Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Sandwich [Map]

Sandwich, Kent is in Kent.

851 Battle of Ockley

993 Battle of Maldon

1014 Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

1052 Godwins Restored

1194 Richard Lionheart Returns to England

1217 Battle of Sandwich aka Dover

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 June Raid on Sandwich

Battle of Ockley

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 851. This year Alderman Ceorl, with the men of Devonshire, fought the heathen army at Wemburg [Map], and after making great slaughter obtained the victory. The same year King Athelstan and Alderman Elchere fought in their ships, and slew a large army at Sandwich [Map] in Kent, taking nine ships and dispersing the rest. The heathens now for the first time remained over winter in the Isle of Thanet [Map]. The same year came three hundred and fifty ships into the mouth of the Thames; the crew of which went upon land, and stormed Canterbury, Kent [Map] and London; putting to flight Bertulf, king of the Mercians, with his army; and then marched southward over the Thames into Surrey. Here Ethelwulf and his son Ethelbald, at the head of the West-Saxon army, fought with them at Ockley [Map], and made the greatest slaughter of the heathen army that we have ever heard reported to this present day. There also they obtained the victory.

Assers Life of Alfred 851. 851. 6. Defeat of the Danes at Sandwich.17 In that same year Æthelstan and Ealdorman Ealhere slew a large army of the heathen in Kent, at a place called Sandwich [Map], and took nine ships of their fleet, the others escaping by flight.

Note 17. From the Chronicle.

Battle of Maldon

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 993. This year came Anlaf with three and ninety ships to Staines, which he plundered without, and went thence to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. Thence to Ipswich, Suffolk [Map], which he laid waste; and so to Maldon [Map], where Alderman Britnoth came against him with his force, and fought with him; and there they slew the alderman, and gained the field of battle; whereupon peace was made with him, and the king received him afterwards at episcopal hands by the advice of Siric, Bishop of Canterbury, and Elfeah of Winchester. This year was Bamborough [Map] destroyed, and much spoil was there taken. Afterwards came the army to the mouth of the Humber; and there did much evil both in Lindsey and in Northumbria. Then was collected a great force; but when the armies were to engage, then the generals first commenced a flight; namely, Frene and Godwin and Frithgist. In this same year the king ordered Elfgar, son of Alderman Elfric, to be punished with blindness.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1006. This year Elfeah (age 53) was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived of all his property;51 Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf52 departed this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and slew as they went. Then the king (age 40) ordered out all the population from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than either any internal or external force could do. When winter approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their custom,-they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced. Thence they marched to Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map], which they entirely destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey, Oxfordshire. They then turned along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer; for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king (age 40) gone over the Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king (age 40) began to consult seriously with his council, what they all thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was utterly undone. Then advised the king (age 40) and his council for the advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it, that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king (age 40) then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them, that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and that tribute and provision should be given them. And they accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.

Note 51. See a more full and circumstantial account of these events, with some variation of names, in Florence of Worcester.

Note 52. The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the see of Winchester, on the translation of the latter to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1009. This year were the ships ready, that we before spoke about; and there were so many of them as never were in England before, in any king (age 43) days, as books tell us. And they were all transported together to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; that they should lie there, and defend this land against any out-force. But we have not yet had the prosperity and the honour, that the naval armament should be useful to this land, any more than it often before was. It was at this same time, or a little earlier, that Brihtric, brother of Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, betrayed Wulnoth, the South-Saxon knight, father of Earl Godwin (age 8), to the king (age 43); and he went into exile, and enticed the navy, till he had with him twenty ships; with which he plundered everywhere by the south coast, and wrought every kind of mischief. When it was told the navy that they might easily seize him, if they would look about them, then took Brihtric with him eighty ships; and thought that he should acquire for himself much reputation, by getting Wulnoth into his hands alive or dead. But, whilst they were proceeding thitherward, there came such a wind against them, as no man remembered before; which beat and tossed the ships, and drove them aground; whereupon Wulnoth soon came, and burned them. When this was known to the remaining ships, where the king (age 43) was, how the others fared, it was then as if all were lost. The king (age 43) went home, with the aldermen and the nobility; and thus lightly did they forsake the ships; whilst the men that were in them rowed them back to London. Thus lightly did they suffer the labour of all the people to be in vain; nor was the terror lessened, as all England hoped. When this naval expedition was thus ended, then came, soon after Lammas, the formidable army of the enemy, called Thurkill's army, to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; and soon they bent their march to Canterbury, Kent [Map]; which city they would quickly have stormed, had they not rather desired peace; and all the men of East-Kent made peace with the army, and gave them 3,000 pounds for security. The army soon after that went about till they came to the Isle of Wight; and everywhere in Sussex, and in Hampshire, and also in Berkshire, they plundered and burned, as THEIR CUSTOM IS.54 Then ordered the king (age 43) to summon out all the population, that men might hold firm against them on every side; but nevertheless they marched as they pleased. On one occasion the king (age 43) had begun his march before them, as they proceeded to their ships, and all the people were ready to fall upon them; but the plan was then frustrated through Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, AS IT EVER IS STILL. Then after Martinmas they went back again to Kent, and chose their winter-quarters on the Thames; obtaining their provisions from Essex, and from the shires that were next, on both sides of the Thames. And oft they fought against the city of London; but glory be to God, that it yet standeth firm: and they ever there met with ill fare. Then after midwinter took they an excursion up through Chiltern55, and so to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; which city they burned, and plundered on both sides of the Thames to their ships. Being fore-warned that there was an army gathered against them at London, they went over at Staines; and thus were they in motion all the winter, and in spring, appeared again in Kent, and repaired their ships.

Note 54. These expressions in the present tense afford a strong proof that the original records of these transactions are nearly coeval with the transactions themselves. Later MSS. use the past tense.

Note 55. i.e. the Chiltern Hills; from which the south-eastern part of Oxfordshire is called the Chiltern district.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1013. The year after that Archbishop Elfeah was martyred, the king (age 47) appointed Lifing to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. And in the same year, before the month August, came King Sweyne (age 53) with his fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; and very soon went about East-Anglia into the Humber-mouth, and so upward along the Trent, until he came to Gainsborough [Map]. Then soon submitted to him Earl Utred, and all the Northumbrians, and all the people of Lindsey, and afterwards the people of the Five Boroughs, and soon after all the army to the north of Watling-street; and hostages were given him from each shire. When he understood that all the people were subject to him, then ordered he that his army should have provision and horses; and he then went southward with his main army, committing his ships and the hostages to his son Knute (age 18). And after he came over Watling-street, they wrought the greatest mischief that any army could do. Then he went to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; and the population soon submitted, and gave hostages; thence to Winchester, where they did the same. Thence went they eastward to London; and many of the party sunk in the Thames, because they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city, the population would not submit; but held their ground in full fight against him, because therein was King Ethelred (age 47), and Thurkill with him. Then went King Sweyne (age 53) thence to Wallingford; and so over Thames westward to Bath, where he abode with his army. Thither came Alderman Ethelmar, and all the western thanes with him, and all submitted to Sweyne (age 53), and gave hostages. When he had thus settled all, then went he northward to his ships; and all the population fully received him, and considered him full king. The population of London also after this submitted to him, and gave hostages; because they dreaded that he would undo them. Then bade Sweyne (age 53) full tribute and forage for his army during the winter; and Thurkill bade the same for the army that lay at Greenwich, Kent [Map]: besides this, they plundered as oft as they would. And when this nation could neither resist in the south nor in the north, King Ethelred (age 47) abode some while with the fleet that lay in the Thames; and the lady (age 28)57 went afterwards over sea to her brother Richard (age 49), accompanied by Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough. The king sent Bishop Elfun with the ethelings, Edward (age 10) and Alfred (age 8), over sea; that he might instruct them. Then went the king from the fleet, about midwinter, to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and there abode for the season; after which he went over sea to Richard (age 49), with whom he abode till the time when Sweyne (age 53) died. Whilst the lady (age 28) was with her brother (age 49) beyond sea, Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough, who was there with her, went to the abbey called Boneval, where St. Florentine's body lay; and there found a miserable place, a miserable abbot, and miserable monks: because they had been plundered. There he bought of the abbot, and of the monks, the body of St. Florentine, all but the head, for 500 pounds; which, on his return home, he offered to Christ and St. Peter.

Note 57. This was a title bestowed on the queen.

Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1014. This year King Sweyne (age 54) ended his days at Candlemas, the third day before the nones of February; and the same year Elfwy, Bishop of York, was consecrated in London, on the festival of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose Knute (age 19) for king; whereupon advised all the counsellors of England, clergy and laity, that they should send after King Ethelred (age 48); saying, that no sovereign was dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would govern them better than he did before. Then sent the king hither his son Edward, with his messengers; who had orders to greet all his people, saying that he would be their faithful lord-would better each of those things that they disliked-and that each of the things should be forgiven which had been either done or said against him; provided they all unanimously, without treachery, turned to him. Then was full friendship established, in word and in deed and in compact, on either side. And every Danish king they proclaimed an outlaw for ever from England. Then came King Ethelred (age 48) home, in Lent, to his own people; and he was gladly received by them all. Meanwhile, after the death of Sweyne (age 54), sat Knute (age 19) with his army in Gainsborough [Map] until Easter; and it was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they should supply him with horses, and afterwards go out all together and plunder. But King Ethelred (age 48) with his full force came to Lindsey before they were ready; and they plundered and burned, and slew all the men that they could reach. Knute (age 19), the son of Sweyne (age 54), went out with his fleet (so were the wretched people deluded by him), and proceeded southward until he came to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. There he landed the hostages that were given to his father, and cut off their hands and ears and their noses. Besides all these evils, the king ordered a tribute to the army that lay at Greenwich, Kent [Map], of 21,000 pounds. This year, on the eve of St. Michael's day, came the great sea-flood, which spread wide over this land, and ran so far up as it never did before, overwhelming many towns, and an innumerable multitude of people.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1015. This year was the great council at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; where Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia betrayed Sigferth and Morcar, the eldest thanes belonging to the Seven Towns. He allured them into his bower, where they were shamefully slain. Then the king took all their possessions, and ordered the widow of Sigferth to be secured, and brought within Malmsbury [Map]. After a little interval, Edmund Etheling (age 25) went and seized her, against the king's (age 49) will, and had her to wife. Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary, went the etheling west-north into the Five Towns58, and soon plundered all the property of Sigferth and Morcar; and all the people submitted to him. At the same time came King Knute (age 20) to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and went soon all about Kent into Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the Frome; and then plundered in Dorset, and in Wiltshire, and in Somerset. King Ethelred (age 49), meanwhile, lay sick at Corsham, Wiltshire; and Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia collected an army there, and Edmund the etheling (age 25) in the north. When they came together, the alderman designed to betray Edmund the etheling (age 25), but he could not; whereupon they separated without an engagement, and sheered off from their enemies. Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia then seduced forty ships from the king, and submitted to Knute (age 20). The West-Saxons also submitted, and gave hostages, and horsed the army. And he continued there until midwinter.

Note 58. The "seven" towns mentioned above are reduced here to "five"; probably because two had already submitted to the king on the death of the two thanes, Sigferth and Morcar. These five were, as originally, Leicester, Lincoln, Stamford, Nottingham, and Derby. Vid. an. 942, 1013.

In Sep 1015 King Canute of England (age 20) landed at Sandwich, Kent [Map].

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1031. This year returned King Knute (age 36); and as soon as he came to England he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury [Map] the haven of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and all the rights that arise therefrom, on either side of the haven; so that when the tide is highest and fullest, and there be a ship floating as near the land as possible, and there be a man standing upon the ship with a taper-axe in his hand, whithersoever the large taper-axe might be thrown out of the ship, throughout all that land the ministers of Christ's church should enjoy their rights. This year went King Knute (age 36) to Rome; and the same year, as soon as he returned home, he went to Scotland; and Malcolm, king of the Scots (age 77), submitted to him, and became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Jehmar; but he held his allegiance a little while only. Robert, Earl of Normandy (age 30), went this year to Jerusalem, where he died; and William (age 3), who was afterwards King of England, succeeded to the earldom, though he was a child.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1040. This year died King Harold (age 24) at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map], on the sixteenth before the calends of April; and he was buried at Westminster. He governed England four years and sixteen weeks; and in his days tribute was paid to sixteen ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman, as was done before in King Knute's days. The same year they sent after Hardacnute (age 22) to Bruges [Map], supposing they did well; and he came hither to Sandwich, Kent [Map] with sixty ships, seven nights before midsummer. He was soon received both by the Angles and Danes, though his advisers afterwards severely paid for it. They ordered a tribute for sixty-two ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman. Then were alienated from him all that before desired him; for he framed nothing royal during his whole reign. He ordered the dead Harold (age 24) to be dragged up and thrown into a ditch. This year rose the sester of wheat to fifty-five pence, and even further. This year Archbishop Edsy went to Rome.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1044. This year Archbishop Edsy resigned his see from infirmity, and consecrated Siward, Abbot of Abingdon, bishop thereto, with the permission and advice of the king and Earl Godwin (age 43). It was known to few men else before it was done; because the archbishop feared that some other man would either beg or buy it, whom he might worse trust and oblige than him, if it were known to many men. This year there was very great hunger over all England, and corn so dear as no man remembered before; so that the sester of wheat rose to sixty pence, and even further. And this same year the king went out to Sandwich, Kent [Map] with thirty-five ships; and Athelstan, the churchwarden, succeeded to the abbacy of Abingdon, and Stigand returned to his bishopric.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1045. King Edward (age 42) during the year collected a large fleet at Sandwich, Kent [Map], through the threatening of Magnus (age 21) of Norway; but his contests with Sweyne in Denmark prevented him from coming hither.

John of Worcester. 1045. Brihtwold, bishop of Wilton, died; and was succeeded by the king's chaplain, Heriman, a native of Lorraine. The same year, Edward (age 42), king of England, assembled a very powerful fleet at the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], to oppose Magnus (age 21), king of Norway, who threatened to invade England; but the expedition was abandoned in consequence of Sweyn (age 26), king of Denmark, having commenced hostilities against him.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1047. This year died Athelstan, Abbot of Abingdon, on the fourth day before the calends of April; and Sparhawk, monk of St. Edmundsbury, succeeded him. Easter day was then on the third day before the nones of April; and there was over all England very great loss of men this year also. The same year came to Sandwich, Kent [Map] Lothen and Irling, with twenty-five ships, and plundered and took incalculable spoil, in men, and in gold, and in silver, so that no man wist what it all was; and went then about Thanet [Map], and would there have done the same; but the land-folk firmly withstood, and resisted them both by land and sea, and thence put them to flight withal. They betook themselves thence into Essex, where they plundered and took men, and whatsoever they could find, whence they departed eastward to Baldwin's (age 34) land, and having deposited the booty they had gained, they returned east to the place whence they had come before.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1048. This year came Sweyne (age 29) back to Denmark; and Harold (age 33), the uncle of Magnus, went to Norway on the death of Magnus, and the Northmen submitted to him. He sent an embassy of peace to this land, as did also Sweyne (age 29) from Denmark, requesting of King Edward (age 45) naval assistance to the amount at least of fifty ships; but all the people resisted it.

This year also there was an earthquake, on the calends of May, in many places; at Worcester, at Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere wide throughout England; with very great loss by disease of men and of cattle over all England; and the wild fire in Derbyshire and elsewhere did much harm. In the same year the enemy plundered Sandwich, Kent [Map], and the Isle of Wight [Map], and slew the best men that were there; and King Edward (age 45) and the earls went out after them with their ships. The same year Bishop Siward resigned his bishopric from infirmity, and retired to Abingdon [Map]; upon which Archbishop Edsy resumed the bishopric; and he died within eight weeks of this, on the tenth day before the calends of November.

John of Worcester. 1049. The emperor Henry (age 31) assembled a vast army against Baldwin (age 36), count of Flanders, chiefly because he had burnt and ruined his stately palace at Nimeguen. In this expedition were pope Leo, and many great and noble men from various countries. Sweyn (age 30), king of Denmark, was also there with his fleet at the emperor's command, and swore fealty to the emperor for that occasion. He sent also to Edward (age 46), king of England, and requested him not to let Baldwin (age 36) escape, if he should retreat to the sea. In consequence, the king went with a large fleet to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and remained there until the emperor had obtained of Baldwin (age 36) all he desired. Meanwhile, earl Sweyn (age 28), son of earl Godwin (age 48) and Githa, who had left England and gone to Denmark, because he was not permitted to marry Edgiva, abbess of the monastery of Leominster, whom he had debauched, returned with eight ships, alleging falsely that he would now remain loyally with the king.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. Then the king and all the army proclaimed Sweyne (age 28) an outlaw. A little before this the men of Hastings and thereabout fought his two ships with their ships, and slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich, Kent [Map] to the king. Eight ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn; afterwards they all forsook him except two; whereupon he went eastward to the land of Baldwin (age 36), and sat there all the winter at Bruges [Map], in full security. In the same year came up from Ireland thirty-six ships on the Welsh coast, and thereabout committed outrages, with the aid of Griffin, the Welsh king. The people were soon gathered against them, and there was also with them Bishop Eldred, but they had too little assistance, and the enemy came unawares on them very early in the morning, and slew on the spot many good men; but the others burst forth with the bishop. This was done on the fourth day before the calends of August. This year died the good Bishop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; and Oswy, Abbot of Thomey; and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and King Edward (age 46) gave the bishopric which Ednoth had to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided him; and he was driven from it, because he did nought like a bishop therein, so that it shameth us now to say more. Bishop Siward also died who lies at Abingdon.

John of Worcester. 1049. During these occurrences earl Sweyn (age 28) went to Pevensey [Map], and perfidiously requested earl Beorn, his cousin, to go with him to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and make his peace with the king (age 46), according to promise. Beorn, relying on his relationship, accompanied him with only three attendants; but Sweyn (age 28) conducted him to Bosham, where his ships lay, and, taking him on board one of them, ordered him to be bound with thongs, and kept him on board until they reached the mouth of the river Dart. There they slew him, and threw him into a deep trench, and covered him with earth. They then sent away six of the ships, two of which were soon afterwards taken by the men of Hastings, who, having killed all on board, carried them to Sandwich, Kent [Map] and presented them to the king (age 46). Sweyn (age 28), however, escaped to Flanders with two ships, and remained there until he was brought back by Aldred, bishop of Worcester, who reconciled him with the king.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. [Note 62] This year the emperor gathered an innumerable army against Baldwin of Bruges (age 36), because he had destroyed the palace of Nimeguen, and because of many other ungracious acts that he did against him. The army was immense that he had collected together. There was Leo, the Pope of Rome, and the patriarch, and many other great men of several provinces. He sent also to King Edward (age 46), and requested of him naval aid, that he might not permit him to escape from him by water. Whereupon he went to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and lay there with a large naval armament, until the emperor had all that he wished of Baldwin (age 36). Thither also came back again Earl Sweyne (age 28), who had gone from this land to Denmark, and there ruined his cause with the Danes. He came hither with a pretence, saying that he would again submit to the king, and be his man; and he requested Earl Beorn to be of assistance to him, and give him land to feed him on. But Harold (age 27), his brother, and Earl Beorn resisted, and would give him nothing of that which the king had given them. The king also refused him everything. Whereupon Sweyne (age 28) retired to his ships at Bosham. Then, after the settlement between the emperor and Baldwin (age 36), many ships went home, and the king remained behind Sandwich, Kent [Map] with a few ships. Earl Godwin (age 48) also sailed forty-two ships from Sandwich, Kent [Map] to Pevensey [Map], and Earl Beorn went with him.

Note 62. So Florence of Worcester, whose authority we here follow for the sake of perspicuity, though some of these events are placed in the MSS. to very different years; as the story of Beorn.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. Whilst Earl Godwin (age 48) and Earl Beorn lay at Pevensey [Map] with their ships, came Earl Sweyne (age 28), and with a pretence requested of Earl Beorn, who was his uncle's son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, Kent [Map], and better his condition with him; adding, that he would swear oaths to him, and be faithful to him. Whereupon Beorn concluded, that he would not for their relationship betray him. He therefore took three companions with him, and they rode to Bosham, where his63 ships lay, as though they should proceed to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; but they suddenly bound him, and led him to the ships, and went thence with him to Dartmouth, Devon, where they ordered him to be slain and buried deep. He was afterwards found, and Harold (age 27) his cousin fetched him thence, and led him to Winchester, to the old minster, where he buried him with King Knute, his uncle.

Note 63. i.e. The ships of Sweyne (age 28), who had retired thither, as before described.

Godwins Restored

John of Worcester. 1052. As soon as his arrival was known in the king's fleet, which lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map], it went in chase of him; but he escaped and concealed himself wherever he could, and the fleet returned to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and thence sailed to London. On hearing this, Godwin (age 51) shaped his course again for the Isle of Wight [Map], and kept hovering about along the shore until his sons Harold (age 30) and Leofwine (age 17) joined him with their fleet. After this junction, they desisted from plundering and wasting the country, taking only such provisions as necessity required for the subsistence of their troops. Having increased their force by enlisting as many men as they could on the sea-coast and in other places, and by collecting all the mariners they met with in every direction, they directed their course towards the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map]. Their arrival there was notified to king Edward (age 49), who was then at London, and he lost no time sending messengers requiring all persons, who had not revolted from him, to hasten to his succour; but they were too slow in their movements, and did not arrive in time. Meanwhile, earl Godwin (age 51), having sailed up the Thames against the current, reached Southwark, Surrey [Map] on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14th September], being Monday, and waited there until the flood-tide came up. In the interval, he so dealt with the citizens of London, some in person, others through his emissaries, having before seduced them by a variety of promises, that he persuaded nearly all of them to enter heartily into his designs. At last, everything being duly planned and set in order, on the tide's flowing up they quickly weighed anchor, and, no one offering them any resistance at the bridge, sailed upwards along the south bank of the river. The land army also arrived, and, being drawn up on the river-bank, formed a close and formidable column. Then the fleet drew towards the northern bank, with the intention, apparently, of enclosing the king's fleet, for the king had also a fleet, as well as a numerous land army. But as there were very few men of any courage, either on the king's or Godwin's (age 51) side, who were not Englishmen, nearly all shrunk from fighting against their kinsfolk and countrymen; so that the wiser sort on both sides interfered to restore peace between the king and the earl, and both armies received orders to lay down their arms. The next morning the king (age 49) held a council, and fully restored to their former honours Godwin (age 51), and his wife, and all his sons, except Sweyn (age 31), who, touched with repentance for the murder of his cousin Beorn, mentioned before, had undertaken a journey barefoot from Flanders to Jerusalem, and who, on his return, died in Lycia70 from illness brought on by the severity of the cold. The king, also, took back with due honour queen Edgitha (age 26), the earl's (age 51) daughter, and restored her to her former dignity.

Note 70. According to the Saxon Chronicle, Sweyn died at Constantinople on his journey home. Malmesbury relates that he was slain by the Saracens.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. After 05 Mar 1052. Meanwhile Harold (age 30) had gone out from Ireland with nine ships, and came up at Porlock, Somerset with his ships to the mouth of the Severn, near the boundaries of Somerset and Devonshire, and there plundered much. The land-folk collected against him, both from Somerset and from Devonshire: but he put them to flight, and slew there more than thirty good thanes, besides others; and went soon after about Penwithstert [Note. Possibly Plymouth, Devon [Map]], where was much people gathered against him; but he spared not to provide himself with meat, and went up and slew on the spot a great number of the people-seizing in cattle, in men, and in money, whatever he could. Then went he eastward to his father; and they went both together eastward71 until they came to the Isle of Wight [Map], where they seized whatever had been left them before. Thence they went to Pevensey [Map], and got out with them as many ships as had gone in there, and so proceeded forth till they came to the Ness;72 getting all the ships that were at Romney, and at Hithe, and at Folkstone. Then ordered King Edward (age 49) to fit out forty smacks that lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map] many weeks, to watch Earl Godwin (age 51), who was at Bruges [Map] during the winter; but he nevertheless came hither first to land, so as to escape their notice. And whilst he abode in this land, he enticed to him all the Kentish men, and all the boatmen from Hastings, and everywhere thereabout by the sea-coast, and all the men of Essex and Sussex and Surrey, and many others besides. Then said they all that they would with him live or die. When the fleet that lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map] had intelligence about Godwin's expedition, they set sail after him; but he escaped them, and betook himself wherever he might: and the fleet returned to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and so homeward to London. When Godwin understood that the fleet that lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map] was gone home, then went he back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea-coast so long that they came together-he and his son Earl Harold. But they did no great harm after they came together; save that they took meat, and enticed to them all the land-folk by the sea-coast and also upward in the land. And they proceeded toward Sandwich, Kent [Map], ever alluring forth with them all the boatmen that they met; and to Sandwich, Kent [Map] they came with an increasing army. They then steered eastward round to Dover, and landing there, took as many ships and hostages as they chose, and so returned to Sandwich, Kent [Map], where they did the same; and men everywhere gave them hostages and provisions, wherever they required them.

Note 70 i.e. Earl Godwin and his crew.

Note 71 i.e. from the Isle of Portland; where Godwin had landed after the plunder of the Isle of Wight.

Note 72 i.e. Dungeness; where they collected all the ships stationed in the great bay formed by the ports of Romney, Hithe, and Folkstone.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. In the same year advised the king and his council, that ships should be sent out to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and that Earl Ralph and Earl Odda (age 59) should be appointed headmen thereto. Then went Earl Godwin (age 51) out from Bruges [Map] with his ships to Ysendyck; and sailed forth one day before midsummer-eve, till he came to the Ness that is to the south of Romney. When it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, Kent [Map], they went out after the other ships; and a land-force was also ordered out against the ships. Meanwhile Earl Godwin (age 51) had warning, and betook himself into Pevensey [Map]: and the weather was so boisterous, that the earls could not learn what had become of Earl Godwin. But Earl Godwin then went out again until he came back to Bruges [Map]; and the other ships returned back again to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. Then it was advised that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other pilots should be appointed over them. But it was delayed so long that the marine army all deserted; and they all betook themselves home. When Earl Godwin (age 51) understood that, he drew up his sail and his ship: and they70 went west at once to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and landing there, they plundered so long that the people gave them as much as they required of them. Then proceeded they westward until they came to Portland, where they landed and did as much harm as they could possibly do.

John of Worcester. After 06 Mar 1052. A short time afterwards, earl Harold (age 30) and his brother Leofwine (age 17), returning from Ireland, and sailing into the mouth of the river Severn with a large fleet, landed on the borders of Somersetshire and Dorsetshire, and plundered many villages and farms in those parts. A great number of the people of Devonshire and Somersetshire gathered together in arms against them; but Harold (age 30) defeated them with the loss of more than thirty noble thanes, and many others. He then returned to his fleet with the booty, and sailed round Penwithsteort.68 Thereupon, king Edward (age 49) quickly despatched forty ships, well provisioned, and having on board a chosen body of soldiers, to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], with orders to wait and look out for the arrival of earl Godwin (age 51). Notwithstanding this, he escaped observation, and, returning with a few ships, landed in Kent; and, by his secret emissaries, gained over to espouse his cause, first, the Kentishmen, and then the people of Sussex, Essex, and Surrey, with all the seamen69 of Hastings and other places on the sea-coast, besides some others. All these, with one voice, declared that they were ready to live or die with him.

Note 68. Penwith-Steort—the Land's End.

Note 69. Butsecarles—Boats-carles. Our author uses the word again, a few sentences later, in the general sense of mariners, seamen.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. This year came King Harold (age 44) from York to Westminster, on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward) died. Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of May. Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever saw before. Some men said that it was the comet-star, which others denominate the long-hair'd star. It appeared first on the eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the calends off May; and so shone all the week. Soon after this came in Earl Tosty (age 40) from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight [Map], with as large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with money and provisions. Thence he proceeded, and committed outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until he came to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. When it was told King Harold (age 44), who was in London, that his brother Tosty (age 40) was come to Sandwich, Kent [Map], he gathered so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from Normandy (age 38), King Edward's (age 63) cousin, would come hither and gain this land; just as it afterwards happened. When Tosty (age 40) understood that King Harold (age 44) was on the way to Sandwich, Kent [Map], he departed thence, and took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered in Lindsey [Map], and there slew many good men. When the Earls Edwin and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from the land. And the boatmen forsook him. Then he went to Scotland with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him, and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer. There met him Harold, King of Norway (age 51), with three hundred ships. And Tosty (age 40) submitted to him, and became his man.87 Then came King Harold (age 44)88 to Sandwich, Kent [Map], where he awaited his fleet; for it was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he went into the Isle of Wight [Map], and there lay all the summer and the autumn. There was also a land-force every where by the sea, though it availed nought in the end. It was now the nativity of St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man could keep them there any longer. They therefore had leave to go home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London; but many perished ere they came thither.

Note 87. These facts, though stated in one MS. only, prove the early cooperation of Tosty with the King of Norway. It is remarkable that this statement is confirmed by Snorre, who says that Tosty was with Harald, the King of Norway, in all these expeditions. Vid "Antiq. Celto-Scand." p. 204.

Note 88. i.e. Harold, King of England; "our" king, as we find him. Afterwards called in B iv., to distinguish him from Harald, King of Norway.

John of Worcester. 24 Apr 1066. The same year a comet was seen on the eighth of the calends of May [24th April], not only in England, but, as it is reported, all over the world: it shone with excessive brilliance for seven days. Soon afterwards earl Tosti (age 40) returned from Flanders, and landed in the Isle of Wight [Map]; and, having compelled the islanders to give him pay and tribute, he departed, and plundered along the sea-coast, until he arrived at Sandwich, Kent [Map]. King Harold (age 44), who was then at London, having been informed of this, ordered a considerable fleet and a body of horse to be got ready, and prepared to go in person to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map]. On receiving this intelligence, Tosti (age 40) took some of the boatmen of the place, willing or unwilling, into his service, and, departing thence, shaped his course for Lindsey [Map], where he burnt several vills and slew a number of men. Thereupon Edwin, earl of Mercia, and Morcar, earl of Northumbria, flew to the spot with some troops, and drove him out of that neighbourhood; and, on his departure, he repaired to Malcolm (age 35), king of the Scots, and remained with him during the whole summer. Meanwhile king Harold (age 44) arrived at the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and waited there for his fleet. When it was assembled, he sailed to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and as William (age 38), earl of Normandy, king Edward's cousin, was preparing an army for the invasion of England, he kept watch all the summer and autumn, to prevent his landing; besides which, he stationed a land army at suitable points along the sea-coast; but provisions failing towards the time of the feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September], both the fleet and army were disbanded.

Richard Lionheart Returns to England

On 04 Mar 1194 King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 36) and his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 72) sailed from Antwerp [Map] on board the Trenchemer. The royal admiral, Stephen of Turnham, who was commanding in person, had to employ experienced pilots to take her through the coastal islets and out into the estuary of the Scheldt. It was a long crossing, perhaps deliberately so, to avoid ambush. The Trenchemer was escorted by a large cog from the Cinque port of Rye [Map].

King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 36) and his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 72) landed in England at Sandwich, Kent [Map].

Battle of Sandwich aka Dover

On 24 Aug 1217 Hubert de Burgh Count Mortain 1st Earl Kent (age 47) commanded the King's forces at Sandwich, Kent [Map] during the Battle of Sandwich aka Dover. French re-enforcements had left Calais to join with the future Prince Louis's (age 29) forces who were in short supply following the Second Battle of Lincoln. Hubert Burgh's men routed the French ships. The battle marked the end of Prince Louis's (age 29) invasion with the Treaty of Kingston aka Lambeth being signed shortly afterwards.

In Jan 1266 Roger Leybourne (age 51) was captured at Sandwich, Kent [Map].

Before May 1332 Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet (age 13) left Sandwich, Kent [Map] for her marriage with a trouseau of a wedding gown of Spanish cloth, caps, gloves, shoes, a bed, rare spices and loaves of sugar. She was well received in Guelders.

Chronicle of Gregory 1436. 22 Jul 1436. Ande the xxvj day of Juylle the Duke of Glouceter (age 45) whythe alle the substaunce of the lordys of Ingelonde schyppyde at Sondewyche [Map] with xl. M [40000] men of alle the contreys of Ingelonde, for every towne, cytte, or borowe fonde certayne men whythe dyvers lyvereys of the bagys of the towne, and soo dyd abbeys and pryorys in the same wyse of alle Ingelonde. And the same day they londyd at Calys, and there they hylde her consaile the Fryday, Satyrday, and Sonday. And on the Monday he toke his jornaye in-to Flaunders warde; ande he rode throughe Pycardye and dyd moche harme yn the contre of Flaunders, for he brent Poperyng and Belle, ij [2] goode townys, and many moo othyr vylagys in Flaunders and in Pycardye; and soo he come home a-yenne to Calys whythe out any lettynge of any person, thonkyd be God.

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Calendars. 10 Dec 1459. Coventry [Map]. Commission to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, Thomas Broun, knight, and the mayor of Sandwich to take near Sandwich, Kent [Map] the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe keeping of the sea in the company of Gervase Clyfton (age 54), knight, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery. By K.

Commission to Thomas Kyryell (age 63), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, John Seyncler, esquire, and Richard Dalafeld, esquire, to take near Sandwich, Kent [Map] the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe-keeping of the sea in the company of Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, as above. By K.

Chronicle of England by William of Worcester. [Jan 1460]. And shortly after the said feast, John Dynham (age 27), with others from Calais, secretly entered Sandwich [Map], and there captured Lord Rivers (age 55) and Anthony Woodville (age 20) his son, with many large ships, and brought them to Calais, where the Earls of March (age 17), Warwick (age 31), and Salisbury (age 60) were present.

Et cito post dictum festum Johannes Denham cum aliis de Calesiæ secrete intravit Sandwycum, ac ibidem cepit dominum de Reverys et Antonium Widwele filium ejus, cum multis magnis navibus, et adduxit Calisiæ, comitibus Marchiæ et Warrewici et Sarum, Calisiæ existentibus.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 15 Jan 1460. But the Erle of Warwycke (age 31) come unto Sondewyche [Map], and there he toke the Lord Rivers (age 55) with his ladye (age 45), the lady and Duchyes of Bedfordeb and brought them to Calys, for he was commaundyd to have londyd at C[a]lys by the King, but he was brought there sonner then him lekyd.

Note b. Jaquetta (age 45), widow of the Regent Bedford. She was the daughter of Peter of Luxemburg, Count of St. Pol, and soon after her first husband's death married Sir Richard Woodville (age 55), who was created Baron Rivers by Henry VI. in 1448, and Earl Rivers by Edward IV. (who was his son-in law) in 1466.

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31) raided Sandwich, Kent [Map] capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 55), his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 45) and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 20) were captured.

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

Calendars. Membrane 17d. 08 May 1460. Commission to Thomas Kiriell (age 64), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Westminster. Broun, knight, John Fogge, Robert Home and William Hexstall, to take near Sandwich, Kent [Map] the muster of all men at arms and archers ordered to go with Henry, duke of Exeter (age 29), on the safe-keeping of the sea to resist the king's rebels and enemies, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 21 Jun 1460. Alle soo thes for said lordys come agayne unto Sondewyche [Map] the xxj [21] day of June nexte folowyng. And the comyns of Kente and there welle-wyllers brought them to Lundon, and so forthe to Northehampton.

On 26 Jun 1460 Edward, Earl of March (age 18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31) landed at Sandwich, Kent [Map].

1460 June Raid on Sandwich

Around 05 Jun 1460 when the relief expedition led by Osbert Mountfort was ready to to leave Sandwich, Kent [Map] for Guines, waiting only for a fair wind, the Yorkists John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 27), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 60), William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) crossed from Calais and attacked Sandwich, Kent [Map] killing many of Osbert's men. Osbert Mountfort was captured. William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) remained at Sandwich is preparation for the subsequent landing by Yorkist forces at the end of the month.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1660. My Lord dined at his lodgings all alone to-day. I went to Secretary Nicholas (age 67)1 to carry him my Lord's resolutions about his title, which he had chosen, and that is Portsmouth2. I met with Mr. Throgmorton, a merchant, who went with me to the old Three Tuns, at Charing Cross, who did give me five pieces of gold for to do him a small piece of service about a convoy to Bilbo, which I did. In the afternoon, one Mr. Watts came to me, a merchant, to offer me £500 if I would desist from the Clerk of the Acts place. I pray God direct me in what I do herein. Went to my house, where I found my father, and carried him and my wife to Whitefriars, and myself to Puddlewharf [Map], to the Wardrobe, to Mr. Townsend, who went with me to Backwell, the goldsmith's, and there we chose £100 worth of plate for my Lord to give Secretary Nicholas. Back and staid at my father's (age 59), and so home to bed.

Note 1. Sir Edward Nicholas (age 67), Secretary of State to Charles I and II. He was dismissed from his office through the intrigues of Lady Castlemaine (age 19) in 1663. He died 1669, aged seventy-seven.

Note 2. Montagu changed his mind, and ultimately took his title from the town of Sandwich, Kent [Map], leaving that of Portsmouth for the use of a King's (age 30) mistress (age 10).

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jan 1665. To Deal, Kent [Map]. 10th. To Sandwich, Kent [Map], a pretty town, about two miles from the sea. The Mayor and officers of the Customs were very diligent to serve me. I visited the forts in the way, and returned that night to Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Sandwich, Richborough [Map]

43. Rutupiae [Map], or Portus Ritupis, is a significant Roman settlement near Richborough [Map] in Kent that was developed immediately after the Roman invasion in 43AD. Substantial remains of its massive fort walls still stand to a height of several metres.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 May 1672. We passed by Rickborough [Map], and in sight of Reculvers [Map], and so through a sweet garden, as it were, to Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Watling Street 10 Richborough to Canterbury. Rutupiae [Map], Reculver, Kent [Map], Portus Lemanis [Map] to Durovernum [Map]. This route wasn't included in Margery's scheme for Watling Street.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Sandwich, Richborough, Rutupiae [Map]

43. Rutupiae [Map], or Portus Ritupis, is a significant Roman settlement near Richborough [Map] in Kent that was developed immediately after the Roman invasion in 43AD. Substantial remains of its massive fort walls still stand to a height of several metres.

Bede. OF THE SITUATION OF BRITAIN AND IRELAND, AND OF THEIR ANCIENT INHABITANTS

Britain, an island in the ocean, formerly called Albion, is situated between the north and west, facing, though at a considerable distance, the coasts of Germany, France, and Spain, which form the greatest part of Europe. It extends 800 miles in length towards the north, and is 200 miles in breadth, except where several promontories extend further in breadth, by which its compass is made to be 3675 miles. To the south, as you pass along the nearest shore of the Belgic Gaul, the first place in Britain which opens to the eye is the city of Rutubi Portus [Map], by the English corrupted into Reptacestir. The distance from hence across the sea to Gessoriacum, the nearest shore of the Morini, is fifty miles, or as some writers say, 450 furlongs. On the back of the island, where it opens upon the boundless ocean, it has the islands called Orcades. Britain excels for grain and trees, and is well adapted for feeding cattle and beasts of burden. It also produces vines in some places, and has plenty of land and waterfowls of several sorts; it is remarkable also for rivers abounding in fish, and plentiful springs. It has the greatest plenty of salmon and eels; seals are also frequently taken, and dolphins, as also whales; besides many sorts of shellfish, such as muscles, in which are often found excellent pearls of all colours, red, purple, violet, and green, but mostly white. There is also a great abundance of cockles, of which the scarlet dye is made; a most beautiful colour, which never fades with the heat of the sun or the washing of the rain; but the older it is, the more beautiful it becomes. It has both salt and hot springs, and from them flow rivers which furnish hot baths, proper for all ages and sexes, and arranged according. For water, as St. Basil says, receives the heating quality, when it runs along certain metals, and becomes not only hot but scalding. Britain has also many veins of metals, as copper, iron, lead, and silver; it has much and excellent jet, which is black and sparkling, glittering at the fire, and when heated, drives away serpents; being warmed with rubbing, it holds fast whatever is applied to it, like amber. The island was formerly embellished with twenty-­eight noble cities, besides innumerable castles, which were all strongly secured with walls, towers, gates, and locks. And, from its lying almost under the North Pole, the nights are light in summer, so that at midnight the beholders are often in doubt whether the evening twilight still continues, or that of the morning is coming on; for the sun, in the night, returns under the earth, through the northern regions at no great distance from them. For this reason the days are of a great length in summer, as, on the contrary, the nights are in winter, for the sun then withdraws into the southern parts, so that the nights are eighteen hours long. Thus the nights are extraordinarily short in summer, and the days in winter, that is, of only six equinoctial hours. Whereas, in Armenia, Macedonia, Italy, and other countries of the same latitude, the longest day or night extends but to fifteen hours, and the shortest to nine.