On this Day in History ... 14 July

14 Jul is in July.

664 Plague Outbreak

1517 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1596 Sack of Cádiz

1641 Jul 1641 Creation of Baronets

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

1793 Siege of Valciennes

Bede. 664. DEUSDEDIT, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, DYING, WIGHARD WAS SENT TO ROME TO SUCCEED HIM IN THAT DIGNITY; BUT HE DYING THERE, THEODORE WAS ORDAINED ARCHBISHOP, AND SENT INTO BRITAIN WITH THE ABBOT HADRIAN.

In the above-mentioned year of the aforesaid eclipse, which was presently followed by the pestilence, in which also Bishop Colman, being overcome by the unanimous consent of the Catholics, returned home, Deusdedit, the sixth bishop of the church of Canterbury, died on the 14th of July. Erconbert, also, king of Kent, departed this life the same month and day; leaving his kingdom to his son Egbert, which he held nine years. The see then became vacant for some considerable time, until the priest Wighard, a man skilled in ecclesiastical discipline, of the English race, was sent to Rome by the said King Egbert, and Oswy, king of the Northumbrians (age 52), as was briefly mentioned in the foregoing book, with a request that he might be ordained bishop of the church of England; sending at the same time presents to the apostolic pope, and many vessels of gold and silver. Arriving at Rome, where Vitalian presided at that time over the Apostolic See, and having made known to the aforesaid pope the occasion of his journey, he was not long after snatched away, with almost all his companions that went with him, by a pestilence which happened at that time.

Before 14 Jul 664 King Eorcenberht of Kent and Seaxburh Wuffingas Queen Consort Kent were married. She the daughter of King Anna of East Anglia. He the son of King Eadbald of Kent and Emma Austrasia Queen Consort Kent.

On 14 Jul 664 King Eorcenberht of Kent died. His son King Ecgberht I of Kent succeeded I King of Kent.

664 Plague Outbreak

On 14 Jul 1223 King Philip II of France (age 57) died. His son Louis "Lion" VIII King France (age 35) succeeded VIII King France: Capet. Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France (age 35) by marriage Queen Consort of France.

After 14 Jul 1306 Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 20) and Eleanor Clare Baroness Zouche Mortimer (age 13) were married. She the daughter of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford and Joan of Acre Countess Gloucester and Hertford (age 34). He the son of Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester (age 45) and Isabella Beauchamp Baroness Monthermer. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England. She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Before 14 Jul 1310 Henry Beaumont Earl Buchan (age 31) and Alice Comyn Baroness Beaumont were married. Alice Comyn Baroness Beaumont by marriage Baroness Beaumont. He by marriage Earl Buchan. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Before 14 Jul 1323 Ralph Greystoke 1st Baron Greystoke (age 23) and Alice Audley Baroness Greystoke Baroness Neville Raby (age 19) were married. She by marriage Baroness Greystoke. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 14 Jul 1323 Ralph Greystoke 1st Baron Greystoke (age 23) died at Gateshead. Possibly poisoned by a rebel knight. He was buried at Newminster Abbey [Map]. His son William Greystoke 2nd Baron Greystoke (age 2) succeeded 2nd Baron Greystoke.

After 14 Jul 1323 William Greystoke 2nd Baron Greystoke (age 2) and Lucy de Lucy Baroness Greystoke were married. She by marriage Baroness Greystoke. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 14 Jul 1425 John Mowbray 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 33) paid homage to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 3) for his Dukedom.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 14 Jul 1447. And on Fryday the xiiij day of Juylle nexte folowynge by jugement at Westemyster, there by fore v [5] personys were dampnyd to be drawe, hanggyd and hyr bowellys i-brente by fore hem, and thenne hyr heddys to ben smetyn of, ande thenne to be quarteryde, and every parte to be sende unto dyvers placys by assygnement of the jugys. Whyche personys werethes: Arteys the bastarde of the sayde Duke of Glouceter, Syr Rogger Chambyrlayne knyght, Mylton squyer, Thomas Harberde squyer, Nedam yeman, whyche were the sayde xiiij day of Juylle i-drawe fro Syn Gorgys thoroughe owte Sowthewerke and on Londyn Brygge [Map], ande so forthe thorowe the cytte of London to the Tyborne [Map], and there alle they were hanggyde, and the ropys smetyn a-sondyr, they beynge alle lyvynge, and thenne, ar any more of any markys of excecusyon were done, the Duke of Sowthefolke (age 50) brought them alle yn generalle pardon and grace from our lorde and soverayne Kynge Harry the vj (age 25)te.

1517 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1518. 14 Jul 1518. R. O. 4320. Pace (age 36) to WOLSEY.

Could not send by the bearer the commission signed by the King, as he is gone "in hunting." Tomorrow the King leaves for Bisham, "as it is time; for they do die in these parts in every place, not only of the small pokkes and mezils, but also of the great sickness." Wallingford, 14 July.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my Lord Cardinal's grace.

On 14 Jul 1526 John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 26) died. He was buried at Colne Priory [Map]. His second cousin John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 55) succeeded 15th Earl of Oxford 2C 1141.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 14 Jul 1528. Titus, B. XI. 356. B. M. 4510. Brian Tuke to Peter Vannes.

much consoled by Vannes' last letters, showing my Lord's great goodness to him.

His wife has "passed the sweat," but is very weak, and is broken out about the mouth and other places. Tuke "puts away the sweat" from himself nightly, though other people think they would kill themselves thereby. Has done this during the last sweat and this, feeling sure that as long as he is not first sick, the sweat is rather provoked by disposition of the time and by keeping men close than by any infection. Thousands have it from fear, who need not else sweat, especially if they observe good diet. When a man is not sick, there is no fear of putting away the sweat, in the beginning, "and before a man's grease be with hot keeping molten." Surely after the grease is heated, it must be more dangerous for a man to take cold than for a horse, which dies in such a case. His belief that the sweat in men who are not sick "proceeds much of men's opinion," is confirmed by the fact that it is prevalent nowhere but in the King's dominion. In France and Flanders it is called the king of England's sickness, and is not thought much of there. It does not go to Gravelines when it is at Calais, though people go from one to the other. It has only been brought from London to other parts by report; for when a whole man comes from London, and talks of the sweat, the same night all the town is full of it, and thus it spreads as the fame runs. It came in this way from Sussex to London, and 1,000 fell ill in a night after the news was spread. "Children also, lacking this opinion, have it not," unless their mothers kill them by keeping them too hot if they see them sweat a little.

Does not deny that there is an infection, which he takes to be "rather a kind of a pestilence than otherwise, and that the moisture of years past hath so altered the nature both of our meats and bodies to moist humours, as disposeth us to sweat." Does not think that every man who sweats is infected, and believes that the disposition to sweat may be, by good governance, relieved. Wishes him to show this to my lord's Grace, to satisfy his mind. Dr. Bartlot, his physician, cannot deny this.

The infection is greatly to be feared and avoided, which cannot be, if men meet together in great companies in infect airs and places.

Wishes him to exhort Wolsey not to run any danger. Was sorry to see by Vannes' letters that he was doing so much with so small assistance. Can do nothing to assist him, now that his house is thus visited, and he himself is in extreme perplexity, and soon cast down by the least transgression of his diet. If he were with Wolsey, would be more likely to bring danger and trouble than do any good. Has not strength to write much or study. Writes this at his waking after midnight, fearing to be still for the sweat, with an aching and troubled head.

Remembering that, as Vannes wrote, Wolsey said that Ireland was in great danger if speedy order were not taken, sends the following news. The prior of Kilmainham, who lies within three miles of Tuke, has been with him twice or thrice. He thinks that the best thing to be done until the King and Wolsey take other order is that some fit man, as James Butler, son of my lord of Ossory, "be subrogate in the lieu of the deputy prisoner," and that raids be made to destroy the corn of the wild Irish, which is the chief punishment of the rebels. The neglect of doing this encourages and enables them to offend the English. He thinks nothing would be necessary but the King's letters to whomever it pleases him to entrust the affair to, and to the Council, to assist and to do anything else beneficial. Will draw up any minutes needed, if Vannes will send instructions, but he does not wish to come to Wolsey, considering the precarious state of his health.

Encloses letters from the deputy of Calais. Portgore, 14 July 1528.

Hol., pp.5. Add. Endd.

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1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

On 14 Jul 1551 the two Brandon brothers died of sweating sickness at the Bishop of Lincoln's Palace, Buckden [Map]. They were buried at St Mary's Church, Buckden [Map].

Henry Brandon 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 15) died of sweating sickness . His brother Charles Brandon 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 14) succeeded 3rd Duke Suffolk 2C 1514.

Charles Brandon 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 14) died of sweating sickness an hour or so after his brother. Duke Suffolk 2C 1514 extinct.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jul 1561. The xiiij day of July was nuw graveled with sand from the Charterhowse through Smyth feld [Map], and under Nuwgate, and through sant Nycolas shambull [Map], Chepe-syd, and Cornhyll, unto Algatt and to Whyt-chapell, and all thes plases where hangyd with cloth of arres and carpetes and with sylke, and Chepe-syd hangyd with cloth of gold and cloth of sylver and velvett of all colurs and taffatas in all plases, and all the craftes of Londun standyng in ther leverey from sant Myghell unto Algatt, and then cam mony servyng-men rydyng, and then the pensyonars and gentyll men, and then knyghtes, and after lordes, and then the althermen in skarlett, and the serjant(s) of armes, and then the haroldes of armes in ther cottes armurs, and then my lord mare (age 52) bayryng here septer; [then the lord Hunsdon (age 35) bearing the sword; and then came the Queen's (age 27) grace, and her footmen richly habited; and ladies and gentlemen; then] all lordes' men and knyghtes' [men in their masters' liveries; and at] Whytt-chapell my lord mare and the althermen [took their leave of] here grace, and so she toke her way to-ward [her pro]gresse.

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On 14 Jul 1587 Lewis Watson 1st Baron Rockingham was born to Edward Watson of Rockingham Castle (age 38) and Anne Digby (age 41). Some sources say 1584.

Sack of Cádiz

On 14 Jul 1596 the English burned Cádiz and the next day they left the bay, taking the hostages with them since the Spanish authorities had not been able to pay the ransom. The sacking of Cádiz in 1596 was one of the worst Spanish defeats in the course of the war, together with the attack on Cádiz of 1587 and the loss of the Armada in 1588. The economic losses produced by the Earl of Essex's expedition against the city and the anchored fleet in the port, estimated at 5 million ducats,contributed to the bankruptcy of the royal treasury that same year. The city of Cádiz remained devastated; in addition to the churches and hospitals, 290 out of a total of 1,303 houses burned.

Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 23) was knighted by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 30) for the taking of Cadiz.

Governor Thomas Gates was knighted by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 30) for his bravery.

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On 14 Jul 1623, two days after the death of his father, and his succeeding as Earl of Bath, Edward Bourchier 4th Earl Bath (age 33) and Dorothy St John Countess Bath were married. She by marriage Countess Bath. He the son of William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (deceased) and Elizabeth Russell Countess Bath. They were second cousins.

Jul 1641 Creation of Baronets

Before 14 Jul 1657 Charles Cheyne 1st Viscount Newhaven (age 31) and Jane Cavendish (age 35) were married. She the daughter of William Cavendish 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 64) and Elizabeth Bassett Countess Newcastle upon Tyne. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward IV of England.

1660 July Creation of Peerages

On 14 Jul 1668 John Thompson 1st Baron Haversham (age 20) and Frances Annesley Baroness Haversham were married. She the daughter of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Annesley (age 54) and Elizabeth Altham Countess Anglesey (age 48).

Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1685. Thus ended this quondam Duke (age 36), darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to gather a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July [Note. Most sources quote 15 Jul 1685]. His mother, whose name was Barlow [Note. Lucy Walter is often spoken of incorrectly as Mrs. Walters or Waters, and during her career she seems to have adopted the alias of Mrs. Barlo or Barlow (the name of a family with which the Walters of Pembrokeshire had intermarried). From Dictionary of National Biography.], daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.

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On 14 Jul 1699 Vere Beauclerk 1st Baron de Vere was born to Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans (age 29) and Diana Vere Duchess St Albans (age 20). He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

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On 14 Jul 1720 Thomas Fermor 1st Earl Pomfret (age 22) and Henriette Louise Jeffreys Countess Pomfret (age 21) were married.

On 14 Jul 1730 Robert Nugent 1st Earl Nugent (age 21) and Emilia Plunkett were married. She the daughter of Peter Plunkett 4th Earl of Fingall and Frances Hales Countess Fingall.

On 14 Jul 1760 Arthur Saunders Gore 2nd Earl Arran (age 25) and Catherine Annesley were married. He the son of Arthur Saunders Gore 1st Earl Arran (age 57).

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On 14 Jul 1765 Frederick William II King Prussia (age 20) and Crown Princess Elisabeth Christine of Prussia (age 18) were married. They had one child before the marriage was dissolved in 1769. He a great grandson of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 14 Jul 1768 Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis (age 29) and Jemima Tullekin Jones Marchioness Cornwallis were married. She by marriage Countess Cornwallis. He the son of Charles Cornwallis 1st Earl Cornwallis and Elizabeth Townshend Countess Cornwallis.

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On 14 Jul 1769 Frederick William II King Prussia (age 24) and Queen Frederica Louisa of Prussia (age 17) were married. The date exactly four years after his first marriage. He a great grandson of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

Siege of Valciennes

On 14 Jul 1793 John Tollemache (age 18) was killed at the Siege of Valciennes.

On 14 Jul 1798 Fletcher Norton 3rd Baron Grantley was born to Fletcher Norton (age 53) and Caroline Elizabeth Balmain.

On 14 Jul 1800 George Mason Villiers 2nd Earl Grandison (age 49) died.

On 14 Jul 1808 Henrietta Laura Johnstone aka Pulteney 1st Countess Bath (age 41) died. Earl Bath 5C 1803 extinct. She left her personal estate to her cousin Elizabeth Evelyn Sutton and her husband John Fawcett aka Pulteney (age 41) who adopted the surname Pulteney in 1813. He landed estates were claimed by William Henry Vane 1st Duke Cleveland (age 41) who was a descendant of Anne Pulteney Duchess Southampton Duchess of Cleveland.

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On 14 Jul 1809 Charles Agar 1st Earl Normanton (age 72) died. He was buried at North Transept Westminster Abbey [Map]. His son Welbore Ellis Agar 2nd Earl Normanton (age 31) succeeded 2nd Earl Normanton.

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Before 14 Jul 1819 John Somers-Cocks 2nd Earl Somers (age 31) and Caroline Yorke Countess Somers (age 24) were married. She the daughter of Philip Yorke 3rd Earl of Hardwicke (age 62) and Elizabeth Lindsay Countess Hardwicke (age 55). He the son of John Cocks 1st Earl Somers (age 59). They were third cousins.

On 14 Jul 1825 Arthur Algernon Capell 6th Earl Essex (age 22) and Caroline Janetta Beauclerk Countess Essex (age 21) were married. Caroline Janetta Beauclerk Countess Essex by marriage Countess Essex. She the daughter of William Beauclerk 8th Duke St Albans (age 58) and Maria Janetta Nelthorpe Duchess St Albans. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

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Section I Tumuli 1843. July 14th, 1843, one of the most interesting barrows ever examined in this vicinity was opened. It is situated upon a ridge of high land, near the village of Biggin, which goes by the name of the "Liffs [Map]," the barrow itself having no specific name: the mound had been sadly mutilated, at least one third of it having been removed; notwithstanding this the truth of Sir Richard Hoare's maxim, "fronta nulla fides," was agreeably exemplified. That hemisphere of the circle which still remained the most perfect was selected as the place where to commence operations: on reaching the thickest part of the circle, which, owing to the depression usual in the middle of most barrows, would be about two yards from the centre, a few human bones, horses' teeth, various animal bones, and two small pieces of a very thick and coarse urn, were found; but not until penetrating to the heart of the barrow was the principal interment discovered. In that situation an octagonal cist was erected of the usual material, namely, thin flat lime-stones, which are admirably adapted for the purpose; this vault was about half filled with stiff clay, imbedded in which lay a fine human skeleton, whose knees were drawn up, according to a general custom, prevalent in the most remote ages. The extreme antiquity of this interment is demonstrated by the simple form and material of the weapons and tools which were, with one exception, deposited in a cluster behind the shoulders of this early denizen of the Derbyshire moors. The skull, which is fine and intellectual, lay on the left side so as to look towards the west, and in the angle formed by the contraction of the knees, was placed a hammer-head ingeniously constructed out of the lower part of the horn of a noble red deer; one end of this instrument is rounded and polished, the other is cut into a diamond pattern, somewhat similar to the wafer stamps used by attorneys. The articles before alluded to as being placed near the shoulders were of a very miscellaneous character, and highly interesting; as showing, after a lapse of several thousand years, that the savage Briton reposing in this cairn had cultivated the art of making war amongst the inhabitants of the forest, in preference to molesting his fellow-savages; as almost the first observed articles were a pair of enormous tusks of the wild boar, the trophies of some, perhaps his last, sylvan triumph; next came two arrow-heads of flint, delicately chipped, and of unusual form; two flint celts or chisels, beautifully chipped and polished at the cutting edges; two spear-heads of the same material; two flint knives polished on the edge, one of them serrated on the back, in order to serve as a saw; and numerous other pieces of flints of indescribable form and use, which, together with all the flint instruments enumerated above, seem to have undergone a partial calcination being gray tinted with various shades of blue and pink; with these utensils were found three pieces of red ochre, the rouge of these unsophisticated huntsmen which, even now, on being wetted imparts a bright red colour to the skin, which is by no means easy to discharge. Upon the summit of the little heap, formed by this accumulation of relics, lay a small drinking or incense cup of novel and unprecedented shape, which was unfortunately broken and crushed, but has been since restored. The absence of instruments of metal in this and other barrows should be borne in mind; it is commented on in another part of this work.

On 14 Jul 1851 Dudley Francis North 7th Earl Guildford was born to Dudley North (age 21).

On 14 Jul 1853 Henry Vivian 1st Baron Swansea (age 32) and Flora Caroline Elizabeth Cholmeley were married. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 14 Jul 1863 Gilbert Henry Heathcote Drummond Willoughby 1st Earl Ancaster (age 32) and Evelyn Elizabeth Gordon Countess Ancaster (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Charles Gordon 10th Marquess Huntly (age 71) and Maria Antoinetta Pegus Marchioness Huntly (age 42).

On 14 Jul 1885 George William Henry Venables-Vernon 7th Baron Vernon (age 31) and Frances Margaret Lawrance Baroness Vernon were married. She by marriage Baroness Vernon of Kinderton in Cheshire.

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On 14 Jul 1897 Cecil Eustace Irby 8th Baron Boston was born to Cecil Suamarez Irby (age 35).

On 14 Jul 1902 Charles Cospatrick Douglas-Home 13th Earl of Home (age 28) and Lilian Lambton Countess of Home (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Frederick Lambton 4th Earl Durham (age 47) and Beatrix Bulteel Countess Durham. He the son of Charles Douglas-Home 12th Earl of Home (age 68) and Maria Gray Countess of Home (age 53). They were third cousin once removed.

On 14 Jul 1912 Henry Wellesley 6th Duke Wellington was born to Arthur Charles Wellesley 5th Duke Wellington (age 36) and Lillian Maud Glen Coats Duchess Wellington (age 27).

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Isabel Jacqueline Rawdon-Hastings: On 08 Aug 1887 she was born to Major Paulyn Abney-Hastings (age 30) and Maud Grimston (age 30). On 20 Sep 1916 Major Hubert James Cecil Rostron (age 41) and Isabel Jacqueline Rawdon-Hastings (age 29) were married. On 14 Jul 1917 Isabel Jacqueline Rawdon-Hastings (age 29) died.

Bolton War Memorial [Map]. Unveiled 14 Jul 1928 by Edward George Villiers Stanley 17th Earl of Derby (age 63). Sculpted by Walter Marsden (age 45).

On 14 Jul 1938 Arthur Gore 9th Earl of Arran was born to Arthur Gore 8th Earl of Arran (age 28) and Fiona Colquhoun Countess of Arran (age 19).