On this Day in History ... 18 February

18 Feb is in February.

1397 Battle of Nicopolis

1478 Execution of Burdett and Stacy

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1503 Lying in State of Elizabeth of York

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1516 Birth of Princess Mary

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1653 Three Days' Battle aka Battle of Portland

1662 Great Storm

1712 French Royal Family Deaths from Measles

1878 Double Royal Wedding

On 18 Feb 675 Colmán of Lindisfarne (age 70) died at Inishbofin.

On 18 Feb 1225 Hugh Bigod 3rd Earl Norfolk (age 43) died. His son Roger Bigod 4th Earl Norfolk (age 16) succeeded 4th Earl Norfolk 2C 1141.

Battle of Nicopolis

On 18 Feb 1397 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons (age 57) died whilst a prisoner following the Battle of Nicopolis without male issue. Earl Bedford 2C 1366 extinct. Count Soissons 1367. His daughter Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons (age 30) succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Croyland Chronicle 1478. Before 18 Feb 1478. The indignation of the duke (age 28) was probably still further increased by this; and now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You might then have seen, (as such men are generally to be found in the courts of all princes), flatterers running to and fro, from the one side to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of the said duke's (age 28) household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 43), at the request of his adulterous wife1. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn [Map], they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna28, 'Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these."

Note 28. Hist. Susanna, v. 43.

Note 1. This is somewhat confusing since Elizabeth Stafford (age 43), wife of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 43) died on 27 Jan 1466? It may be a reference to his mother Margaret Ferrers Baroness Beauchamp Powick (age 65) whose husband John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Powick died in 1475.

On 18 Feb 1478 William Stourton 2nd Baron Stourton (age 52) died. He was buried in St Mary's Church, Mere. His son John Stourton 3rd Baron Stourton (age 24) succeeded 3rd Baron Stourton.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. George, Duke of Clarence (age 28), was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his brother (age 35), or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen (age 41) and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King's kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke (age 28) himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. .

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London [Map]. Duke Clarence 3C 1461, Earl Salisbury 3C 1472 extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey (age 35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

Richard, Duke of Gloucester (age 25) succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond 8C 1461.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb [Map].

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the duke (age 28), except the king (age 35); not one individual made answer to the king except the duke (age 28). Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and ofered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham (age 23), who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London [Map], it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and his brother Clarence.

Chronicle of Robert Fabyan 1478. This yere, that is to meane ye xviii. daye of February, the duke of Clarence (age 28) and .... 2brother to the kynge, thanne beyng prysoner in ye Tower [Map], was secretely put to deth & drowned in a barell of maluesye within the sayd Tower. And this mayer this yere pursued also the reparacyon of the wallys, but nat so dylygently as his predccessour dyd, wherfore it was nat spedde as it myght haue been, and also he was a syke and a feble man, and hadde not so sharpe and quycke mynde as that other hadde. And one other cause was, whiche ensuythe of a generaltie, that for the more partie one mayer wyll nat fynesshe that thynge whiche that other begynneth, for then they thynke, be the dede neuer so good and profitable, that the honoure therof shalbe ascribed to y begynner, and nat to the fynyssher, whiche lacke of charytie and desyre of veyngiory causeth many good actes and dedys to dye and growe out of minde, to the great decaye of the cōmon weale of the cytie.

Note 2. second brother. edit. 1542. 1559.

Lying in State of Elizabeth of York

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. And after that the corps (deceased) was could the Serjeant of the Chandry with such officers that belong to that Office had the Charge of baumeing with other serimonies theirto belonging and were allowed xl. Ells of lynning holland Cloth of Ell bredth with there gomes baumes Spices sweet wines and other as thereto belongeth and was thereto according.

Item after that she was sered by the Kings Plumer Closed her in lead with an Epitaph of lead what she was and then all that was Chested in borcle sufficiently Coverd for bearing of the same which was covered with white and black velvet with a Crosse of white damaske.

Item in the quire of the Chappell of the Tower [Map] was ordeyned a hearse of fine prncipills with Renninge lights about the Church and all the windowes rayled about a good heighte furnish'd with burninge tapers and also hanged with black Cloth furnish'd with scochins of her Armes.

The Sunday next following the corps (deceased) was removed from her Chamber to the Chappcll [Map] in manner that followeth.

First there was The Abbott of Westminster (age 39) in pontificalibus with the Dean of the kings Chappell (age 63) and the whole company of the same fowr knights bearing the Canapye with great Number of Gentlemen which went two and two together on every syde of the prossion great Number of torches brening borne by the Kings and the Queens servants after them the Officers of Armes and the Greatest estates and other Lords their present layd their hands to the Corps the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (age 24) was that day principall Mourner and all the other Laides followed her two and two together in such most sadd and simplest Clothing that they had on their heads thredden kierchiefs hanging on their shoulders and close under their Chins and this daily until their slopps mantells hoodes and paris were made and Ordyned. And when the Corps was sett under the hearse in the Chapell [Map] Coverd with a rich Cloth of black velvet with a Crosse of Cloth of Gold. And an Officer of Armes in an high voice said for Queen EHzebeth soule and all Xtn souls Pater noster and every ...... and atoremus before the Collect Aminabus inlykewise.

That night and every Night following was ordyned a goodly watch both of men and Gentlewomen at the lest iiij gentlewomen ij officers of Armes and vij yeomen and grooms. The gentlewomen were relieved with vj ladies which continually did knele about the Corps.

Then the kings Chaplin began and Redd the sawter that done to the laudes and Commendations.

After that the Deane of the kings Chappell (age 63) all the nobles officers of Armes other gentle and honest persons went to the great chamber for the Ladys to the Masse of Requiem.

Then was the Lady Catherin (age 23) sister of the noble Queene (deceased) Cheif mourner led by the Earle of Surry (age 60) and Earle of Essex her train borne by the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (age 24) accompanied also with all the other Laidies and Gentlewomen of the Court And when they were comen to the quier the foresaid vj Laides gave roome to there betters in tyme masse was done after which they continued their watch.NOTEXT

The Cheif Mourner (age 23) kneled at the heade alone then an officer of Arms began for the Queene &c And so began the masse songen by the Abbot of Westminster (age 39) at the Offringe the Lady was led by ij of the greatest Estates there present and the lest gave her the offring having before her the Chamberlain and the Officers of Arms passing always by the Corps did their obeysance as before.

Then offered the other six Laides before any Estate ij and ij together then the greatest estates and all the Laides and Gentlewomen then all the other Laides and knights and squires with other Gentlemen So this order as before was dayly kept as long as she was in the Tower every day in pontificalibus by a Bishop or an Abbott at the least as the next day by the Abbott of Barmsey The iij11 by the Abbott Albones The iiijth by the Abbott of Winchcomb The vth by the Abbott of Towerhill The vj'h by the Abbott of Stratford The vij"1 day there was iij solempne masses The first of our lady sungen by the Abbott of Redyng att that masse offered a piece of Gold of xld for the masse pennye the principle Mourner and no other person The second masse songen by the bishop Landaffe and Likewise at the masse none offered but she and then offered a piece of Gold of 5s. The iijd Masse songen by the bishop of Norwigge and att that Masse she offered a Noble Then offered the Laides and the Nobles as before The viijth day the service was done by the Bishop of Bangor The ixth day by the Bishop of Exeter the xll> day by the Bishop of Lincolne.

That Masse done the Lords and Laides went to breakfast and in meane tyme the Corps was conveyd into the Chaire which was eniparralled as followeth:

First all the bayles sydes and Coffers were covered with black velvett and over all along of a prety depnes a Cloth of black velvett with a Crosse of White Cloth of gould well frindged drawn with vi horses traped with black velvett and all the draught of the same.

And when the Corps was in the Chest there was Ordeyned an Image or a personage like a Queene Clothed in the very Roabes of Estate of the Queene having her very rich Crowne on her Head her heire about her shoulders her septer in her right Hand and her fingers well garnished with Gould and precious Stones.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 Henry VIII (age 12) was created Prince of Wales and 1st Earl Chester 8C 1504. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 24) was created Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson (age 54) was knighted.


Grafton's Chronicle. 18 Feb 1504. In which yeare the eighteenth day of February, the King (age 47) at his Palace of Westminster, with all solemnity created his only son Henry Prince of Wales (age 12), Earl of Chester, &c. which noble youngling succeded his father, not only in the inheritance and regality, but also was to him equal in honour, fame, learning and policy.

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Wriothesley's Chronicle. 18 Feb 1516. This yeare the Ladie Marie, Princes, was borne at Greenewich, in Februarie.e

February 18th.

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Birth of Princess Mary

On 18 Feb 1516 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 24) and Catherine of Aragon (age 30) at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Margaret Bourchier 1st Baroness Bryan (age 48) was created 1st Baron Bryan and appointed the child's governess. Catherine York Countess Devon (age 36) was her godmother.

On 18 Feb 1528 Piers "Red" Butler 8th Earl Ormonde 1st Earl Ossory (age 61) resigned their claim to the Ormonde inheritance since King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 36) wanted the titles for Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 51) to whom they were subsequently granted.


Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 18 Feb 1554. The 18 of February Bright,b one of the capteyns of the Londoners that fledd to Wyatt (age 33), and xxii persons more of the Kentish men, were delivered to the sheriffe of Kent, to be executed in divers places in Kent appoynted by the Queens Councell.

Note b. In most chronicles spelt Brett, but in the Diary of a Resident in London Bart.


Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Feb 1561. The iij yere of quen Elezabeth (age 27) the xviij day of [February] was sant Gorge fest; how all the knyghtes of the garter stod that day in order, the furst

On the Quen['s side.]

The Quen('s) grace (age 27).

The kyng Phelype (age 33).

The constabulle of France (age 67).

The yerle of Arundell (age 48).

The yerle of Darbe (age 51).

The duke of Northfoke (age 24).NOTEXT

The lord Pagett (age 55).

The yerle of Westmerland (age 36).

The lord chamburlayn, Haward (age 51).NOTEXT

The yerle of Shrowsbere (age 33)

The lord Montyguw-Browne (age 32).

The lord Gray of Wyltun (age 52).

On the Emperowre('s) syd.

The emperowre Ferna[ndo.] (age 57)

The prynse of Pyamont (age 32).

The duke Vanholtt (age 35).

The markes of Wynchester, tresorer (age 78).

The yerle of Penbroke (age 60).

The lord admerall Clynton (age 49).

The maques of Northamtun-Pare (age 49).

The yerle of Rutland-Rosse (age 34).

The yerle of Sussex (age 36).

The lord of Lugborow (age 40).

The lord Robart Dudley (age 28).

The lord of Hunsdon-Care (age 34).

On 18 Feb 1598 Admiral Clement Paston (age 77) died. Tomb in the Church of St Michael Oxnead [Map]. Rush Mat.

Admiral Clement Paston: Around 1521 he was born to William Paston (age 42) and Bridget Heydon (age 36). Before 18 Feb 1598 Admiral Clement Paston (age 77) and Alice Pakington were married.

After 18 Feb 1646. Brass at St Laurence's Church, Ludlow [Map] to Frances, the wife of Henry Mello [?] of Ludlow, who died on 18 Feb 1646 aged twenty-six.

Three Days' Battle aka Battle of Portland

The Three Days' Battle aka Battle of Portland took place between 18 and 20 Feb 1653. The English fleet was attacked by the Dutch fleet.

Vice-Admiral William Goodson captained the Entrance.

On 18 Feb 1658 John Villiers 1st Viscount Purbeck (age 67) died without issue. Viscount Purbeck extinct although Robert Wright aka Villiers aka Danvers (age 33), illegitimate son of his wife Frances Coke Viscountess Purbeck and Robert Howard attempted to claim the title.NOTEXT


1662 Great Storm

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1662. So home and to musique, and so to bed.

Before 18 Feb 1675 Thomas Coningsby 1st Earl Coningsby (age 18) and Barbara Gorges (age 18) were married.

On 18 Feb 1680 John Ernest Saxe Coburg Saalfeld IV Duke Saxe Coburg Saalfeld (age 21) and Sophie Hedwig Saxe Merseburg Duchess Saxe Coburg Saalfeld were married at Merseburg, Saxony-Anhalt. She by marriage Duchess Saxe Coburg Saalfeld. She the daughter of Christian Saxe Merseburg 1st Duke Saxe Merseburg. He the son of Ernest "The Pious" Saxe Gotha I Duke Saxe Gotha and Elisabeth Sophie Saxe Altenburg Duchess Saxe Gotha (age 60).

On 18 Feb 1692 Philippe Bourbon II Duke Orléans (age 17) and Françoise Marie Bourbon Duchess Orléans (age 15) were married at Palace of Versailles, Versailles. Françoise Marie Bourbon Duchess Orléans by marriage Duchess Orléans. She the daughter of Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 53) and Françoise Athénaïs Marquise Montespan (age 51). He the son of Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans (age 51) and Elizabeth Charlotte Palatinate Simmern Duchess Orléans (age 39). They were first cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland.


On 18 Feb 1705 Richard Molyneux 5th Viscount Molyneux (age 25) and Mary Brudenell Viscountess Molyneux (age 22) were married.

French Royal Family Deaths from Measles

On 12 Feb 1712 Maria Adelaide Savoy (age 26) died of measles at Versailles.

On 18 Feb 1712 Louis Bourbon Duke Burgundy (age 29) died of measles contracted when nursing his wife Maria Adelaide Savoy (age 26) who had died six days previously.

On 08 Mar 1712, their eldest son, heir to the throne, Louis Bourbon Duke Brittany (age 5) died of measles.

The heir to the French throne their only remaining son Louis (age 1), aged two, great-grandson of the reigning monarch Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 73) succeeded his great-grandfather three years later in 1715.

On 18 Feb 1715 Augustus Berkeley 4th Earl Berkeley was born to James Berkeley 3rd Earl Berkeley (age 35) and Louisa Lennox Countess Berkeley (age 20). He a great grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 18 Feb 1724 Robert King 1st Baron Kingsborough was born to Henry King 3rd Baronet (age 43) and Isabella Wingfield (age 41).

On 18 Feb 1726 John Molesworth 2nd Viscount Molesworth (age 47) died. His brother Richard Molesworth 3rd Viscount Molesworth (age 46) succeeded 3rd Viscount Molesworth of Swords.

On 18 Feb 1729 Alexander Montgomerie 9th Earl Eglinton (age 69) died. His son Alexander Montgomerie 10th Earl Eglinton (age 6) succeeded 10th Earl Eglinton.

On 18 Feb 1734 Francis Godolphin 2nd Baron Goldolphin (age 27) and Barbara Bentinck (age 24) were married. She the daughter of William Bentinck 1st Earl of Portland and Jane Martha Temple Countess Portland (age 62).


On 18 Feb 1766 George Evans 4th Baron Carbery was born to George Evans 3rd Baron Carbery (age 33) and Elizabeth Horton Baroness Carbery.

Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries. 18 Feb 1819. Mr Kirk Patrick brought the seals of all of the Bishops of Norwich curiously drawn by himself from the originals which he designs for the Press.

Mr Vertue was ordered to print off 100 more of Rich: II, and 100 more of the Lamp; and he is desired to add the Inscription according to the Copy delivered to him if Mr Director approves of it.

On 18 Feb 1843 George V King Hanover (age 23) and Marie Saxe Altenburg Queen Consort Hanover were married. He the son of Ernest Augustus King Hanover (age 71) and Frederica Mecklenburg Strelitz Queen Consort Hanover. He a grandson of King George III of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 18 Feb 1853 Bishop John Kaye (age 69) died at Riseholme Hall, Lincolnshire. He was buried at St Mary's Church, Riseholme.

On 18 Feb 1857 Francis Egerton 1st Earl Ellesmere (age 57) died. His son George Egerton 2nd Earl Ellesmere (age 33) succeeded 2nd Earl Ellesmere. Mary Louisa Campbell Countess Ellesmere (age 32) by marriage Countess Ellesmere.

Adelaide Ida Curzon Howe Countess of Westmoreland: Adeline Horsey Recollections. After my marriage Lord Cardigan and I always went to the different meetings, and generally met all our friends; among others, Lord and Baroness Westmorland, Lord and Baroness Hastings, the Duchess of Beaufort, Willie Craven, George Bruce, and Prince Batthyany. Newmarket was quite a charming rendezvous of society then, so different from the mixed crowd that goes there nowadays, and it could be easily re-christened "Jewmarket", for the Chosen are everywhere. In 1835 she was born to Richard William Penn Curzon Howe 1st Earl Howe (age 38) and Harriet Georgiana Brudenell Countess Howe (age 36). On 16 Jul 1857 Francis William Henry Fane 12th Earl of Westmoreland (age 31) and Adelaide Ida Curzon Howe Countess of Westmoreland (age 22) were married. She the daughter of Richard William Penn Curzon Howe 1st Earl Howe (age 60) and Harriet Georgiana Brudenell Countess Howe. He the son of John Fane 11th Earl of Westmoreland (age 73) and Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland (age 64).

Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland: On 13 Mar 1793 she was born to William Wellesley aka Wellesley-Pole 3rd Earl Mornington (age 29) and Katherine Forbes Countess Mornington (age 32). On 26 Jun 1811 John Fane 11th Earl of Westmoreland (age 27) and Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland (age 18) were married. She the daughter of William Wellesley aka Wellesley-Pole 3rd Earl Mornington (age 48) and Katherine Forbes Countess Mornington (age 50). He the son of John Fane 10th Earl of Westmoreland (age 52) and Sarah Anne Child Countess of Westmoreland. On 15 Dec 1841 John Fane 10th Earl of Westmoreland (age 82) died. His son John Fane 11th Earl of Westmoreland (age 57) succeeded 11th Earl of Westmoreland 2C 1624. Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland (age 48) by marriage Countess of Westmoreland.


On 18 Feb 1868 Frederick Lygon 6th Earl Beauchamp (age 37) and Emily Annora Charlotte Pierrepont Countess Beauchamp (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Beauchamp. The difference in their ages was 22 years. She the daughter of Sydney William Herbert Pierrepont 3rd Earl Manvers (age 43). He the son of Henry Beauchamp Lygon 4th Earl Beauchamp and Susan Caroline Eliot.

1878 Double Royal Wedding

On 18 Feb 1878 a double Royal Wedding took place at Berlin. The brides were second-cousins.

Bernhard Saxe Meiningen III Duke Saxe Meiningen (age 26) and Charlotte Hohenzollern (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Frederick III King Prussia (age 46) and Victoria Empress Germany Queen Consort Prussia (age 37). He the son of Georg II Duke of Saxe Meiningen (age 51). She a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

Frederick Augustus II Grand Duke of Oldenburg (age 25) and Elisabeth Anna Hohenzollern (age 21) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

The event was attended by King Leopold II of Belgium (age 42) and his wife Marie Henriette of Austria, and the Prince of Wales (age 36) and his brother Prince Arthur Windsor 1st Duke Connaught and Strathearn (age 27).

On 18 Feb 1940 Francis Egerton 7th Duke Sutherland was born to Cyril Reginald Egerton (age 34).