Comets is in Astronomical Events.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 678. This year appeared the comet-star in August, and shone every morning, during three months, like a sunbeam. Bishop Wilfrid being driven from his bishopric by King Everth (age 33), two bishops were consecrated in his stead, Bosa over the Deirians, and Eata over the Bernicians. About the same time also Eadhed was consecrated bishop over the people of Lindsey, being the first in that division.
Bede. 678. In the year of our Lord's incarnation 678, which is the eighth of the reign of Egfrid (age 33), in the month of August, appeared a star, called a comet, which continued for three months, rising in the morning, and darting out, as it were, a pillar of radiant flame. The same year a dissension broke out between King Egfrid (age 33) and the most reverend prelate, Wilfrid, who was driven from his see, and two bishops substituted in his stead, to preside over the nation of the Northumbrians, namely, Bosa, to preside over the nation of the Deiri; and Eata over that of the Bernicians; the latter having his see in the city of York [Map], the former in the church of Hagulstad [Map], or else Lindisfarne [Map]; both of them promoted to the episcopal dignity from a society of monks. With them also was Edhed ordained bishop in the province of Lindsey, which King Egfrid (age 33) had but newly subdued, having overcome and vanquished Wulfhere; and this was the first bishop of its own which tliat province had; the second was Ethelwin; the third Eadgar; the fourth Cynebert, who is there at present. Before Edhed, Sexwulf was bishop as well of that province, as of the Mercians and Midland Angles; so that when expelled from Lindsey, he continued in the government of those provinces. Edhed, Bosa, and Eata, were ordained at York [Map] by Archbishop Theodore (age 76); who also, three years after the departure of Wilfrid, added two bishops to their number; Trumbert, in the church of Hagulstad [Map], Eata still continuing in that of Lindisfarne; and Trumwine in the province of the Picts, which at that time was subject to the English. Edhed returning from Lindsey, because Ethelred had recovered that province, was placed by him over the church of Ripon.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 729. This year appeared the comet-star, and St. Egbert (age 90) died in Iona. This year also died the etheling Oswald; and Osric was slain, who was eleven winters king of Northumberland; to which kingdom Ceolwulf succeeded, and held it eight years. The said Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Leodwald, Leodwald of Egwald, Egwald of Ealdhelm, Ealdhelm of Occa, Occa of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. Archbishop Bertwald died this year on the ides of January. He was bishop thirty-seven winters, and six months, and fourteen days. The same year Tatwine (age 59), who was before a priest at Bredon in Mercia, was consecrated archbishop by Daniel Bishop of Winchester, Ingwald Bishop of London, Aldwin Bishop of Lichfield, and Aldulf Bishop of Rochester, on the tenth day of June. He enjoyed the archbishopric about three years.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 891. This year went the army eastward; and King Arnulf fought with the land-force, ere the ships arrived, in conjunction with the eastern Franks, and Saxons, and Bavarians, and put them to flight. And three Scots came to King Alfred (age 42) in a boat without any oars from Ireland; whence they stole away, because they would live in a state of pilgrimage, for the love of God, they recked not where. The boat in which they came was made of two hides and a half; and they took with them provisions for seven nights; and within seven nights they came to land in Cornwall, and soon after went to King Alfred. They were thus named: Dubslane, and Macbeth, and Maelinmun. And Swinney, the best teacher that was among the Scots, departed this life. And the same year after Easter, about the gang-days or before, appeared the star that men in book-Latin call "cometa": some men say that in English it may be termed "hairy star"; for that there standeth off from it a long gleam of light, whilom on one side, whilom on each.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 905. This year Ethelwald enticed the army in East-Anglia to rebellion; so that they overran all the land of Mercia, until they came to Cricklade [Map], where they forded the Thames; and having seized, either in Bradon or thereabout, all that they could lay their hands upon, they went homeward again. King Edward (age 31) went after, as soon as he could gather his army, and overran all their land between the foss and the Ouse quite to the fens northward. Then being desirous of returning thence, he issued an order through the whole army, that they should all go out at once. But the Kentish men remained behind, contrary to his order, though he had sent seven messengers to them. Whereupon the army surrounded them, and there they fought. There fell Aldermen Siwulf and Sigelm; Eadwold, the king's thane; Abbot Kenwulf; Sigebriht, the son of Siwulf; Eadwald, the son of Acca; and many also with them; though I have named the most considerable. On the Danish side were slain Eohric their king, and Prince Ethelwald, who had enticed them to the war. Byrtsige, the son of Prince Brihtnoth; Governor Ysop; Governor Oskytel; and very many also with them that we now cannot name. And there was on either hand much slaughter made; but of the Danes there were more slain, though they remained masters of the field. Ealswitha died this same year; and a comet appeared on the thirteenth day before the calends of November.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 975. Here ended his earthly dreams Edgar, of Angles king (age 32); chose him other light, serene and lovely, spurning this frail abode, a life that mortals here call lean he quitted with disdain. July the month, by all agreed in this our land, whoever were in chronic lore correctly taught; the day the eighth, when Edgar young, rewarder of heroes, his life-his throne-resigned. Edward (age 13) his son, unwaxen child, of earls the prince, succeeded then to England's throne. Of royal race ten nights before departed hence Cyneward the good- prelate of manners mild. Well known to me in Mercia then, how low on earth God's glory fell on every side: chaced from the land, his servants fled,- their wisdom scorned; much grief to him whose bosom glow'd with fervent love of great Creation's Lord! Neglected then the God of wonders, victor of victors, monarch of heaven,- his laws by man transgressed! Then too was driv'n Oslac beloved an exile far from his native land over the rolling waves,- over the ganet-bath, over the water-throng, the abode of the whale,- fair-hair'd hero, wise and eloquent, of home bereft! Then too was seen, high in the heavens, the star on his station, that far and wide wise men call- lovers of truth and heav'nly lore- "cometa" by name. Widely was spread God's vengeance then throughout the land, and famine scour'd the hills. May heaven's guardian, the glory of angels, avert these ills, and give us bliss again; that bliss to all abundance yields from earth's choice fruits, throughout this happy isle.45
Note 45. The following passage from Cotton Tiberius B iv., relating to the accession of Edward the Martyr (age 13), should be added here- In his days, On account of his youth, The opponents of God Broke through God's laws; Alfhere alderman, And others many; And marr'd monastic rules; Minsters they razed, And monks drove away, And put God's laws to flight-Laws that King Edgar (age 32) Commanded the holy Saint Ethelwold (age 71) bishop Firmly to settle-Widows they stript Oft and at random. Many breaches of right And many bad laws Have arisen since; And after-times Prove only worse. Then too was Oslac The mighty earl Hunted from England's shores.
John of Worcester. 24 Apr 1066. The same year a comet was seen on the eighth of the calends of May [24th April], not only in England, but, as it is reported, all over the world: it shone with excessive brilliance for seven days. Soon afterwards earl Tosti (age 40) returned from Flanders, and landed in the Isle of Wight [Map]; and, having compelled the islanders to give him pay and tribute, he departed, and plundered along the sea-coast, until he arrived at Sandwich [Map]. King Harold (age 44), who was then at London, having been informed of this, ordered a considerable fleet and a body of horse to be got ready, and prepared to go in person to the port of Sandwich [Map]. On receiving this intelligence, Tosti (age 40) took some of the boatmen of the place, willing or unwilling, into his service, and, departing thence, shaped his course for Lindsey [Map], where he burnt several vills and slew a number of men. Thereupon Edwin, earl of Mercia, and Morcar, earl of Northumbria, flew to the spot with some troops, and drove him out of that neighbourhood; and, on his departure, he repaired to Malcolm (age 35), king of the Scots, and remained with him during the whole summer. Meanwhile king Harold (age 44) arrived at the port of Sandwich [Map], and waited there for his fleet. When it was assembled, he sailed to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and as William (age 38), earl of Normandy, king Edward's cousin, was preparing an army for the invasion of England, he kept watch all the summer and autumn, to prevent his landing; besides which, he stationed a land army at suitable points along the sea-coast; but provisions failing towards the time of the feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September], both the fleet and army were disbanded.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1106. In the first week of Lent, on the Friday, which was the fourteenth before the calends of March, in the evening appeared an unusual star; and a long time afterwards was seen every evening shining awhile. The star appeared in the south-west; it was thought little and dark; but the train of light which stood from it was very bright, and appeared like an immense beam shining north-east; and some evening this beam was seen as if it were moving itself forwards against the star. Some said that they saw more of such unusual stars at this time; but we do not write more fully about it, because we saw it not ourselves.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. May 1114. This year, in the latter end of May, was seen an uncommon star with a long train, shining many nights. In this year also was so great an ebb of the tide everywhere in one day, as no man remembered before; so that men went riding and walking over the Thames eastward of London bridge. This year were very violent winds in the month of October; but it was immoderately rough in the night of the octave of St. Martin; and that was everywhere manifest both in town and country.
Note. The blasyng star. This is recorded by Stowe to have appeared on the 4th March, and continued for twelve days (Summarie 1566); but in his chronicle 1580 he limits its continuance to five nights from the 6th to the 10th of March.
Note. P. 101. The blazing star which is noticed in this page, and of which Stowe's account has been quoted in p. 348, was calculated by Halley to have been the same comet which had before appeared in the year 1264, and which, having completed its presumed revolution of two hundred and ninety-two years, may be expected to appear again in the present year, 1848. The learned Fabricius described the comet of 1556 as of a size equal to half that of the moon. Its beams were short and flickering, with a motion like that of the flame of a conflagration or of a torch waved by the wind. It alarmed the Emperor Charles the Fifth, who, believing his death at hand, is said to have exclaimed "His ergo indiciis me mea fata vocant." This warning, it is asserted, contributed to the determination which the monarch formed, and executed a few months later, of resigning the imperial crown to his brother Ferdinand.
Diary of Anne Clifford Chapter VI The Early Days of Anne. Later on, the Court seems to have gone to Basingstoke, and Lady Cumberland (age 43) and her daughter (age 13) and Lady Bath went to reside at Sir Francis Palme's (age 49) house, Launce Levell, but they often went to Basingstoke to see the Queen (age 28) and Lady Arabella (age 28), who was then with her. On one occasion the Queen (age 28) went from Basingstoke to dine with Sir Henry Wallop (age 34)18, where Lady Anne, her mother and her aunt had been two or three nights before, and they helped to entertain the royal party. As they rode home from Lady Wallop's to Launce Levell, quite late in the evening, she records the fact that she saw "a strange comet in the night like a cannopie in the aire," and that it was observed all over England. At that time Lady Bedford (age 23) was beginning to lose favour with the royal party. "Now was my Lady Ritch (age 40) growen great with the Queene," she says, "in so much as my Lady of Bedford was somethinge out with hir, and when she came to Hampton Court was entertayned but even indifferentlie and yet continued to be of the bedchamber."
Note 18. Son of Queen Elizabeth's Treasurer.
Between 06 Sep 1618 and 25 Sep 1618 a comet was visible to the naked eye.
Culture, General Things, Natural Events, Astronomical Events, Comets, Halley's Comet
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. This year came King Harold (age 44) from York to Westminster, on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward) died. Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of May. Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever saw before. Some men said that it was the comet-star, which others denominate the long-hair'd star. It appeared first on the eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the calends off May; and so shone all the week. Soon after this came in Earl Tosty (age 40) from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight [Map], with as large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with money and provisions. Thence he proceeded, and committed outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until he came to Sandwich [Map]. When it was told King Harold (age 44), who was in London, that his brother Tosty (age 40) was come to Sandwich [Map], he gathered so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from Normandy (age 38), King Edward's (age 63) cousin, would come hither and gain this land; just as it afterwards happened. When Tosty (age 40) understood that King Harold (age 44) was on the way to Sandwich [Map], he departed thence, and took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered in Lindsey [Map], and there slew many good men. When the Earls Edwin and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from the land. And the boatmen forsook him. Then he went to Scotland with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him, and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer. There met him Harold, King of Norway (age 51), with three hundred ships. And Tosty (age 40) submitted to him, and became his man.87 Then came King Harold (age 44)88 to Sandwich [Map], where he awaited his fleet; for it was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he went into the Isle of Wight [Map], and there lay all the summer and the autumn. There was also a land-force every where by the sea, though it availed nought in the end. It was now the nativity of St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man could keep them there any longer. They therefore had leave to go home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London; but many perished ere they came thither.
Note 87. These facts, though stated in one MS. only, prove the early cooperation of Tosty with the King of Norway. It is remarkable that this statement is confirmed by Snorre, who says that Tosty was with Harald, the King of Norway, in all these expeditions. Vid "Antiq. Celto-Scand." p. 204.
Note 88. i.e. Harold, King of England; "our" king, as we find him. Afterwards called in B iv., to distinguish him from Harald, King of Norway.
Calendars. Oct. 14. Sanuto Diaries, v. lvii. p. 243. 816. Carlo Capello to the Signory.
On Friday the 7th instant the King left Greenwich and crossed to Calais. It is said he goes to terminate the divorce, and espouse Marchioness Anne; but one of the doctors who wrote in favour of his Majesty, declares that he will take for wife the daughter of the most Christian King, and give the Marchioness in marriage in France, so as to unite himself with the Pope and satisfy the Emperor; and for this purpose the Bishop of Langres, who had been to the Emperor, came hither. A week ago King Henry sent another ambassador in haste to his Majesty (King Francis?).
The Papal ambassador tells me this interview is not about the divorce, and still less for the marriage of the Marchioness; they will not assume the Pope's office (non si vorano far si stessi Pontifici) but will negotiate matters of extreme importance. He (the Papal ambassador) said, "The Signory would do well to have a secret agent with them, to bear in mind the League of Cambrai." I replied thanking him, but said that the Signory merely employed ambassadors.
A few days ago, on the northern coast of this island, the sea stranded a dead fish of marvellous size, 90 feet long. Sends a letter addressed to Dom. Polydore Vergil "de quì" [in London], together with the engraved likeness of this fish.1
Three weeks since there appeared here a comet, which is still visible, two hours before daybreak, to the eastward, its tail extending towards the south, five yards in length; well nigh in the form of a luminous silver beard. (De qui già xx. giorni, di quì è aparso una Cometa, ch'ancor a pare do hove inanzi giorno in le parte di Oriente, e stende la coda sua, verso mezo dì, di longeza, di hraza 5, in forma qvasi di una lunga barba, e d'arzento splendulo)
On the morrow of the King's departure from Greenwich, the people here declare that the tide flowed for nine hours, the water having nearly reached Greenwich Chapel; a thing never hitherto seen or heard of. The English consider these things prodigies.
Nothing more is known about the affairs of Scotland. King Henry is mustering considerable forces for the Scottish borders, and here every night diligent guard is kept.
The plague increases daily, and makes everybody uneasy.
London, 14th October. Registered by Sanuto 22nd November.
Note 1. "In 1526, Polydore Vergil published a treatise de Prodigiis (8vo., Lond.), consisting of Dialogues and Attacks upon Divination. This work was reprinted at Basle by Bebelius, in 1531, and again by Hingrim in 1545." See pp. xiii. xiv., Sir Henry Ellis's Preface to "Three Books of Polydore Vergil's English History," printed for the Camden Society, 1844.
Note 2. In date 5 August 1531, the ambassador Falier mentioned the appearance in London of Halley's comet; and of the comet of 1532, a Venetian dictionary of dates, contains the following notice: "From the 23rd September to the 20th November, with a long tail towards the south." (Cronologia del P. Coronelli, p. 509; ed. Venice 1707 )