On this Day in History ... 25 July

25 Jul is in July.

1101 Treaty of Alton

1137 Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

1575 Jul 1575 Rathlin Island Massacre

1577 Oxford Black Assizes

1588 Spanish Armada

1603 Coronation of James I

1643 Battle of Gainsborough

1661 Creation of Baronets and Peerages by Charles II Post Coronation

1664 Great Plague of London

1666 St James' Day Battle

1673 Test Act

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 757. This year Eadbert, king of the Northumbrians, received the tonsure, and his son Osulf the kingdom; which he held one year. Him his own domestics slew on the ninth day before the kalends of August.

On 25 Jul 759 Oswulf King of Northumbria was murdered by his servants.

On 19 Aug 768 19 Aug 768 Eadberht King of Northumbria died. His son Oswulf King of Northumbria succeeded King Northumbria. He reigned for less than a year being murdered on 25 Jul 759.

Treaty of Alton

After 25 Jul 1101 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 33) and Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 50), brothers, both sons of King William "Conqueror" I of England, signed the Treaty of Alton at Alton by which Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 50) agreed to renounce his claim to the English throne in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions.

Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 25 Jul 1137 Louis VII King Franks (age 17) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 15) were married. Her father William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine had died some three months previously leaving Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 15) as a ward of Louis's father Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) who quickly married her to his son Louis with a view to the Duchy of Aquitaine becoming joined with the Kingdom of France. A week later Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) died and his son Louis and Eleanor became King and Queen of France. She the daughter of William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine and Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine. He the son of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) and Adelaide Savoy Queen Consort France. They were fourth cousins.

On 25 Jul 1170 Renauld of Bar II Count of Bar died. His son Henry of Bar I Count of Bar (age 12) succeeded I Count Bar.

On 25 Jul 1182 Marie Blois I Countess Boulogne (age 46) died.

On 25 Jul 1274 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset was born to John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 26) and Cicely Vivonne Forz Baroness Beauchamp.

On 25 Jul 1297 Donald Mar 7th Earl Mar died at Kildrummy Castle, Kildrummy.

On 25 Jul 1297 Donald Mar 6th Earl Mar died.

On 25 Jul 1316 Robert Fitzpayn 3rd Baron Fitzpayn (age 16) and Maud Badlesmere Countess of Oxford (age 8) were married. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 25 Jul 1358 John Neville 2nd Baron Neville Essex (age 59) died.

On 25 Jul 1404 Philip Valois I Duke Brabant was born to Anthony Valois Duke Brabant (age 19) and Jeanne Luxemburg Duchess Brabant. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 25 Jul 1421 Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland was born to Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 28) and Eleanor Neville Countess Northumberland (age 24). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.42%.

Before 25 Jul 1457 James Berkeley 11th and 1st Baron Berkeley (age 63) and Joan Talbot Baroness Berkeley (age 35) were married. Joan Talbot Baroness Berkeley by marriage Baroness Berkeley. The difference in their ages was 28 years. She the daughter of John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Maud Neville 6th Baroness Furnivall. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Letters and Papers 1535. 25 Jul 1535. Vienna Archives. 1105. Chapuys to Charles V.

Since the return of the Duke of Norfolk (age 62) and the others from Calais I have several times written to your Majesty, and, among other things, that immediately after the said return Cromwell came to notify to me that nothing had been concluded on the part of his master, of which he wished me to inform you at once; and that I agreed to despatch a messenger, provided there was other matter to convey, such as that the King would accept the overtures made by your Majesty, or make better ones. I have also written how, besides other three Carthusians who have been executed with the same cruelty as the former ones, they had beheaded the Cardinal of Rochester (deceased) and Master Morus (deceased), to the great grief of the whole people.NOTEXT

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On 25 Jul 1547 King Henry II of France (age 28) was crowned II King France: Capet Valois Angoulême.


Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

On 25 Jul 1554 Prince Philip of Spain (age 27) and Queen Mary (age 38) were married by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 71) at Winchester Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland and Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England. He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 54) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

John Gage (age 74) bore the queen's train.

Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 16) took part in the Bridal Procession.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. The 25 of Julie [1554], beinge Weddensdaye and St. James dayea, about xi of the clocke the Kinge (age 27) and Queene (age 38) came from their lodgings towardes the churche all the way on foote, verie richelye apparelled in gownes of cloth of golde sett with riche stones, he with his gentle-men and garde and she with hers, eche of them havinge a sworde borne before them, the Earle of Darbye (age 45) bearinge the sworde before her Maiestie, and the Earle of Pembroke (age 53) before the Kinge; and when they were come into the churche he went into one traveys and the Queen to another richlye hunge, where they were shriven. This done they came forth of their traveys to the place appoynted for the marriage, where the Lord Chauncellor (age 71), beinge before with 5 other bishops assistinge him, used all thinges, both in the banes-byddinge and otherwise, as hath bene in all marriages of olde tyme, and spake it both in Latin and in Englishe, her Grace on the right syde standinge and the King on the left syde. Her marriage ringe was a rownd hoope of gould without anye stone, which was her desire, for she sayde she would be married as maydens were in the olde tyme, and so she was.

After the marriage knott thus knitt the King and Queen came hand in hand under a riche canopie, beinge borne over them with 6 knightes and 2 swordes before them, all the lordes both Englishe and strangers richelye apparelled goeinge afore them, the trumpetts then blowinge tyll they came into the quier, where all the priestes and singinge men all in riche copes began to singe a psalme used in marriages, the King and Queen kneelinge awhile before the aulter, eche of them havinge a taper afore them; then after her Majestic went into her traveys on the right syde, and the King into another on the left syde; after the gospell they came owt and kneeled before the alter openlye all the masse tyme, and the care-cloth was holden ouer them; and he kissed the bishopp at the Agnus and then her Majestie. The masse done the Kinge of Herroldes openlye in the churche, and in presence of the King, the Queen, the lordes and ladies, and all the people, solemnlye proclay'med their Maiesties Kinge and Queene, with their title and style, in manner as followeth:

Philippe and Marie, by the grace of God Kinge and Queene of The Kinge and Englande, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Irelande, Defenders of the Faythe, Princes of Spayne and Sicilie, Archdukes of Austriche, Dukes of Mylane, Burgundye, and Brabant, Countes of Aspurge,b Flaunders, and Tyrrole. Which proclamation ended, the trumpetts blue and other noyses playde. And then the Kinge and Queene came furthe hand in hand, with their lordes, ladies, and gentlemen way tinge on them, and 2 swordes borne afore them in manner aforesayde; and so went on foote to the courte, and there dined openlye in the hall, both together at one table.

Note a. The feast of St. James, the titular saint of Spain.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Note b. Haspurgi, Hapsburg.

On 25 Jul 1564 Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor (age 61) died at Vienna. His son Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 36) succeeded II Holy Roman Emperor. Maria of Spain Holy Roman Empress (age 36) by marriage Holy Roman Empress. His son Ferdinand Habsburg Spain II Archduke Austria (age 35) succeeded II Archduke Austria. Philippine Welser Archduchess Austria (age 37) by marriage Archduke Austria.

On 25 Jul 1564 Maria of Spain Holy Roman Empress (age 36) was appointed Holy Roman Emperor.


Jul 1575 Rathlin Island Massacre

Before 25 Jul 1575 Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex (age 33) ordered Francis Drake (age 35) and John Norreys (age 28) to confront Scottish refugees on Rathlin Island. On 25 Jul 1575 the garrison surrendered.

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1577 Oxford Black Assizes

Around Mar 1577 a virulent outbreak of gaol fever occurred in Oxford killing around 300 people.

After 25 Jul 1577 Robert Bell (age 38) died of gaol fever.

In Jul 1577 Thomas D'Oyly died.

Spanish Armada

On 25 Jul 1588 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk (age 26) was captain of the Golden Lion in the attack on the Spanish Armada.NOTEXT


On 25 Jul 1603 Richard Boyle 1st Earl Cork (age 36) and Catherine Fenton Countess Cork (age 18) were married.

Coronation of James I

On 25 Jul 1603 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 37) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 67) was appointed Lord High Steward.NOTEXT

On 26 Jul 1603 Thomas Bennett (age 60) and Thomas Cambell (age 67) were knighted.

On 27 Jul 1603 William Wrey 1st Baronet was knighted at Whitehall Palace [Map].

On 30 Jul 1603 Richard Preston 1st Earl Desmond was knighted at Whitehall Palace [Map].

Bishop Thomas Bilson (age 56) gave the sermon. While the wording conceded something to the divine right of kings, it also included a caveat about lawful resistance to a monarch.

On 25 Jul 1610 Henry Clifford 5th Earl of Cumberland (age 19) and Frances Cecil Countess Cumberland (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury (age 47) and Elizabeth Brooke. He the son of Francis Clifford 4th Earl of Cumberland (age 51) and Grisold Hughes Countess Cumberland.


Battle of Gainsborough

1661 Creation of Baronets and Peerages by Charles II Post Coronation

In Jul 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

10 Jul 1661 Christopher Guise 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Guise of Elmore in Gloucestershire.

16 Jul 1661 Philip Parker 1st Baronet (age 43) was created 1st Baronet Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk. Rebecca Long Lady Parker by marriage Lady Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk.

21 Jul 1661 Charles Hussey 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Hussey of Caythorpe in Lincolnshire.

21 Jul 1661 Edward Barkham 1st Baronet (age 31) was created 1st Baronet Barkham Waynflete.

25 Jul 1661 John Banks 1st Baronet (age 34) was created 1st Baronet Banks of London by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1664. Thence back again homewards, and Sir W. Batten (age 63) and I to the Coffee-house, but no newes, only the plague is very hot still, and encreases among the Dutch.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], which was very thin, and thence homeward, and was called in by Mr. Rawlinson (age 51), with whom I dined and some good company very harmlessly merry. But sad the story of the plague in the City, it growing mightily. This day my Lord Bruncker (age 45) did give me Mr. Grant's' (age 45) book upon the Bills of Mortality, new printed and enlarged.

St James' Day Battle

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1666. The fleets engaged. I dined at Lord Berkeley's (age 38), at St. James's, where dined my Lady Harrietta Hyde (age 20), Lord Arlington (age 48), and Sir John Duncomb (age 44).

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On 25 Jul 1666 the English fleet inflicted a severe defeat on the Dutch. Dutch casualties amounted to 1200 men, English 300.

Captain George Batts fought in Richard Utber's division in the White Squadron..

The Gloucester fought.

On 25 Jul 1666 Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey (age 58) died. His son Robert Bertie 3rd Earl Lindsey (age 35) succeeded 3rd Earl Lindsey, 16th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Elizabeth Wharton Countess Lindsey (age 33) by marriage Countess Lindsey.

After 25 Jul 1666. Church of St Michael and All Angels Edenham [Map]. Monument to Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey (deceased). Two adjacent memorial tablets have moulded base and cornice and are surmounted by the Cartouche of arms and the Ancaster cannon. To the sides are military trophies in high relief and at the base, arms, anchors and helms.[Source: BLB].

1673 Test Act

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells [Map], to visit my Lord Clifford (age 42), late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke (age 39), that rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return.


Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1683. I again saw Prince George of Denmark (age 30): he had the Danish countenance, blonde, of few words, spoke French but ill, seemed somewhat heavy, but reported to be valiant, and indeed he had bravely rescued and brought off his brother, the King of Denmark (age 37), in a battle against the Swedes, when both these Kings were engaged very smartly.

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On 25 Jul 1695 John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol (age 29) and Elizabeth Felton Countess Bristol (age 18) were married.

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On 25 Jul 1703 Robert Marsham 4th Baronet (age 52) died. His son Robert Marsham 1st Baron Romney (age 17) succeeded 5th Baronet Marsham of Cuckston in Kent.

Before 25 Jul 1713 Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townsend (age 39) and Dorothy Walpole Viscountess Townsend (age 26) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Townsend.

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Before 25 Jul 1716 John Chetwynd 2nd Viscount Chetwynd (age 34) and Esther Kent Viscountess Chetwynd (age 16) were married.

On 25 Jul 1719 Elizabeth Cresswell (age 27) died. Monument at Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

Elizabeth Cresswell: Around 1692 she was born. Before 15 Jun 1713 Gervase Scrope of Cockeringham (age 30) and Elizabeth Cresswell (age 21) were married.

On 25 Jul 1730 Stephen Moore 1st Earl Mount Cashell was born to Stephen Moore 1st Viscount Mount Cashell (age 34) and Alicia Colville.

On 25 Jul 1756 Alexander Lindsay 4th Earl Balcarres died. His brother James Lindsay 5th Earl Balcarres (age 64) succeeded 5th Earl Balcarres. Anne Dalrymple Countess Balcarres (age 29) by marriage Countess Balcarres.

In 25 Jul 1763 Mary Greene (age 63) died. Church of St Mary Hillington [Map]. Large mural marble tablet with fluted Ionic pilasters and segmental head. Inscribed Sir W B Archit.

Mary Greene: On 29 Sep 1699 she was born to Charles Greene Apothecary. On 24 Aug 1717 William Browne (age 25) and Mary Greene (age 17) were married.


On 25 Jul 1792 Murrough O'Brien 1st Marquess Thomond (age 66) and Mary Palmer Marchioness Thomond (age 42) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years.


On 25 Jul 1795 George Ashburnham 3rd Earl Ashburnham (age 34) and Charlotte Percy Countess Ashburham (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Algernon Percy 1st Earl Beverley (age 45) and Isabella Susan Burrell Countess Beverley (age 44). He the son of John Ashburnham 2nd Earl Ashburnham (age 70) and Elizabeth Crowley Countess Ashburham.

On 25 Jul 1814 Henry Somerset 7th Duke Beaufort (age 22) and Georgiana Frederica Fitzroy (age 21) were married at Upper Brook Street. Following her death in 1821 he would marry her younger half-sister Emily Frances Smith Duchess Beaufort (age 14). An example of a man marrying two sisters, albeit in this case half-sisters. He the son of Henry Charles Somerset 6th Duke Beaufort (age 47) and Charlotte Sophia Leveson-Gower Duchess Beaufort (age 43). They were fourth cousins. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Jul 1821 Thomas Stonor 3rd Baron Camoys (age 23) and Frances Towneley (age 20) were married.

On 25 Jul 1829 Elizabeth Siddal was born to Charles Crooke Siddall (age 28) and Elizabeth Eleanor Evans at 7 Charles Street. She was baptised 23 Aug 1830.

Charles Crooke Siddall: Around 1801 he was born.

On 25 Jul 1833 Charles Noel 1st Earl Gainsborough (age 51) and Frances Jocelyn Countess Gainsborough (age 18) were married. The difference in their ages was 33 years. She the daughter of Robert Jocelyn 3rd Earl Roden (age 44) and Maria Frances Catherine Stapleton Countess Roden.

On 25 Jul 1842 William Woods Howard (age 56) died.NOTEXT

On 25 Jul 1872 William Charles de Meuron "Billy" Wentworth-Fitzwilliam 7th and 5th Earl Fitzwilliam was born to William Wentworth-Fitzwilliam (age 32) and Laura Maria Theresa Beauclerk (age 23) in Pointe de Meuron, Ontario. The remote location of his birth gave rise to the accusation he was a changeling to remove epilepsy from the bloodline.

On 25 Jul 1881 Ralph Ormsby-Gore 3rd Baron Harlech (age 26) and Margaret Ethel Gordon Baroness Harlech (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Charles Gordon 10th Marquess Huntly and Maria Antoinetta Pegus Marchioness Huntly (age 60). He a great x 5 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Jul 1892 Bishop Thomas Legh Claughton (age 83) died.

On 25 Jul 1954 Quentin Wallop 10th Earl of Portsmouth was born to Oliver Kintzing Wallop (age 31).