28 Apr is in April.
Charter S1. 28 Apr 604. Regnante in perpetuum domino nostro Iesu Christo saluatore . mense Aprilio . sub die iiii . kalendas Maias . indictione vii . ego Æthelberhtus (age 54) rex filio meo Eadbaldo admonitionem catholice fidei optabilem. Nobis est aptum semper inquirere . qualiter per loca sanctorum pro anime remedio uel stabilitate salutis nostre aliquid de portione terre nostre in subsidiis seruorum dei deuotissimam uoluntatem debeamus offerre . Ideoque tibi Sancte Andrea tueque ecclesiae que est constituta in ciuitate Hrofibreui ubi preesse uidetur Iustus episcopus . trado aliquantulum telluris mei .
Hic est terminus mei doni . Fram suðgeate west andlanges wealles oð norðlanan to stræte . 7 swa east fram st'r'æte oð Doddinghyrnan ongean bradgeat .
Siquis uero augere uoluerit hanc ipsam donationem; augeat illi dominus dies bonos . Et si presumpserit minuere aut contradicere; in conspectu dei sit damnatus et sanctorum eius hic et in eterna secula . nisi emendauerit ante eius transitum quod inique gessit contra Christianitatem nostram . Hoc cum consilio Laurentii episcopi et omnium principum meorum signo sancte crucis confirmaui . eosque iussi ut mecum idem facerent . Amen .
A.D. 604 (28 April). Æthelberht (age 54), king, to St Andrew and his church at Rochester; grant of land at Rochester. Latin with English bounds.
MSS: 1. BL Harley 1866, 9rv (s. xviii)
Note 2. Maidstone, Kent Archives Office, DRc/R1 (Textus Roffensis), 119rv (s. xii1; facsimile)
Note 3. Maidstone, Kent Archives Office, DRb/Ar2 (Liber Temporalium), 3v (s. xiv)
Printed: Mon. Angl., i. 27; Hearne, Textus Roffensis, pp. 62-3; Thorpe, Reg. Roff., pp. 13-14; K 1 ex MS 2; Mon. Angl. (rev. edn), i. 162 (no. 3); HS, p. 52; B 3 ex HS, Hearne, K, and Mon. Angl.; Earle, pp. 3-4 ex K and Hearne; Pierquin, Recueil, pt 1, no. 1; Pierquin, Conciles, p. 43; Campbell, Rochester, no. 1, ex MS 2; Morris 1995, pp. 101-2, ex B.
Comments: Wallenberg, KPN, p. 3, on place-names and bounds; Deanesly 1941, pp. 101-4; Deanesly 1941/1, pp. 53-69; Deanesly 1942, p. 110, authentic; Levison 1946, pp. 174, 223-5, suspicious features; Ward 1949, on topography; Campbell, Rochester, pp. xv, xxii, fabricated, partly based on S 266; Brooks 1974, p. 217, possibly some authentic basis; Tatton-Brown 1984, p. 14, cited in discussion of topography; Scharer 1982, pp. 59-60, spurious; Morris 1995, pp. 89-98, authentic.
On 28 Apr 1069 Magnus II King Norway (age 21) died.
On 28 Apr 1180 King Philip II of France (age 14) and Isabelle Flanders Queen Consort France (age 10) were married. Isabelle Flanders Queen Consort France by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Baldwin Flanders V Count Hainault (age 30) and Margaret Metz Countess Hainault and Flanders. He the son of Louis VII King Franks (age 60) and Adèle Blois. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.
Chronica Majora. 28 Apr 1236. In the same year, on the 28th of April, the nobles of England assembled at a council at London, to discuss the affairs of the kingdom. It was a cause of astonishment to many that the king followed the advice of the bishop elect of Valentia more than he ought, despising, as it appeared to them, his own natural subjects, and at this they were annoyed, and accused the king of fickleness, saying amongst themselves, "Why does not this bishop elect betake himself to the kingdom of France, as the French king has married the elder sister of our queen, to manage the affairs of the French kingdom, like he does here, by reason of his niece the queen of that country?" And they were highly indignant. On the first day of the council the king went to the Tower of London, and gave great cause of discontent to many about this matter, and more unfavourable than prosperous conjectures were entertained. The nobles would not either singly or in numbers go to the Tower to the king, fearing lest he, yielding to evil counsel, should vent his rage on them, and being warned by the words of Horace - Quia me vestigia terrent Omnia te versum spectantia, nulla retrorsum. [Because the footsteps of these beasts all point towards your den, But none of them, as far I can see, come back again.]
The king, nevertheless, restrained by motives of prudence, went from the Tower to his palace, there to discuss the urgent business of the kingdom more suitably with his nobles. After discussing several matters, he came to one praiseworthy determination, which was, that all the sheriffs should be dismissed, and others appointed in their places, because they had been corrupted by bribes and deviated from the paths of truth and justice. The king, therefore, substituted in their places men who possessed more tenements, who were richer, and of more noble race, who would not be driven by necessity to covet presents, nor to be cornipted. He also made them swear that they would not accept any gifts, unless in food and drink, and that only moderately and not to excess; or any present of land by way of reward, by which justice would be corrupted. To this council the king of Scotland (age 37) sent special messengers, who urgently demanded from the king the rights which pertained to their lord, the said king of Scots, concerning which they said that they held a charter and had the testimony of a great many nobles; but the determination of this matter was put off for the present. At the same time, too, the king, because he could not re-establish peace between Earl Richard (age 27), his brother, and Richard Seward, banished the latter from the kingdom, saying that he would rather incur his anger than that of his brother.
He also, to the astonishment of many, removed from their offices and dismissed from his councils, Ralph Fitz-Nicholas, seneschal of his palace, and several other high offices of his household. He also demanded instantly his seal from the bishop of Chichester, his chancellor; although he had blamelessly discharged the duties of his office, proving himself a remarkable pillar of truth at court. This, however, the chancellor refused to do, seeing that the kings violence exceeded the bounds of moderation, and said that he could on no account give it up, since he had undertaken the charge by the general consent of the kingdom, and therefore could not resign it without that same consent. About the same time, too, the emperor sent messengers to the king, demanding from him a large sum of money which he, the king, had promised him with his sister.
On 28 Apr 1317 Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester (age 26) and Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester were married. She the daughter of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford and Joan of Acre Countess Gloucester and Hertford. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.
On 13 Apr 1360 a freak weather event known as Black Monday Hailstorm occurred as the army of King Edward III of England (age 47) were camped outside Chartres [Map]. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick (age 47), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 50), Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 50), Edward "Black Prince" (age 29) and Walter Mauny were present. Around one thousand English were killed, with up to six thousand horses. King Edward III of England (age 47) believed the event to be an Act of God and proceeded to negotiate with the French resulting in the Treaty of Brétigny.
On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.
The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy (age 30) as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.NOTEXT
Letters and Papers 1518. 28 Apr 1517. R.O. 4125. JOHN CLERK to WOLSEY.
Master More has certified the King from Oxford, that three children are dead of the sickness, but none others. He has charged the mayor and the commissary in the King's name, "that the inhabitants of those houses that be and shall be infected shall keep in, put out wispes and bear white rods, according as your grace devised for Londoners." The King has ordered the matter to be debated in the Council, when More's device was approved of. It was discussed whether it would be better that the fair held in Austin Friars in Oxford, fourteen days after this, should be stopped or no, as it is thought that the resort of people thither from London and other infected places will make Oxford as dangerous as London, next term. "Also it was said in the said Council that in stopping and letting of the said fair, there should ensue grudges and murmurs amongst the King's subjects; specially in London, where they would think that men went about utterly to destroy them, if, with other their misfortunes, they should also be kept from their fairs and markets: and so, after great debating, the more part was in this opinion, that the said fair should not be stopped; notwithstanding, they concluded all to take your grace's advice in the matter." Master Lovell leaves tomorrow, but will not arrive in London till Saturday. Woodstock, 28 April.
On 28 Apr 1521 Suzanne Bourbon Duchess Bourbon (age 29) died.
On 28 Apr 1533 Bishop Nicholas West (age 72) died.
"For the Quenes coronacion."
[To appoint the day for the coronation, and to prepare all things for the same.] Letters from the King to be sent to the nobles, lords, knights, ladies, and others to attend; and to those who will be created knights of the Bath, [whose names Garter is to have]. Commissions to be made for the Great Steward and Constable. The day when the Steward shall sit in the White Hall. All noble men who hold land by service royal to bring in their claims. The mayor, aldermen, commoners, and crafts of London are to meet the Queen before she comes to the Tower. The King will meet her at the Tower. A kirtle and mantle of cloth of gold furred with ermines. A lace of silk and gold with tassels for the mantle. A circlet of gold garnished with precious stones. A litter of timber covered with cloth of gold. Down pillows covered with cloth of gold, for the litter.
A lady [appointed by name] to bear her train. The mayor, aldermen, and crafts of London are to do their service accustomed, and the streets between the Tower and Westminster are to be garnished with tapestry, arras, silk, &c., [and the banners, standard, and pennons of crafts to be ready to garnish the barges and stand where the wardens be of each occupation.]
Memorandum.—The Lords, the High Steward, Constable of England, Garter, the Mayor of London, and the two squires of honor to be in crimson velvet and "beket" (fn. 4) hats. The tipstaves of the marshals in their liveries, to avoid the press of people. A canopy of gold with valance to be borne by 16 knights. [Two esquires of honor to be appointed to represent the dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine.] A horse of estate, saddled, [to be led by the Master of the Queen's horse]. Six henchmen on palfreys harnessed with cloth of gold. Two chairs covered with cloth of gold, and ladies of the highest estate to sit in them, clothed in crimson velvet. Six ladies on palfreys with saddles and harness like those of the henchmen. Two other chairs richly garnished for the Queen's ladies. A great number of ladies and gentlewomen on palfreys dressed according to their estates. A void to be prepared for the Queen at Westminster. A kirtle and mantle of purple velvet furred with ermines, with a lace, &c., for the day of the coronation. A circlet. A cloth of estate in Westminster Hall. The procession. A ray cloth [to go from the Hall to Westminster]. A canopy borne by the barons of the Cinque Ports. Two bishops to go every side of the Queen. The verge of ivory [to be borne]. The sceptre. A rich crown of gold. Liveries to be given according to the precedents of the Wardrobe. The archbishop of Canterbury to do as appertaineth. The seat royal or pulpit to be dressed with cloth of gold and cushions. The Queen to be howseled, and after to have a secret refection [of such meat as she likes best]. A stage to be made, latticed and covered with rich cloths, for the King and others to see the solemnity. [The mayor, aldermen, and commoners of London, with their crafts, to meet the Queen before she comes to the Tower. The King to meet her, and welcome her at the Tower.] The service to the Queen at dinner, and the ordering of the hall, to be committed to those who have authority. A stage in Westminster Hall for minstrels and trumpets. The kings of arms, heralds, [and pursuivants] to keep their accustomed stage at the right end of the table, [and to have a cloth on the table with proper service.] The Treasurer and Comptroller to go on foot, and the three high estates [Constable, Marshal, and Steward], on horseback, [their horses trapped.] A stage on the left side of the Hall latticed and garnished for the King. The surnap, and who shall draw it; [the marshal to be named.] The void after. [The Mayor to bear the cup of gold.] Jousts and tourneys. [To appoint the number of challengers and defenders for the jousts, to go before the Queen from the Tower to Westminster Hall on their steryng horses, garnished with bells and devices.] The Lord Steward, Treasurer, and Comptroller must give warning overnight to those who shall do any service.
Two copies; pp. 3 each.
Letters and Papers 1533. 28 Apr 1533. Harl. MS. 283, f. 96. B. M. Ellis, 1 Ser. II. 32. 395. Henry VIII. to Lady Cobham.
Desires her to be at Greenwich on the previous Friday, to accompany the Queen to the Tower; on the next day to ride through London to Westminster; and on Whitsunday to attend at the coronation in the monastery. She must provide white or white grey palfreys or geldings for herself and her women. The apparel for her own horse will be furnished by the Queen's master of the Horse, except the bit and bosses. Her robes and liveries shall be delivered by the keeper of the Great Wardrobe. Greenwich, 28 April. Stamped. P. 1. Add.
Spanish Chronicle Chapter 11. How the Carthusian martyrs died who would not take the oath.
We have said how the Commissioners went to all the churches in the country to administer the oath acknowledging the King as head of the Church, and how they went to the Charterhouse. The night before they came the Prior called all the brethren together and preached to them very devoutly, and his sermon was such that all of them there and then declared they would die before they would take the oath. So they all promised one another, and were dismissed.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 28 Apr 1535. This yeare, the 28 of Aprill, 1535, being Weddensdaye, were arreigned at Westminster in the Kings Benche (the Lord Chauncellor sittinge there as Highe Commissioner, with the moste parte of the nobles of the realme and the judges allso)a three munckes of the Charterhowsse, one beinge Prioure of the Charterhowsse in London named Mr. John Houghton (age 48), another named Mr. Robarte Lawrence,b prioure of a place in Lincolneshire, and sometyme chaplein to the Duke of Northfolke (age 62) now being, and the thirdc prioure of a place in Northamptonshire, and one, Richarde Reynold,d a brother of the monasterie of Syon, and two priests allso, one beinge Vicare of Thistleworthe in the shire of Middlesex, and this day were all endicted of highe treason against the Kinge; and the morrowe after, beinge the 29th of Aprill, all the saide persons appeared there agayne, the Lords beinge agayne present; and there their inditements being redd afore them, a jurie of esquiers and gentlemen of Middlesex were swome to passe on them, and incontinent gave verditt of them beinge guiltie of the same treason, whereupon the Lorde Cheefe Justice of Englande gave sentence on them, which was: that the saide muncks and priests should goe from thence to the place they came from, which was the Tower of London, and from thence to be drawen throughe London to Tiburne [Map], and there to be hanged, and beinge aly ve cutt downe, their bowells to be brent afore them, and then their heades to be cutt of and theyr bodies to be quartered, and then their heades and bodies to be sett at suche placesf as the King should assigne them.NOTEXT
. And the 4th day of May followinge, being Tewsday in the Rogation week, the parties aforesayde were drawne from the Tower to Tybome [Map], and there had execution as afore is written, savinge the other priest called Jo. Ferne, who had his pardon delyvered him on the Tower Hill, and so was quitt.
Note a. It was with the full approral of his Council that Henry VIII took the resolution of executing the laws without mercy against such as impugned his spiritual authority.
Note b. Thomas Laurence, Prior of Hexham. — Stow.
Note c. Augustine Webster, Prior of "Bevall."— Stow.
Note d. Richard Reginalds, doctor, a monk of Sion.— Stow.
Note e. John Haile, Vicar of Isleworth.
Note f. Their heads and quarters were set on the gates of the City all sare one quarter, which was set on the Charterhouse at London.-Stow.
On 28 Apr 1539 George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 11) and Gertrude Manners Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 14) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 47) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 44). He the son of Francis Talbot 5th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 39) and Mary Dacre. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.
On 28 Apr 1573 Charles Valois Duke Angoulême was born illegitimately to Charles IX King France (age 22) and Marie Touchet (age 24). The only child of Charles IX King France (age 22). She, Marie Touchet (age 24), would subsequently marry and have issue two daughters, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues and Marie Charlotte de Balzac d'Entragues who were both mistresses to Henry IV King France (age 19).
Helena Snakenbourg Marchioness Northampton (age 54) was Chief Mourner in the procession since Arabella Stewart (age 28) refused to take part. She was supported by Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter (age 60) and Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 67).NOTEXT
George Bourchier (age 68) carried the Standard of the Dragon.
Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 18) carried the Standard of the Greyhound.
Thomas Somerset carried the Standard of the Lyon.
Admiral Richard Leveson (age 33) was one of the six knights who carried the canopy.
Henry Montagu: On 16 May 1622 he was born to Sidney Montagu (age 41) and Paulina Pepys (age 40). On 28 Apr 1625 Henry Montagu (age 2) drowned after having fallen into a pond swelled by heavy rain. Some sources, including the local guidebook, say he was chasing an orange. He was buried at All Saints Church, Barnwell.
On 28 Apr 1627 Robert Douglas 8th Earl Morton (age 11) and Elizabeth Villiers Countess Morton (age 18) were married. He the son of William Douglas 7th Earl Morton (age 45) and Anne Keith Countess Morton.
On 28 Apr 1642 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford (age 22) and Diana Russell Countess Bradford were married at St Giles in the Fields Church, Camden [Map]. She the daughter of Francis Russell 4th Earl Bedford and Catherine Brydges Countess Bedford (age 62).
Evelyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (age 46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against King James (age 62), which he presumed to present to King William (age 45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved Queen's own father.
On 28 Apr 1707 Christian Saxe Gotha Duke Saxe Eisenburg (age 54) died.
On 28 Apr 1719 Charles Montagu 1st Duke Manchester (age 57) was created 1st Duke Manchester by King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (age 58). Doddington Greville Duchess Manchester (age 47) by marriage Duchess Manchester.
On 28 Apr 1726 James Murray 2nd Duke Atholl (age 35) and Jane Frederick Duchess Atholl were married. She by marriage Duchess Atholl. He the son of John Murray 1st Duke Atholl and Catherine Hamilton Duchess Atholl.
After 28 Apr 1760. Monument to Theophilus Salwey (deceased) at St Laurence's Church, Ludlow [Map]. Designed by Robert Taylor (age 46), a prominent London architect of the time, in the Roccoco style, with much imagery reflective of the 'Age of Enlightenment'. The Salwey window, in memory of Theophilus Salwey and his sisters, Agnes, Mary and Katherine, shows an angel descending upon St Agnes along-side the martyrdom of St Stephen. The Salway arms can also be seen at the top of the window.
Theophilus Salwey: Around 1699 he was born to Edward Salwey of Stratford, Essex and Hannah Revell. Before 28 Apr 1760 Theophilus Salwey (age 61) and Mary Dennet were married. There was no issue from the marriage. On 28 Apr 1760 Theophilus Salwey (age 61) died.
On 28 Apr 1770 Jean Louis Ligonier 1st Earl Ligonier (age 89) died unmarried. Earl Ligonier 1C 1766, Viscount Ligonier of Enniskillen and Baron Ligonier extinct. His nephew His nephew Edward Ligonier 1st Earl Ligonier (age 30) succeeded Viscount Ligonier of Clonmell and was created Earl Ligonier albeit in the Irish peerage six years later.
On 28 Apr 1794 Robert Grosvenor 1st Marquess Westminster (age 27) and Eleanor Egerton Marchioness Westminster (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Egerton 1st Earl Wilton (age 44) and Eleanor Assheton Viscountess Wilton (age 41). He the son of Richard Grosvenor 1st Earl Grosvenor (age 62).
On 28 Apr 1852 Hugh Lupus Grosvenor 1st Duke Westminster (age 26) and Constance Leveson-Gower Duchess Westminster (age 17) were married. Their first son Victor Alexander Grosvenor was born a year later to the day. She the daughter of George Sutherland Leveson-Gower 2nd Duke Sutherland (age 65) and Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard Duchess Sutherland (age 45). He the son of Richard Grosvenor 2nd Marquess Westminster (age 57) and Elizabeth Mary Leveson-Gower Marchioness Westminster (age 55). They were first cousins.NOTEXT
On 28 Apr 1863 John Skeffington 10th Viscount Massereene, 3rd Viscount Ferrard (age 50) died. His son Clotworthy Skeffington 11th Viscount Massereene, 5th Viscount Ferrard (age 20) succeeded 11th Viscount Massereene, 4th Viscount Ferrard, 10th Baron Lough Neagh, 4th Baron Oriel, 4th Baron Oriel of Ferrand in Louth.
On 28 Apr 1866 George Pitt-Rivers 4th Baron Rivers (age 55) died. His son Henry Peter Pitt-Rivers 5th Baron Rivers (age 17) succeeded 5th Baron Rivers of Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire 4C 1802.
Francis Dudley Leigh 3rd Baron Leigh: In 1855 he was born to William Henry Leigh 2nd Baron Leigh (age 30) and Caroline Amelia Grosvenor Baroness Leigh (age 26). On 21 Oct 1905 William Henry Leigh 2nd Baron Leigh (age 81) died. On 21 Oct 1905 His son Francis Dudley Leigh 3rd Baron Leigh (age 50) succeeded 3rd Baron Leigh of Stoneleigh in Warwickshire 2C 1839. In 1938 Francis Dudley Leigh 3rd Baron Leigh (age 83) died.
On 28 Apr 1924 Lowry Cole 4th Earl Enniskillen (age 78) died.