On this Day in History ... 17 March

17 Mar is in March.

1190 Massacre of the Jews at York

1328 Roger Mortimer created Earl of March

1328 Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

1623 Charles I's Trip to Spain

1943 Battle of the Mareth Line

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1040. This year died King Harold (age 24) at Oxford [Map], on the sixteenth before the calends of April; and he was buried at Westminster. He governed England four years and sixteen weeks; and in his days tribute was paid to sixteen ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman, as was done before in King Knute's days. The same year they sent after Hardacnute (age 22) to Bruges, supposing they did well; and he came hither to Sandwich [Map] with sixty ships, seven nights before midsummer. He was soon received both by the Angles and Danes, though his advisers afterwards severely paid for it. They ordered a tribute for sixty-two ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman. Then were alienated from him all that before desired him; for he framed nothing royal during his whole reign. He ordered the dead Harold (age 24) to be dragged up and thrown into a ditch. This year rose the sester of wheat to fifty-five pence, and even further. This year Archbishop Edsy went to Rome.

On 17 Mar 1126 Conrad Welf (age 21) died. His brother Henry "Proud" Welf X Duke Bavaria (age 18) succeeded X Duke Bavaria.

On 14 Mar 1190 twin boys were born to King Philip II of France (age 24) and Isabelle Flanders Queen Consort France (age 19). The eldest Robert died the same day, the youngest Philip died three days later. Their mother Isabelle Flanders Queen Consort France (age 19) died from childbirth the day after the birth.

Massacre of the Jews at York

On 17 Mar 1190 at York [Map] the Jewish population sought protection from violence in Clifford's Tower. The tower was besieged by the mob of crusaders preparing to leave on the Third Crusade. The Jewish men killed their wives and children, after which they set fire to the wooden keep. Those who did escape were murdered.

Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton. AND when that the Scots were departed by night from the mountain, whereas the king of England (age 15) had besieged them, as ye have heard herebefore, they went twentytwo mile through that savage country without resting, and passed the river of Tyne right near to Carlisle [Map]1; and the next day they went into their own land, and so departed every man to his own mansion. And within a space after there was a peace purchased between the kings of England and Scotland; and as the English chronicle saith,' it was done by the special counsel of the old queen (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40); for by their means there was a parliament holden at Northampton [Map], at the which the king (age 15) being within age granted to the Scots to release all the fealties and homages that they ought to have done to the crown of England, by his charter ensealed, and also there was delivered to the Scots an indenture, the which was called the Ragman, wherein was contained all the homages and fealties that the king of Scots and all the prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought to have done to the crown of England, sealed with all their seals, with all other rights that sundry barons and knights ought to have had in the realm of Scotland.

Note 1. This may be a mistake since the River Tyne doesn't flows near Carlisle. The River Eden flows through Carlisle.

On 17 Mar 1328 Robert the Bruce (age 53) signed the Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton bringing to an end the First Scottish War of Independence. The English Parliament signed at Northampton [Map] on 03 May 1328. The terms of the Treaty included:

Scotland to pay England £100,000 sterling,

The Kingdom of Scotland as fully independent,

Robert the Bruce (age 53), and his heirs and successors, as the rightful rulers of Scotland, and.

The border between Scotland and England as that recognised under the reign of Alexander III (1249-1286).

The Treaty lasted four years only being regarded by the English nobility as humiliating; the work of Edward's (age 15) mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) rather than King Edward (age 15). Two years after King Edward (age 15) commenced his personal reign he commenced the Second War of Scottish Independence in Aug 1332.

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. Then the earl marshal (age 27) and the earl of Kent (age 26), the king's uncle, made a peace between the king (age 15) and the earl of Lancaster (age 47), on whose part was sir Henry lord Beaumont (age 49), sir Fulke Fitz-Warin (age 43), sir Thomas Rocelin, sir William Trussel (age 48), sir Thomas Wither and about a hundred knights, who were all expelled out of England by the counsel of queen Isabel and the earl Mortimer: for he was so covetous, that he thought to have the most part of all their lands into his own hands, as it is more plainly shewed in the English chronicle, the which I pass over and follow mine author.

Roger Mortimer created Earl of March

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. And also they delivered to them again the black cross of Scotland, the which the good king Edward conquered and brought it out of the abbey of Scone [Map], the which was a precious relic; and all rights and interests that every baron had in Scotland was then clean forgiven. And many other things were done at that parliament to the great hurt and prejudice of the realm of England, and in manner against the wills of all the nobles of the realm, save only of Isabel (age 33) the old queen and the bishop of Ely and the lord Mortimer (age 40): they ruled the realm in such wise, that every man was miscontent. So that the earl Henry of Lancaster (age 47) and sir Thomas Brotherton (age 27), earl marshal, and sir Edmund of Woodstock (age 26), the king's uncle, and divers other lords and commons were agreed together to amend these faults, if they might. And in that meantime the queen Isabel (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) caused another parliament to be holden at Salisbury, at the which parliament sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) was made earl of March against all the barons' wills of England, in prejudice of king and his realm, and sir John of Eltham (age 11) the king's brother was made earl of Cornwall. To the which parliament the earl Henry of Lancaster (age 47) would not come, wherefore the king was brought in belief that he would have destroyed his person; for the which they assembled a great host and went toward Bedford [Map], whereas the earl Henry (age 47) was with his company.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Mar 1552. The xvij day of Marche rod thrugh London unto [St.] James in the feld, the kyng('s) plase [Note. palace], the kynges syster my [lady] Elsabeth (age 18), with a grett compeny of lordes and knyghtes and gentyll men, and after her a grett nombur of lades and gentyllwomen to the nombur of ij C. on horsse-bake, and yomen.

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Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Mar 1557. The xvij day of Marche cam rydyng from kyng Phelype (age 29) from be-yond the see unto the court at Grenwyche [Map], to owre quen (age 41), with letters in post, my lord Robart Dudley (age 24), and after master Kemp of the preve chambur, that the kyng (age 29) wold com to Cales [Map] the xvij day of Marche; and the sam day dyd pryche a-for the quen the nuwe bysshope of Lynckolne doctur Watsun (age 42).

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On 17 Mar 1602 Patrick Plunkett 7th Baron Dunsany (age 58) died. His son Christopher Plunkett 8th Baron Dunsany succeeded 8th Baron Dunsany.

On 17 Mar 1608 Maximilian Colt (age 33) was employed on a second monument in Westminster Abbey above the grave of the Princess Sophia, the infant child of King James I (age 41), who was born and died in the preceding June. Colt received 215l for this work.


Charles I's Trip to Spain

Autobiograph Simon D'Ewes. 17 Feb 1623. There happened on Monday, the 17th day of the month, so strange an accident as after ages will scarce believe it. For Charles Prince of Wales (age 22) began his journey from London into Spain on Monday, the 17th day of February, with the beloved Marquis of Buckingham (age 30), Sir Francis Cottington (age 44), and Mr. Endimion Porter (age 36), only in his campaign; who only, besides the King himself, were the alone men aquainted with the Prince's resolution. Their going was so secretly carried as none, I believe, knew of it in England till they were landed in France, through which kingdom they passed by posthorse into Spain.1 The journey was thought so dangerous, being above 1100 English miles by land, besides the crossing of the seas between Dover and Calais, as all men were generally ensaddened at the ad- venture, often wishing it had been better advised upon; although they knew the Spaniards durst do the Prince no harm, so long as his royal sister and her illustrious oflspring survived. Soon after followed the Lord Hays (age 43), Earl of Carlisle, and passed into France to excuse to that King the Prince's sudden and secret passing through his kingdom without giving him a visit. All men now took it for granted, that the Prince's marriage with the Infanta Maria, the King of Spain's sister, was concluded on, and that he went over only to consummate it; no man imagining that he would take up such a resolution upon uncertainties, especially occasioning so vast and unnecessary expense at a time when the King's wants pressed him much. But God, whose decree binds princes as well as peasants, had otherwise disposed, so as our royal suitor, arriving at Madrid in Spain on Friday the 7th (or 17th) of March, about three weeks later his departure from London, and taking ship for his return to England on the 18th (or 28th) of September, then next ensuing, stayed in Spain about seven months; in all which time he seldom saw or spoke with the Spanish Princess, nor could ever receive a fair or sincere denial from her brother, although her marriage had been absolutely disposed of by her father's last will and testament; he bequeathing her to Ferdinand, son and heir of Ferdinand the Second, Emperor of Germany, who afterwards did accordingly espouse her.

Note 1. "And now behold a, strange adventure and enterprise! The Prince and the Marquis of Buckingham, accompanied with Cottington and Endimion Porter, post in disgiuse to Spain to accelerate the marriage. The 17th of February they went privately from Court, and the next day came to Dover, where they embarked for Boulogne, and from thence rode post to Paris, where they made some atop. The Prince, shadowed under a bushy peruque, beheld the splendour of that court, and had a full view of the Princess Henrietta Maria (age 13), who was afterwards his royal consort. For, besides the great privacy of the journey, they had so laid the English ports, that none should follow or give the least advertisement, until they had got the start of intelligencers, and passed the bounds of France. Howbeit they escaped narrowly, and a swift intelligence sent to the King of Spain from Don Carlos Coloma was even at their heels before they arrived at Madrid. The Prince and Buckingham being in the territories of Spain, to make but little noise, rode post before their company. The 7th of March they arrived at Madrid, the royal residence, and were conveyed with much secrecy into the Earl of Bristol's (age 43) house-Rushworth, i. p. 76. A fuller account of this extraordinary adventure will be found elsewhere.

On 17 Mar 1663 Jerome Weston 2nd Earl of Portland (age 57) died. His son Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland (age 23) succeeded 3rd Earl of Portland 1C 1633.

Before 17 Mar 1668 Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 20) and Mary Anne Boyle (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington (age 55) and Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington (age 54). He the son of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 42) and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 43).

On 17 Mar 1680 William Brereton 3rd Baron Brereton (age 48) died. His son John Brereton 4th Baron Brereton (age 20) succeeded 4th Baron Brereton and inherited Brereton Hall, Cheshire [Map].

Around 17 Mar 1691 Jenico Preston 7th Viscount Gormanston (age 61) died.

On 17 Mar 1715 Bishop Gilbert Burnet (age 71) died. Salisbury Cathedral [Map].

On 17 Mar 1722 William Wentworth 2nd Earl Strafford was born to Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 49) and Anne Johnson Countess Strafford.

On 17 Mar 1753 Charles Stanhope 3rd Earl of Harrington was born to William Stanhope 2nd Earl of Harrington (age 33) and Caroline Fitzroy Countess Harrington (age 30). He a great x 2 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 17 Mar 1758 James Hamilton 1st Earl Clanbrassil (age 63) died.


On 17 Mar 1785 Henry Burgh 1st Marquess Clarincade (age 43) and Urania Paulet Marchioness Clanricarde (age 18) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of George Paulett 12th Marquess Winchester (age 62) and Martha Ingoldsby Marchioness Winchester. He the son of John Smith Burgh 11th Earl Clanricarde and Hester Amelia Vincent Countess Clanricarde.

On 17 Mar 1810 George Patrick Evans 7th Baron Carbery was born to Percy Evans (age 36).

On 17 Mar 1811 Thomas Parker 6th Earl Macclesfield was born to Thomas Parker 5th Earl Macclesfield (age 48) and Eliza Wolstenholme Countess Macclesfield (age 30).

On 17 Mar 1823 George Glyn Banker 1st Baron Wolverton (age 25) and Marianne Grenfell Baroness Wolverton (age 21) were married.

On 17 Mar 1828 Charles Hamilton 8th Earl Haddington (age 74) died. His son Thomas Haddington 9th Earl Haddington (age 47) succeeded 9th Earl Haddington.

On 17 Mar 1891 Wentworth Beaumont 1st Baron Allendale (age 61) and Edith Althea Hamilton Baroness Allendale (age 42) were married at St Paul's Church, Knightsbridge. No issue.

On 17 Mar 1904 Prince George Hanover 2nd Duke Cambridge (age 84) died at Gloucester House without issue. Duke Cambridge 4C 1801 extinct.


On 17 Mar 1905 George Lane-Fox 1st Baron Bingley (age 34) and Mary Agnes Emily Wood Baroness Bingley (age 27) were married.

On 17 Mar 1915 Evelyn Hugh Boscawen 8th Viscount Falmouth (age 27) and Mary Margaret Desiree Meynell Viscountess Falmouth (age 20) were married.

Battle of the Mareth Line

On 17 Mar 1943 Nicholas Townshend Durham was killed in action at the Battle of the Mareth Line.

On 25 Dec 1962 All Saints' Church, Branston [Map] was damaged by fire. The Church was rehallowed on 17 Mar 1966.