On this Day in History ... 31 October

31 Oct is in October.

1266 Dictum of Kenilworth

1396 Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

1454 Battle of Stamford Bridge

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1532 Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

1663 Great Plague of London

1899 Siege of Mafeking

Dictum of Kenilworth

On 31 Oct 1266 the Dictum of Kenilworth was issued. The Dictum was a peace agreement between King Henry III of England (age 59) and the rebels who were besieged in the impregnable Kenilworth Castle [Map]. The committee included:

Bishop Walter Branscombe (age 46).

Walter Giffard Archbishop of York (age 41).

Bishop Nicholas Ely.

Gilbert de Clare 8th Earl Gloucester 7th Earl Hertford.

Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex (age 62).

Philip Basset (age 82).

John Balliol (age 58).

Robert Walerand.

Alan Zouche (age 63).

Roger Somery 2nd Baron Dudley (age 76), and.

Warin Bassingbourne.

Robert Ferrers 6th Earl of Derby (age 27) and Henry Hastings (age 31) were fined seven times their annual income. The Dictum, however, required the rebels to pay their fines before being restored to their lands; something of a Catch-22 since if they weren't restored to their lands, they would have no income to pay the fine.

On 31 Oct 1345 Ferdinand I King Portugal was born to Peter I King Portugal (age 25) and Constanza Manuel Queen Consort Castile (age 29).

On 31 Oct 1354 William Clinton 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 50) died. Earl Huntingdon 2C 1337 extinct.

On 31 Oct 1391 Edward "The Philosopher" I King Portugal was born to John "Good Great" I King Portugal (age 39) and Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal (age 31). He a great grandson of King Edward III of England.

Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

On 31 Oct 1396 King Richard II of England (age 29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England (age 6) were married. The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown. The difference in their ages was 22 years. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 27) and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France (age 26). He the son of Edward "Black Prince" and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 26) attended.


1454 Battle of Stamford Bridge

On 31 Oct 1454 or 01 Nov 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 23) and Thomas Neville (age 24) captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 31) and Richard Percy (age 28) in a skirmish known as the Battle of Stamford Bridge. [Note. The second battle at Stamford Bridge [Map] with the first being in 1066]. The brothers were taken to Middleham Castle [Map]. Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 31) was subsequently fined £11,200 in damages which, with an income of £100, he was unlikely to ever pay. He was, therefore, taken to Newgate Prison, London [Map] in which he stayed until he escaped in 1456.

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

On 31 Oct 1479 Anna Boleyn (age 3) died. Brass in St Andrew's Church Blickling [Map]. Curiously despite having died aged three she is represented as an adult. You can just make out the words "obit ultio die" ie died last day. The damaged bottom left corner used to read October. The damaged top left corner used to read "etatis trio" ie aged three. The year mcccclxxix ie 1479. The amorial shows her father's (age 28) and mother's (age 25) quartered.

Anna Boleyn: In 1476 she was born to William Boleyn (age 25) and Margaret Butler (age 22).

William Boleyn: In 1451 he was born to Geoffrey Boleyn (age 45) and Ann Hoo (age 26) at Blickling. In 1465 William Boleyn (age 14) and Margaret Butler (age 11) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde (age 39) and Anne Hankford Countess Ormonde (age 34). She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. On 10 Oct 1505 William Boleyn (age 54) died.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 31 Oct 1528. R. O. 4891. Henry Duke Of Richmond (age 9) To Henry VIII.

Has passed this last summer without any peril of the rageous sweat that hath reigned in these parts. Thanks the King for the preservatives he sent. There are now with him my lord of Westmoreland (age 30) and his wife (age 29), and their son lord Nevell. Sheriff Hutton [Map].

Hol., p. 1. Add.

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

Calendars. Oct. 31 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries v. lvii. p. 266. 822. Zuam Antonio Venier to the Signory.

All the ambassadors being here [at Abbeville] on the 18th, I wrote from Montreuil, that on the 17th the Papal Nuncio and the Imperial Ambassador caused us to remain here at Abbeville an insult to the powers we represent, we being put to cost and in confinement whilst the former ambassadors are sent for to Montreuil and Boulogne, and while others are allowed to attend the congress, which shows they are treating against our princes.1

On the 11th instant the English King crossed the Channel, and landed at Calais with from 1,500 to 2,000 horse. He brought with him the Marchioness Boleyn (age 31), his favourite, with some twenty maids of honour (damigelle). The most Christian King remained hunting in the neighbourhood of Boulogne until the 19th, when he entered the town. On the 20th he went to Marquise, and on the afternoon of the 21st proceeded towards Calais, and midway met the English King, and both their Majesties, with mutual goodwill and respect, embraced, calling each other "brother;" and coming to Boulogne, the most Christian King placed the King of England on his right hand; and passing through Marquise they refreshed themselves, the reception being as pompous and costly as possible, there being great plenty of everything requisite.

Proceeding on their way, they met the Dauphin and the Dukes of Orleans and Angouleme, and the most Christian King said to the English King, "Sire, those are the Dauphin and my other sons, who wish, and are bound, to pay their respects to your Majesty;" and he then drew a little aside, not choosing to take part in the reception. Whereupon the English King not only embraced but kissed them all three on the mouth; and the Dauphin and Orleans thanked him for what he had done, and for having released their father from captivity, declaring that their lives and their entire substance would at all times be at the disposal of his Majesty and his kingdom. Angouleme, who had not the same subject of discourse, addressed him in another form, but so sweetly and sagely, according to report, that he spoke like an angel; so that the English King again embraced him alone, kissing him several times; after which the most Christian King resumed his place beside King Henry, thanking him for his gracious reception of his sons. They were then met in succession by five cardinals, namely, the Legate [Chancellor Duprat (age 69)], Bourbon, Lorraine, Tournon, and Grammont, and by a great number of archbishops, bishops, and prelates, and by many princes and barons, all of whom were embraced by the English King, which being a tedious and fatiguing ceremony, was considered a mark of great gracious-ness on the part of his Majesty; there being, in addition to these, the 200 gentlemen of his most Christian Majesty's household, in rich and noble array, and the 400 archers, and the 100 Switzers, all in very costly liveries of silk and gold, so that the abundance of silk, gold, pearls, and jewels on the part of France was considered inestimable, most especially on account of the embroideries and brocades (brocature) now in fashion there; but on the side of England there were many cloths of silk, and gold chains without number, but not such boundless expense.

On entering Boulogne, although the English King remonstrated against it, his most Christian Majesty accompanied him to his chamber; and on the following day sent him, as a present, a coat (iuppone) a doublet (soio) and a gown (roba) such as he himself purposed wearing on that day, which apparel was embroidered with pearls and precious stones, so that it is said to be marvellous. And the various games, entertainments, and pageants were most splendid and endless; and the extreme graciousness of both the Kings was remarkable, for the most Christian King always banqueted the Englishmen, King Henry doing the like by the Frenchmen. On the 13th the most Christian King gave the English King a suit of bed furniture, wrought throughout with pearls on crimson velvet, which he purchased lately in Paris of an Italian merchant for 10,000 golden crowns; and the other day he gave him six coursers of his own breed, the handsomest he had in his stable.

It is said that on the evening of the 23rd the two Kings held a long secret conference, there being present on the part of France the Lord Chancellor Legate, the Lord Steward, and the Admiral2, and on the part of England the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and the Bishop of Winchester.

The result of this conference is understood to be that the most Christian King sends the Cardinals Tournon and Grammont to the Pope about the Emperor entering Italy, and will send a personage to said Emperor (a esso Cesare) and he has despatched an ambassador to Scotland to offer his daughter to the King there, according to the request made by the Scottish ambassador, who had returned to his King without any decision. But his most Christian Majesty will give him his daughter on condition that he do forthwith form a league and understanding with his Majesty and the English King, which will be difficult.

It is said that the English King having made the Marchioness (age 31) cross the Channel with him for the purpose of marrying her, with the intervention of King Francis, (per sposarla con intervento dil Re Xmo.) his most Christian Majesty apparently modified this project at the consultation held between them; and such is the belief of the French and English.

The Reverend (sic) Casal3 arrived lately, having ridden post from Rome, where he was negotiating for the English King. No farther change was caused by his coming.

On the morning of the 25th the most Christian King gave the collar of his order of St. Michael to the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and went to Calais with the English King; and on the road, and on entering that town, the same compliments were paid as on entering Boulogne, every loving and honourable demonstration being made towards the French; nor was there less magnificence; games and pageants being exchanged for wild fowl and venison, and, moreover, for English ladies.4 Then the English King gave his most Christian Majesty a vesture (uno vestido) and six coursers, and six hobbies (chinee); and it is said, though this I do not know for certain, that he remitted and gave to the three French princes the entire debt due from their father, amounting to about 300,000 crowns. He also gave his Order of St. George to the Lord Steward and to the Admiral5; and finally gave, as servant to the most Christian King, his natural son, who is about 13 years old.

On the 29th the English King, accompanied by the most Christian King, went a distance of three leagues beyond Calais; there they took leave of each other with many mutual embraces and caresses.

It is reported that these two nations, which are by nature hostile to each other, exchanged greater marks of honour and goodwill than were expected.

Two days hence the most Christian King will go to Amiens, there to consult about the mission of these two Cardinals. It is said that these two Kings have agreed for the Cardinals to insist on the Pope's not leaguing with the Emperor, and should he make a fresh agreement with him, they will no longer allow the collation of the benefices of France and England to be referred to Rome, but will separate their clergy from the Roman See. (Si dice questi Rè kanno convenuto che li Cardinali insista ch'el Papa non conseguisca il vincolo con Cesare; et facendo nova, intelligentia non voter più che la erpeditione di Franca et Anglia vadino a Roma, ma divider il suo clero dalla Sede Romana). But this interview (vista) and conference have been a superfluous expenditure,—entertainments and pageants, and nothing else.

Abbeville6, 31st October. Registered by Sanuto, 29th November.


Note 1. "Ritrovandosi tutti li Oratori quì alli 18, scrissi da Montreuil che adi 17 il Nontio Pontificio et Orator Cesareo concluseno questo atto di fame star quì apartati, e via (eon pocha consideration, et per far grande iniuria a li Principi de chi semo Oratori, li quali è sta fati venir a Montarol e Bologna), e spender, confiuandone, e a cadaun altro è sta leeito andar a vedcr i congressi."

Note 2. Philippe Chabot, Seigneur de Brion.

Note 3. Query Sir Gregory Casal. (See State Papers, vol. vii. part 5, p. 380.)

Note 4. "e non furono inferiori di splendidezza, suplendo nelli jochi spetaculi, de animali silvestri e di più dille dame Englese." See also Hall, p. 795. "I assure you he [Francis I] and his trayne, were requited at Caleis for [by?] the plentie of wylde foule, venison," etc., etc.

Note 5. Montmorency and Chabot.

Note 6. In the original "Bovilla," but see letter dated Montreuil, 17th October.


Calendars. Oct. 31 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries, v. lvii. p. 279.. 824. Summary of the Interview between the Kings of England and France.

Madam Anne (age 31) is not one of the handsomest women in the world; she is of middling stature, swarthy complexion, long neck, wide mouth, bosom not much raised, and in fact has nothing but the English King's great appetite, and her eyes, which are black and beautiful, and take great effect on those who served the Queen when she was on the throne—(et li ochj, che sono neri et belli, el che ha grande modo de l'iutertenimento di servitori avesse la Regina quando era in salute).

The most Christian King will go to a distance of two leagues from Calais to meet the King of England, and then return to dine at Marquise, and sleep at Boulogne, where they will remain Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, and then on Friday go to Calais, remaining there Saturday and Sunday.

These two Kings have a bitter feeling against the Pope and the Emperor. The English King purposes destroying the castle of Gravelines, which the Emperor built opposite Calais.

Madam Anne lives like a Queen at Calais, and the King accompanies her to mass and everywhere as if she was such.

The King's son is very handsome and accomplished.

On the 20th October the most Christian King, accompanied by the gentlemen of his household, went to mass at Notre Dame de Boulogne.

200 Imperial horse and 500 infantry have entered Gravelines; so the Emperor has shifted his quarters.

In the afternoon the King, accompanied by the princes, went to sleep at Marquise, between Boulogne and Calais; his three sons, the Legate, the Lord Chancellor, and the other Cardinals and Bishops remaining at Boulogne, he having solely Lorraine and Bayonne with him; and tomorrow the two kings will meet at the "Hospice" of St. Gilbert.

On the 21st October 1532, at the ninth hour, the most Christian King dined; at the 10th he mounted on horseback with all the princes and gentlemen who were at Marquise, and they went towards Calais, without servants: and all the gentlemen, who were in great number, were clad in velvet.

On arriving at St. Gilbert's, two leagues from Calais, the King of England came in sight, very well accompanied by princes and gentlemen. And when the two Kings met they embraced each other twice, and after exchanging a few words, again embraced closely, shedding a few tears of joy, and then reciprocally embraced the princes.

The Dauphin with his two brothers and the Legate, Bourbon, Tournon, and Grammont, were at a distance of half a league from Boulogne with the young Princes Nevers, the sons of Vendome, de Guise, and many other gentlemen, and the King's archer-guard and the Switzers. When the Kings met them, his English Majesty embraced them, and Angoulême's speech to him was graceful.

They then entered the town in a body; and in the evening the two Kings remained together before supper in pleasing discourse, after which all went to supper in their own apartments. And after supper the most Christian King went to visit the English King, and they discussed light topics (e parlono di cose piacevole) and then withdrew to their chambers. The chambers were richly furnished, and the halls also.

This morning, the 22nd, the most Christian King sent to give the English King a gown, a coat, and a doublet (una vesta, uno zamavo, e uno giupono) and the King also clad himself in like manner, and they went to a church. One went to one chapel, the other to another, both of which were very richly furnished; and the mass being ended, they joined company, and a "mottetto" was sung in his (sic) chapel, commencing with the words "Da pacem, Domine, in diebus nostris." All the Cardinals who were at the mass went together, after church, to the apartment (scalla) of the English King, where they remained half an hour in conversation, and then went to the apartment of the most Christian King, and the English King kept the Cardinal of Lorraine to dine with him; and after dinner they had a game at ball, and then gambled. The most Christian King dragged the King of England1 to Council, where he remained about an hour, and then went to see the English King joust. They are intent on making good cheer; the Dauphin and the Lord Steward invite some of these grandees to banquet with them. The negotiations are conducted very secretly. On coming from the game of ball in the middle of the court, compliments were exchanged about accompanying each other. Having entered their chambers, the most Christian King before supper went to visit King Henry, whom he took to sup with him, and a very handsome banquet was served, after which they gambled, and the Cardinal of Lorraine lost 1,500 crowns to the Duke of Suffolk; everyone then withdrew. The Lord Steward placed the first service before the the King, and then retired to his lodging in the Castle, taking with him all the English princes and lords, to whom he gave a very grand banquet in great state.

On the 23rd, the two Kings on quitting their chambers met in the centre of the court, and after talking together awhile, proceeded to the mass, which being ended, they returned to their apartments. The most Christian King took the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with him, and the English King did the like by the Cardinal of Bourbon, Lorraine, Vendôme, St. Pol, and Guise. Even the King talked licentiously2; and they gambled for the space of two hours. After dinner the most Christian King sat in Council with the Bishop of Winchester, the Dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk, the Cardinal Legate, the Lord Steward, and the Admiral; the Cardinals Grammont, Tournon, and Bayonne were in the hall but did not enter, and departed3. They remained together for an hour, and then the most Christian King came to the English King to the joust. The aforesaid again sat in Council, remaining thus for about two hours, the only persons present besides themselves being Vilander (sic) and an English secretary. The joust being ended, the two Kings went into his most Christian Majesty's chamber and had a long conversation at a window, and it was known to be of importance.

This evening the Cardinal of Lorraine gave a banquet to the English Princes. The English King gave his most Christian Majesty 13 very handsome horses of his country, and received others from King Francis.

A roll is being made of the persons who are to go to Calais.

The affairs here are conducted very secretly, nor can one hear anything.

It is understood that the Queen of France demands her share in the government of Flanders4.

It is said that the marriage of Madam Anne (age 31) will be solemnized on Sunday, and that Bayonne will sing the mass.

During the last two days the most Christian King has been in a great passion, owing to letters received from Rome, purporting that he has been the cause of the Turkish invasion, and the Pope allows sermons to be preached in Rome publicly to this effect.

On the 25th the Legate went to the King, as did also the other Cardinals. Afterwards, the two Kings being in riding gear, and with the order [of St. Michael] round their necks, [the most Christian King] gave it with very great ceremony to Suffolk and Norfolk.

After dinner the two Kings mounted on horseback on their way to Calais, accompanied by his most Christian Majesty's three sons; and the Cardinals Tournon and Grammont are being sent to Rome, for the purpose, it is said, of obtaining the tenths and annats of benefices in the same manner as conceded to the Emperor.

The marriage of Madam Anne (age 31) is announced by balls5, banquets, and masquings, but the people of England will not allow it to take place.

The King's sons remained [at Boulogne ?]; the Lord Steward went to . . .

I write nothing about the doings at Calais, but nothing was thought of but good cheer, balls, and masquings; and very great honour was paid to the most Christian King; and some Frenchmen were made Knights of the Garter.

The son of the English King is very handsome and accomplished; he came to France, and the son of the Duke of Norfolk is also coming.

The King of England has arranged to fortify Guisnes and other places distant 2½ leagues from Calais.

Boulogne ? 31st October. Registered by Sanuto 7th December.


Note 1. "Il Rè Xmo il tiro in consilio dove stetey" etc.

Note 2. "Fino il Rè intrò in ragionamento di lussã" (sic) (lussuria?).

Note 3. "II Re Xmo poi disnar intrò in consilio con Monsignor di Vicestre, duca di Sopholch e di Norpholch, il Legato Cardinal Gran Metre et Admirante, li Cardinali Agrarnonte et Tornon et Bajona, erano in la salla e non introrono e se partirono."

Note 4. "La Regina di Franz a se intende dimanda il suo partagio delle coae di Fiandra." Eleanor of Austria, Queen of France, sister of Charles V., probably claimed part of the property left by her aunt Margaret, Governess of the Low Countries, who died at Mechlin on the 1st of December 1530; or it may mean "her share in the government of Flanders."

Note 5. S'è messo in balli etc.

On 31 Oct 1640 Richard Neale Archbishop (age 78) died.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1663. The Queene (age 53) continues lightheaded, but in hopes to recover. The plague is much in Amsterdam, and we in fears of it here, which God defend1. The Turke goes on mightily in the Emperor's dominions, and the Princes cannot agree among themselves how to go against him. Myself in pretty good health now, after being ill this month for a week together, but cannot yet come to.... well, being so costive, but for this month almost I have not had a good natural stool, but to this hour am forced to take physic every night, which brings me neither but one stool, and that in the morning as soon as I am up, all the rest of the day very costive. My father has been very ill in the country, but I hope better again now. I am lately come to a conclusion with Tom Trice to pay him £100, which is a great deale of money, but I hope it will save a great deale more. But thus everything lessens, which I have and am like to have, and therefore I must look about me to get something more than just my salary, or else I may resolve to live well and die a beggar.

Note 1. Defend is used in the sense of forbid. It is a Gallicism from the French "defendre"..

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Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1665. Thus we end the month merrily; and the more for that, after some fears that the plague would have increased again this week, I hear for certain that there is above 400 [less], the whole number being 1,388, and of them of the plague, 1,031. Want of money in the Navy puts everything out of order. Men grow mutinous; and nobody here to mind the business of the Navy but myself. At least Sir W. Batten (age 64) for the few days he has been here do nothing. I in great hopes of my place of Surveyor-Generall of the Victualling, which will bring me £300 per annum.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1685. I din'd at our greate Lord Chancellor Jefferies (age 40), who us'd me with much respect. This was the late Chief Justice who had newly ben the Western Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had formerly don such severe justice amongst the obnoxious in Westmr Hall [Map], for which his Ma* (age 52) dignified him by creating him first a Baron, and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years past ben conversant at Deptford; is of an assur'd and undaunted spirit, and has serv'd the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is of nature cruel and a slave of the Court.


On 31 Oct 1685 John Murray 2nd Earl Dunmore was born to Charles Murray 1st Earl Dunmore (age 24).


Evelyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1688. My birthday, being the 68th year of my age. O blessed Lord, grant that as I grow in years, so may I improve in grace! Be thou my protector this following year, and preserve me and mine from those dangers and great confusions that threaten a sad revolution to this sinful nation! Defend thy church, our holy religion, and just laws, disposing his Majesty (age 55) to listen to sober and healing counsels, that if it be thy blessed will, we may still enjoy that happy tranquility which hitherto thou hast continued to us! Amen, Amen!


PAINTINGS/SEEMAN/James_Griffin.jpgBefore 31 Oct 1715 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman (age 21). Portrait of James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin (age 47).

James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin: Before 15 Dec 1667 he was born to Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin (age 16) and Essex Howard Baroness Griffin. On 15 Dec 1667 James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin was baptised. On 10 Nov 1710 Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin (age 59) died having been imprisoned for being a Jacobite at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.His son James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin (age 42) succeeded 2nd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke. Before 31 Oct 1715 James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin (age 47) died. His son Edward Griffin 3rd Baron Griffin (age 22) succeeded 3rd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.

Before 31 Oct 1715 James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin (age 47) died. His son Edward Griffin 3rd Baron Griffin (age 22) succeeded 3rd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.


On 31 Oct 1732 Hercules Langford Rowley 1st Earl Langford (age 18) and Elizabeth Rowley 1st Viscountess Langford (age 19) were married. He by marriage Viscount Langford of Longford Lodge.

On 31 Oct 1732 Victor Amadeus King Sardinia (age 66) died. His son Charles Emmanuel III King Sardinia (age 31) succeeded Duke Savoy, III King Sardinia. On 31 Oct 1732 His grandson Victor Amadeus III King Sardinia (age 6) succeeded III King Sardinia.

On 31 Oct 1733 John Leveson-Gower 1st Earl Gower (age 39) and Penelope Stonhouse Baroness Gower (age 28) were married. She by marriage Baroness Gower.

On 31 Oct 1734 William North 6th Baron North (age 55) died in Madrid. His first cousin once removed Francis North 1st Earl Guildford (age 30) succeeded 7th Baron North.

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On 31 Oct 1771 John Rous 5th Baronet (age 44) died. His son John Rous 1st Earl Stradbrooke (age 21) succeeded 6th Baronet Stradbrooke of Henham in Suffolk.

On 31 Oct 1772 Lucas Pepys 1st Baronet (age 30) and Jane Elizabeth Leslie 12th Countess of Rothes (age 22) were married. She the daughter of John Leslie 10th Earl Rothes and Hannah Cole Countess Rothes.

PAINTINGS/HUDSON/Edward_Noel_1st_Viscount_Wentworth.pngBefore 31 Oct 1774 Thomas Hudson (age 73). Portrait of Edward Noel 1st Viscount Wentworth (age 59).

Edward Noel 1st Viscount Wentworth: On 30 Aug 1715 he was born to Clobery Noel 5th Baronet (age 20). On 30 Jul 1733 Clobery Noel 5th Baronet (age 38) died. His son Edward Noel 1st Viscount Wentworth (age 17) succeeded 6th Baronet Noel. In 1745 Martha Lovelace 8th Baroness Wentworth (age 78) died. Her first cousin twice removed Edward Noel 1st Viscount Wentworth (age 29) succeeded 9th Baron Wentworth 1C 1529. On 31 Oct 1774 Edward Noel 1st Viscount Wentworth (age 59) died. His son Thomas Noel 2nd Viscount Wentworth (age 28) succeeded 2nd Viscount Wentworth 2C 1762, 10th Baron Wentworth 1C 1529, 7th Baronet Noel.


On 31 Oct 1778 Thomas Cochrane 8th Earl of Dundonald (age 87) died. His son Archibald Cochrane 9th Earl of Dundonald (age 30) succeeded 9th Earl Dundonald.


On 31 Oct 1785 Frederick Hesse-Kassel (age 65) died. His son William Elector of Hesse (age 42) succeeded IX Landgrave Hesse Kassel. Electress Wilhelmina Caroline Oldenburg (age 38) by marriage Landgravine Hesse Kassel.

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On 31 Oct 1826 Eleanor Henrietta Robinson (age 11) died. She has a monument at All Saints' Church, Nocton [Map] sculpted by Richard Westmacott (age 51).

Eleanor Henrietta Robinson: On 22 May 1815 she was born to Frederick John Robinson 1st Earl Ripon (age 32) and Sarah Albinia Louisa Hobart (age 22).

On 31 Oct 1860 Thomas Cochrane 10th Earl Dundonald (age 84) died.

On 31 Oct 1864 Archibishop Cosmo Gordon Lang was born.

On 31 Oct 1885 James Hamilton 1st Duke Abercorn (age 74) died. His son James Hamilton 2nd Duke Abercorn (age 47) succeeded 2nd Duke Abercorn, 2nd Marquess Hamilton.

Siege of Mafeking

On 31 Oct 1899 Douglas Henry Marsham (age 28) was killed.

On 31 Oct 1899 Hedworth Joliffe 2nd Baron Hylton (age 70) died.

On 31 Oct 1900 Edward Bligh 7th Earl Darnley (age 49) died. His brother Ivo Bligh 8th Earl Darnley (age 41) succeeded 8th Earl Darnley 3C 1725. Florence Bligh Countess of Darnley (age 40) by marriage Countess Darnley. His daughter Elizabeth Bligh 17th Baroness Clifton succeeded 17th Baroness Clifton of Leighton Bromswold in Huntingdonshire.

On 31 Oct 1908 Captain Heneage Michael Charles Finch 9th Earl of Aylesford was born to Heneage Greville Finch (age 25) and Gladys Cecil Georgina Fellowes.

On 31 Oct 1919 George Hugh Boscawen 9th Viscount Falmouth was born to Evelyn Hugh Boscawen 8th Viscount Falmouth (age 32) and Mary Margaret Desiree Meynell Viscountess Falmouth (age 25).

On 31 Oct 1953 Charles John Wilson 3rd Baron Nunburnholme (age 49) and Alex Hockley Baroness Nunburnholme were married. She by marriage Baroness Nunburnholme.

On 31 Oct 1995 Henry Percy 11th Duke of Northumberland (age 42) died from an overdose of amphetamines. He was unmarried . His brother Ralph Percy 12th Duke of Northumberland (age 38) succeeded 12th Duke Northumberland 3C 1766, 9th Earl Beverley, 11th Baron Percy 4C 1722, 15th Baronet Smithson of Stanwick in Yorkshire.