the 'Change [Map], his family being not yet come to town, I did invite him home with me, and he dined with me, a very sober, pretty man he is. He is mighty solicitous, as I find many about the City that live near the churchyards, to have the churchyards covered with lime, and I think it is needfull, and ours I hope will be done. Good pleasant discourse at dinner of the practices of merchants to cheate the "Customers", occasioned by Mr. Moore's being with much trouble freed of his prize goods, which he bought, which fell into the Customers' hands, and with much ado hath cleared them. Mr. Knightly being gone, my cozen Pepys and Moore and I to our business, being the clearing of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) bond wherein I am bound with him to my cozen for £1000 I have at last by my dexterity got my Lord's consent to have it paid out of the money raised by his prizes. So the bond is cancelled, and he paid by having a note upon Sir Robert Viner (age 35), in whose hands I had lodged my Lord's money, by which I am to my extraordinary comfort eased of a liablenesse to pay the sum in case of my Lord's death, or troubles in estate, or my Lord's greater fall, which God defend! Having settled this matter at Sir R. Viner's (age 35), I took up Mr. Moore (my cozen going home) and to my Chancellor's (age 56) new house which he is building, only to view it, hearing so much from Mr. Evelyn (age 45) of it; and, indeed, it is the finest pile I ever did see in my life, and will be a glorious house.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1666. Thence my Lord and his mistresse, Madam Williams, set me down at the Exchange [Map], and I to Alderman Backewell's (age 48) to set all my reckonings straight there, which I did, and took up all my notes.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1666. So home and eat a bit, and then to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, but it did not meet but was put off to to-morrow, so I did some little business and visited my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and so, it raining, went directly to the Sun, behind the Exchange [Map], about seven o'clock, where I find all the five brothers Houblons, and mighty fine gentlemen they are all, and used me mighty respectfully. We were mighty civilly merry, and their discourses, having been all abroad, very fine. Here late and at last accompanied home with Mr. J. Houblon and Hill, whom I invited to sup with me on Friday, and so parted and I home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) (at whose lodgings calling for him, I saw his Lady the first time since her coming to towne since the plague, having absented myself designedly to shew some discontent, and that I am not at all the more suppliant because of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) fall), to my Lord Bruncker's (age 46), to see whether he goes to the Duke's this morning or no. But it is put off, and so we parted. My Lord invited me to dinner to-day to dine with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and his Lady there, who were invited before, but lest he should thinke so little an invitation would serve my turne I refused and parted, and to Westminster about business, and so back to the 'Change [Map], and there met Mr. Hill (age 36), newly come to town, and with him the Houblands, preparing for their ship's and his going to Tangier, and agreed that I must sup with them to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1666. Up, and all the morning at the office. At noon to the 'Change [Map], expecting to have received from Mr. Houbland, as he promised me, an assignment upon Viner (age 35), for my reward for my getting them the going of their two ships to Tangier, but I find myself much disappointed therein, for I spoke with him and he said nothing of it, but looked coldly, through some disturbance he meets with in our business through Colonell Norwood's (age 52) pressing them to carry more goods than will leave room for some of their own. But I shall ease them.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Feb 1666. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and to the Sun behind it to dinner with the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 51), Colonell Norwood (age 52) and others, where strange pleasure they seem to take in their wine and meate, and discourse of it with the curiosity and joy that methinks was below men of worthe.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1666. After dinner, being full of care and multitude of business, I took coach and my wife with me. I set her down at her mother's (having first called at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) and there spoke with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 56)), and I to the Exchequer about Tangier orders, and so to the Swan [Map] and there staid a little, and so by coach took up my wife, and at the Old Exchange [Map] bought a muffe, and so home and late at my letters, and so to supper and to bed, being now-a-days, for these four or five months, mightily troubled with my snoring in my sleep, and know not how to remedy it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1666. Up, and very busy to perform an oathe in finishing my Journall this morning for 7 or 8 days past. Then to several people attending upon business, among others Mr. Grant (age 45) and the executors of Barlow for the £25 due for the quarter before he died, which I scrupled to pay, being obliged but to pay every half year. Then comes Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute-master, whom I have not seen since the plague before, but he hath been in Westminster all this while very well; and tells me in the height of it, how bold people there were, to go in sport to one another's burials; and in spite too, ill people would breathe in the faces (out of their windows) of well people going by. Then to dinner before the 'Change [Map], and so to the 'Change [Map], and then to the taverne to talk with Sir William Warren, and so by coach to several places, among others to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there to meet my Lord Sandwich (age 40), but missed, and met him at [my] Chancellor's (age 56), and there talked with him about his accounts, and then about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and I find by him that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) has a worse game to play than my Lord Sandwich (age 40), for people are jeering at him, and he cries out of the business of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who strikes at all and do all.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1666. Up, and all the morning at the office. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence after business dined at the Sheriffe's [Hooker] (age 54), being carried by Mr. Lethulier (age 33), where to my heart's content I met with his wife (age 23), a most beautifull fat woman. But all the house melancholy upon the sickness of a daughter of the house in childbed, Mr. Vaughan's (age 62) lady (age 48). So all of them undressed, but however this lady a very fine woman. I had a salute of her, and after dinner some discourse the Sheriffe and I about a parcel of tallow I am buying for the office of him.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. Thence with him to his paynter, Mr. Hales (age 66), who is drawing his picture, which will be mighty like him, and pleased me so, that I am resolved presently to have my wife's and mine done by him, he having a very masterly hand. So with mighty satisfaction to the 'Change [Map] and thence home, and after dinner abroad, taking Mrs. Mary Batelier with us, who was just come to see my wife, and they set me down at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and themselves went with the coach into the fields to take the ayre. I staid a meeting of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and the officers of the Navy and Ordnance. My Lord Treasurer (age 58) lying in bed of the gowte. Our business was discourse of the straits of the Navy for want of money, but after long discourse as much out of order as ordinary people's, we come to no issue, nor any money promised, or like to be had, and yet the worke must be done. Here I perceive Sir G. Carteret (age 56) had prepared himself to answer a choque of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), by offering of himself to shew all he had paid, and what is unpaid, and what moneys and assignments he hath in his hands, which, if he makes good, was the best thing he ever did say in his life, and the best timed, for else it must have fallen very foule on him.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. So home, they set me down at the 'Change [Map], and I to the Crowne, where my Lord Bruncker (age 46) was come and several of the Virtuosi, and after a small supper and but little good discourse I with Sir W. Batten (age 65) (who was brought thither with my Lord Bruncker (age 46)) home, where I find my wife gone to Mrs. Mercer's to be merry, but presently come in with Mrs. Knipp, who, it seems, is in towne, and was gone thither with my wife and Mercer to dance, and after eating a little supper went thither again to spend the whole night there, being W. Howe there, at whose chamber they are, and Lawd Crisp by chance. I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1666. Thence to the Exchequer, and so by coach to the 'Change [Map], Mr. Moore with me, who tells me very odde passages of the indiscretion of my Lord in the management of his family, of his carelessnesse, &c., which troubles me, but makes me rejoice with all my heart of my being rid of the bond of £1000, for that would have been a cruel blow to me. With Moore to the Coffee-House, the first time I have been there, where very full, and company it seems hath been there all the plague time.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and by appointment to the Exchange [Map], where I met Messrs. Houblons, and took them up in my coach and carried them to Charing Crosse, where they to Colonell Norwood (age 52) to see how they can settle matters with him, I having informed them by the way with advice to be easy with him, for he may hereafter do us service, and they and I are like to understand one another to very good purpose. I to my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and there alone with him to talke of his affairs, and particularly of his prize goods, wherein I find he is wearied with being troubled, and gives over the care of it to let it come to what it will, having the King's release for the dividend made, and for the rest he thinks himself safe from being proved to have anything more.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1666. So to the 'Change [Map], and then home to dinner, and after dinner to settle accounts with him for my Lord, and so evened with him to this day.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. Hence to the Exchequer from office to office, to set my business of my tallys in doing, and there all the morning. So at noon by coach to St. Paul's Church-yarde to my Bookseller's, and there bespoke a few more books to bring all I have lately bought to £10. Here I am told for certain, what I have heard once or twice already, of a Jew in town, that in the name of the rest do offer to give any man £10 to be paid £100, if a certain person now at Smyrna be within these two years owned by all the Princes of the East, and particularly the grand Signor as the King (age 35) of the world, in the same manner we do the King (age 35) of England here, and that this man is the true Messiah. One named a friend of his that had received ten pieces in gold upon this score, and says that the Jew hath disposed of £1100 in this manner, which is very strange; and certainly this year of 1666 will be a year of great action; but what the consequences of it will be, God knows! Thence to the 'Change [Map], and from my stationer's thereabouts carried home by coach two books of Ogilby's, his AEsop and Coronation, which fell to my lot at his lottery. Cost me £4 besides the binding.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and out of doors by 6 of the clock, and walked (W. Howe with me) to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), who did lie the last night at his house in Lincoln's Inne Fields. It being fine walking in the morning, and the streets full of people again. There I staid, and the house full of people come to take leave of my Lord, who this day goes out of towne upon his embassy towards Spayne. And I was glad to find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to come, though I know it is only a piece of courtshipp. I had much discourse with my Lord, he telling me how fully he leaves the King (age 35) his friend and the large discourse he had with him the other day, and how he desired to have the business of the prizes examined before he went, and that he yielded to it, and it is done as far as it concerns himself to the full, and the Lords Commissioners for prizes did reprehend all the informers in what related to his Lordship, which I am glad of in many respects. But we could not make an end of discourse, so I promised to waite upon (him) on Sunday at Cranborne, and took leave and away hence to Mr. Hales's (age 66) with Mr. Hill (age 36) and two of the Houblons, who come thither to speak with me, and saw my wife's picture, which pleases me well, but Mr. Hill's (age 36) picture never a whit so well as it did before it was finished, which troubled me, and I begin to doubt the picture of my Lady Peters my wife takes her posture from, and which is an excellent picture, is not of his making, it is so master-like. I set them down at the 'Change [Map] and I home to the office, and at noon dined at home and to the office again.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1666. All the morning at the office, at noon to the Old James, being sent for, and there dined with Sir William Rider, Mr. Cutler, and others, to make an end with two Scots Maisters about the freight of two ships of my Lord Rutherford's. After a small dinner and a little discourse I away to the Crowne behind the Exchange [Map] to Sir W. Pen (age 44), Captain Cocke (age 49) and Fen, about getting a bill of Cocke's (age 49) paid to Pen, in part for the East India goods he sold us. Here Sir W. Pen (age 44) did give me the reason in my eare of his importunity for money, for that he is now to marry his daughter (age 15). God send her better fortune than her father deserves I should wish him for a false rogue.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1666. To the 'Change [Map] at noon and so home to dinner. Newes for certain of the King of Denmarke's (age 56) declaring for the Dutch, and resolution to assist them.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1666. Up betimes, and called on by abundance of people about business, and then away by water to Westminster, and there to the Exchequer about some business, and thence by coach calling at several places, to the Old Exchange [Map], and there did much business, and so homeward and bought a silver salt for my ordinary table to use, and so home to dinner, and after dinner comes my uncle and aunt Wight (age 47), the latter I have not seen since the plague; a silly, froward, ugly woman she is. We made mighty much of them, and she talks mightily of her fear of the sicknesse, and so a deale of tittle tattle and I left them and to my office where late, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1666. Thence, I being in a little haste walked before and to the 'Change [Map] a little and then home, and presently to Trinity House, Deptford [Map] to dinner, where Captain Cox made his Elder Brother's dinner. But it seemed to me a very poor sorry dinner. I having many things in my head rose, when my belly was full, though the dinner not half done, and home and there to do some business, and by and by out of doors and met Mr. Povy (age 52) coming to me by appointment, but it being a little too late, I took a little pride in the streete not to go back with him, but prayed him to come another time, and I away to Kate Joyce's, thinking to have spoke to her husband about Pall's business, but a stranger, the Welsh Dr. Powell, being there I forebore and went away and so to Hales's (age 66), to see my wife's picture, which I like mighty well, and there had the pleasure to see how suddenly he draws the Heavens, laying a darke ground and then lightening it when and where he will.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1666. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and did several businesses, and thence to the Crowne behind the 'Change [Map] and dined with my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Captain Cocke (age 49) and Fenn, and Madam Williams, who without question must be my Lord's wife, and else she could not follow him wherever he goes and kisse and use him publiquely as she do.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1666. Thence I to the Excise Office behind the 'Change [Map], and there find our business of our tallys in great disorder as to payment, and thereupon do take a resolution of thinking how to remedy it, as soon as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1666. Thence to the Crowne tavern behind the Exchange [Map] to meet with Cocke (age 49) and Fenn and did so, and dined with them, and after dinner had the intent of our meeting, which was some private discourse with Fenn, telling him what I hear and think of his business, which he takes very kindly and says he will look about him. It was about his giving of ill language and answers to people that come to him about money and some other particulars. This morning Mrs. Barbary and little Mrs. Tooker went away homeward.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1666. Thence to talke of his son Benjamin; and I propounded a match for him, and at last named my sister, which he embraces heartily, and speaking of the lowness of her portion, that it would be less than £1000, he tells me if every thing else agrees, he will out of what he means to give me yearly, make a portion for her shall cost me nothing more than I intend freely. This did mightily rejoice me and full of it did go with him to London to the 'Change [Map]; and there did much business and at the Coffee-house with Sir W. Warren, who very wisely did shew me that my matching my sister with Mr. Gawden would undo me in all my places, everybody suspecting me in all I do; and I shall neither be able to serve him, nor free myself from imputation of being of his faction, while I am placed for his severest check. I was convinced that it would be for neither of our interests to make this alliance, and so am quite off of it again, but with great satisfaction in the motion.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1666. After done several businesses at the 'Change [Map] I home, and being washing day dined upon cold meate, and so abroad by coach to Hales's (age 66), and there sat till night, mightily pleased with my picture, which is now almost finished.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1666. Thence, after doing our business with the Duke of Yorke (age 32), with Captain Cocke (age 49) home to the 'Change [Map] in his coach. He promises me presently a dozen of silver salts, and proposes a business for which he hath promised Mrs. Williams for my Lord Bruncker (age 46) a set of plate shall cost him £500 and me the like, which will be a good business indeed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1666. To the office, where a meeting upon extraordinary business, at noon to the 'Change [Map] about more, and then home with Creed and dined, and then with him to the Committee of Tangier, where I got two or three things done I had a mind to of convenience to me.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1666. There left her 'sans essayer alcune cose con elle1', and so away by boat to the 'Change [Map], and took coach and to Mr. Hales (age 66), where he would have persuaded me to have had the landskipp stand in my picture, but I like it not and will have it otherwise, which I perceive he do not like so well, however is so civil as to say it shall be altered.

Note 1. 'sans essayer alcune cose con elle'. Without trying to do anything with her.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1666. [Up] and by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir Thos. Allen (age 54) to White Hall, and there after attending the Duke (age 32) as usual and there concluding of many things preparatory to the Prince (age 46) and Generall's going to sea on Monday next, Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir T. Allen (age 54) and I to Mr. Lilly's (age 47), the painter's; and there saw the heads, some finished, and all begun, of the Flaggmen in the late great fight with the Duke of Yorke (age 32) against the Dutch. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) hath them done to hang in his chamber, and very finely they are done indeed. Here is the Prince's (age 46), Sir G. Askue's (age 50), Sir Thomas Teddiman's, Sir Christopher Mings (age 40), Sir Joseph Jordan, Sir William Barkeley (age 27), Sir Thomas Allen (age 33), and Captain Harman's (age 41), as also the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57); and will be my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), Sir W. Pen's (age 44), and Sir Jeremy Smith's. Being very well satisfied with this sight, and other good pictures hanging in the house, we parted, and I left them, and [to] pass away a little time went to the printed picture seller's in the way thence to the Exchange [Map], and there did see great plenty of fine prints; but did not buy any, only a print of an old pillar in Rome made for a Navall Triumph1, which for the antiquity of the shape of ships, I buy and keepe.

Note 1. The columna rostrata erected in the Forum to C. Duilius, who obtained a triumph for the first naval victory over the Carthaginians, B.C. 261. Part of the column was discovered in the ruins of the Forum near the Arch of Septimius, and transferred to the Capitol. B.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1666. Thence to the Exchange [Map], that is, the New Exchange, and looked over some play books and intend to get all the late new plays.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Apr 1666. Having done at the Park he set me down at the Exchange [Map], and I by coach home and there to my letters, and they being done, to writing a large letter about the business of the pursers to Sir W. Batten (age 65) against to-morrow's discourse, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1666. At noon to the 'Change [Map] a little, and there bespoke some maps to hang in my new roome (my boy's roome) which will be very-pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1666. So to the 'Change [Map], to speake with Captain Cocke (age 49), among other things about getting of the silver plates of him, which he promises to do; but in discourse he tells me that I should beware of my fellow-officers; and by name told me that my Lord Bruncker (age 46) should say in his hearing, before Sir W. Batten (age 65), of me, that he could undo the man, if he would; wherein I think he is a foole; but, however, it is requisite I be prepared against the man's friendship.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1666. Thence to the Excise Office to the Commissioners to get a meeting between them and myself and others about our concernments in the Excise for Tangier, and so to the 'Change [Map] awhile, and thence home with Creed, and find my wife at dinner with Mr. Cooke, who is going down to Hinchinbrooke.

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1666. Up betimes and to my chamber to do business, where the greatest part of the morning. Then out to the 'Change [Map] to speake with Captain [Cocke (age 49)], who tells me my silver plates are ready for me, and shall be sent me speedily; and proposes another proposition of serving us with a thousand tons of hempe, and tells me it shall bring me 6500, if the bargain go forward, which is a good word.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. So home after church time to dinner, and after dinner my father, wife, sister, and Mercer by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], while I walked by land, and saw the Exchange [Map] as full of people, and hath been all this noon as of any other day, only for newes. I to St. Margaret's, Westminster [Map], and there saw at church my pretty Betty Michell, and thence to the Abbey [Map], and so to Mrs. Martin, and there did what 'je voudrais avec her [I wanted with her].... So by and by he come in, and after some discourse with him I away to White Hall, and there met with this bad newes farther, that the Prince (age 46) come to Dover, Kent [Map] but at ten o'clock last night, and there heard nothing of a fight; so that we are defeated of all our hopes of his helpe to the fleete. It is also reported by some Victuallers that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Holmes their flags were shot down, and both fain to come to anchor to renew their rigging and sails.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. Thence set him down in Covent Guarden [Map] and so home by the 'Change [Map], which is full of people still, and all talk highly of the failure of the Prince (age 46) in not making more haste after his instructions did come, and of our managements here in not giving it sooner and with more care and oftener.

Four Days' Battle

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1666. THE FIGHT.

How we found the Dutch fleete at anchor on Friday half seas over, between Dunkirke and Ostend, and made them let slip their anchors. They about ninety, and we less than sixty. We fought them, and put them to the run, till they met with about sixteen sail of fresh ships, and so bore up again. The fight continued till night, and then again the next morning from five till seven at night. And so, too, yesterday morning they begun again, and continued till about four o'clock, they chasing us for the most part of Saturday and yesterday, we flying from them. The Duke (age 32) himself, then those people were put into the catch, and by and by spied the Prince's (age 46) fleete coming, upon which De Ruyter (age 59) called a little council (being in chase at this time of us), and thereupon their fleete divided into two squadrons; forty in one, and about thirty in the other (the fleete being at first about ninety, but by one accident or other, supposed to be lessened to about seventy); the bigger to follow the Duke (age 32), the less to meet the Prince (age 46). But the Prince (age 46) come up with the Generall's fleete, and the Dutch come together again and bore towards their own coast, and we with them; and now what the consequence of this day will be, at that time fighting, we know not. The Duke was forced to come to anchor on Friday, having lost his sails and rigging. No particular person spoken of to be hurt but Sir W. Clerke (age 43), who hath lost his leg, and bore it bravely. The Duke himself had a little hurt in his thigh, but signified little. The King (age 36) did pull out of his pocket about twenty pieces in gold, and did give it Daniel for himself and his companion; and so parted, mightily pleased with the account he did give him of the fight, and the successe it ended with, of the Prince's (age 46) coming, though it seems the Duke (age 32) did give way again and again. The King (age 36) did give order for care to be had of Mr. Daniel and his companion; and so we parted from him, and then met the Duke [of York], and gave him the same account: and so broke up, and I left them going to the surgeon's and I myself by water to the 'Change [Map], and to several people did give account of the business.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1666. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and there find the discourse of towne, and their countenances much changed; but yet not very plain.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1666. At noon to the 'Change [Map] about business, and so home to dinner, and after dinner to the setting my Journall to rights, and so to the office again, where all the afternoon full of business, and there till night, that my eyes were sore, that I could not write no longer. Then into the garden, then my wife and Mercer and my Lady Pen (age 42) and her daughter (age 15) with us, and here we sung in the darke very finely half an houre, and so home to supper and to bed. This afternoon, after a long drowth, we had a good shower of rain, but it will not signify much if no more come.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jun 1666. Being gone hence, I took coach to the Old Exchange [Map], but did not go into it, but to Mr. Cade's, the stationer, stood till the shower was over, it being a great and welcome one after so much dry weather. Here I understand that Ogleby is putting out some new fables of his owne, which will be very fine and very satyricall.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1666. Lay sleepy in bed till 8 in the morning, then up and to the office, where till about noon, then out to the 'Change [Map] and several places, and so home to dinner. Then out again to Sir R. Viner (age 35), and there to my content settled the business of two tallys, so as I shall have £2000 almost more of my owne money in my hand, which pleases me mightily, and so home and there to the office, where mighty busy, and then home to supper and to even my Journall and to bed. Our fleete being now in all points ready to sayle, but for the carrying of the two or three new ships, which will keepe them a day or two or three more. It is said the Dutch is gone off our coast, but I have no good reason to believe it, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) not thinking any such thing.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1666. Up and to my chamber; there did some business and then to my office, and towards noon by water to the Exchequer about my Tangier order, and thence back again and to the Exchange [Map], where little newes but what is in the book, and, among other things, of a man sent up for by the King (age 36) and Council for saying that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did give intelligence to the Dutch of all our matters here. I met with Colvill, and he and I did agree about his lending me £1000 upon a tally of £1000 for Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Aug 1666. Thence I to St. James's, and there missed Sir W. Coventry (age 38); but taking up Mr. Robinson in my coach, I towards London, and there in the way met Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and followed him to White Hall, where a little discourse very kind, and so I away with Robinson, and set him down at the 'Change [Map], and thence I to Stokes the goldsmith, and sent him to and again to get me £1000 in gold; and so home to dinner, my wife and I friends, without any words almost of last night.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1666. So to the chappell, and heard a piece of the Dean of Westminster's (age 41) sermon, and a special good anthemne before the King (age 36), after a sermon, and then home by coach with Captain Cocke (age 49), who is in pain about his hempe, of which he says he hath bought great quantities, and would gladly be upon good terms with us for it, wherein I promise to assist him. So we 'light at the 'Change [Map], where, after a small turn or two, taking no pleasure now-a-days to be there, because of answering questions that would be asked there which I cannot answer; so home and dined, and after dinner, with my wife and Mercer to the Beare-garden1, where I have not been, I think, of many years, and saw some good sport of the bull's tossing of the dogs: one into the very boxes. But it is a very rude and nasty pleasure. We had a great many hectors in the same box with us (and one very fine went into the pit, and played his dog for a wager, which was a strange sport for a gentleman), where they drank wine, and drank Mercer's health first, which I pledged with my hat off; and who should be in the house but Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who saw us and spoke to us.

Note 1. The Bear Garden was situated on Bankside, close to the precinct of the Clinke Liberty, and very near to the old palace of the bishops of Winchester. Stow, to his "Survey", says: "There be two Bear Gardens, the old and new Places". The name still exists in a street or lane at the foot of Southwark, Surrey [Map] Bridge, and in Bear Garden Wharf.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1666. Thence to the Exchequer, but did nothing, they being all gone from their offices; and so to the Old Exchange [Map], where the towne full of the good newes, but I did not stay to tell or hear any, but home, my head akeing and drowsy, and to dinner, and then lay down upon the couch, thinking to get a little rest, but could not. So down the river, reading "The Adventures of Five Hours", which the more I read the more I admire. So down below Greenwich, Kent [Map], but the wind and tide being against us, I back again to Deptford, Kent [Map], and did a little business there, and thence walked to Redriffe [Map]; and so home, and to the office a while.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1666. At noon home, and there dined with me my Lady Pen (age 42) only and W. Hewer (age 24) at a haunch of venison boiled, where pretty merry, only my wife vexed me a little about demanding money to go with my Lady Pen (age 42) to the Exchange [Map] to lay out.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Aug 1666. All the morning at my office; then to the Exchange [Map] (with my Lord Bruncker (age 46) in his coach) at noon, but it was only to avoid Mr. Chr. Pett's (age 46) being invited by me to dinner.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Thence homeward, having passed through Cheapside and Newgate Market, all burned, and seen Anthony Joyce's House in fire. And took up (which I keep by me) a piece of glasse of Mercers' Chappell in the streete, where much more was, so melted and buckled with the heat of the fire like parchment. I also did see a poor cat taken out of a hole in the chimney, joyning to the wall of the Exchange [Map]; with, the hair all burned off the body, and yet alive.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Here I met with Mr. Young and Whistler; and having removed all my things, and received good hopes that the fire at our end; is stopped, they and I walked into the town, and find Fanchurch-streete [Map], Gracious-streete [Map]; and Lumbard-streete [Map] all in dust. The Exchange [Map] a sad sight, nothing standing there, of all the statues or pillars, but Sir Thomas Gresham's picture in the corner.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange [Map], remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill [Map], and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. So home, and did give orders for my house to be made clean; and then down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there find all well: Dined, and Mrs. Markham come to see my wife. So I up again, and calling at Deptford, Kent [Map] for some things of W. Hewer's (age 24), he being with me, and then home and spent the evening with Sir R. Ford (age 52), Mr. Knightly, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) at Sir W. Batten's (age 65): This day our Merchants first met at Gresham College, which, by proclamation, is to be their Exchange [Map]. Strange to hear what is bid for houses all up and down here; a friend of Sir W. Rider's: having £150 for what he used to let for £40 per annum. Much dispute where the Custome-house shall be thereby the growth of the City again to be foreseen. My Lord Treasurer (age 59), they say, and others; would have it at the other end of the towne. I home late to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), who did give me a bed; but without curtains or hangings, all being down. So here I went the first time into a naked bed, only my drawers on; and did sleep pretty well: but still hath sleeping and waking had a fear of fire in my heart, that I took little rest. People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity of my Lord Mayor in generall; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon' him. A proclamation1 is come out for markets to be kept at Leadenhall [Map] and Mileendgreene [Map], and several other places about the towne; and Tower-hill [Map], and all churches to be set open to receive poor people.

Note 1. On September 5th proclamation was made "ordering that for supply of the distressed people left destitute by the late dreadful and dismal fire.... great proportions of bread be brought daily, not only to the former markets, but to those lately ordained; that all churches, chapels, schools, and public buildings are to be open to receive the goods of those who know not how to dispose of them". On September 6th, proclamation ordered "that as the markets are burned down, markets be held in Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill [Map], Smithfield [Map], and Leadenhall Street [Map]" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 100, 104).

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's [Map] - now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's [Map], which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange [Map], the august fabric of Christ Church [Map], all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Sep 1666. The Dutch fleete is not gone home, but rather to the North, and so dangerous to our Gottenburgh fleete. That the Parliament is likely to fall foul upon some persons; and, among others, on the Vice-chamberlaine, though we both believe with little ground. That certainly never so great a loss as this was borne so well by citizens in the world; he believing that not one merchant upon the 'Change [Map] will break upon it. That he do not apprehend there will be any disturbances in State upon it; for that all men are busy in looking after their owne business to save themselves. He gone, I to finish my letters, and home to bed; and find to my infinite joy many rooms clean; and myself and wife lie in our own chamber again. But much terrified in the nights now-a-days with dreams of fire, and falling down of houses.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1666. At noon after dinner I sent for Harry, and he tells me it is so, and brought me by and by my hamper of books to my great joy, with the same books I missed, and three more great ones, and no more. I did give him 5s. for his pains, And so home with great joy, and to the setting of some off them right, but could not finish it, but away by coach to the other end of the town, leaving my wife at the 'Change [Map], but neither come time enough to the Council to speak with the Duke of Yorke (age 32), nor with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and so called my wife, and paid for some things she bought, and so home, and there after a little doing at the office about our accounts, which now draw near the time they should be ready, the House having ordered Sir G. Carteret (age 56), upon his offering them, to bring them in on Saturday next, I home, and there, with great pleasure, very late new setting all my books; and now I am in as good condition as I desire to be in all worldly respects. The Lord of Heaven make me thankfull, and continue me therein! So to bed. This day I had new stairs of main timber put my cellar going into the yard.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1666. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) to St. James's, where every body going to the House, I away by coach to White Hall, and after a few turns, and hearing that our accounts come into the House but to-day, being hindered yesterday by other business, I away by coach home, taking up my wife and calling at Bennet's, our late mercer, who is come into Covent Garden [Map] to a fine house looking down upon the Exchange [Map]; and I perceive many Londoners every day come; and Mr. Pierce hath let his wife's closett, and the little blind bed chamber, and a garret to a silke man for £50 fine, and £30 per annum, and £40 per annum more for dieting the master and two prentices.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1666. So home again and to dinner, there coming Creed to me; but what with business and my hatred to the man, I did not spend any time with him, but after dinner [my] wife and he and I took coach and to Westminster, but he 'light about Paul's, and set her at her tailor's, and myself to St. James's, but there missing Sir W. Coventry (age 38), returned and took up my wife, and calling at the Exchange [Map] home, whither Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) come to visit me, but my business suffered me not to stay with him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1666. After a little more discourse, I left them, and to White Hall, where I met with Sir Robert Viner (age 35), who told me a little of what, in going home, I had seen; also a little of the disorder and mutiny among the seamen at the Treasurer's office, which did trouble me then and all day since, considering how many more seamen will come to towne every day, and no money for them. A Parliament sitting, and the Exchange [Map] close by, and an enemy to hear of, and laugh at it1. Viner (age 35) too, and Backewell, were sent for this afternoon; and was before the King (age 36) and his Cabinet about money; they declaring they would advance no more, it being discoursed of in the House of Parliament for the King (age 36) to issue out his privy-seals to them to command them to trust him, which gives them reason to decline trusting. But more money they are persuaded to lend, but so little that (with horrour I speake it), coming after the Council was up, with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), Sir W. Coventry (age 38), Lord Bruncker (age 46), and myself, I did lay the state of our condition before the Duke of York (age 33), that the fleete could not go out without several things it wanted, and we could not have without money, particularly rum and bread, which we have promised the man Swan to helpe him to £200 of his debt, and a few other small sums of £200 a piece to some others, and that I do foresee the Duke of York (age 33) would call us to an account why the fleete is not abroad, and we cannot answer otherwise than our want of money; and that indeed we do not do the King (age 36) any service now, but do rather abuse and betray his service by being there, and seeming to do something, while we do not. Sir G. Carteret (age 56) asked me (just in these words, for in this and all the rest I set down the very words for memory sake, if there should be occasion) whether £50 or £60 would do us any good; and when I told him the very rum man must have £200, he held up his eyes as if we had asked a million. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) told the Duke of York (age 33) plainly he did rather desire to have his commission called in than serve in so ill a place, where he cannot do the King (age 36) service, and I did concur in saying the same. This was all very plain, and the Duke of York (age 33) did confess that he did not see how we could do anything without a present supply of £20,000, and that he would speak to the King (age 36) next Council day, and I promised to wait on him to put him in mind of it. This I set down for my future justification, if need be, and so we broke up, and all parted, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) being not very well, but I believe made much worse by this night's sad discourse. So I home by coach, considering what the consequence of all this must be in a little time. Nothing but distraction and confusion; which makes me wish with all my heart that I were well and quietly settled with what little I have got at Brampton, where I might live peaceably, and study, and pray for the good of the King (age 36) and my country.

Note 1. The King of Denmark (age 57) was induced to conclude a treaty with the United Provinces, a secret article of which bound him to declare war against England. The order in council for the printing and publishing a declaration of war against Denmark is dated "Whitehall, Sept. 19, 1666"; annexed is "A True Declaration of all transactions between his Majesty of Great Britain and the King of Denmark, with a declaration of war against the said king, and the motives that obliged his Majesty thereunto" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 140).

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1666. Up and to the office, where did a good deale of business, and then at noon to the Exchange [Map] and to my little goldsmith's, whose wife is very pretty and modest, that ever I saw any. Upon the 'Change [Map], where I seldom have of late been, I find all people mightily at a losse what to expect, but confusion and fears in every man's head and heart. Whether war or peace, all fear the event will be bad.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1666. Home to dinner, though Sir R. Viner (age 35) would have staid us to dine with him, he being sheriffe; but, poor man, was so out of countenance that he had no wine ready to drink to us, his butler being out of the way, though we know him to be a very liberal man. And after dinner I took my wife out, intending to have gone and have seen my Lady Jemimah, at White Hall, but so great a stop there was at the New Exchange, that we could not pass in half an houre, and therefore 'light and bought a little matter at the Exchange [Map], and then home, and then at the office awhile, and then home to my chamber, and after my wife and all the mayds abed but Jane, whom I put confidence in-she and I, and my brother, and Tom, and W. Hewer (age 24), did bring up all the remainder of my money, and my plate-chest, out of the cellar, and placed the money in my study, with the rest, and the plate in my dressing-room; but indeed I am in great pain to think how to dispose of my money, it being wholly unsafe to keep it all in coin in one place. 'But now I have it all at my hand, I shall remember it better to think of disposing of it. This done, by one in the morning to bed. This afternoon going towards Westminster, Creed and I did stop, the Duke of York (age 33) being just going away from seeing of it, at Paul's, and in the Convocation House Yard did there see the body of Robert Braybrooke, Bishop of London, that died 1404: He fell down in his tomb out of the great church into St. Fayth's [Map] this late fire, and is here seen his skeleton with the flesh on; but all tough and dry like a spongy dry leather, or touchwood all upon his bones. His head turned aside. A great man in his time, and Lord Chancellor, and his skeletons now exposed to be handled and derided by some, though admired for its duration by others. Many flocking to see it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1666. That done I to the office; whither by and by comes Creed to me, and he and I walked in the garden a little, talking of the present ill condition of things, which is the common subject of all men's discourse and fears now-a-days, and particularly of my Lady Denham (age 26), whom everybody says is poisoned, and he tells me she hath said it to the Duke of York (age 33); but is upon the mending hand, though the town says she is dead this morning. He and I to the 'Change [Map]. There I had several little errands, and going to Sir R. Viner's (age 35), I did get such a splash and spots of dirt upon my new vest, that I was out of countenance to be seen in the street. This day I received 450 pieces of gold more of Mr. Stokes, but cost me 22 1/2d. change; but I am well contented with it,-I having now near £2800 in gold, and will not rest till I get full £3000, and then will venture my fortune for the saving that and the rest.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1666. Up, and by water to White Hall, and thence to Westminster, where I bought several things, as a hone, ribbon, gloves, books, and then took coach and to Knipp's lodging, whom I find not ready to go home with me. So I away to do a little business, among others to call upon Mr. Osborne for my Tangier warrant for the last quarter, and so to the Exchange [Map] for some things for my wife, and then to Knipp's again, and there staid reading of Waller's verses, while she finished dressing, her husband being by. I had no other pastime. Her lodging very mean, and the condition she lives in; yet makes a shew without doors, God bless us! I carried him along with us into the City, and set him down in Bishopsgate Street, and then home with her. She tells me how Smith, of the Duke's house, hath killed a man upon a quarrel in play; which makes every body sorry, he being a good actor, and, they say, a good man, however this happens. The ladies of the Court do much bemoan him, she says. Here she and we alone at dinner to some good victuals, that we could not put off, that was intended for the great dinner of my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18), if he had come.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1666. At noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence back to the new taverne come by us; the Three Tuns [Map], where D. Gawden did feast us all with a chine of beef and other good things, and an infinite dish of fowl, but all spoiled in the dressing. This noon I met with Mr. Hooke (age 31), and he tells me the dog which was filled with another dog's blood, at the College the other day, is very well, and like to be so as ever, and doubts not its being found of great use to men; and so do Dr. Whistler, who dined with us at the taverne.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1666. And thence I to the Excise Office about some tallies, and then to the Exchange [Map], where I did much business, and so home to dinner, and then to the office, where busy all the afternoon till night, and then home to supper, and after supper an hour reading to my wife and brother something in Chaucer with great pleasure, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Nov 1666. Having staid as long as I thought fit for meeting of Burroughs, I away and to the 'Change [Map] again, but there I do not find her now, I having staid too long at the House, and therefore very hungry, having eat nothing to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1666. He gone, and after him the rest, I to the office, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], where the very good newes is just come of our four ships from Smyrna, come safe without convoy even into the Downes, without seeing any enemy; which is the best, and indeed only considerable good newes to our Exchange [Map], since the burning of the City; and it is strange to see how it do cheer up men's hearts. Here I saw shops now come to be in this Exchange [Map], and met little Batelier, who sits here but at £3 per annum, whereas he sat at the other at £100, which he says he believes will prove of as good account to him now as the other did at that rent.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1666. From the 'Change [Map] to Captain Cocke's (age 49), and there, by agreement, dined, and there was Charles Porter (age 35), Temple, Fenn, Debasty, whose bad English and pleasant discourses was exceeding good entertainment, Matt. Wren (age 37), Major Cooper, and myself, mighty merry and pretty discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat. At noon to the 'Change [Map] and there met Captain Cocke (age 49), and had a second time his direction to bespeak £100 of plate, which I did at Sir R. Viner's (age 35), being twelve plates more, and something else I have to choose.

Paper Bill

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1666. Good news to-day upon the Exchange [Map], that our Hamburgh fleete is got in; and good hopes that we may soon have the like of our Gottenburgh, and then we shall be well for this winter. Very merry at dinner. And by and by comes in Matt. Wren (age 37) from the Parliament-house; and tells us that he and all his party of the House, which is the Court party, are fools, and have been made so this day by the wise men of the other side; for, after the Court party had carried it yesterday so powerfully for the Paper-Bill1, yet now it is laid aside wholly, and to be supplied by a land-tax; which it is true will do well, and will be the sooner finished, which was the great argument for the doing of it. But then it shews them fools, that they would not permit this to have been done six weeks ago, which they might have had. And next, they have parted with the Paper Bill, which, when once begun, might have proved a very good flower in the Crowne, as any there. So do really say that they are truly outwitted by the other side.

Note 1. It was called "A Bill for raising part of the supply for his Majesty by an imposition on Sealed Paper and Parchment" B.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1666. Up, and several people to speak with me, and then comes Mr. Caesar, and then Goodgroome, and, what with one and the other, nothing but musique with me this morning, to my great content; and the more, to see that God Aimighty hath put me into condition to bear the charge of all this. So out to the 'Change [Map], and did a little business, and then home, where they two musicians and Mr. Cooke come to see me, and Mercer to go along with my wife this afternoon to a play.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1666. Then to the office, and there did a little business, and then to the 'Change [Map] and did the like.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1666. So to the 'Change [Map], and went to the Upper 'Change [Map], which is almost as good as the old one; only shops are but on one side. Then home to the office, and did business till my eyes began to be bad, and so home to supper. My people busy making mince pies, and so to bed. No newes yet of our Gottenburgh fleete; which makes [us] have some fears, it being of mighty concernment to have our supply of masts safe. I met with Mr. Cade to-night, my stationer; and he tells me that he hears for certain that the Queene-Mother (age 57) is about and hath near finished a peace with France, which, as a Presbyterian, he do not like, but seems to fear it will be a means to introduce Popery.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1667. At noon to the 'Change [Map] a little, where Mr. James Houblon (age 37) and I walked a good while speaking of our ill condition in not being able to set out a fleet (we doubt) this year, and the certain ill effect that must bring, which is lamentable.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1667. Thence a little to the Exchange [Map], where it was hot that the Prince (age 47) was dead, but I did rectify it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1667. At noon home to dinner, and then to the office, where all the afternoon expecting Mr. Gawden to come for some money I am to pay him, but he comes not, which makes me think he is considering whether it be necessary to make the present he hath promised, it being possible this alteration in the Controller's duty may make my place in the Victualling unnecessary, so that I am a little troubled at it. Busy till late at night at the office, and Sir W. Batten (age 66) come to me, and tells me that there is newes upon the Exchange [Map] to-day, that my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) coach and the French Embassador's at Madrid, meeting and contending for the way, they shot my Lord's postilion and another man dead; and that we have killed 25 of theirs, and that my Lord is well. How true this is I cannot tell, there being no newes of it at all at Court, as I am told late by one come thence, so that I hope it is not so.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1667. In the evening stept out to Sir Robert Viner's (age 36) to get the money ready upon my notes to D. Gawden, and there hear that Mr. Temple is very ill. I met on the 'Change [Map] with Captain Cocke (age 50), who tells me that he hears new certainty of the business of Madrid, how our Embassador and the French met, and says that two or three of my Lord's men, and twenty one of the French men are killed, but nothing at Court of it. He fears the next year's service through the badness of our counsels at White Hall, but that if they were wise, and the King (age 36) would mind his business, he might do what he would yet. The Parliament is not yet up, being finishing some bills.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1667. Up, and to the office, where I awhile, and then home with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to give him some tallies upon the business of the Mole at Tangier and then out with him by coach to the Excise Office, there to enter them, and so back again with him to the Exchange [Map], and there I took another coach, and home to the office, and to my business till dinner, the rest of our officers having been this morning upon the Victuallers' accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1667. Lay long in bed, talking with pleasure with my poor wife, how she used to make coal fires, and wash my foul clothes with her own hand for me, poor wretch! in our little room at my Lord Sandwich's (age 41); for which I ought for ever to love and admire her, and do; and persuade myself she would do the same thing again, if God should reduce us to it. So up and by coach abroad to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) about sending soldiers down to some ships, and so home, calling at a belt-maker's to mend my belt, and so home and to dinner, where pleasant with my wife, and then to the office, where mighty busy all the day, saving going forth to the 'Change [Map] to pay for some things, and on other occasions, and at my goldsmith's did observe the King's new medall, where, in little, there is Mrs. Steward's (age 19) face as well done as ever I saw anything in my whole life, I think: and a pretty thing it is, that he should choose her face to represent Britannia by. So at the office late very busy and much business with great joy dispatched, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1667. To Westminster Hall [Map], and there paid what I owed for books, and so by coach, took up my wife to the Exchange [Map], and there bought things for Mrs. Pierce's little daughter, my Valentine, and so to their house, where we find Knipp, who also challengeth me for her Valentine. She looks well, sang well, and very merry we were for half an hour. Tells me Harris (age 33) is well again, having been very ill, and so we home, and I to the office; then, at night, to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), and sat with my Lady, and the young couple (Sir William out of town) talking merrily; but they make a very sorry couple, methinks, though rich. So late home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1667. At noon to the Exchange [Map] and to Sir Rob. Viner's (age 36) about settling my accounts there.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. So to the 'Change [Map], and there bought 32s. worth of things for Mrs. Knipp, my Valentine, which is pretty to see how my wife is come to convention with me, that, whatever I do give to anybody else, I shall give her as much, which I am not much displeased with.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. Then abroad with my wife, leaving her at the 'Change [Map], while I to Sir H. Cholmly's (age 34), a pretty house, and a fine, worthy, well-disposed gentleman he is. He and I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57), about money for Tangier, but to little purpose. H. Cholmley (age 34) tells me, among other things, that he hears of little hopes of a peace, their demands being so high as we shall never grant, and could tell me that we shall keep no fleete abroad this year, but only squadrons. And, among other things, that my Lord Bellasses (age 52), he believes, will lose his command of Tangier by his corrupt covetous ways of.endeavouring to sell his command, which I am glad [of], for he is a man of no worth in the world but compliment.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1667. Up, and pleased at Tom's teaching of Barker something to sing a 3rd part to a song, which will please mightily. So I to the office all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map], where I do hear that letters this day come to Court do tell us that we are likely not to agree, the Dutch demanding high terms, and the King of France (age 28) the like, in a most braving manner. The merchants do give themselves over for lost, no man knowing what to do, whether to sell or buy, not knowing whether peace or war to expect, and I am told that could that be now known a man might get £20,000 in a week's time by buying up of goods in case there should be war.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1667. Thence by coach home, that is, my wife home, and I to the Exchange [Map], and there met with Fenn, who tells me they have yet no orders out of the Exchequer for money upon the Acts, which is a thing not to be borne by any Prince of understanding or care, for no money can be got advanced upon the Acts only from the weight of orders in form out of the Exchequer so long time after the passing of the Acts.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1667. So to White Hall, where the King (age 36) at Chapel, and I would not stay, but to Westminster to Howlett's, and there, he being not well, I sent for a quart of claret and burnt it and drank, and had a 'basado' or three or four of Sarah, whom 'je trouve ici', and so by coach to Sir Robt. Viner's (age 36) about my accounts with him, and so to the 'Change [Map], where I hear for certain that we are going on with our treaty of peace, and that we are to treat at Bredah. But this our condescension people do think will undo us, and I do much fear it.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1667. Our business with the Duke being done, Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I towards the Exchequer, and in our way met Sir G. Downing (age 42) going to chapel, but we stopped, and he would go with us back to the Exchequer and showed us in his office his chests full and ground and shelves full of money, and says that there is £50,000 at this day in his office of people's money, who may demand it this day, and might have had it away several weeks ago upon the late Act, but do rather choose to have it continue there than to put it into the Banker's hands, and I must confess it is more than I should have believed had I not seen it, and more than ever I could have expected would have arisen for this new Act in so short a time, and if it do so now already what would it do if the money was collected upon the Act and returned into the Exchequer so timely as it ought to be. But it comes into my mind here to observe what I have heard from Sir John Bankes (age 40), though I cannot fully conceive the reason of it, that it will be impossible to make the Exchequer ever a true bank to all intents, unless the Exchequer stood nearer the Exchange [Map], where merchants might with ease, while they are going about their business, at all hours, and without trouble or loss of time, have their satisfaction, which they cannot have now without much trouble, and loss of half a day, and no certainty of having the offices open. By this he means a bank for common practise and use of merchants, and therein I do agree with him. Being parted from Sir W. Pen (age 45) and Sir G. Downing (age 42), I to Westminster Hall [Map] and there met Balty (age 27), whom I had sent for, and there did break the business of my getting him the place of going again as Muster-Master with Harman (age 42) this voyage to the West Indys, which indeed I do owe to Sir W. Pen (age 45). He is mighty glad of it, and earnest to fit himself for it, but I do find, poor man, that he is troubled how to dispose of his wife, and apparently it is out of fear of her, and his honour, and I believe he hath received some cause of this his jealousy and care, and I do pity him in it, and will endeavour to find out some way to do, it for him.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1667. Then to the office till noon, doing business, and then to the Exchange [Map], and thence to the Sun Taverne and dined with Sir W. Batten (age 66), Sir R. Ford (age 53), and the Swede's Agent to discourse of a composition about our prizes that are condemned, but did do little, he standing upon high terms and we doing the like.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1667. So to the Council chamber, but staid not there, but to a periwigg-maker's of his acquaintance, and there bought two periwiggs, mighty fine; indeed, too fine, I thought, for me; but he persuaded me, and I did buy them for £4 10s. The two. Then to the Exchange [Map] and bought gloves, and so to the Bull-Head Taverne [Map], whither he brought my French gun; and one Truelocke, the famous gunsmith, that is a mighty ingenious man, and he did take my gun in pieces, and made me understand the secrets thereof and upon the whole I do find it a very good piece of work, and truly wrought; but for certain not a thing to be used much with safety: and he do find that this very gun was never yet shot off: I was mighty satisfied with it and him, and the sight of so much curiosity of this kind. Here he brought also a haberdasher at my desire, and I bought a hat of him, and so away and called away my wife from his house, and so home and to read, and then to supper and to bed, my head full in behalf of Balty (age 27), who tells me strange stories of his mother. Among others, how she, in his absence in Ireland, did pawne all the things that he had got in his service under Oliver, and run of her own accord, without her husband's leave, into Flanders, and that his purse, and 4s. a week which his father receives of the French church, is all the subsistence his father and mother have, and that about £20 a year maintains them; which, if it please God, I will find one way or other to provide for them, to remove that scandal away.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1667. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and there bought a pair of snuffers, and saw Mrs. Howlett after her sickness come to the Hall again. So by coach to the New Exchange and Mercer's and other places to take up bills for what I owe them, and to Mrs. Pierce, to invite her to dinner with us on Monday, but staid not with her. In the street met with Mr. Sanchy, my old acquaintance at Cambridge, reckoned a great minister here in the City; and by Sir Richard Ford (age 53) particularly, which I wonder at; for methinks, in his talk, he is but a mean man. I set him down in Holborne, and I to the Old Exchange [Map], and there to Sir Robert Viner's (age 36), and made up my accounts there, to my great content; but I find they do not keep them so regularly as, to be able to do it easily, and truly, and readily, nor would it have been easily stated by any body on my behalf but myself, several things being to be recalled to memory, which nobody else could have done, and therefore it is fully necessary for me to even accounts with these people as often as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1667. So to the 'Change [Map], and there met with Mr. James Houblon, but no hopes, as he sees, of peace whatever we pretend, but we shall be abused by the King of France (age 28). Then home to the office, and busy late, and then to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where Mr. Young was talking about the building of the City again; and he told me that those few churches that are to be new built are plainly not chosen with regard to the convenience of the City; they stand a great many in a cluster about Cornhill [Map]; but that all of them are either in the gift of the Lord Archbishop, or Bishop of London, or Chancellor (age 58), or gift of the City. Thus all things, even to the building of churches, are done in this world! And then he says, which I wonder at, that I should not in all this time see, that Moorefields [Map] have houses two stories high in them, and paved streets, the City having let leases for seven years, which he do conclude will be very much to the hindering the building of the City; but it was considered that the streets cannot be passable in London till a whole street be built; and several that had got ground of the City for charity, to build sheds on, had got the trick presently to sell that for £60, which did not cost them £20 to put up; and so the City, being very poor in stock, thought it as good to do it themselves, and therefore let leases for seven years of the ground in Moorefields [Map]; and a good deal of this money, thus advanced, hath been employed for the enabling them to find some money for Commissioner Taylor, and Sir W. Batten (age 66), towards the charge of "The Loyall London", or else, it is feared, it had never been paid. And Taylor having a bill to pay wherein Alderman Hooker (age 55) was concerned it was his invention to find out this way of raising money, or else this had not been thought on.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1667. So to the office, having staid as long as I could, and there sat all the morning, and then home at noon to dinner, and then abroad, Balty (age 27) with me, and to White Hall, by water, to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), about Balty's (age 27) £1500 contingent money for the fleete to the West Indys, and so away with him to the Exchange [Map], and mercers and drapers, up and down, to pay all my scores occasioned by this mourning for my mother; and emptied a £50 bag, and it was a joy to me to see that I am able to part with such a sum, without much inconvenience; at least, without any trouble of mind.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1667. Up. and to the office a while, none of my fellow officers coming to sit, it being holiday, and so towards noon I to the Exchange [Map], and there do hear mighty cries for peace, and that otherwise we shall be undone; and yet I do suspect the badness of the peace we shall make. Several do complain of abundance of land flung up by tenants out of their hands for want of ability to pay their rents; and by name, that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) hath £6000 so flung up. And my father writes, that Jasper Trice, upon this pretence of his tenants' dealing with him, is broke up housekeeping, and gone to board with his brother, Naylor, at Offord; which is very sad.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Apr 1667. At noon I to the 'Change [Map], and there hear by Mr. Hublon of the loss of a little East Indiaman, valued at about £20,000, coming home alone, and safe to within ten leagues of Scilly [Map], and there snapt by a French Caper. Our merchants do much pray for peace; and he tells me that letters are come that the Dutch have stopped the fitting of their great ships, and the coming out of a fleete of theirs of 50 sayle, that was ready to come out; but I doubt the truth of it yet.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1667. Up, and to read more in the "Origines", and then to the office, where the news is strong that not only the Dutch cannot set out a fleete this year, but that the French will not, and that he hath given the answer to the Dutch Embassador, saying that he is for the King (age 36) of England's, having an honourable peace, which, if true, is the best news we have had a good while. At the office all the morning, and there pleased with the little pretty Deptford, Kent [Map] woman I have wished for long, and she hath occasion given her to come again to me. After office I to the 'Change [Map] a little, and then home and to dinner, and then by coach with my wife to the Duke of York's (age 33) house, and there saw "The Wits", a play I formerly loved, and is now corrected and enlarged: but, though I like the acting, yet I like not much in the play now. The Duke of York (age 33) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) gone to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], makes me thus to go to plays.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], the first day of the Term, and there joyed Mrs. Michell, who is mightily pleased with my wife's work yesterday, and so away to my barber's about my periwigg, and then to the Exchange [Map], there to meet Fenn about some money to be borrowed of the office of the Ordnance to answer a great pinch.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1667. Thence to the office, where we sat all the morning, but little to do, and then to the 'Change [Map], where for certain I hear, and the News book declares, a peace between France and Portugal. Met here with Mr. Pierce, and he tells me the Duke of Cambridge (age 3) is very ill and full of spots about his body, that Dr. Frazier (age 57) knows not what to think of it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1667. Thence with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to find out Creed from one lodging to another, which he hath changed so often that there is no finding him, but at last do come to his lodging that he is entering into this day, and do find his goods unlading at the door, by Scotland Yard, and there I set down Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and I away to the 'Change [Map], where spoke about several things, and then going home did meet Mr. Andrews (age 35) our neighbour, and did speak with him to enquire about the ground behind our house, of which I have a mind to buy enough to make a stable and coach-house; for I do see that my condition do require it, as well as that it is more charge to my purse to live as I do than to keep one, and therefore I am resolved before winter to have one, unless some extraordinary thing happens to hinder me. He promises me to look after it for me, and so I home to dinner, where I find my wife's flageolette master, and I am so pleased with her proceeding, though she hath lost time by not practising, that I am resolved for the encouragement of the man to learn myself a little for a month or so, for I do foresee if God send my wife and I to live, she will become very good company for me. He gone, comes Lovett with my little print of my dear Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) varnished, and the frame prettily done like gold, which pleases me well. He dined with me, but by his discourse I do still see that he is a man of good wit but most strange experience, and acquaintance with all manner of subtleties and tricks, that I do think him not fit for me to keep any acquaintance with him, lest he some time or other shew me a slippery trick.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1667. Thence by coach to the Red Lyon, thinking to meet my father, but I come too soon, but my wife is gone out of town to meet him. I am in great pain, poor man, for him, lest he should come up in pain to town. So I staid not, but to the 'Change [Map], and there staid a little, where most of the newes is that the Swedes are likely to fall out with the Dutch, which we wish, but how true I know not. Here I met my uncle Wight (age 65), the second day he hath been abroad, having been sick these two months even to death, but having never sent to me even in the greatest of his danger. I do think my Aunt had no mind I should come, and so I never went to see him, but neither he took notice of it to me, nor I made any excuse for it to him, but past two or three How do you's, and so parted and so home, and by and by comes my poor father, much better than I expected, being at ease by fits, according as his truss sits, and at another time in as much pain. I am mighty glad to see him come well to town.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1667. So to the office, and then to Sir R. Viner's (age 36) about some part of my accounts now going on with him, and then home and ended my letters, and then to supper and my chamber to settle many things there, and then to bed. This noon I was on the 'Change [Map], where I to my astonishment hear, and it is in the Gazette, that Sir John Duncomb (age 44) is sworn yesterday a Privy-councillor.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1667. So home, and to enter my Journall of my late journey to this hour, and then to the office, where to do a little business, and then by water to White Hall (calling at Michell's in my way, but the rogue would not invite me in, I having a mind para voir his wife), and there to the Council-chamber, to deliver a letter to their Lordships about the state of the six merchantmen which we have been so long fitting out. When I come, the King (age 37) and the whole table full of Lords were hearing of a pitifull cause of a complaint of an old man, with a great grey beard, against his son, for not allowing him something to live on; and at last come to the ordering the son to allow his father £10 a year. This cause lasted them near two hours; which, methinks, at this time to be the work of the Council-board of England, is a scandalous thing, and methought Sir W. Coventry (age 39) to me did own as much. Here I find all the newes is the enemy's landing 3,000 men near Harwich [Map]1, and attacking Landguard Fort, and being beat off thence with our great guns, killing some of their men, and they leaving their ladders behind them; but we had no Horse in the way on Suffolk side, otherwise we might have galled their Foot. The Duke of York (age 33) is gone down thither this day, while the General sat sleeping this afternoon at the Council-table. The news so much talked of this Exchange [Map], of a peace, I find by Sir Richard Browne (age 62) arises from a letter the Swedes' agent hath received from Bredah and shewed at Court to-day, that they are come very near it, but I do not find anybody here relying upon it. This cause being over, the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] men, whom I did not expect to meet, were called in, and there Sir W. Pen (age 46) made a formal speech in answer to a question of the King's, whether the lying of the sunk ships in the river would spoil the river. But, Lord! how gingerly he answered it, and with a deal of do that he did not know whether it would be safe as to the enemy to have them taken up, but that doubtless it would be better for the river to have them taken up. Methought the Council found them answer like fools, and it ended in bidding them think more of it, and bring their answer in writing.

Note 1. Richard Browne, writing to Williamson from Aldeburgh, on July 2nd, says: "The Dutch fleet of 80 sail has anchored in the bay; they were expected to land, but they tacked about, and stood first northward and then southward, close by Orford [Map] lighthouse, and have now passed the Ness towards Harwich [Map]; they have fired no guns, but made false fires" (Calendar of State Papers, 1667, p. 258).

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1667. Up betimes and to my office, and there busy till the office (which was only Sir T. Harvy (age 42) and myself) met, and did little business and then broke up. He tells me that the Council last night did sit close to determine of the King's answer about the peace, and that though he do not certainly know, yet by all discourse yesterday he do believe it is peace, and that the King (age 37) had said it should be peace, and had bidden Alderman Backewell (age 49) to declare [it] upon the 'Change [Map]. It is high time for us to have peace that the King (age 37) and Council may get up their credits and have time to do it, for that indeed is the bottom of all our misery, that nobody have any so good opinion of the King (age 37) and his Council and their advice as to lend money or venture their persons, or estates, or pains upon people that they know cannot thrive with all that we can do, but either by their corruption or negligence must be undone. This indeed is the very bottom of every man's thought, and the certain ground that we must be ruined unless the King (age 37) change his course, or the Parliament come and alter it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1667. Thence I to White Hall, and in the street I spied Mrs. Borroughs, and took a means to meet and salute her and talk a little, and then parted, and I home by coach, taking up my wife at the Exchange [Map], and there I am mightily pleased with this Mrs. Smith, being a very pleasant woman.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1667. So to Mr. Burges to as little. There to the Hall and talked with Mrs. Michell, who begins to tire me about doing something for her elder son, which I am willing to do, but know not what. Thence to White Hall again, and thence away, and took up my wife at Unthanke's, and left her at the 'Change [Map], and so I to Bennet's to take up a bill for the last silk I had for my vest and coat, which I owe them for, and so to the Excise Office, and there did a little business, and so to Temple Bar and staid at my bookseller's till my wife calls me, and so home, where I am saluted with the news of Hogg's bringing a rich Canary prize to Hull:1 and Sir W. Batten (age 66) do offer me £1000 down for my particular share, beside Sir Richard Ford's (age 53) part, which do tempt me; but yet I would not take it, but will stand and fall with the company. He and two more, the Panther and Fanfan, did enter into consortship; and so they have all brought in each a prize, though ours worth as much as both theirs, and more. However, it will be well worth having, God be thanked for it! This news makes us all very glad. I at Sir W. Batten's (age 66) did hear the particulars of it; and there for joy he did give the company that were there a bottle or two of his own last year's wine, growing at Walthamstow [Map], than which the whole company said they never drank better foreign wine in their lives.

Note 1. Thomas Pointer to Samuel Pepys (Hull, July 15th): "Capt. Hogg has brought in a great prize laden with Canary wine; also Capt. Reeves of the 'Panther,' and the 'Fanfan,' whose commander is slain, have come in with their prizes" (Calendar of State Papers, 1667, p. 298).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1667. Up and to the office, where all the morning, and then towards the 'Change [Map], at noon, in my way observing my mistake yesterday in Mark Lane [Map], that the woman I saw was not the pretty woman I meant, the line-maker's wife, but a new-married woman, very pretty, a strong-water seller: and in going by, to my content, I find that the very pretty daughter at the Ship [Map] tavern, at the end of Billiter Lane, is there still, and in the bar: and, I believe, is married to him that is new come, and hath new trimmed the house.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1667. So up to my Chancellor's (age 58), where was a Committee of Tangier in my Lord's roome, where he is to hear causes, where all the judges' pictures hang up, very fine. Here I read my letter to them, which was well received, and they did fall seriously to discourse the want of money and other particulars, and to some pretty good purpose. But to see how Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did oppose both my Chancellor (age 58) and the Duke of York (age 33) himself, about the Order of the Commissioners of the Treasury to me for not paying of pensions, and with so much reason, and eloquence so natural, was admirable. And another thing, about his pressing for the reduction of the charge of Tangier, which they would have put off to another time; "But", says he, "the King (age 37) suffers so much by the putting off of the consideration of reductions of charge, that he is undone; and therefore I do pray you, sir, to his Royal Highness, that when any thing offers of the kind, you will not let it escape you". Here was a great bundle of letters brought hither, sent up from sea, from a vessel of ours that hath taken them after they had been flung over by a Dutchman; wherein, among others, the Duke of York (age 33) did read the superscription of one to De Witt, thus "To the most wise, foreseeing and discreet, These, &c."; which, I thought with myself, I could have been glad might have been duly directed to any one of them at the table, though the greatest men in this kingdom. The Duke of York (age 33), the Chancellor (age 58), my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Arlington, Ashley, Peterborough, and Coventry (the best of them all for parts), I perceive they do all profess their expectation of a peace, and that suddenly, and do advise of things accordingly, and do all speak of it (and expressly, I remember, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58)), saying that they hoped for it. Letters were read at the table from Tangier that Guiland is wholly lost, and that he do offer Arzill to us to deliver it to us. But Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did declare his opinion that we should have nothing to do with it, and said that if Tangier were offered us now, as the King's condition is, he would advise against the taking it; saying, that the King's charge is too great, and must be brought down, it being, like the fire of this City, never to be mastered till you have brought it under you; and that these places abroad are but so much charge to the King (age 37), and we do rather hitherto strive to greaten them than lessen them; and then the King (age 37) is forced to part with them, "as", says he, "he did with Dunkirke", by my Lord Tiviott's making it so chargeable to the King (age 37) as he did that, and would have done Tangier, if he had lived: I perceive he is the only man that do seek the King's profit, and is bold to deliver what he thinks on every occasion. Having broke up here, I away with Mr. Gawden in his coach to the 'Change [Map], and there a little, and then home and dined, and then to the office, and by and by with my wife to White Hall (she to Unthanke's), and there met Creed and did a little business at the Treasury chamber, and then to walk in Westminster Hall [Map] an hour or two, with much pleasure reflecting upon our discourse to-day at the Tangier meeting, and crying up the worth of Sir W. Coventry (age 39). Creed tells me of the fray between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Duke's playhouse the last Saturday (and it is the first day I have heard that they have acted at either the King's or Duke's houses this month or six weeks) and Henry Killigrew (age 30), whom the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did soundly beat and take away his sword, and make a fool of, till the fellow prayed him to spare his life; and I am glad of it; for it seems in this business the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did carry himself very innocently and well, and I wish he had paid this fellow's coat well. I heard something of this at the 'Change [Map] to-day: and it is pretty to hear how people do speak kindly of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), as one that will enquire into faults; and therefore they do mightily favour him. And it puts me in mind that, this afternoon, Billing (age 44), the Quaker, meeting me in the Hall, come to me, and after a little discourse did say, "Well", says he, "now you will be all called to an account"; meaning the Parliament is drawing near. This done I took coach and took up my wife, and so home, and after a little at the office I home to my chamber a while, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1667. At the office all the morning; and at noon to the 'Change [Map], where I met Fenn; and he tells me that Sir John Coventry (age 31) do bring the confirmation of the peace; but I do not find the 'Change [Map] at all glad of it, but rather the worse, they looking upon it as a peace made only to preserve the King (age 37) for a time in his lusts and ease, and to sacrifice trade and his kingdoms only to his own pleasures: so that the hearts of merchants are quite down. He tells me that the King (age 37) and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) are quite broke off, and she is gone away, and is with child, and swears the King (age 37) shall own it; and she will have it christened in the Chapel at White Hall so, and owned for the King's, as other Kings have done; or she will bring it into White Hall gallery, and dash the brains of it out before the King's face1.

Note 1. Charles owned only four children by Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26) - Anne, Countess of Sussex (age 6), and the Dukes of Southampton (age 5), Grafton (age 3), and Northumberland (age 1). The last of these was born in 1665. The paternity of all her other children was certainly doubtful. See pp. 50,52.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. But, above all, I saw my Lord Mordaunt (age 41) as merry as the best, that it seems hath done such further indignities to Mr. Taylor' since the last sitting of Parliament as would hang (him), if there were nothing else, would the King (age 37) do what were fit for him; but nothing of that is now likely to be. After having spent an hour or two in the hall, my cozen Roger (age 50) and I and Creed to the Old Exchange [Map], where I find all the merchants sad at this peace and breaking up of the Parliament, as men despairing of any good to the nation, which is a grievous consideration; and so home, and there cozen Roger (age 50) and Creed to dinner with me, and very merry:-but among other things they told me of the strange, bold sermon of Dr. Creeton yesterday, before the King (age 37); how he preached against the sins of the Court, and particularly against adultery, over and over instancing how for that single sin in David, the whole nation was undone; and of our negligence in having our castles without ammunition and powder when the Dutch come upon us; and how we have no courage now a-days, but let our ships be taken out of our harbour. Here Creed did tell us the story of the dwell last night, in Coventgarden [Map], between Sir H. Bellasses (age 28) and Tom Porter. It is worth remembering the silliness of the quarrell, and is a kind of emblem of the general complexion of this whole kingdom at present. They two it seems dined yesterday at Sir Robert Carr's (age 30), where it seems people do drink high, all that come. It happened that these two, the greatest friends in the world, were talking together: and Sir H. Bellasses talked a little louder than ordinary to Tom Porter, giving of him some advice. Some of the company standing by said, "What! are they quarrelling, that they talk so high?" Sir H. Bellasses hearing it, said, "No!" says he: "I would have you know that I never quarrel, but I strike; and take that as a rule of mine!"-"How?" says Tom Porter, "strike! I would I could see the man in England that durst give me a blow!" with that Sir H. Bellasses did give him a box of the eare; and so they were going to fight there, but were hindered. And by and by Tom Porter went out; and meeting Dryden (age 35) the poet, told him of the business, and that he was resolved to fight Sir H. Bellasses presently; for he knew, if he did not, they should be made friends to-morrow, and then the blow would rest upon him; which he would prevent, and desired Dryden (age 35) to let him have his boy to bring him notice which way Sir H. Bellasses goes.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 66) in the morning to St. James's, where we did our ordinary business with the Duke of York (age 33), where I perceive they have taken the highest resolution in the world to become good husbands, and to retrench all charge; and to that end we are commanded to give him an account of the establishment in the seventh year of the late King's reign, and how offices and salaries have been increased since; and I hope it will end in the taking away some of our Commissioners, though it may be to the lessening of some of our salaries also. After done with the Duke of York (age 33), and coming out through his dressing-room, I there spied Signor Francisco tuning his gittar, and Monsieur de Puy with him, who did make him play to me, which he did most admirably-so well as I was mightily troubled that all that pains should have been taken upon so bad an instrument. Walked over the Park with Mr. Gawden, end with him by coach home, and to the Exchange [Map], where I hear the ill news of our loss lately of four rich ships, two from Guinea, one from Gallipoly, all with rich oyles; and the other from Barbadoes, worth, as is guessed, £80,000. But here is strong talk, as if Harman (age 42) had taken some of the Dutch East India ships, but I dare not yet believe it, and brought them into Lisbon1.

Note 1. "Sept. 6, 1667. John Clarke to James Hickes. A vessel arrived from Harwich [Map] brings news that the English lost 600 to 700 men in the attempt on St. Christopher; that Sir John Harman (age 42) was not then there, but going with 11 ships, and left a ketch at Barbadoes to bring more soldiers after him; that the ketch met a French sloop with a packet from St. Christopher to their fleet at Martinico, and took her, whereupon Sir John Harman (age 42) sailed there and fell upon their fleet of 27 sail, 25 of which he sank, and burnt the others, save two which escaped; also that he left three of his fleet there, and went with the rest to Nevis, to make another attempt on St. Christopher. "Calendar of State Payers, 1667, p. 447.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1667. Thence I to the printseller's, over against the Exchange [Map] towards Covent Garden [Map], and there bought a few more prints of cittys, and so home with them, and my wife and maids being gone over the water to the whitster's1 with their clothes, this being the first time of her trying this way of washing her linen, I dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 66), and after dinner, all alone to the King's playhouse, and there did happen to sit just before Mrs. Pierce, and Mrs. Knepp, who pulled me by the hair; and so I addressed myself to them, and talked to them all the intervals of the play, and did give them fruit. The play is "Brenoralt", which I do find but little in, for my part. Here was many fine ladies-among others, the German Baron, with his lady, who is envoye from the Emperour, and their fine daughter, which hath travelled all Europe over with them, it seems; and is accordingly accomplished, and indeed, is a wonderful pretty woman. Here Sir Philip Frowde, who sat next to me, did tell me how Sir H. Belasses (deceased) is dead, and that the quarrel between him and Tom Porter, who is fled, did arise in the ridiculous fashion that I was first told it, which is a strange thing between two so good friends.

Note 1. A bleacher of linen. "The whitsters of Datchet Mead" are referred to by Mrs. Ford ("Merry Wives of Windsor", act iii., sc. 3).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1667. At noon home to dinner, and then with my wife abroad, set her down at the Exchange [Map], and I to St. James's, where find Sir W. Coventry (age 39) alone, and fell to discourse of retrenchments; and thereon he tells how he hath already propounded to the Lords Committee of the Councils how he would have the Treasurer of the Navy a less man, that might not sit at the Board, but be subject to the Board. He would have two Controllers to do his work and two Surveyors, whereof one of each to take it by turns to reside at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and Chatham, Kent [Map] by a kind of rotation; he would have but only one Clerk of the Acts. He do tell me he hath propounded how the charge of the Navy in peace shall come within £200,000, by keeping out twenty-four ships in summer, and ten in the winter. And several other particulars we went over of retrenchment: and I find I must provide some things to offer that I may be found studious to lessen the King's charge.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1667. Thence, with my Lord Bruncker (age 47) to the Duke's Playhouse (telling my wife so at the 'Change [Map], where I left her), and there saw "Sir Martin Marr-all" again, which I have now seen three times, and it hath been acted but four times, and still find it a very ingenious play, and full of variety.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1667. At noon dined at home, and then my wife and I, with Sir W. Pen (age 46), to the New Exchange, set her down, and he and I to St. James's, where Sir J. Minnes (age 68), Sir W. Batten (age 66), and we waited upon the Duke of York (age 33), but did little business, and he, I perceive, his head full of other business, and of late hath not been very ready to be troubled with any of our business. Having done with him, Sir J. Minnes (age 68), Sir W. Batten (age 66) and I to White Hall, and there hear how it is like to go well enough with my Chancellor (age 58); that he is like to keep his Seal, desiring that he may stand his trial in Parliament, if they will accuse him of any thing. Here Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and I looking upon the pictures; and Mr. Chevins (age 65), being by, did take us, of his own accord, into the King's closet, to shew us some pictures, which, indeed, is a very noble place, and exceeding great variety of brave pictures, and the best hands. I could have spent three or four hours there well, and we had great liberty to look and Chevins seemed to take pleasure to shew us, and commend the pictures. Having done here, I to the Exchange [Map], and there find my wife gone with Sir W. Pen (age 46). So I to visit Colonel Fitzgerald, who hath been long sick at Woolwich, Kent [Map], where most of the officers and soldiers quartered there, since the Dutch being in the river, have died or been sick, and he among the rest; and, by the growth of his beard and gray [hairs], I did not know him. His desire to speak with me was about the late command for my paying no more pensions for Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1667. All the morning, business at the office, dined at home, then in the afternoon set my wife down at the Exchange [Map], and I to St. James's, and there attended the Duke of York (age 33) about the list of ships that we propose to sell: and here there attended Mr. Wren the first time, who hath not yet, I think, received the Duke of York's (age 33) seal and papers. At our coming hither, we found the Duke (age 33) and Duchesse (age 30) all alone at dinner, methought melancholy; or else I thought so, from the late occasion of the Chancellor's (age 58) fall, who, they say, however, takes it very contentedly.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1667. Thence I to White Hall a little, and so took up my wife at the 'Change [Map], and so home, and at the office late, and so home to supper and to bed, our boy ill.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1667. All the afternoon at the office, and towards night out by coach with my wife, she to the 'Change [Map], and I to see the price of a copper cisterne for the table, which is very pretty, and they demand £6 or £7 for one; but I will have one.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1667. Then called my wife at the 'Change [Map], and bought a nightgown for my wife: cost but 24s., and so out to Mile End [Map] to drink, and so home to the office to end my letters, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1667. Having dined, I away, and with my wife and Mercer, set my wife down at the 'Change [Map], and the other at White Hall, and I to St. James's, where we all met, and did our usual weekly business with the Duke of York (age 33). But, Lord! methinks both he and we are mighty flat and dull over what we used to be, when Sir W. Coventry (age 39) was among us.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1667. Up, and with Mr. Gawden to the Exchequer. By the way, he tells me this day he is to be answered whether he must hold Sheriffe or no; for he would not hold unless he may keep it at his office, which is out of the city (and so my Lord Mayor must come with his sword down, whenever he comes thither), which he do, because he cannot get a house fit for him in the city, or else he will fine for it. Among others that they have in nomination for Sheriffe, one is little Chaplin (age 40), who was his servant, and a very young man to undergo that place; but as the city is now, there is no great honour nor joy to be had, in being a public officer. At the Exchequer I looked after my business, and when done went home to the 'Change [Map], and there bought a case of knives for dinner, and a dish of fruit for 5s., and bespoke other things, and then home, and here I find all things in good order, and a good dinner towards. Anon comes Sir W. Batten (age 66) and his lady, and Mr. Griffith, their ward, and Sir W. Pen (age 46) and his lady (age 43), and Mrs. Lowther, who is grown, either through pride or want of manners, a fool, having not a word to say almost all dinner; and, as a further mark of a beggarly, proud fool, hath a bracelet of diamonds and rubies about her wrist, and a sixpenny necklace about her neck, and not one good rag of clothes upon her back; and Sir John Chichly (age 27) in their company, and Mrs. Turner (age 44). Here I had an extraordinary good and handsome dinner for them, better than any of them deserve or understand, saving Sir John Chichly (age 27) and Mrs. Turner (age 44), and not much mirth, only what I by discourse made, and that against my genius.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1667. Thence to the Exchange [Map] for something for my wife, and then home and to the office, and then home to our flageolet, and so to bed, being mightily troubled in mind at the liberty I give myself of going to plays upon pretence of the weakness of my eyes, that cannot continue so long together at work at my office, but I must remedy it.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1667. Up betimes and to Captain Cocke (age 50), in his coach which he sent for me, and he not being ready I walked in the Exchange [Map], which is now made pretty, by having windows and doors before all their shops, to keep out the cold.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1667. All the morning at the office, dined at home, and expected Sheres again, but he did not come, so another dinner lost by the folly of Creed. After having done some business at the office, I out with my wife to Sheres's lodging and left an invitation for him to dine with me tomorrow, and so back and took up my wife at the Exchange [Map], and then kissed Mrs. Smith's pretty hand, and so with my wife by coach to take some ayre (but the way very dirty) as far as Bow, and so drinking (as usual) at Mile End [Map] of Byde's ale, we home and there busy at my letters till late, and so to walk by moonshine with my wife, and so to bed. The King (age 37), Duke of York (age 33), and the men of the Court, have been these four or five days a-hunting at Bagshot.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1667. Up, and walked to the Exchange [Map], there to get a coach but failed, and so was forced to walk a most dirty walk to the Old Swan [Map], and there took boat, and so to the Exchange [Map], and there took coach to St. James's and did our usual business with the Duke of York (age 33).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1667. Thence to the Excise office, and so to the Exchange [Map], and did a little business, and so home and took up my wife, and so carried her to the other end, where I 'light at my Lord Ashly's (age 46), by invitation, to dine there, which I did, and Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), Creed, and Yeabsly, upon occasion of the business of Yeabsly, who, God knows, do bribe him very well for it; and it is pretty to see how this great man do condescend to these things, and do all he can in his examining of his business to favour him, and yet with great cunning not to be discovered but by me that am privy to it. At table it is worth remembering that my Lord tells us that the House of Lords is the last appeal that a man can make, upon a poynt of interpretation of the law, and that therein they are above the judges; and that he did assert this in the Lords' House upon the late occasion of the quarrel between my Lord Bristoll (age 54) and the Chancellor (age 58), when the former did accuse the latter of treason, and the judges did bring it in not to be treason: my Lord Ashly (age 46) did declare that the judgment of the judges was nothing in the presence of their Lordships, but only as far as they were the properest men to bring precedents; but not to interpret the law to their Lordships, but only the inducements of their persuasions: and this the Lords did concur in. Another pretty thing was my Lady Ashly's speaking of the bad qualities of glass-coaches; among others, the flying open of the doors upon any great shake: but another was, that my Lady Peterborough (age 45) being in her glass-coach, with the glass up, and seeing a lady pass by in a coach whom she would salute, the glass was so clear, that she thought it had been open, and so ran her head through the glass, and cut all her forehead! After dinner, before we fell to the examination of Yeabsly's business, we were put into my Lord's room before he could come to us, and there had opportunity to look over his state of his accounts of the prizes; and there saw how bountiful the King (age 37) hath been to several people and hardly any man almost, Commander of the Navy of any note, but hath had some reward or other out of it; and many sums to the Privy-purse, but not so many, I see, as I thought there had been: but we could not look quite through it. But several Bedchamber-men and people about the Court had good sums; and, among others, Sir John Minnes (age 68) and Lord Bruncker (age 47) have £200 a-piece for looking to the East India prizes, while I did their work for them.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1667. He gone, I thence to my Lady Peterborough (age 45), who sent for me; and with her an hour talking about her husband's pension, and how she hath got an order for its being paid again; though, I believe, for all that order, it will hardly be; but of that I said nothing; but her design is to get it paid again: and how to raise money upon it, to clear it from the engagement which lies upon it to some citizens, who lent her husband money, without her knowledge, upon it, to vast loss. She intends to force them to take their money again, and release her husband (age 45) of those hard terms. The woman is a very wise woman, and is very plain in telling me how her plate and jewels are at pawne for money, and how they are forced to live beyond their estate, and do get nothing by his being a courtier. The lady I pity, and her family. Having done with her, and drunk two glasses of her meade, which she did give me, and so to the Treasurer's Office, and there find my Lord Bruncker (age 47) and Sir W. Pen (age 46) at dinner with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) about his accounts, where I dined and talked and settled some business, and then home, and there took out my wife and Willet, thinking to have gone to a play, but both houses were begun, and so we to the 'Change [Map], and thence to my tailor's, and there, the coachman desiring to go home to change his horses, we went with him into a nasty end of all St. Giles's [Map], and there went into a nasty room, a chamber of his, where he hath a wife and child, and there staid, it growing dark too, and I angry thereat, till he shifted his horses, and then home apace, and there I to business late, and so home, to supper, and walk in the garden with my wife and girle, with whom we are mightily pleased, and after talking and supping, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1667. At noon home, and by coach to Temple Bar to a India shop, and there bought a gown and sash, which cost me 26s., and so she [Mrs. Pepys] and Willet away to the 'Change [Map], and I to my Lord Crew (age 69), and there met my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and Lady Jemimah, and there dined with them and my Lord, where pretty merry, and after dinner my Lord Crew (age 69) and Hinchingbroke [Map] and myself went aside to discourse about my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business, which is in a very ill state for want of money, and so parted, and I to my tailor's, and there took up my wife and Willet, who staid there for me, and to the Duke of York's playhouse, but the house so full, it being a new play, "The Coffe House", that we could not get in, and so to the King's house: and there, going in, met with Knepp, and she took us up into the tireing-rooms: and to the women's shift, where Nell (age 17) was dressing herself, and was all unready, and is very pretty, prettier than I thought.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Oct 1667. Thence to several places to buy a hat, and books, and neckcloths, and several errands I did before I got home, and, among others, bought me two new pair of spectacles of Turlington, who, it seems, is famous for them; and his daughter, he being out of the way, do advise me two very young sights, as that that will help me most, and promises me great ease from them, and I will try them. At the Exchange [Map] I met Creed, and took him home with me, and dined, and among other things he tells me that Sir Robert Brookes is the man that did mention the business in Parliament yesterday about my Lord Sandwich (age 42), but that it was seconded by nobody, but the matter will fall before the Committee for miscarriages.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1667. Up, and betimes got a coach at the Exchange [Map], and thence to St. James's, where I had forgot that the Duke of York (age 34) and family were gone to White Hall, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, finding the Parliament likely to be busy all this morning about the business of Mr. Bruncker (age 40) for advising Cox and Harman (age 42) to shorten sail when they were in pursuit of the Dutch after the first great victory. I went away to Mr. Creed's chamber, there to meet Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), about business of Mr. Yeabsly, where I was delivered of a great fear that they would question some of the orders for payment of money which I had got them signed at the time of the plague, when I was here alone, but all did pass.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1667. Thence Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I back into London; and there saw the King (age 37), with his kettle-drums and trumpets, going to the Exchange [Map], to lay the first stone of the first pillar of the new building of the Exchange [Map]; which, the gates being shut, I could not get in to see: but, with Sir W. Pen (age 46), to Captain Cocke's (age 50) to drink a dram of brandy, and so he to the Treasury office about Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) accounts, and I took coach and back again toward Westminster; but in my way stopped at the Exchange [Map], and got in, the King (age 37) being newly gone; and there find the bottom of the first pillar laid. And here was a shed set up, and hung with tapestry, and a canopy of state, and some good victuals and wine, for the King (age 37), who, it seems, did it; and so a great many people, as Tom Killigrew (age 55), and others of the Court there, and there I did eat a mouthful and drink a little, and do find Mr. Gawden in his gowne as Sheriffe, and understand that the King (age 37) hath this morning knighted him upon the place, which I am mightily pleased with; and I think the other Sheriffe, who is Davis, the little fellow, my schoolfellow,-the bookseller, who was one of Audley's' Executors, and now become Sheriffe; which is a strange turn, methinks.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Nov 1667. Up betimes, and down to the waterside (calling and drinking a dram of the bottle at Michell's, but saw not Betty), and thence to White Hall and to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) lodging, where he and I alone a good while, where he gives me the full of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) and D. Gawden's narratives, given yesterday by the House, wherein they fall foul of him and Sir G. Carteret (age 57) in something about the dividing of the fleete, and the Prince particularly charging the Commissioners of the Navy with negligence, he says the Commissioners of the Navy whereof Sir W. Coventry (age 39) is one. He tells me that he is prepared to answer any particular most thoroughly, but the quality of the persons do make it difficult for him, and so I do see is in great pain, poor man, though he deserves better than twenty such as either of them, for his abilities and true service to the King (age 37) and kingdom. He says there is incoherences, he believes, to be found between their two reports, which will be pretty work to consider. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58) charges W. Coventry that he should tell him, when he come down to the fleete with Sir G. Carteret (age 57), to consult about dividing the fleete, that the Dutch would not be out in six weeks, which W. Coventry says is as false as is possible, and he can prove the contrary by the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) own letters. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58) says that he did upon sight of the Dutch call a council of officers, and they did conclude they could not avoid fighting the Dutch; and yet we did go to the enemy, and found them at anchor, which is a pretty contradiction. And he tells me that Spragg did the other day say in the House, that the Prince, at his going from the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) with his fleete, did tell him that if the Dutch should come on, the Duke was to follow him, the Prince, with his fleete, and not fight the Dutch. Out of all this a great deal of good might well be picked. But it is a sad consideration that all this picking of holes in one another's coats-nay, and the thanks of the House to the Prince and the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), and all this envy and design to ruin Sir W. Coventry (age 39)-did arise from Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) unfortunate mistake the other day, in producing of a letter from the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), touching the good condition of all things at Chatham, Kent [Map] just before the Dutch come up, and did us that fatal mischiefe; for upon this they are resolved to undo him, and I pray God they do not. He tells me upon my demanding it that he thinks the King (age 37) do not like this their bringing these narratives, and that they give out that they would have said more but that the King (age 37) hath hindered them, that I suppose is about my Lord Sandwich (age 42). He is getting a copy of the Narratives, which I shall then have, and so I parted from him and away to White Hall, where I met Mr. Creed and Yeabsly, and discoursed a little about Mr. Yeabsly's business and accounts, and so I to chapel and there staid, it being All-Hallows day, and heard a fine anthem, made by Pelham (who is come over) in France, of which there was great expectation, and indeed is a very good piece of musique, but still I cannot call the Anthem anything but instrumentall musique with the voice, for nothing is made of the words at all. I this morning before chapel visited Sir G. Carteret (age 57), who is vexed to see how things are likely to go, but cannot help it, and yet seems to think himself mighty safe. I also visited my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19), at his chamber at White Hall, where I found Mr. Turner, Moore, and Creed, talking of my Lord Sandwich (age 42), whose case I doubt is but bad, and, I fear, will not escape being worse, though some of the company did say otherwise. But I am mightily pleased with my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 19) sobriety and few words. After chapel I with Creed to the Exchange [Map], and after much talk he and I there about securing of some money either by land or goods to be always at our command, which we think a thing advisable in this critical time, we parted, and I to the Sun Taverne with Sir W. Warren (with whom I have not drank many a day, having for some time been strange to him), and there did put it to him to advise me how to dispose of my prize, which he will think of and do to my best advantage. We talked of several other things relating to his service, wherein I promise assistance, but coldly, thinking it policy to do so, and so, after eating a short dinner, I away home, and there took out my wife, and she and I alone to the King's playhouse, and there saw a silly play and an old one, "The Taming of a Shrew", and so home and I to my office a little, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1667. Thence home, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to the Excise Office to see what tallies are paying, and thence back to the Old Exchange [Map], by the way talking of news, and he owning Sir W. Coventry (age 39), in his opinion, to be one of the worthiest men in the nation, as I do really think he is. He tells me he do think really that they will cut off my Chancellor's (age 58) head, the Chancellor (age 58) at this day showing as much pride as is possible to those few that venture their fortunes by coming to see him; and that the Duke of York (age 34) is troubled much, knowing that those that fling down the Chancellor (age 58) cannot stop there, but will do something to him, to prevent his having it in his power hereafter to avenge himself and father-in-law upon them. And this Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) fears may be by divorcing the Queen (age 28) and getting another, or declaring the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate; which God forbid! He tells me he do verily believe that there will come in an impeachment of High Treason against my Lord of Ormond (age 57); among other things, for ordering the quartering of soldiers in Ireland on free quarters; which, it seems, is High Treason in that country, and was one of the things that lost the Lord Strafford his head, and the law is not yet repealed; which, he says, was a mighty oversight of him not to have it repealed, which he might with ease have done, or have justified himself by an Act. From the Exchange [Map] I took a coach, and went to Turlington, the great spectacle-maker, for advice, who dissuades me from using old spectacles, but rather young ones, and do tell me that nothing can wrong my eyes more than for me to use reading-glasses, which do magnify much.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Nov 1667. After dinner, by coach as far as the Temple [Map], and there saw a new book, in folio, of all that suffered for the King (age 37) in the late times, which I will buy, it seems well writ, and then back to the Old Exchange [Map], and there at my goldsmith's bought a basin for my wife to give the Parson's child, to which the other day she was godmother. It cost me; £10 14s. besides graving, which I do with the cypher of the name, Daniel Mills, and so home to the office, and then home to supper and hear my wife read, and then to bed. This afternoon, after dinner, come to me Mr. Warren, and there did tell me that he come to pay his debt to me for the kindness I did him in getting his last ship out, which I must also remember was a service to the King (age 37), though I did not tell him so, as appeared by my advising with the board, and there writing to Sir W. Coventry (age 39) to get the pass for the ship to go for it to Genoa. Now that which he had promised me for the courtesy was I take it 100 pieces or more, I think more, and also for the former courtesy I had done for the getting of his first ship out for this hemp he did promise me a consideration upon the return of the goods, but I never did to this day demand any thing of him, only about a month ago he told me that now his ship was come, and he would come out of my debt, but told me that whereas he did expect to have had some profit by the voyage, it had proved of loss to him, by the loss of some ships, or some accidents, I know not what, and so that he was not able to do what he intended, but told me that he would present me with sixty pieces in gold. I told him I would demand nothing of his promises, though they were much greater, nor would have thus much, but if he could afford to give me but fifty pieces, it should suffice me. So now he brought something in a paper, which since proves to be fifty pieces. But before I would take them I told him that I did not insist on anything, and therefore prayed him to consult his ability before he did part with them: and so I refused them once or twice till he did the third time offer them, and then I took them, he saying that he would present me with as many more if I would undertake to get him £500 paid on his bills. I told him I would by no means have any promise of the kind, nor would have any kindness from him for any such service, but that I should do my utmost for nothing to do him that justice, and would endeavour to do what I could for him, and so we parted, he owning himself mightily engaged to me for my kind usage of him in accepting of so small a matter in satisfaction of all that he owed me; which I enter at large for my justification if anything of this should be hereafter enquired after. This evening also comes to me to my closet at the Office Sir John Chichly (age 27), of his own accord, to tell me what he shall answer to the Committee, when, as he expects, he shall be examined about my Lord Sandwich (age 42); which is so little as will not hurt my Lord at all, I know. He do profess great generousness towards my Lord, and that this jealousy of my Lord's of him is without ground, but do mightily inveigh against Sir Roger Cuttance, and would never have my Lord to carry him to sea again, as being a man that hath done my Lord more hurt than ever he can repair by his ill advice, and disobliging every body. He will by no means seem to crouch to my Lord, but says that he hath as good blood in his veins as any man, though not so good a title, but that he will do nothing to wrong or prejudice my Lord, and I hope he will not, nor I believe can; but he tells me that Sir E. Spragg and Utber are the men that have done my Lord the most wrong, and did bespatter him the most at Oxford, and that my Lord was misled to believe that all that was there said was his, which indeed it was not, and says that he did at that time complain to his father of this his misfortune. This I confess is strange to me touching these two men, but yet it may well enough as the world goes, though I wonder I confess at the latter of the two, who always professes great love to my Lord. Sir Roger Cuttance was with me in the morning, and there gives me an account so clear about Bergen and the other business against my Lord, as I do not see what can be laid to my Lord in either, and tells me that Pen, however he now dissembles it, did on the quarter deck of my Lord's ship, after he come on board, when my Lord did fire a gun for the ships to leave pursuing the enemy, Pen did say, before a great many, several times, that his heart did leap in his belly for joy when he heard the gun, and that it was the best thing that could be done for securing the fleet. He tells me also that Pen was the first that did move and persuade my Lord to the breaking bulke, as a thing that was now the time to do right to the commanders of the great ships, who had no opportunity of getting anything by prizes, now his Lordship might distribute to everyone something, and he himself did write down before my Lord the proportions for each man. This I am glad of, though it may be this dissembling fellow may, twenty to one, deny it.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and then by coach to Arundel House [Map], to the election of Officers for the next year; where I was near being chosen of the Council, but am glad I was not, for I could not have attended, though, above all things, I could wish it; and do take it as a mighty respect to have been named there. The company great, and the elections long, and then to Cary House, a house now of entertainment, next my Lord Ashly's (age 46); and there, where I have heretofore heard Common Prayer in the time of Dr. Mossum, we after two hours' stay, sitting at the table with our napkins open, had our dinners brought, but badly done. But here was good company. I choosing to sit next Dr. Wilkins (age 53), Sir George Ent, and others whom I value, there talked of several things. Among others Dr. Wilkins, talking of the universal speech, of which he hath a book coming out, did first inform me how man was certainly made for society, he being of all creatures the least armed for defence, and of all creatures in the world the young ones are not able to do anything to help themselves, nor can find the dug without being put to it, but would die if the mother did not help it; and, he says, were it not for speech man would be a very mean creature. Much of this good discourse we had. But here, above all, I was pleased to see the person who had his blood taken out. He speaks well, and did this day give the Society a relation thereof in Latin, saying that he finds himself much better since, and as a new man, but he is cracked a little in his head, though he speaks very reasonably, and very well. He had but 20s. for his suffering it, and is to have the same again tried upon him: the first sound man that ever had it tried on him in England, and but one that we hear of in France, which was a porter hired by the virtuosos. Here all the afternoon till within night. Then I took coach and to the Exchange [Map], where I was to meet my wife, but she was gone home, and so I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there took a turn or two, but meeting with nobody to discourse with, returned to Cary House, and there stayed and saw a pretty deception of the sight by a glass with water poured into it, with a stick standing up with three balls of wax upon it, one distant from the other. How these balls did seem double and disappear one after another, mighty pretty! Here Mr. Carcasse did come to me, and brought first Mr. Colwall, our Treasurer, and then Dr. Wilkins to engage me to be his friend, and himself asking forgiveness and desiring my friendship, saying that the Council have now ordered him to be free to return to the Office to be employed. I promised him my friendship, and am glad of this occasion, having desired it; for there is nobody's ill tongue that I fear like his, being a malicious and cunning bold fellow.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1667. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where did little, but so home again and to dinner with my clerks with me, and very good discourse and company they give me, and so to the office all the afternoon till late, and so home to supper and to bed. This day, not for want, but for good husbandry, I sent my father, by his desire, six pair of my old shoes, which fit him, and are good; yet, methought, it was a thing against my mind to have him wear my old things.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1667. At noon I to the 'Change [Map], and there did a little business, and among other things called at Cade's, the stationer, where he tells me how my Lord Gerard (age 49) is troubled for several things in the House of Commons, and in one wherein himself is concerned; and, it seems, this Lord is a very proud and wicked man, and the Parliament is likely to order him.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1667. Thence walked to my bookseller's, and there he did give me a list of the twenty who were nominated for the Commission in Parliament for the Accounts: and it is strange that of the twenty the Parliament could not think fit to choose their nine, but were fain to add three that were not in the list of the twenty, they being many of them factious people and ringleaders in the late troubles; so that Sir John Talbott did fly out and was very hot in the business of Wildman's being named, and took notice how he was entertained in the bosom of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), a Privy-counsellor; and that it was fit to be observed by the House, and punished. The men that I know of the nine I like very well; that is, Mr. Pierrepont (age 59), Lord Brereton (age 36), and Sir William Turner (age 52); and I do think the rest are so, too; but such as will not be able to do this business as it ought to be, to do any good with. Here I did also see their votes against my Lord Chiefe Justice Keeling (age 60), that his proceedings were illegal, and that he was a contemner of Magna Charta (the great preserver of our lives, freedoms, and properties) and an introduction to arbitrary government; which is very high language, and of the same sound with that in the year 1640. I home, and there wrote my letters, and so to supper and to bed. This day my Chancellor's (age 58) letter was burned at the 'Change [Map].'

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1667. At noon, to avoid being forced to invite him to dinner, it being his first day, and nobody inviting him, I did go to the 'Change [Map] with Sir W. Pen (age 46) in his coach, who first went to Guildhall [Map], whither I went with him, he to speak with Sheriff Gawden-I only for company; and did here look up and down this place, where I have not been before since the fire; and I see that the city are got a pace on in the rebuilding of Guildhall [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1667. Thence to the 'Change [Map], where I stayed very little, and so home to dinner, and there find my wife mightily out of order with her teeth. At the office all the afternoon, and at night by coach to Westminster, to the Hall, where I met nobody, and do find that this evening the King (age 37) by message (which he never did before) hath passed several bills, among others that for the Accounts, and for banishing my Chancellor (age 58), and hath adjourned the House to February; at which I am glad, hoping in this time to get leisure to state my Tangier Accounts, and to prepare better for the Parliament's enquiries. Here I hear how the House of Lords, with great severity, if not tyranny, have ordered poor Carr, who only erred in the manner of the presenting his petition against my Lord Gerard (age 49), it being first printed before it was presented; which was, it, seems, by Colonel Sands's going into the country, into whose hands he had put it: the poor man is ordered to stand in the pillory two or three times, and his eares cut, and be imprisoned I know not how long. But it is believed that the Commons, when they meet, will not be well pleased with it; and they have no reason, I think. Having only heard this from Mrs. Michell, I away again home, and there to supper and to bed, my wife exceeding ill in her face with the tooth ake, and now her face has become mightily swelled that I am mightily troubled for it.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1667. Thence meeting there with Creed, he and I to the Exchange [Map], and there I saw Carr stand in the pillory for the business of my Lord Gerard (age 49), which is supposed will make a hot business in the House of Commons, when they shall come to sit again, the Lords having ordered this with great injustice, as all people think, his only fault being the printing his petition before, by accident, his petition be read in the House. Here walked up and down the Exchange [Map] with Creed, and then home to dinner, and there hear by Creed that the Bishops of Winchester and of Rochester, Kent [Map], and the Dean of the Chapel, and some other great prelates, are suspended: and a cloud upon the Archbishop ever since the late business in the House of Lords; and I believe it will be a heavy blow to the Clergy. This noon I bought a sermon of Dr. Floyd's, which Creed read a great part of to me and Mr. Hollier (age 58), who dined with me, but as well writ and as good, against the Church of Rome, as ever I read; but, Lord! how Hollier (age 58), poor man, was taken with it. They gone I to the office, and there very late with Mr. Willson and my people about the making of a new contract for the victualler, which do and will require a great deal of pains of me, and so to supper and to bed, my wife being pretty well all this day by reason of her imposthume being broke in her cheek into her mouth. This day, at the 'Change [Map], Creed shewed me Mr. Coleman, of whom my wife hath so good an opinion, and says that he is as very a rogue for women as any in the world; which did disquiet me, like a fool, and run in my mind a great while.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Dec 1667. Thence home, and there to the office late, and then home to supper and to bed. I am told to-day, which troubles me, that great complaint is made upon the 'Change [Map], among our merchants, that the very Ostend little pickaroon men-of-war do offer violence to our merchant-men, and search them, beat our masters, and plunder them, upon pretence of carrying Frenchmen's goods. Lord! what a condition are we come to, and that so soon after a war!

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1667. Thence to the Old Exchange [Map] together, he telling me that he believes there will be no such turning out of great men as is talked of, but that it is only to fright people, but I do fear there may be such a thing doing. He do mightily inveigh against the folly of the King (age 37) to bring his matters to wrack thus, and that we must all be undone without help. I met with Cooling at the Temple-gate, after I had been at both my booksellers and there laid out several pounds in books now against the new year. From the 'Change [Map] (where I met with Captain Cocke (age 50), who would have borrowed money of me, but I had the grace to deny him, he would have had 3 or £400) I with Cocke (age 50) and Mr. Temple (whose wife was just now brought to bed of a boy, but he seems not to be at all taken with it, which is a strange consideration how others do rejoice to have a child born), to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57), in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and there did dine together, there being there, among other company, Mr. Attorney Montagu (age 49), and his fine lady, a fine woman.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1668. Thence with Lord Brouncker (age 48) to White Hall to the Commissioners of the Treasury at their sending for us to discourse about the paying of tickets, and so away, and I by coach to the 'Change [Map], and there took up my wife and Mercer and the girl by agreement, and so home, and there with Mercer to teach her more of "It is decreed", and to sing other songs and talk all the evening, and so after supper I to even my journall since Saturday last, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1668. Thence home and to the Exchange [Map], there to do a little business, where I find everybody concerned whether we shall have out a fleete this next year or no, they talking of a peace concluded between France and Spayne, so that the King of France (age 29) will have nothing to do with his army unless he comes to us; but I do not see in the world how we shall be able to set out a fleete for want of money to buy stores and pay men, for neither of which we shall be any more trusted.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1668. Thence homeward by coach and stopped at Martin's, my bookseller, where I saw the French book which I did think to have had for my wife to translate, called "L'escholle des filles"1, but when I come to look in it, it is the most bawdy, lewd book that ever I saw, rather worse than "Putana errante", so that I was ashamed of reading in it, and so away home, and there to the 'Change [Map] to discourse with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and so home to dinner, and in the evening, having done some business, I with my wife and girl out, and left them at Unthanke's, while I to White Hall to the Treasury Chamber for an order for Tangier, and so back, took up my wife, and home, and there busy about my Tangier accounts against tomorrow, which I do get ready in good condition, and so with great content to bed.

Note 1. "L'Escole des Filles", by Helot, was burnt at the foot of the gallows in 1672, and the author himself was burnt in effigy.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1668. At the office all the morning busy sitting. At noon home to dinner, where Betty Turner (age 15) dined with us, and after dinner carried my wife, her and Deb. to the 'Change [Map], where they bought some things, while I bought "The Mayden Queene", a play newly printed, which I like at the King's house so well, of Mr. Dryden's (age 36), which he himself, in his preface, seems to brag of, and indeed is a good play.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1668. Thence and home, and then to the 'Change [Map] in the evening, and there Mr. Cade told me how my Lord Gerard (age 50) is likely to meet with trouble, the next sitting of Parliament, about [Carr (age 31)] being set in the pillory; and I am glad of it; and it is mighty acceptable to the world to hear, that, among other reductions, the King (age 37) do reduce his Guards, which do please mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1668. Up, and to the office, where busy all the morning, and then at noon to the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Hater, and there he and I to a tavern to meet Captain Minors, which we did, and dined; and there happened to be Mr. Prichard, a ropemaker of his acquaintance, and whom I know also, and did once mistake for a fiddler, which sung well, and I asked him for such a song that I had heard him sing, and after dinner did fall to discourse about the business of the old contract between the King (age 37) and the East India Company for the ships of the King (age 37) that went thither, and about this did beat my brains all the afternoon, and then home and made an end of the accounts to my great content, and so late home tired and my eyes sore, to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1668. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner set my wife and girl down at the Exchange [Map], and I to White Hall; and, by and by, the Duke of York (age 34) comes, and we had a little meeting, Anglesey, W. Pen, and I there, and none else: and, among other things, did discourse of the want of discipline in the fleete, which the Duke' of York confessed, and yet said that he, while he was there, did keep it in a good measure, but that it was now lost when he was absent; but he will endeavour to have it again. That he did tell the Prince and Duke of Albemarle (age 59) they would lose all order by making such and such men commanders, which they would, because they were stout men: he told them that it was a reproach to the nation, as if there were no sober men among us, that were stout, to be had. That they did put out some men for cowards that the Duke of York (age 34) had put in, but little before, for stout men; and would now, were he to go to sea again, entertain them in his own division, to choose: and did put in an idle fellow, Greene, who was hardly thought fit for a boatswain by him: they did put him from being a lieutenant to a captain's place of a second-rate ship; as idle a drunken fellow, he said, as any was in the fleete. That he will now desire the King (age 37) to let him be what he is, that is, Admirall; and he will put in none but those that he hath great reason to think well of; and particularly says, that; though he likes Colonell Legg well, yet his son that was, he knows not how, made a captain after he had been but one voyage at sea, he should go to sea another apprenticeship, before ever he gives him a command. We did tell him of the many defects and disorders among the captains, and I prayed we might do it in writing to him, which he liked; and I am glad of an opportunity of doing it.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1668. Thence to talk of other things, and the want of money and he told me of the general want of money in the country; that land sold for nothing, and the many pennyworths he knows of lands and houses upon them, with good titles in his country, at 16 years' purchase: "and", says he, "though I am in debt, yet I have a mind to one thing, and that is a Bishop's lease"; but said, "I will yet choose such a lease before any other, yes", says he, plainly, "because I know they cannot stand, and then it will fall into the King's hands, and I in possession shall have an advantage by it". "And", says he, "I know they must fall, and they are now near it, taking all the ways they can to undo themselves, and showing us the way"; and thereupon told the a story of the present quarrel between the Bishop (age 75) and Deane of Coventry and Lichfield (age 61); the former of which did excommunicate the latter, and caused his excommunication to be read in the Church while he was there; and, after it was read, the Deane (age 61) made the service be gone through with, though himself, an excommunicate, was present, which is contrary to the Canon, and said he would justify the quire therein against the Bishop (age 75); and so they are at law in the Arches about it; which is a very pretty story. He tells me that the King (age 37) is for Toleration, though the Bishops be against it: and that he do not doubt but it will be carried in Parliament; but that he fears some will stand for the tolerating of Papists with the rest; and that he knows not what to say, but rather thinks that the sober party will be without it, rather than have it upon those terms; and I do believe so. Here we broke off, and I home to dinner, and after dinner set down my wife and Deb. at the 'Change [Map], and I to make a visit to Mr. Godolphin (age 32)1 at his lodgings, who is lately come from Spain from my Lord Sandwich (age 42), and did, the other day, meeting me in White Hall, compliment me mightily, and so I did offer him this visit, but missed him, and so back and took up my wife and set her at Mrs. Turner's (age 45), and I to my bookbinder's, and there, till late at night, binding up my second part of my Tangier accounts, and I all the while observing his working, and his manner of gilding of books with great pleasure, and so home, and there busy late, and then to bed. This day Griffin did, in discourse in the coach, put me in the head of the little house by our garden, where old goodman Taylor puts his brooms and dirt, to make me a stable of, which I shall improve, so as, I think, to be able to get me a stable without much charge, which do please me mightily. He did also in discourse tell me that it is observed, and is true, in the late fire of London, that the fire burned just as many Parish-Churches as there were hours from the beginning to the end of the fire; and, next, that there were just as many Churches left standing as there were taverns left standing in the rest of the City that was not burned, being, I think he told me, thirteen in all of each: which is pretty to observe.

Note 1. William Godolphin (age 32), descended from a younger branch of that family, which was afterwards ennobled in the person of Sidney, Earl Godolphin, Lord Treasurer (age 22). William Godolphin was of Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated M.A., January 14th, 1660-61. He was afterwards secretary to Sir H. Bennet (age 50) (Lord Arlington), and M.P. for Camelford. He was a great favourite at Court, and was knighted on August 28th, 1668. In the spring of 1669 he returned to Spain as Envoy Extraordinary, and in 1671 he became Ambassador. On July 11th, 1696, he died at Madrid, having been for some years a Roman Catholic.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office, where sat all day, and at noon home, and there find cozen Roger (age 50) and Jackson (age 28) by appointment come to dine with me, and Creed, and very merry, only Jackson (age 28) hath few words, and I like him never the worse for it. The great talk is of Carr's (age 31) coming off in all his trials, to the disgrace of my Lord Gerard (age 50), to that degree, and the ripping up of so many notorious rogueries and cheats of my Lord's, that my Lord, it is thought, will be ruined; and, above all things, do skew the madness of the House of Commons, who rejected the petition of this poor man by a combination of a few in the House; and, much more, the base proceedings (just the epitome of all our publick managements in this age), of the House of Lords, that ordered him to stand in the pillory for those very things, without hearing and examining what he hath now, by the seeking of my Lord Gerard (age 50) himself, cleared himself of, in open Court, to the gaining himself the pity of all the world, and shame for ever to my Lord Gerard (age 50). We had a great deal of good discourse at table, and after dinner we four men took coach, and they set me down at the Old Exchange [Map], and they home, having discoursed nothing today with cozen or Jackson (age 28) about our business. I to Captain Cocke's (age 51), and there discoursed over our business of prizes, and I think I shall go near to state the matter so as to secure myself without wrong to him, doing nor saying anything but the very truth.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1668. Thence with cozen Roger (age 50) to his lodgings, and there sealed the writings with Jackson (age 28), about my sister's (age 27) marriage: and here my cozen Roger  (age 50) told me the pleasant passage of a fellow's bringing a bag of letters to-day, into the lobby of the House, and left them, and withdrew himself without observation. The bag being opened, the letters were found all of one size, and directed with one hand: a letter to most of the Members of the House. The House was acquainted with it, and voted they should be brought in, and one opened by the Speaker; wherein if he found any thing unfit to communicate, to propose a Committee to be chosen for it. The Speaker opening one, found it only a case with a libell in it, printed: a satire most sober and bitter as ever I read; and every letter was the same. So the House fell a-scrambling for them like boys: and my cozen Roger  (age 50) had one directed to him, which he lent me to read. So away, and took up my wife, and setting Jackson (age 28) down at Fetter Lane end, I to the Old Exchange [Map] to look Mr. Houblon, but, not finding him, did go home, and there late writing a letter to my Lord Sandwich (age 42), and to give passage to a letter of great moment from Mr. Godolphin (age 33) to him, which I did get speedy passage for by the help of Mr. Houblon, who come late to me, and there directed the letter to Lisbon under cover of his, and here we talked of the times, which look very sad and distracted, and made good mirth at this day's passage in the House, and so parted; and going to the gate with him, I found his lady and another fine lady sitting an hour together, late at night, in their coach, while he was with me, which is so like my wife, that I was mighty taken with it, though troubled for it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1668. Thence I away, with my head busy, but my heart at pretty good ease, to the Old Exchange [Map], and there met Mr. Houblon. I prayed him to discourse with some of the merchants that are of the Committee for Accounts, to see how they do resent my paper, and in general my particular in the relation to the business of the Navy, which he hath promised to do carefully for me and tell me. Here it was a mighty pretty sight to see old Mr. Houblon, whom I never saw before, and all his sons about him, all good merchants.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1668. Thence to the Exchange [Map] and left her; while meeting Dr. Gibbons (age 52) there, he and I to see an organ at the Dean of Westminster's lodgings at the Abby, the Bishop of Rochester (age 43); where he lives like a great prelate, his lodgings being very good; though at present under great disgrace at Court, being put by his Clerk of the Closet's place. I saw his lady, of whom the 'Terræ filius' of Oxford was once so merry1 and two children, whereof one a very pretty little boy, like him, so fat and black. Here I saw the organ; but it is too big for my house, and the fashion do not please me enough; and therefore will not have it.

Note 1. A scholar appointed to make a satirical and jesting speech at an Act in the University of Oxford. Mr. Christopher Wordsworth gives, in his "Social Life at the English Universities in the Eighteenth Century", 1874, a list of terra-filii from 1591 to 1713 (pp. 296- 298, 680). The 'Terræ filius' was sometimes expelled the university on account of the licence of his speech. The practice was discontinued early in the eighteenth century.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1668. Thence to the 'Change [Map] back again, leaving him, and took my wife and Deb.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1668. Thence with my wife to the 'Change [Map], and so, calling at the Cocke ale house, we home, and there I settle to business, and with my people preparing my great answer to the Parliament for the office about tickets till past 1 a o'clock at night, and then home to supper and to bed, keeping Mr. Gibson all night with me. This day I have the news that my sister (age 27) was married on Thursday last to Mr. Jackson (age 28); so that work is, I hope, well over.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1668. Up betimes, and anon with Sir W. Warren, who come to speak with me, by coach to White Hall, and there met Lord Brouncker: and he and I to the Commissioners of the Treasury, where I find them mighty kind to me, more, I think, than was wont. And here I also met Colvill, the goldsmith; who tells me, with great joy, how the world upon the 'Change [Map] talks of me; and how several Parliamentmen, viz., Boscawen and Major [Lionel] Walden, of Huntingdon [Map], who, it seems, do deal with him, do say how bravely I did speak, and that the House was ready to have given me thanks for it; but that, I think, is a vanity.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1668. Thence I with Lord Brouncker (age 48), and did take up his mistress, Williams, and so to the 'Change [Map], only to shew myself, and did a little business there, and so home to dinner, and then to the office busy till the evening, and then to the Excize Office, where I find Mr. Ball in a mighty trouble that he is to be put out of his place at Midsummer, the whole Commission being to cease, and the truth is I think they are very fair dealing men, all of them. Here I did do a little business, and then to rights home, and there dispatched many papers, and so home late to supper and to bed, being eased of a great many thoughts, and yet have a great many more to remove as fast as I can, my mind being burdened with them, having been so much employed upon the public business of the office in their defence before the Parliament of late, and the further cases that do attend it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, at noon home, and after dinner with wife and Deb., carried them to Unthanke's, and I to Westminster Hall [Map] expecting our being with the Committee this afternoon about Victualling business, but once more waited in vain. So after a turn or two with Lord Brouncker (age 48), I took my wife up and left her at the 'Change [Map] while I to Gresham College, there to shew myself; and was there greeted by Dr. Wilkins (age 54), Whistler, and others, as the patron of the Navy Office, and one that got great fame by my late speech to the Parliament. Here I saw a great trial of the goodness of a burning glass, made of a new figure, not spherical (by one Smithys, I think, they call him), that did burn a glove of my Lord Brouncker's (age 48) from the heat of a very little fire, which a burning glass of the old form, or much bigger, could not do, which was mighty pretty. Here I heard Sir Robert Southwell (age 32) give an account of some things committed to him by the Society at his going to Portugall, which he did deliver in a mighty handsome manner1. Thence went away home, and there at my office as long as my eyes would endure, and then home to supper, and to talk with Mr. Pelling, who tells me what a fame I have in the City for my late performance; and upon the whole I bless God for it. I think I have, if I can keep it, done myself a great deal of repute. So by and by to bed.

Note 1. At the meeting of the Royal Society on March 12th, 1668, "Mr. Smethwick's glasses were tried again; and his telescope being compared with another longer telescope, and the object-glasses exchanged, was still found to exceed the other in goodness; and his burning concave being compared with a spherical burning-glass of almost twice the diameter, and held to the fire, it burnt gloves, whereas the other spherical ones would not burn at all".-"Sir Robert Southwell (age 32) being lately returned from Portugal, where he had been ambassador from the King (age 37), and being desired to acquaint the society with what he had done with respect to the instructions, which he had received from them before his departure from England, related, that he had lodged the astronomical quadrant, which the society had sent to Portugal to make observations with there, with a body of men at Lisbon, who had applied themselves among other kinds of literature to mathematics" (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., p. 256).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1668. Up betimes and to the office, where all the morning busy, and then at noon home to dinner, and so again to the office awhile, and then abroad to the Excize-Office, where I met Mr. Ball, and did receive the paper I went for; and there fell in talk with him, who, being an old cavalier, do swear and curse at the present state of things, that we should be brought to this, that we must be undone and cannot be saved; that the Parliament is sitting now, and will till midnight, to find how to raise this £300,000, and he doubts they will not do it so as to be seasonable for the King (age 37): but do cry out against our great men at Court; how it is a fine thing for a Secretary of State to dance a jigg, and that it was not so heretofore; and, above all, do curse my Lord of Bristol (age 55), saying the worst news that ever he heard in his life, or that the Devil could ever bring us, was this Lord's coming to prayers the other day in the House of Lords, by which he is coming about again from being a Papist, which will undo this nation; and he says he ever did say, at the King's first coming in, that this nation could not be safe while that man was alive. Having done there, I away towards Westminster, but seeing by the coaches the House to be up, I stopped at the 'Change [Map] (where, I met Mrs. Turner (age 45), and did give her a pair of gloves), and there bought several things for my wife, and so to my bookseller's, and there looked for Montaigne's Essays1, which I heard by my Lord Arlington (age 50) and Lord Blaney so much commended, and intend to buy it, but did not now, but home, where at the office did some business, as much as my eyes would give leave, and so home to supper, Mercer with us talking and singing, and so to bed. The House, I hear, have this day concluded upon raising £100,000 of the £300,000 by wine, and the rest by a poll-[tax], and have resolved to excuse the Church, in expectation that they will do the more of themselves at this juncture; and I do hear that Sir W. Coventry (age 40) did make a speech in behalf of the Clergy.