1620-1639 Charles I Accedes

1620-1639 Charles I Accedes is in 17th Century Events.

Mayflower lands at Plymouth Rock

On 11 Dec 1620 the Maylower landed at Plymouth Rock Massachusetts and went on to found Plymouth Colony. The first documented reference to the landing at Plyouth Rock was in 1741.

1621 Creation of Peerages

On 29 Jun 1621 ...

Edward Montagu 1st Baron Montagu (age 58) was created 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton in Northamptonshire.

Thomas Palmer 1st Baronet (age 81) was created 1st Baronet Palmer of Wingham in Kent. Margaret Poley Lady Palmer (age 79) by marriage Lady Palmer of Wingham in Kent.

Vere's Expedition to the Electorate of the Palatinate

In 1622 William Waller (age 25) was knighted during the Vere's Expedition to the Electorate of the Palatinate.

Spanish Match

1614. The "Spanish Match" was the proposed marriage between Prince Charles (age 13), the son of King James I of Great Britain (age 47), and Infanta Maria Anna of Spain (age 7), the daughter of Philip III of Spain (age 35). Negotiations took place over the period 1614 to 1623, and during this time became closely related to aspects of British foreign and religious policy, before breaking down completely.

Evelyn's Diary. 1624. I was not initiated into any rudiments until near four years of age, and then one Frier taught us at the church-porch of Wotton, Surrey [Map]; and I do perfectly remember the great talk and stir about Il Conde Gondomar (age 96), now Ambassador from Spain (for near about this time was the match of our Prince (age 23) with the Infanta (age 17) proposed); and the effects of that comet, 1618, still working in the prodigious revolutions now beginning in Europe, especially in Germany, whose sad commotions sprang from the Bohemians' defection from the Emperor Matthias; upon which quarrel the Swedes broke in, giving umbrage to the rest of the princes, and the whole Christian world cause to deplore it, as never since enjoying perfect tranquillity.

Charles I's Trip to Spain

Autobiography Simon D'Ewes. 17 Feb 1623. There happened on Monday, the 17th day of the month, so strange an accident as after ages will scarce believe it. For Charles Prince of Wales (age 22) began his journey from London into Spain on Monday, the 17th day of February, with the beloved Marquis of Buckingham (age 30), Sir Francis Cottington (age 44), and Mr. Endimion Porter (age 36), only in his campaign; who only, besides the King himself, were the alone men aquainted with the Prince's resolution. Their going was so secretly carried as none, I believe, knew of it in England till they were landed in France, through which kingdom they passed by posthorse into Spain.1 The journey was thought so dangerous, being above 1100 English miles by land, besides the crossing of the seas between Dover and Calais, as all men were generally ensaddened at the ad- venture, often wishing it had been better advised upon; although they knew the Spaniards durst do the Prince no harm, so long as his royal sister and her illustrious oflspring survived. Soon after followed the Lord Hays (age 43), Earl of Carlisle, and passed into France to excuse to that King the Prince's sudden and secret passing through his kingdom without giving him a visit. All men now took it for granted, that the Prince's marriage with the Infanta Maria, the King of Spain's sister, was concluded on, and that he went over only to consummate it; no man imagining that he would take up such a resolution upon uncertainties, especially occasioning so vast and unnecessary expense at a time when the King's wants pressed him much. But God, whose decree binds princes as well as peasants, had otherwise disposed, so as our royal suitor, arriving at Madrid in Spain on Friday the 7th (or 17th) of March, about three weeks later his departure from London, and taking ship for his return to England on the 18th (or 28th) of September, then next ensuing, stayed in Spain about seven months; in all which time he seldom saw or spoke with the Spanish Princess, nor could ever receive a fair or sincere denial from her brother, although her marriage had been absolutely disposed of by her father's last will and testament; he bequeathing her to Ferdinand, son and heir of Ferdinand the Second, Emperor of Germany, who afterwards did accordingly espouse her.

Note 1. "And now behold a, strange adventure and enterprise! The Prince and the Marquis of Buckingham, accompanied with Cottington and Endimion Porter, post in disgiuse to Spain to accelerate the marriage. The 17th of February they went privately from Court, and the next day came to Dover, where they embarked for Boulogne, and from thence rode post to Paris, where they made some atop. The Prince, shadowed under a bushy peruque, beheld the splendour of that court, and had a full view of the Princess Henrietta Maria (age 13), who was afterwards his royal consort. For, besides the great privacy of the journey, they had so laid the English ports, that none should follow or give the least advertisement, until they had got the start of intelligencers, and passed the bounds of France. Howbeit they escaped narrowly, and a swift intelligence sent to the King of Spain from Don Carlos Coloma was even at their heels before they arrived at Madrid. The Prince and Buckingham being in the territories of Spain, to make but little noise, rode post before their company. The 7th of March they arrived at Madrid, the royal residence, and were conveyed with much secrecy into the Earl of Bristol's (age 43) house-Rushworth, i. p. 76. A fuller account of this extraordinary adventure will be found elsewhere.

On 07 Mar 1623 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 22), accompanied by George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 30), Endymion Porter (age 36) and Richard Wynn 2nd Baronet (age 35), arrived in Madrid, incognito, in an attempt to bring to a conclusion his betrothal to Maria Anna of Spain Holy Roman Empress (age 16), much to the surprise of her brother Philip IV King Spain (age 17) and the English ambassador John Digby 1st Earl Bristol (age 43). The negotiations ultimately failed.

Happy Parliament

On 30 Dec 1623 the fourth Parliament of James I (age 57) known as the Happy Parliament was summoned.

On 19 Feb 1624 the Happy Parliament held its first session.

Roland Egerton 1st Baronet (age 29) was elected MP Wootton Bassett.

Arthur Lake (age 25) was elected MP Minehead.

James Wriothesley (age 18) was elected MP Winchester.

Richard Edgecumbe (age 53) was elected MP Grampound.

On 03 Feb 1624 Henry Mildmay (age 31) was elected MP Westbury.

Death of James I

Useless Parliament

In 1625 Henry Mildmay (age 32) was elected MP Maldon during the Useless Parliament.

In 1625 Hugh Portman 4th Baronet (age 19) was elected MP Taunton in the Useless Parliament.

On 02 Apr 1625 the first Parliament of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 24) known as the Useless Parliament sat.

1625 Plague

Evelyn's Diary. 1625. I was this year (being the first of the reign of King Charles (age 24)) sent by my father (age 38) to Lewes [Map], in Sussex, to be with my grandfather, Standsfield (age 58), with whom I passed my childhood. This was the year in which the pestilence was so epidemical, that there died in London 5,000 a week, and I well remember the strict watches and examinations upon the ways as we passed; and I was shortly after so dangerously sick of a fever that (as I have heard) the physicians despaired of me.

In 1625 a plague killed around 40,000 Londoners.

Proxy Marriage of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France

Charles I and Henrietta Maria's First Meeting

1625 Cádiz Expedition

The Cádiz expedition of 1625 was a naval expedition against Spain by English and Dutch forces led by George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 33).

The expedition left Plymouth, Devon [Map] on 06 Oct 1625.

In Nov 1625 the fleet attempted, unsuccessfully, to capture Cádiz.

In Dec 1625 the English returned home having achieved nothing other than spending £250,000, losing 62 out of 105 ships and 7000 English troops.

John Felton (age 30) served.

English Coronation of Charles I

On 02 Feb 1626 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 25) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map]. His wife Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 16) was not crowned since she being Catholic refused to attend an Anglican service. She watched Charles at a discreet distance.

Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 52) carried the Orb.

Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 3) bore the Second Sword of State.

Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 41) carried the Spurs.

Francis Manners 6th Earl of Rutland (age 48) bore the Rod with the Dove.

William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire (age 8), James Stanley 7th Earl of Derby (age 19), James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 6), Roger Palmer (age 49) and Mildmay Fane 2nd Earl of Westmoreland (age 24), John Maynard (age 34) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

John Rayney 1st Baronet (age 25) was knighted.

1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré

On 12 Jul 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 34) led an English force of 100 ships and 6,000 soldiers to capture the city of Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré.

In Aug 1627 more troops, including the newly promoted Lieutenant John Felton (age 32), arrived.

On 03 Sep 1627 two thousand Irish troops arrived under Ralph Bingley (age 57)

On 27 Oct 1627 a final assault was attempted; it failed because the attackers' siege ladders were shorter than the walls of the fortress.

In Nov 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) retreasted and returned to England having lost thousands of his men.

Battle of the Pont du Feneau

On 08 Nov 1627 Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport (age 30) was captured at the Battle of the Pont du Feneau in Pont du Feneau, Île de Ré. He was released soon after.

On 08 Nov 1627 Ralph Bingley (age 57) was killed in action at the Battle of the Pont du Feneau.

Murder of the Duke of Buckingham

On 23 Aug 1628 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) was murdered at Greyhound Pub, Portsmouth by a disgruntled soldier John Felton (age 33). He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map]. His son George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 2nd Marquess of Buckingham, 2nd Earl Buckingham.

Felton was considered a hero by many who blamed Buckingham for the failures of the 1625 Cádiz Expedition and 1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. Felton was subsequently hanged.

1630 Knight of the Garter Appointments

Baptism of future Charles II

On 27 Jun 1630 the future Charles II was baptised by Archbishop William Laud (age 56) at Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. Louis XIII King France (age 28) and Marie de Medici Queen Consort France (age 55) were godparents.

Robert Kerr 1st Earl Ancram (age 52) was created 1st Earl Ancram.

Siege of Maastricht

On 07 Aug 1632 Robert de Vere 19th Earl of Oxford (age 56) was killed at the Siege of Maastricht. His son Aubrey de Vere 20th Earl of Oxford (age 5) succeeded 20th Earl of Oxford.

1633 Knight of the Garter Appointments