On this Day in History ... 28th April

28 Apr is in April.

1360 Black Monday Hailstorm

1376 Good Parliament

1489 Yorkshire Rebellion

1517 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1535 Execution of the Carthusians

1557 Scarborough Castle Rebellion

1603 Funeral of Elizabeth I

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 28th April

Charter S1. 28 Apr 604. Regnante in perpetuum domino nostro Iesu Christo saluatore . mense Aprilio . sub die iiii . kalendas Maias . indictione vii . ego Æthelberhtus (age 54) rex filio meo Eadbaldo admonitionem catholice fidei optabilem. Nobis est aptum semper inquirere . qualiter per loca sanctorum pro anime remedio uel stabilitate salutis nostre aliquid de portione terre nostre in subsidiis seruorum dei deuotissimam uoluntatem debeamus offerre . Ideoque tibi Sancte Andrea tueque ecclesiae que est constituta in ciuitate Hrofibreui ubi preesse uidetur Iustus episcopus . trado aliquantulum telluris mei .

Hic est terminus mei doni . Fram suðgeate west andlanges wealles oð norðlanan to stræte . 7 swa east fram st'r'æte oð Doddinghyrnan ongean bradgeat .

Siquis uero augere uoluerit hanc ipsam donationem; augeat illi dominus dies bonos . Et si presumpserit minuere aut contradicere; in conspectu dei sit damnatus et sanctorum eius hic et in eterna secula . nisi emendauerit ante eius transitum quod inique gessit contra Christianitatem nostram . Hoc cum consilio Laurentii episcopi et omnium principum meorum signo sancte crucis confirmaui . eosque iussi ut mecum idem facerent . Amen .

A.D. 604 (28 April). Æthelberht (age 54), king, to St Andrew and his church at Rochester; grant of land at Rochester. Latin with English bounds.

Archive: Rochester

MSS: 1. BL Harley 1866, 9rv (s. xviii)

Note 2. Maidstone, Kent Archives Office, DRc/R1 (Textus Roffensis), 119rv (s. xii1; facsimile)

Note 3. Maidstone, Kent Archives Office, DRb/Ar2 (Liber Temporalium), 3v (s. xiv)

Printed: Mon. Angl., i. 27; Hearne, Textus Roffensis, pp. 62-3; Thorpe, Reg. Roff., pp. 13-14; K 1 ex MS 2; Mon. Angl. (rev. edn), i. 162 (no. 3); HS, p. 52; B 3 ex HS, Hearne, K, and Mon. Angl.; Earle, pp. 3-4 ex K and Hearne; Pierquin, Recueil, pt 1, no. 1; Pierquin, Conciles, p. 43; Campbell, Rochester, no. 1, ex MS 2; Morris 1995, pp. 101-2, ex B.

Comments: Wallenberg, KPN, p. 3, on place-names and bounds; Deanesly 1941, pp. 101-4; Deanesly 1941/1, pp. 53-69; Deanesly 1942, p. 110, authentic; Levison 1946, pp. 174, 223-5, suspicious features; Ward 1949, on topography; Campbell, Rochester, pp. xv, xxii, fabricated, partly based on S 266; Brooks 1974, p. 217, possibly some authentic basis; Tatton-Brown 1984, p. 14, cited in discussion of topography; Scharer 1982, pp. 59-60, spurious; Morris 1995, pp. 89-98, authentic.

On 28 Apr 1069 Magnus II King Norway (age 21) died.

On 28 Apr 1076 King Sweyn II of Denmark (age 57) died. His son King Harald III of Denmark (age 36) succeeded III King Denmark.

On 28 Apr 1180 King Philip II of France (age 14) and Isabelle Flanders Queen Consort France (age 10) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Baldwin Flanders V Count Hainault (age 30) and Margaret Metz Countess Hainault and Flanders. He the son of Louis VII King Franks (age 60) and Adèle Blois. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

Chronica Majora. 28 Apr 1236. In the same year, on the 28th of April, the nobles of England assembled at a council at London, to discuss the affairs of the kingdom. It was a cause of astonishment to many that the king followed the advice of the bishop elect of Valentia more than he ought, despising, as it appeared to them, his own natural subjects, and at this they were annoyed, and accused the king of fickleness, saying amongst themselves, "Why does not this bishop elect betake himself to the kingdom of France, as the French king has married the elder sister of our queen, to manage the affairs of the French kingdom, like he does here, by reason of his niece the queen of that country?" And they were highly indignant. On the first day of the council the king went to the Tower of London, and gave great cause of discontent to many about this matter, and more unfavourable than prosperous conjectures were entertained. The nobles would not either singly or in numbers go to the Tower to the king, fearing lest he, yielding to evil counsel, should vent his rage on them, and being warned by the words of Horace - Quia me vestigia terrent Omnia te versum spectantia, nulla retrorsum. [Because the footsteps of these beasts all point towards your den, But none of them, as far I can see, come back again.]

The king, nevertheless, restrained by motives of prudence, went from the Tower to his palace, there to discuss the urgent business of the kingdom more suitably with his nobles. After discussing several matters, he came to one praiseworthy determination, which was, that all the sheriffs should be dismissed, and others appointed in their places, because they had been corrupted by bribes and deviated from the paths of truth and justice. The king, therefore, substituted in their places men who possessed more tenements, who were richer, and of more noble race, who would not be driven by necessity to covet presents, nor to be cornipted. He also made them swear that they would not accept any gifts, unless in food and drink, and that only moderately and not to excess; or any present of land by way of reward, by which justice would be corrupted. To this council the king of Scotland (age 37) sent special messengers, who urgently demanded from the king the rights which pertained to their lord, the said king of Scots, concerning which they said that they held a charter and had the testimony of a great many nobles; but the determination of this matter was put off for the present. At the same time, too, the king, because he could not re-establish peace between Earl Richard (age 27), his brother, and Richard Seward, banished the latter from the kingdom, saying that he would rather incur his anger than that of his brother.

He also, to the astonishment of many, removed from their offices and dismissed from his councils, Ralph Fitz-Nicholas, seneschal of his palace, and several other high offices of his household. He also demanded instantly his seal from the bishop of Chichester, his chancellor; although he had blamelessly discharged the duties of his office, proving himself a remarkable pillar of truth at court. This, however, the chancellor refused to do, seeing that the kings violence exceeded the bounds of moderation, and said that he could on no account give it up, since he had undertaken the charge by the general consent of the kingdom, and therefore could not resign it without that same consent. About the same time, too, the emperor sent messengers to the king, demanding from him a large sum of money which he, the king, had promised him with his sister.

On 13 Apr 1360 a freak weather event known as Black Monday Hailstorm occurred as the army of King Edward III of England (age 47) were camped outside Chartres [Map]. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick (age 47), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 50), Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 50), Edward "Black Prince" (age 29) and Walter Mauny were present. Around one thousand English were killed, with up to six thousand horses. King Edward III of England (age 47) believed the event to be an Act of God and proceeded to negotiate with the French resulting in the Treaty of Brétigny.

On 28 Apr 1360 Guy Beauchamp died from injuries received during the Black Monday Hailstorm.

After 28 Apr 1376 William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 46) impeached (the earliest impeachment in England) during the Good Parliament.

On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen, France [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.42%.

On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 40) was hanged at York [Map] by the rebels when attempting to collect the tax.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 11) succeeded 5th Earl of Northumberland, 8th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 16th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 7th Baron Poynings.

The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy (age 30) as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.

Letters and Papers 1518. 28 Apr 1518. R.O. 4125. JOHN CLERK to WOLSEY.

Master More has certified the King from Oxford, that three children are dead of the sickness, but none others. He has charged the mayor and the commissary in the King's name, "that the inhabitants of those houses that be and shall be infected shall keep in, put out wispes and bear white rods, according as your grace devised for Londoners." The King has ordered the matter to be debated in the Council, when More's device was approved of. It was discussed whether it would be better that the fair held in Austin Friars in Oxford, fourteen days after this, should be stopped or no, as it is thought that the resort of people thither from London and other infected places will make Oxford as dangerous as London, next term. "Also it was said in the said Council that in stopping and letting of the said fair, there should ensue grudges and murmurs amongst the King's subjects; specially in London, where they would think that men went about utterly to destroy them, if, with other their misfortunes, they should also be kept from their fairs and markets: and so, after great debating, the more part was in this opinion, that the said fair should not be stopped; notwithstanding, they concluded all to take your grace's advice in the matter." Master Lovell leaves tomorrow, but will not arrive in London till Saturday. Woodstock, 28 April.

Letters and Papers 1533. 28 Apr 1533. Harl. MS. 283, f. 96. B. M. Ellis, 1 Ser. II. 32. 395. Henry VIII. to Lady Cobham.

Has appointed her to attend on horseback at the coronation of "the lady Anne our Queen (age 32)," on the feast of Pentecost, at Westminster.

Desires her to be at Greenwich on the previous Friday, to accompany the Queen to the Tower; on the next day to ride through London to Westminster; and on Whitsunday to attend at the coronation in the monastery. She must provide white or white grey palfreys or geldings for herself and her women. The apparel for her own horse will be furnished by the Queen's master of the Horse, except the bit and bosses. Her robes and liveries shall be delivered by the keeper of the Great Wardrobe. Greenwich, 28 April. Stamped. P. 1. Add.

Letters and Papers 1533. 28 Apr 1533. Egerton MS. 985, f. 57 b. B. M. Add. MS. 6,113, f. 33 b. B. M. 396. Queen Anne Boleyn (age 32).

"For the Quenes coronacion."

[To appoint the day for the coronation, and to prepare all things for the same.] Letters from the King to be sent to the nobles, lords, knights, ladies, and others to attend; and to those who will be created knights of the Bath, [whose names Garter is to have]. Commissions to be made for the Great Steward and Constable. The day when the Steward shall sit in the White Hall. All noble men who hold land by service royal to bring in their claims. The mayor, aldermen, commoners, and crafts of London are to meet the Queen before she comes to the Tower. The King will meet her at the Tower. A kirtle and mantle of cloth of gold furred with ermines. A lace of silk and gold with tassels for the mantle. A circlet of gold garnished with precious stones. A litter of timber covered with cloth of gold. Down pillows covered with cloth of gold, for the litter.

A lady [appointed by name] to bear her train. The mayor, aldermen, and crafts of London are to do their service accustomed, and the streets between the Tower and Westminster are to be garnished with tapestry, arras, silk, &c., [and the banners, standard, and pennons of crafts to be ready to garnish the barges and stand where the wardens be of each occupation.]

Memorandum.—The Lords, the High Steward, Constable of England, Garter, the Mayor of London, and the two squires of honor to be in crimson velvet and "beket" (fn. 4) hats. The tipstaves of the marshals in their liveries, to avoid the press of people. A canopy of gold with valance to be borne by 16 knights. [Two esquires of honor to be appointed to represent the dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine.] A horse of estate, saddled, [to be led by the Master of the Queen's horse]. Six henchmen on palfreys harnessed with cloth of gold. Two chairs covered with cloth of gold, and ladies of the highest estate to sit in them, clothed in crimson velvet. Six ladies on palfreys with saddles and harness like those of the henchmen. Two other chairs richly garnished for the Queen's ladies. A great number of ladies and gentlewomen on palfreys dressed according to their estates. A void to be prepared for the Queen at Westminster. A kirtle and mantle of purple velvet furred with ermines, with a lace, &c., for the day of the coronation. A circlet. A cloth of estate in Westminster Hall. The procession. A ray cloth [to go from the Hall to Westminster]. A canopy borne by the barons of the Cinque Ports. Two bishops to go every side of the Queen. The verge of ivory [to be borne]. The sceptre. A rich crown of gold. Liveries to be given according to the precedents of the Wardrobe. The archbishop of Canterbury to do as appertaineth. The seat royal or pulpit to be dressed with cloth of gold and cushions. The Queen to be howseled, and after to have a secret refection [of such meat as she likes best]. A stage to be made, latticed and covered with rich cloths, for the King and others to see the solemnity. [The mayor, aldermen, and commoners of London, with their crafts, to meet the Queen before she comes to the Tower. The King to meet her, and welcome her at the Tower.] The service to the Queen at dinner, and the ordering of the hall, to be committed to those who have authority. A stage in Westminster Hall for minstrels and trumpets. The kings of arms, heralds, [and pursuivants] to keep their accustomed stage at the right end of the table, [and to have a cloth on the table with proper service.] The Treasurer and Comptroller to go on foot, and the three high estates [Constable, Marshal, and Steward], on horseback, [their horses trapped.] A stage on the left side of the Hall latticed and garnished for the King. The surnap, and who shall draw it; [the marshal to be named.] The void after. [The Mayor to bear the cup of gold.] Jousts and tourneys. [To appoint the number of challengers and defenders for the jousts, to go before the Queen from the Tower to Westminster Hall on their steryng horses, garnished with bells and devices.] The Lord Steward, Treasurer, and Comptroller must give warning overnight to those who shall do any service.

Two copies; pp. 3 each.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 11. How the Carthusian martyrs died who would not take the oath.

We have said how the Commissioners went to all the churches in the country to administer the oath acknowledging the King as head of the Church, and how they went to the Charterhouse. The night before they came the Prior called all the brethren together and preached to them very devoutly, and his sermon was such that all of them there and then declared they would die before they would take the oath. So they all promised one another, and were dismissed.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 28 Apr 1535. This yeare, the 28 of Aprill, 1535, being Weddensdaye, were arreigned at Westminster in the Kings Benche (the Lord Chauncellor sittinge there as Highe Commissioner, with the moste parte of the nobles of the realme and the judges allso)a three munckes of the Charterhowsse, one beinge Prioure of the Charterhowsse in London named Mr. John Houghton (age 48), another named Mr. Robarte Lawrence,b prioure of a place in Lincolneshire, and sometyme chaplein to the Duke of Northfolke (age 62) now being, and the thirdc prioure of a place in Northamptonshire, and one, Richarde Reynold,d a brother of the monasterie of Syon, and two priests allso, one beinge Vicare of Thistleworthe in the shire of Middlesex, and this day were all endicted of highe treason against the Kinge; and the morrowe after, beinge the 29th of Aprill, all the saide persons appeared there agayne, the Lords beinge agayne present; and there their inditements being redd afore them, a jurie of esquiers and gentlemen of Middlesex were swome to passe on them, and incontinent gave verditt of them beinge guiltie of the same treason, whereupon the Lorde Cheefe Justice of Englande gave sentence on them, which was: that the saide muncks and priests should goe from thence to the place they came from, which was the Tower of London, and from thence to be drawen throughe London to Tiburne [Map], and there to be hanged, and beinge aly ve cutt downe, their bowells to be brent afore them, and then their heades to be cutt of and theyr bodies to be quartered, and then their heades and bodies to be sett at suche placesf as the King should assigne them.

. And the 4th day of May followinge, being Tewsday in the Rogation week, the parties aforesayde were drawne from the Tower to Tybome [Map], and there had execution as afore is written, savinge the other priest called Jo. Ferne, who had his pardon delyvered him on the Tower Hill, and so was quitt.

Note a. It was with the full approral of his Council that Henry VIII took the resolution of executing the laws without mercy against such as impugned his spiritual authority.

Note b. Thomas Laurence, Prior of Hexham. — Stow.

Note c. Augustine Webster, Prior of "Bevall."— Stow.

Note d. Richard Reginalds, doctor, a monk of Sion.— Stow.

Note e. John Haile, Vicar of Isleworth.

Note f. Their heads and quarters were set on the gates of the City all sare one quarter, which was set on the Charterhouse at London.-Stow.

Letters 1536. 28 Apr 1536. R. O. 749. Henry Lord Stafford to the Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

I recommend me to you and my good Lady and sister. So does my bedfellow. We are desirous of your returning into Staffordshire. I thank you for furthering my suit with the Queen (age 35). I should have been at London before this, but I tarried for you and my Lady. George Blount (age 23) makes great suit to have the abbey of Rantone, that I sue for. It is within four miles of Stafford, and near my park. He is my Lord of Richmond's servant, and has a fair house of his own. Intercede with Mr. Secretary for me. I will give as much as any man living, and do Mr. Secretary a great pleasure besides. If it cannot be had, pray speak for the White Ladies in Staffordshire. It is only £40 rent by year, and is in great decay. Stafford Castle, 28 April. Signed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters 1536. 28 Apr 1536. R. O. 748. Thomas Warley to Lord Lisle (age 71).

I thank you for the warrant you sent, whereby I did my friend a singular pleasure, and also for the letter you were good enough to write to Sir Francis Brian (age 46) for expedition of my suit. Sir Francis had departed into Buckinghamshire before it arrived. Dr. Bonner (age 36) came to Court yesterday, and asked heartily after you and my Lady. The Queen (age 35) expects my Lady to meet her at Dover, as Mrs. Margery Horsman informed me, and on Tuesday next the King and Queen will lie at Rochester. On Monday I intend to leave for Dover or Sandwich, to await the coming of your Lordship and my Lady. The Council has sat every day at Greenwich upon certain letters brought by the French ambassador, who was at Court yesterday and divers other times. On Monday in Easter week1, the Emperor's ambassador was at Court. Many ships laden with wheat have come to London. London, 28 April.

Note 1. April 17 in 1536. But from Chapuys's own despatch it appears to have been on Tuesday the 18th. See No.

On 28 Apr 1557 Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 32) retook Scarborough Castle [Map] and captured the rebels.

On 28 Apr 1589 Margaret of Savoy Vicereine Portugal was born to Charles Emmanuel Savoy I Duke Savoy (age 27) and Catherine Habsburg Spain Duchess Savoy (age 21). Coefficient of inbreeding 6.67%.

On 28 Apr 1603 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (deceased) was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Helena Snakenbourg Marchioness Northampton (age 54) was Chief Mourner in the procession since Arabella Stewart (age 28) refused to take part. She was supported by Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter (age 60) and Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 67).

George Bourchier (age 68) carried the Standard of the Dragon.

Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 18) carried the Standard of the Greyhound.

Thomas Somerset carried the Standard of the Lyon.

William Segar (age 49) carried the Sword of State as Norrey King of Arms.

Admiral Richard Leveson (age 33) was one of the six knights who carried the canopy.

George Bourchier: George Bourchier and Martha Howard were married. The difference in their ages was 20 years. He the son of John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath and Eleanor Manners Countess Bath. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. In 1535 he was born to John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath and Eleanor Manners Countess Bath. In 1605 George Bourchier died.

Thomas Somerset: he was born to Henry Somerset 1st Marquess Worcester and Anne Russell 2nd Marchioness Worcester. On 30 Dec 1648 Thomas Somerset died at Dunkirk.

After 28 Apr 1625. Monument to Henry Montagu (deceased) at All Saints Church, Barnwell [Map].

Henry Montagu: On 16 May 1622 he was born to Sidney Montagu and Paulina Pepys. On 28 Apr 1625 Henry Montagu drowned after having fallen into a pond swelled by heavy rain. Some sources, including the local guidebook, say he was chasing an orange. He was buried at All Saints Church, Barnwell.

After 28 Apr 1625. Description of the death of Henry Montagu (deceased) at All Saints Church, Barnwell [Map].

After 28 Apr 1642 Peter Lely (age 23). Portrait of Diana Russell Countess Bradford.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1666. Up and to the office. At noon dined at home. After dinner abroad with my wife to Hales's (age 66) to see only our pictures and Mrs. Pierce's, which I do not think so fine as I might have expected it. My wife to her father's, to carry him some ruling work, which I have advised her to let him do. It will get him some money. She also is to look out again for another little girle, the last we had being also gone home the very same day she came. She was also to look after a necklace of pearle, which she is mighty busy about, I being contented to lay out £80 in one for her. I home to my business.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1669. Up, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) to discourse about some accounts of his, of Tangier: and then other talk; and I find by him that it is brought almost effect ([through] the late endeavours of the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 32), the Queen-Mother (age 59), and my Lord St. Albans (age 64), together with some of the contrary faction, my Lord Arlington (age 51)), that for a sum of money we shall enter into a league with the King of France (age 30), wherein, he says, my Chancellor (age 60)1 is also concerned; and that he believes that, in the doing hereof, it is meant that he [Clarendon] shall come again, and that this sum of money will so help the King (age 38) that he will not need the Parliament; and that, in that regard it will be forwarded by the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and his faction, who dread the Parliament. But hereby we must leave the Dutch, and that I doubt will undo us; and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) says he finds W. Coventry (age 41) do think the like. Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is instrumental in this matter, and, he say never more great with the King (age 38) than she is now. But this a thing that will make the Parliament and kingdom mad, and will turn to our ruine: for with this money the King (age 38) shall wanton away his time in pleasures, and think nothing of the main till it be too late. He gone, I to the office, where busy till noon, and then home to dinner, where W. Batelier dined with us, and pretty merry, and so I to the office again. This morning Mr. Sheres sent me, in two volumes, Mariana his History of Spaine, in Spanish, an excellent book; and I am much obliged for it to him.

Note 1. Clarendon (age 60); then an exile in France.

On 28 Apr 1676 Frederick I King Sweden was born to Charles I Landgrave Hesse-Kassel (age 21) and Maria Amalia of Courland Landgravine Hesse-Kassel (age 22). Coefficient of inbreeding 6.66%.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (age 46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against King James (age 62), which he presumed to present to King William (age 45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved Queen's own father.

On 28 Apr 1751 Thomas Gibson (age 71) died.

After 28 Apr 1760. Monument to Theophilus Salwey (deceased) at St Laurence's Church, Ludlow [Map]. Designed by Robert Taylor (age 46), a prominent London architect of the time, in the Roccoco style, with much imagery reflective of the 'Age of Enlightenment'. The Salwey window, in memory of Theophilus Salwey and his sisters, Agnes, Mary and Katherine, shows an angel descending upon St Agnes along-side the martyrdom of St Stephen. The Salway arms can also be seen at the top of the window.

Theophilus Salwey: Around 1699 he was born to Edward Salwey of Stratford, Essex and Hannah Revell. Before 28 Apr 1760 he and Mary Dennet were married. There was no issue from the marriage. On 28 Apr 1760 he died.

On 28 Apr 1831 Godfrey Morgan 1st Viscount Tredegar was born to Charles Morgan 1st Baron Tredegar (age 39) and Rosamund Mundy (age 21) at Ruperra Castle. He was educated at Eton College [Map].

On 28 Apr 1860 James Forsyth (age 32) and Eliza Hastie (age 26) were married.

After 28 Apr 1909. Church of the Virgin Mary Stoneleigh [Map]. Memorial to Frances Beckwith Baroness Leigh. Sculpted by Adolfo Polloni (age 54).

Frances Beckwith Baroness Leigh: On 29 Nov 1890 Francis Dudley Leigh 3rd Baron Leigh and she were married. On 28 Apr 1909 she died.

After 28 Apr 1909. Church of the Virgin Mary Stoneleigh [Map]. Monument to Frances Helene Forbes. She the wife of Francis Dudley Leigh 3rd Baron Leigh (age 54). Sculpted by Adolfo Polloni (age 54).

Archaeologia Volume 84 1935 Section VI. 28 Apr 1914. Plate XXXI. Fig. 2. The E. and SE. earthworks at Avebury, looking NE. With Florence Harriet Young (age 38) and Lionel St George Gray (age 13).

Births on the 28th April

After 28 Apr 1200 Baldwin Redvers was born to William Redvers 5th Earl Devon and Mable de Beaumont. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 28 Apr 1347 Peter Barcelona was born to Peter IV King Aragon (age 27) and Maria Évreux Queen Consort Aragon.

On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen, France [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.42%.

On 28 Apr 1529 Isabel Aviz was born to John III King Portugal (age 26) and Catherine of Austria Queen Consort Portugal (age 22). Coefficient of inbreeding 11.30%.

Around 28 Apr 1545 Katherine Petre was born to William Petre (age 40) and Anne Browne (age 50).

On 28 Apr 1568 Teodosio II Duke of Braganza was born to Joao I Duke of Braganza (age 25).

On 28 Apr 1573 Charles Valois Duke Angoulême was born illegitimately to Charles IX King France (age 22) and Marie Touchet (age 24). The only child of Charles IX King France (age 22). She, Marie Touchet (age 24), would subsequently marry and have issue two daughters, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues and Marie Charlotte de Balzac d'Entragues who were both mistresses to Henry IV King France (age 19).

On 28 Apr 1589 Margaret of Savoy Vicereine Portugal was born to Charles Emmanuel Savoy I Duke Savoy (age 27) and Catherine Habsburg Spain Duchess Savoy (age 21). Coefficient of inbreeding 6.67%.

Before 28 Apr 1595 William Goring 1st Baronet was born to Henry Goring (age 31) and Eleanor Kingsmill.

On 28 Apr 1598 Francis Leigh 1st Earl Chichester was born to Francis Leigh (age 19) and Mary Egerton (age 19).

On or before 28 Apr 1616 William Delaval was born to Ralph Delaval (age 39) and Jane Hilton. He was baptised 28 Apr 1616.

Before 28 Apr 1617 Samuel Tryon 2nd Baronet was born to Samuel Tryon 1st Baronet (age 35).

On 28 Apr 1630 Charles Cotton was born to Charles Cotton at Beresford Hall Alstonefield [Map].

On 28 Apr 1632 Isabella Charlotte Orange Nassau was born to Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 48) and Amalia Solms Braunfels Princess Orange (age 29).

On 28 Apr 1646 Lucy Hastings was born to Henry Hastings (age 41) and Jane Goodall.

On 28 Apr 1676 Frederick I King Sweden was born to Charles I Landgrave Hesse-Kassel (age 21) and Maria Amalia of Courland Landgravine Hesse-Kassel (age 22). Coefficient of inbreeding 6.66%.

On 28 Apr 1683 John Werden 2nd Baronet was born to John Werden 1st Baronet (age 43).

Before 28 Apr 1697 William Davenport was born to William Davenport (age 33) and Margaret Warren.

On 28 Apr 1718 John Waldegrave 3rd Earl Waldegrave was born to James Waldegrave 1st Earl Waldegrave (age 34) and Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave (age 23). He a great grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 28 Apr 1719 Edward Turner 2nd Baronet was born to Edward Turner 1st Baronet (age 28) and Mary Page.

On 28 Apr 1724 John Gay Alleyn 1st Baronet was born.

On 28 Apr 1726 Edwin Sandys 2nd Baron Sandys was born to Samuel Sandys 1st Baron Sandys (age 30) and Letitia Tipping.

On 28 Apr 1747 Henry Hopkins Fane was born.

On 28 Apr 1747 Henry Hopkins Fane Chomley was born.

On 28 Apr 1759 William Seymour-Conway was born to Francis Seymour-Conway 1st Marquess Hertford (age 40) and Isabella Fitzroy Countess Hertford (age 32). He a great x 2 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 28 Apr 1775 William Robert Capell was born to William Anne Capell 4th Earl Essex (age 42) and Harriet Bladen Countess Essex (age 40).

On 28 Apr 1778 Thomas Stapleton of Carlton Towers in Yorkshire was born to Miles Stapleton of Drax in Yorkshire and Mary Bertie (age 31).

On 28 Apr 1798 Charlotte Philippa Browne was born to Dominick Geoffrey Browne of Castle McGarrett (age 43).

On 28 Apr 1799 Montagu Oxenden was born to Henry Oxenden 7th Baronet (age 42) and Mary Graham Lady Oxenden (age 26).

On 28 Apr 1802 Elizabeth Harriet Rickford Lady Cooper was born.

On 28 Apr 1826 Richard Seymour Guinness was born to Robert Rundell Guiness (age 36).

On 28 Apr 1828 Thomas Lister 3rd Baron Ribblesdale was born to Thomas Lister 2nd Baron Ribblesdale (age 38) and Adelaide Lister (age 20).

On 28 Apr 1831 Henry William Paget Butler was born.

On 28 Apr 1831 Godfrey Morgan 1st Viscount Tredegar was born to Charles Morgan 1st Baron Tredegar (age 39) and Rosamund Mundy (age 21) at Ruperra Castle. He was educated at Eton College [Map].

On 28 Apr 1836 Charles Mordaunt 10th Baronet was born to John Mordaunt 9th Baronet (age 27).

On 28 Apr 1840 Herbert Hay Langham 12th Baronet was born to Herbert Langham (age 35) and Laura Charlotte Micklethwait (age 21).

On 28 Apr 1840 George Francis Howard was born to Frederick Howard (age 26) and Fanny Cavendish (age 31).

On 28 Apr 1848 Chandos Hoskyns 10th Baronet was born to John Leigh Hoskyns 9th Baronet (age 31).

On 28 Apr 1849 Philip Yorke II was born to Simon Yorke III (age 38) and Victoria Mary Louisa Cust.

On 28 Apr 1853 Victor Alexander Grosvenor was born to Hugh Lupus Grosvenor 1st Duke Westminster (age 27) and Constance Leveson-Gower Duchess Westminster (age 18). Coefficient of inbreeding 7.06%.

After 28 Apr 1860 Agnes Forsyth was born to James Forsyth (age 32) and Eliza Hastie (age 26).

On 28 Apr 1883 Granville Cecil Douglas Gordon was born to Granville Armyne Gordon (age 26).

On 28 Apr 1893 Captain Victor Malcolm Wombwell was born to William Dudgeon Graham Menzies and Cecilia Clementia Wombwell (age 28).

On 28 Apr 1935 David Cooke 12th Baronet was born to Charles Arthur Cooke 11th Baronet (age 29).

On 28 Apr 1961 Sophia Selina Irene Hervey-Bathurst was born to Frederick John Charles Hervey-Bathurst 7th Baronet (age 27) and Caroline Myrtle Starkey Lady Hervey-Bathurst (age 25).

Marriages on the 28th April

On 28 Apr 1180 King Philip II of France (age 14) and Isabelle Flanders Queen Consort France (age 10) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Baldwin Flanders V Count Hainault (age 30) and Margaret Metz Countess Hainault and Flanders. He the son of Louis VII King Franks (age 60) and Adèle Blois. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

On 28 Apr 1317 Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester (age 26) and Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester were married. She the daughter of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford and Joan of Acre Countess Gloucester and Hertford. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Before 28 Apr 1490 James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran (age 15) and Elizabeth Home Countess Arran were married. She by marriage Lord Hamilton. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 28 Apr 1539 George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 11) and Gertrude Manners Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 14) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 47) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 44). He the son of Francis Talbot 5th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 39) and Mary Dacre. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Before 28 Apr 1545 William Petre (age 40) and Anne Browne (age 50) were married.

On 28 Apr 1583 Benedict Barnham (age 24) and Dorothy Smith were married at St Clements Church. They had seven girls and one boy. Three girls and a boy died in infancy.

Before 28 Apr 1595 Henry Goring (age 31) and Eleanor Kingsmill were married.

On 28 Apr 1599 Francis Norreys 1st Earl Berkshire (age 19) and Bridget Vere Baroness Norreys Rycote (age 15) were married. She the daughter of Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford (age 49) and Anne Cecil Countess of Oxford. He the son of William Norreys and Elizabeth Morrison Countess Lincoln.

On 28 Apr 1603 Edmund Paston (age 18) and Katherine Knyvet (age 24) were married.

On 28 Apr 1627 Robert Douglas 8th Earl Morton (age 11) and Elizabeth Villiers Countess Morton (age 18) were married. He the son of William Douglas 7th Earl Morton (age 45) and Anne Keith Countess Morton.

On 28 Apr 1653 James Hamilton (age 18) and Catherine Lenthall were married. He the son of James Hamilton 2nd Earl Abercorn (age 49) and Katherine Clifton Duchess Lennox.

After 28 Apr 1668 Henry Fane (age 18) and Elizabeth Southcott were married.

On 28 Apr 1670 Thomas Rouse 1st Baronet (age 62) and Frances Murray were married.

Before 28 Apr 1680 Charles Pye 2nd Baronet (age 20) and Ann Stevens were married.

Around 28 Apr 1680 Charles Pye 2nd Baronet (age 20) and Philippa Hobart (age 19) were married.

After 28 Apr 1703 John Barnewall 11th Baron Trimlestown (age 31) and Frances Barnewall were married.

On 28 Apr 1704 John Every 4th Baronet and Martha Thompson were married.

On 28 Apr 1724 William Stapleton 4th Baronet (age 26) and Catherine Paul Lady Stapleton were married. She by marriage Lady Stapleton of Leeward Islands.

Before 28 Apr 1760 Theophilus Salwey (age 61) and Mary Dennet were married. There was no issue from the marriage.

Before 28 Apr 1778 Miles Stapleton of Drax in Yorkshire and Mary Bertie (age 31) were married. She the daughter of Willoughby Bertie 3rd Earl of Abingdon and Anna Maria Collins Countess Abingdon.

On 28 Apr 1783 Thomas Brooke-Pechell 2nd Baronet (age 30) and Charlotte Clavering Lady Pechell (age 24) were married.

On 28 Apr 1794 Robert Grosvenor 1st Marquess Westminster (age 27) and Eleanor Egerton Marchioness Westminster (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Egerton 1st Earl Wilton (age 44) and Eleanor Assheton Viscountess Wilton (age 41). He the son of Richard Grosvenor 1st Earl Grosvenor (age 62).

On 28 Apr 1831 John Kennaway 2nd Baronet (age 34) and Emily Frances Kingscote Lady Kennaway (age 25) were married.

On 28 Apr 1840 Fulke Southwell Greville-Nugent 1st Baron Greville (age 19) and Rosa Emily Nugent Baroness Greville (age 26) were married. She the daughter of George Nugent 1st Marquess Westmeath (age 54) and Emily Anne Bennet Elizabeth Cecil Marchioness Westmeath (age 50).

Before 28 Apr 1849 Simon Yorke III (age 38) and Victoria Mary Louisa Cust were married. They were second cousins.

On 28 Apr 1850 Reverend James Drummond Money (age 45) and Clara Burdett (age 44) were married.

On 28 Apr 1852 Watkin Williams-Wynn 6th Baronet (age 31) and Marie Emily Williams-Wynn Lady Williams-Wynn were married. She by marriage Lady Williams of Gray's Inn. They were first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 28 Apr 1858 Valentine Browne 4th Earl of Kenmare (age 32) and Gertrude Thynne Countess Kenmare were married. He the son of Thomas Browne 3rd Earl of Kenmare (age 69).

On 28 Apr 1860 James Forsyth (age 32) and Eliza Hastie (age 26) were married.

On 28 Apr 1870 Edward Henry Gervase Stracey 6th Baronet (age 31) and Mary Gertrude des Voeux Lady Stracey were married.

On 28 Apr 1891 Wilfrid Lawson 3rd Baronet (age 28) and Mary Camilla Macan Lady Lawson (age 26) were married.

On 28 Apr 1902 Major Hugh Danway (age 26) and Susan de la Poer Beresford (age 24) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square. She the daughter of John Beresford 5th Marquess Waterford and Blanche Elizabeth Adelaide Somerset.

On 28 Apr 1903 Major George Henry Edwardes (age 25) and Olive Kerr (age 24) were married. They were third cousins.

On 28 Apr 1910 Henry Nevile Fane (age 26) and Harriet Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis (age 22) were married.

On 26 Jul 1915 Edwin Montagu (age 36) and Beatrice Venetia Stanley (age 28) were married. She had converted to Judaism after his proposal on 28 Apr 1915.

Deaths on the 28th April

On 28 Apr 1069 Magnus II King Norway (age 21) died.

On 28 Apr 1076 King Sweyn II of Denmark (age 57) died. His son King Harald III of Denmark (age 36) succeeded III King Denmark.

On 28 Apr 1347 Peter Barcelona died.

On 13 Apr 1360 a freak weather event known as Black Monday Hailstorm occurred as the army of King Edward III of England (age 47) were camped outside Chartres [Map]. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick (age 47), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 50), Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 50), Edward "Black Prince" (age 29) and Walter Mauny were present. Around one thousand English were killed, with up to six thousand horses. King Edward III of England (age 47) believed the event to be an Act of God and proceeded to negotiate with the French resulting in the Treaty of Brétigny.

On 28 Apr 1360 Guy Beauchamp died from injuries received during the Black Monday Hailstorm.

On 28 Apr 1472 Thomas Waldegrave (age 35) died at Bures, Suffolk [Map].

On 28 Apr 1479 Margaret Wentworth (age 46) died.

On 28 Apr 1479 Margaret Wentworth (age 33) died.

On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 40) was hanged at York [Map] by the rebels when attempting to collect the tax.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 11) succeeded 5th Earl of Northumberland, 8th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 16th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 7th Baron Poynings.

The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy (age 30) as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.

On 28 Apr 1497 Elizabeth Wingfield died.

On 28 Apr 1521 Suzanne Bourbon Duchess Bourbon (age 29) died.

On 28 Apr 1529 Isabel Aviz died.

On 28 Apr 1533 Bishop Nicholas West (age 72) died.

On 28 Apr 1538 Roger Cholmley (age 78) died.

On 28 Apr 1554 Cecily Grey Baroness Dudley died.

On 28 Apr 1556 William Copley (age 84) died.

On 28 Apr 1560 Thomas Catesby (age 31) died.

On 28 Apr 1565 Jane Luddington (age 61) died.

On 28 Apr 1582 Anne Pickering (age 68) died.

On 28 Apr 1591 John Stewart 4th of Traquair (age 62) died. His brother William Stewart 5th of Traquair (age 61) succeeded 5th Lord Traquair.

On 28 Apr 1595 Eleanor Shirley (age 67) died at Staunton Harold, Leicestershire [Map].

On 28 Apr 1607 Mary Whorwood (age 72) died.

On 28 Apr 1614 John "Black Sir John" Egerton (age 63) died.

On 28 Apr 1625 Henry Montagu (age 2) drowned after having fallen into a pond swelled by heavy rain. Some sources, including the local guidebook, say he was chasing an orange. He was buried at All Saints Church, Barnwell [Map].

On 28 Apr 1639 William Vyner (age 70) died.

On 28 Apr 1639 William Vyner of Eathorpe Warwickshire (age 69) died.

On 28 Apr 1640 Luise Juliane Palatinate Simmern (age 45) died.

On or before 28 Apr 1673 Edmund Pye 1st Baronet (age 66) died. Baronet Pye of Leckhampstead extinct. He was buried on 28 Apr 1673.

On 28 Apr 1688 Frederick I Duke of Mecklenburg Grabow (age 50) died.

On 28 Apr 1696 Thomas Whitley of Peel Hall (age 45) died.

On 28 Apr 1707 Christian Saxe Gotha Duke Saxe Eisenburg (age 54) died.

On 28 Apr 1710 Thomas Betterton (age 74) died.

On 28 Apr 1720 Algernon Greville (age 43) died.

On 28 Apr 1726 Thomas "Diamond" Pitt (age 72) died.

On 28 Apr 1732 Thomas Parker 1st Earl Macclesfield (age 65) died at Soho Square [Map]. His son George Parker 2nd Earl Macclesfield (age 36) succeeded 2nd Earl Macclesfield.

On 28 Apr 1742 Prince George Philip Hohenzollern died.

On 28 Apr 1751 Thomas Gibson (age 71) died.

On 28 Apr 1756 Margaret Cavendish-Bentinck (age 16) died.

On 28 Apr 1760 Theophilus Salwey (age 61) died.

On 28 Apr 1770 Jean Louis Ligonier 1st Earl Ligonier (age 89) died unmarried. Earl Ligonier, Viscount Ligonier of Enniskillen and Baron Ligonier extinct. His nephew His nephew Edward Ligonier 1st Earl Ligonier (age 30) succeeded Viscount Ligonier of Clonmell and was created Earl Ligonier albeit in the Irish peerage six years later.

On 28 Apr 1776 William Tatton (age 72) died.

On 28 Apr 1781 William Home 8th Earl of Home died at Gibraltar. His brother Alexander Home 9th Earl of Home succeeded 9th Earl of Home. Abigail Browne Ramey Countess Home by marriage Countess of Home.

On 28 Apr 1783 Charles Cavendish (age 79) died.

On 28 Apr 1784 Elizabeth Leveson-Gower Countess Waldegrave (age 60) died.

On 28 Apr 1786 James Mure-Campbell 5th Earl Loudon (age 60) died. His daughter Flora Mure-Campbell Marchioness of Hastings (age 6) succeeded 6th Countess Loudon.

On 28 Apr 1788 Jemima Rachel Drummond died.

On 28 Apr 1800 Mary Bowes Countess Strathmore (age 51) died.

On 28 Apr 1815 Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Württemberg (age 4) died.

On 28 Apr 1817 Jacob Astley 5th Baronet (age 60) died. His son Jacob Astley 16th Baron Hastings (age 19) succeeded 6th Baronet Astley of Hill Morton.

On 28 Apr 1820 John Trollope 6th Baronet (age 54) died. His son John Trollope 1st Baron Kesteven (age 19) succeeded 7th Baronet Trollope of Casewick in Lincolnshire.

On 28 Apr 1826 Charles Cavendish-Bentinck (age 45) died.

On 28 Apr 1829 John Crewe 1st Baron Crewe (age 86) died. His son John Crewe 2nd Baron Crewe (age 57) succeeded 2nd Baron Crewe of Crewe in Cheshire.

On 28 Apr 1840 Charles Spencer-Churchill (age 45) died.

On 28 Apr 1849 Andrew Agnew 7th Baronet (age 56) died. His son Andrew Agnew 8th Baronet (age 31) succeeded 8th Baronet Agnew of Lochnaw in Wigtownshire.

On 28 Apr 1853 Elizabeth Sykes (age 75) died.

On 28 Apr 1860 Mary Ainsworth (age 30) died.

On 28 Apr 1865 Samuel Cunard 1st Baronet (age 77) died. His son Edward Cunard 2nd Baronet (age 49) succeeded 2nd Baronet Cunard of Bush Hill in Middlesex.

On 28 Apr 1875 Caroline Grey (age 75) died.

On 28 Apr 1881 Edward Blount 8th Baronet (age 86) died. His son Walter de Sodington Blount 9th Baronet (age 47) succeeded 9th Baronet Blount of Sodington.

On 28 Apr 1882 Enrique Fitz James Stuart (age 55) died.

On 28 Apr 1890 Tonman Mosley 3rd Baronet (age 76) died. His son Oswald Mosley 4th Baronet (age 42) succeeded 4th Baronet Mosley of Ancoats.

On 28 Apr 1899 Colonel Richard Talbot Plantagenet Stapleton (age 65) died.

On 28 Apr 1903 Cecil Molyneux Howard (age 54) died.

On 28 Apr 1905 Sarah Juliana Butler (age 92) died.

On 28 Apr 1909 Frances Beckwith Baroness Leigh died.

On 28 Apr 1921 Alastair Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (age 31) died of malaria while taking part in a big game expedition in Rhodesia.

On 28 Apr 1923 Hilda Strutt (age 43) died.

On 28 Apr 1924 Lowry Cole 4th Earl Enniskillen (age 78) died.

On 28 Apr 1934 Walter Gerald Ponsonby (age 74) died.

On 28 Apr 1935 Walter Yarde-Buller (age 76) died.

On 28 Apr 1937 Frederick Edward Guest (age 61) died.

On 28 Apr 1946 Norah Beatrice Henriette Spencer-Churchill (age 70) died.

On 28 Apr 1947 Rose Frances Spencer died.

On 28 Apr 1952 Feodora Louise Oldenburg (age 86) died.