Biography of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1680 Siege of Tangier

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Monmouth's Landing at Lyme Regis

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

On 29 May 1630 [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to [his grandfather] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and [his grandmother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. [his father] He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. <BR><p class="inline-paragraph">1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">In 1611 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 in his Garter Robes and Leg Garter.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

On 09 Apr 1649 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 was born illegitimately to [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18) and [his mother] Lucy Walter Mistress 1630-1658 (19) at Rotterdam.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 August 1649. 18 Aug 1649. I went to St. Germains, to kiss his [his father] Majesty's (19) hand; in the coach, which was my Lord Wilmot's (36), went [his mother] Mrs. Barlow (19), the King's mistress and mother to the Duke of Monmouth, a brown, beautiful, bold, but insipid creature.

On 30 Dec 1656 [his future brother-in-law] Alexander Leslie 2nd Earl Leven 1637-1664 (19) and Margaret Howard Countess Leven 1635-1664 (21) were married.

In 1658 William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (47) was created 1st Baron Crofts of Saxham and probably as a consequence of having been given charge of Charle's illegitimate son James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (8) whose mother [his mother] Lucy Walter Mistress 1630-1658 (28) had died.

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683 and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

In 1658 [his mother] Lucy Walter Mistress 1630-1658 (28) died.

On 11 Mar 1661 Mary Scott 3rd Countess Buccleuch 1647-1661 (13) died. Her sister [his future wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (10) succeeded 4th Earl Buccleuch.

On 04 Apr 1661 Alexander Leslie 1st Earl Leven 1580-1661 (81) died. His grandson [his future brother-in-law] Alexander Leslie 2nd Earl Leven 1637-1664 (23) succeeded 2nd Earl Leven. Margaret Howard Countess Leven 1635-1664 (26) by marriage Countess Leven.

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

On 21 May 1662 [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and [his step-mother] Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth. He a son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. [his step-mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 September 1662. 07 Sep 1662. Lord's Day. Up betimes and round about by the streets to my office, and walked in the garden and in my office till my man Will rose, and then sent to tell Sir J. Minnes (63) that I would go with him to Whitehall, which anon we did, in his coach, and to the Chapell, where I heard a good sermon of the Dean of Ely's, upon returning to the old ways, and a most excellent anthem, with symphonys between, sung by Captain Cooke (46). Then home with Mr. Fox (35) and his lady; and there dined with them, where much company come to them. Most of our discourse was what ministers are flung out that will not conform: and the care of the Bishop of London (64) that we are here supplied with very good men.
Thence to my Lord's, where nobody at home but a woman that let me in, and Sarah above, whither I went up to her and played and talked with her...
After I had talked an hour or two with her I went and gave Mr. Hunt a short visit, he being at home alone, and thence walked homewards, and meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he took me into Somersett House; and there carried me into the [his grandmother] Queen-Mother's (52) presence-chamber, where she was with our own [his step-mother] Queen (23) sitting on her left hand (whom I did never see before); and though she be not very charming, yet she hath a good, modest, and innocent look, which is pleasing. Here I also saw Madam Castlemaine (21), and, which pleased me most, Mr. Crofts (13), the [his father] King's (32) bastard, a most pretty spark of about 15 years old, who, I perceive, do hang much upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and is always with her; and, I hear, the [his step-mother] Queens (23) both of them are mighty kind to him1.
By and by in comes the [his father] King (32), and anon the Duke and his Duchess; so that, they being all together, was such a sight as I never could almost have happened to see with so much ease and leisure. They staid till it was dark, and then went away; the [his father] King (32) and his [his step-mother] Queen (23), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) and young Crofts, in one coach and the rest in other, coaches. Here were great store of great ladies, but very few handsome. The [his father] King (32) and [his step-mother] Queen (23) were very merry; and he would have made the [his grandmother] Queen-Mother (52) believe that his [his step-mother] Queen (23) was with child, and said that she said so. And the young [his step-mother] Queen (23) answered, "You lye;" which was the first English word that I ever heard her say which made the [his father] King (32) good sport; and he would have taught her to say in English, "Confess and be hanged".
The company being gone I walked home with great content as I can be in for seeing the greatest rarity, and yet a little troubled that I should see them before my wife's coming home, I having made a promise that I would not, nor did I do it industriously and by design, but by chance only.
To my office, to fit myself for waiting on the Duke to-morrow morning with the rest of our company, and so to my lodgings and to bed.
Note 1. James (13), the son of [his father] Charles II (32) by [his mother] Lucy Walter (32), daughter of William Walter, of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke. He was born April 9th, 1649, and landed in England with the [his grandmother] Queen-Mother (52), July 28th, 1662, when he bore the name of Crofts, after Lord Crofts (51), his governor. He was created Duke of Monmouth, February 14th, 1663, and married [his future wife] Lady Anne Scott (11), daughter and heiress of Francis, second Earl of Buccleuch (35), on April 20th following. In 1673 he took the name of Scott, and was created Duke of Buccleuch.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 October 1662. 27 Oct 1662. Up, and after giving order to the plasterer now to set upon the finishing of my house, then by water to wait upon the Duke, and walking in the matted Gallery, by and by comes Mr. Coventry (34) and Sir John Minnes (63), and then to the Duke, and after he was ready, to his closet, where I did give him my usual account of matters, and afterwards, upon Sir J. Minnes' (63) desire to have one to assist him in his employment, Sir W. Pen (41) is appointed to be his, and Mr. Pett (52) to be the Surveyor's assistant. Mr. Coventry (34) did desire to be excused, and so I hope (at least it is my present opinion) to have none joined with me, but only Mr. Coventry (34) do desire that I would find work for one of his clerks, which I did not deny, but however I will think of it, whether without prejudice to mine I can do it.
Thence to my Lord Sandwich (37), who now-a-days calls me into his chamber, and alone did discourse with me about the jealousy that the Court have of people's rising; wherein he do much dislike my Lord Monk's (53) being so eager against a company of poor wretches, dragging them up and down the street; but would have him rather to take some of the greatest ringleaders of them, and punish them; whereas this do but tell the world the King's fears and doubts.
For Dunkirk; he wonders any wise people should be so troubled thereat, and scorns all their talk against it, for that he says it was not Dunkirk, but the other places, that did and would annoy us, though we had that, as much as if we had it not. He also took notice of the new Ministers of State, Sir H. Bennet (44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (32), their bringing in, and the high game that my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) plays at Court (which I took occasion to mention as that that the people do take great notice of), all which he confessed.
Afterwards he told me of poor Mr. Spong, that being with other people examined before the [his father] King (32) and Council (they being laid up as suspected persons; and it seems Spong is so far thought guilty as that they intend to pitch upon him to put to the wracke or some other torture), he do take knowledge of my Lord Sandwich (37), and said that he was well known to Mr. Pepys. But my Lord knows, and I told him, that it was only in matter of musique and pipes, but that I thought him to be a very innocent fellow; and indeed I am very sorry for him. !After my Lord and I had done in private, we went out, and with Captain Cuttance and Bunn did look over their draught of a bridge for Tangier, which will be brought by my desire to our office by them to-morrow.
Thence to Westminster Hall, and there walked long with Mr. Creed, and then to the great half-a-crown ordinary, at the King's Head, near Charing Cross, where we had a most excellent neat dinner and very high company, and in a noble manner.
After dinner he and I into another room over a pot of ale and talked. He showed me our commission, wherein the [his uncle] Duke of York (29), Prince Rupert (42), Duke of Albemarle (53), Lord Peterborough (40), Lord Sandwich (37), Sir G. Carteret (52), Sir William Compton (37), Mr. Coventry (34), Sir R. Ford (48), Sir William Rider, Mr. Cholmley, Mr. Povy (48), myself, and Captain Cuttance, in this order are joyned for the carrying on the service of Tangier, which I take for a great honour to me.
He told me what great faction there is at Court; and above all, what is whispered, that young Crofts (13) is lawful son to the [his father] King (32), the [his father] King (32) being married to his [his mother] mother (32)1. How true this is, God knows; but I believe the [his uncle] Duke of York (29) will not be fooled in this of three crowns.
Thence to White Hall, and walked long in the galleries till (as they are commanded to all strange persons), one come to tell us, we not being known, and being observed to walk there four or five hours (which was not true, unless they count my walking there in the morning), he was commanded to ask who we were; which being told, he excused his question, and was satisfied.
These things speak great fear and jealousys. Here we staid some time, thinking to stay out the play before the [his father] King (32) to-night, but it being "The Villaine", and my wife not being there, I had no mind.
So walk to the Exchange, and there took many turns with him; among other things, observing one very pretty Exchange lass, with her face full of black patches, which was a strange sight. So bid him good-night and away by coach to Mr. Moore, with whom I staid an hour, and found him pretty well and intends to go abroad tomorrow, and so it raining hard by coach home, and having visited both Sir Williams, who are both sick, but like to be well again, I to my office, and there did some business, and so home and to bed.
At Sir W. Batten's (61) I met with Mr. Mills, who tells me that he could get nothing out of the maid hard by (that did poyson herself) before she died, but that she did it because she did not like herself, nor had not liked herself, nor anything she did a great while. It seems she was well-favoured enough, but crooked, and this was all she could be got to say, which is very strange.
Note 1. There has been much confusion as to the name and parentage of Charles's mistress. [his mother] Lucy Walter (32) was the daughter of William Walter of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke, and Mr. S. Steinman, in his "Althorp Memoirs" (privately printed, 1869), sets out her pedigree, which is a good one. Roch Castle was taken and burnt by the Parliamentary forces in 1644, and Lucy was in London in 1648, where she made the acquaintance of Colonel Algernon Sidney (39). She then fell into the possession of his brother, Colonel Robert Sidney1. In September of this same year she was taken up by Charles, Prince of Wales. Charles terminated his connection with her on October 30th, 1651, and she died in 1658, as appears by a document (administration entry in the Register of the Prerogative Court) met with by the late Colonel Chester. William Erskine, who had served Charles as cupbearer in his wanderings, and was appointed Master of the Charterhouse in December, 1677, had the care of Lucy Walter, and buried her in Paris. He declared that the [his father] King (32) never had any intention of marrying her, and she did not deserve it. Thomas Ross, the tutor of her son, put the idea of this claim into his head, and asked Dr. Cosin to certify to a marriage. In consequence of this he was removed from his office, and Lord Crofts (51) took his place (Steinman's "Althorp Memoirs"). Lucy Walter took the name of Barlow during her wanderings.
Note 1. TT. Not clear who Colonel Robert Sidney is since Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (39) didn't have a brother called Robert. Algernon's brothers were Philip Sidney 3rd Earl of Leicester 1619-1698 (43) and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (21).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 November 1662. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change, and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt, and we had excellent places, and saw the [his father] King (32), [his step-mother] Queen (23), Duke of Monmouth (13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things.
So to bed.

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1593 Great Plague

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 December 1662. 24 Dec 1662. Lay pleasantly, talking to my wife, till 8 o'clock, then up and to Sir W. Batten's (61) to see him and Sir G. Carteret (52) and Sir J. Minnes (63) take coach towards the Pay at Chatham, which they did and I home, and took money in my pocket to pay many reckonings to-day in the town, as my bookseller's, and paid at another shop £4 10s. for "Stephens's Thesaurus Graecae Linguae", given to Paul's School.
So to my brother's and shoemaker, and so to my Lord Crew's, and dined alone with him, and after dinner much discourse about matters. Upon the whole, I understand there are great factions at Court, and something he said that did imply a difference like to be between the [his father] King (32) and the [his uncle] Duke (29), in case the [his step-mother] Queen (24) should not be with child. I understand, about this bastard (13)1. He says, also, that some great man will be aimed at when Parliament comes to sit again; I understand, the Chancellor (53) and that there is a bill will be brought in, that none that have been in arms for the Parliament shall be capable of office. And that the Court are weary of my Lord Albemarle (54) and Chamberlin (60). He wishes that my Lord Sandwich (37) had some good occasion to be abroad this summer which is coming on, and that my Lord Hinchingbroke (14) were well married, and Sydney (12) had some place at Court. He pities the poor ministers that are put out, to whom, he says, the [his father] King (32) is beholden for his coming in, and that if any such thing had been foreseen he had never come in.
After this, and much other discourse of the sea, and breeding young gentlemen to the sea, I went away, and homeward, met Mr. Creed at my bookseller's in Paul's Church-yard, who takes it ill my letter last night to Mr. Povy (48), wherein I accuse him of the neglect of the Tangier boats, in which I must confess I did not do altogether like a friend; but however it was truth, and I must own it to be so, though I fall wholly out with him for it.
Thence home and to my office alone to do business, and read over half of Mr. Bland's discourse concerning Trade, which (he being no scholler and so knows not the rules of writing orderly) is very good.
So home to supper and to bed, my wife not being well....
This evening Mr. Gauden sent me, against Christmas, a great chine of beef and three dozen of tongues. I did give 5s. to the man that brought it, and half-a-crown to the porters. This day also the parish-clerk brought the general bill of mortality, which cost me half-a-crown more2.
Note 1. James Crofts (13), son of Charles II by Lucy Walter, created Duke of Monmouth (13) in 1663, Duke of Buccleuch in 1673, when he took the name of Scott.
Note 2. The Bills of Mortality for London were first compiled by order of Thomas Cromwell about 1538, and the keeping of them was commenced by the Company of Parish Clerks in the great plague year of 1593. The bills were issued weekly from 1603. The charter of the Parish Clerks' Company (1611) directs that "each parish clerk shall bring to the Clerks' Hall weekly a note of all christenings and burials". Charles I in 1636 granted permission to the Parish Clerks to have a printing press and employ a printer in their hall for the purpose of printing their weekly bills.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 December 1662. 29 Dec 1662. Up and walked to Whitehall, where the Duke and Mr. Coventry (34) being gone forth I went to Westminster Hall, where I staid reading at Mrs. Mitchell's shop, and sent for half a pint of sack for her. Here she told me what I heard not of before, the strange burning of Mr. De Laun, a merchant's house in Loathbury, and his lady (Sir Thomas Allen's (29) daughter) and her whole family; not one thing, dog nor cat, escaping; nor any of the neighbours almost hearing of it till the house was quite down and burnt. How this should come to pass, God knows, but a most strange thing it is!
Hither came Jack Spicer to me, and I took him to the Swan, where Mr. Herbert did give me my breakfast of cold chine of pork; and here Spicer and I talked of Exchequer matters, and how the Lord Treasurer (55) hath now ordered all monies to be brought into the Exchequer, and hath settled the King's revenue, and given to every general expence proper assignments; to the Navy £200,000 and odd. He also told me of the great vast trade of the goldsmiths in supplying the [his father] King (32) with money at dear rates.
Thence to White Hall, and got up to the top gallerys in the Banquetting House, to see the audience of the Russia Embassadors (17); which [took place] after long waiting and fear of the falling of the gallery (it being so full, and part of it being parted from the rest, for nobody to come up merely from the weakness thereof): and very handsome it was. After they were come in, I went down and got through the croude almost as high as the [his father] King (32) and the Embassadors, where I saw all the presents, being rich furs, hawks, carpets, cloths of tissue, and sea-horse teeth. The [his father] King (32) took two or three hawks upon his fist, having a glove on, wrought with gold, given him for the purpose. The son of one of the Embassadors was in the richest suit for pearl and tissue, that ever I did see, or shall, I believe.
After they and all the company had kissed the King's hand, then the three Embassadors and the son, and no more, did kiss the [his step-mother] Queen's (24). One thing more I did observe, that the chief Embassador did carry up his master's letters in state before him on high; and as soon as he had delivered them, he did fall down to the ground and lay there a great while.
After all was done, the company broke up; and I spent a little while walking up and down the gallery seeing the ladies, the Queens, and the Duke of Monmouth (13) with his little mistress, which is very little, and like my brother-in-law's wife.
So with Mr. Creed to the Harp and Ball, and there meeting with Mr. How, Goodgroom, and young Coleman, did drink and talk with them, and I have almost found out a young gentlewoman for my turn, to wait on my wife, of good family and that can sing.
Thence I went away, and getting a coach went home and sat late talking with my wife about our entertaining Dr. Clerke's lady and Mrs. Pierce shortly, being in great pain that my wife hath never a winter gown, being almost ashamed of it, that she should be seen in a taffeta one; when all the world wears moyre; [By moyre is meant mohair.-B.] so to prayers and to bed, but we could not come to any resolution what to do therein, other than to appear as she is.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 December 1662. 30 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, whither Sir W. Pen (41) came, the first time that he has come downstairs since his late great sickness of the gout. We with Mr. Coventry (34) sat till noon, then I to the Change ward, to see what play was there, but I liked none of them, and so homeward, and calling in at Mr. Rawlinson's, where he stopped me to dine with him and two East India officers of ships and Hovell our turner. With the officers I had good discourse, particularly of the people at the Cape of Good Hope, of whom they of their own knowledge do tell me these one or two things: viz .... that they never sleep lying, but always sitting upon the ground, that their speech is not so articulate as ours, but yet [they] understand one another well, that they paint themselves all over with the grease the Dutch sell them (who have a fort there) and soot.
After dinner drinking five or six glasses of wine, which liberty I now take till I begin my oath again, I went home and took my wife into coach, and carried her to Westminster; there visited Mrs. Ferrer, and staid talking with her a good while, there being a little, proud, ugly, talking lady there, that was much crying up the [his step-mother] Queen-Mother's (24) Court at Somerset House above our own [his step-mother] Queen's (24); there being before no allowance of laughing and the mirth that is at the other's; and indeed it is observed that the greatest Court now-a-days is there.
Thence to White Hall, where I carried my wife to see the [his grandmother] Queen (53) in her presence-chamber; and the maydes of honour and the young Duke of Monmouth (13) playing at cards. Some of them, and but a few, were very pretty; though all well dressed in velvet gowns.
Thence to my Lord's lodgings, where Mrs. Sarah did make us my Lord's bed, and Mr. Creed I being sent for, sat playing at cards till it was late, and so good night, and with great pleasure to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 December 1662. 31 Dec 1662. Lay pretty long in bed, and then I up and to Westminster Hall, and so to the Swan, sending for Mr. W. Bowyer, and there drank my morning draft, and had some of his simple discourse. Among other things he tells me how the difference comes between his fair cozen Butler and Collonell Dillon (35), upon his opening letters of her brother's from Ireland, complaining of his knavery, and forging others to the contrary; and so they are long ago quite broke off.
Thence to a barber's and so to my wife, and at noon took her to Mrs. Pierces by invitacion to dinner, where there came Dr. Clerke and his wife and sister and Mr. Knight, chief chyrurgeon to the [his father] King (32) and his wife. We were pretty merry, the two men being excellent company, but I confess I am wedded from the opinion either of Mrs. Pierces beauty upon discovery of her naked neck to-day, being undrest when we came in, or of Mrs. Clerke's genius, which I so much admired, I finding her to be so conceited and fantastique in her dress this day and carriage, though the truth is, witty enough.
After dinner with much ado the doctor and I got away to follow our business for a while, he to his patients and I to the Tangier Committee, where the [his uncle] Duke of York (29) was, and we staid at it a good while, and thence in order to the despatch of the boats and provisions for Tangier away, Mr. Povy (48), in his coach, carried Mr. Gauden and I into London to Mr. Bland's, the merchant, where we staid discoursing upon the reason of the delay of the going away of these things a great while. Then to eat a dish of anchovies, and drink wine and syder, and very merry, but above all things pleased to hear Mrs. Bland talk like a merchant in her husband's business very well, and it seems she do understand it and perform a great deal.
Thence merry back, Mr. Povy (48) and, I to White Hall; he carrying me thither on purpose to carry me into the ball this night before the [his father] King (32). All the way he talking very ingenuously, and I find him a fine gentleman, and one that loves to live nobly and neatly, as I perceive by his discourse of his house, pictures, and horses. He brought me first to the Duke's chamber, where I saw him and the Duchess at supper; and thence into the room where the ball was to be, crammed with fine ladies, the greatest of the Court.
By and by comes the [his father] King (32) and [his step-mother] Queen (24), the Duke and Duchess, and all the great ones: and after seating themselves, the [his father] King (32) takes out the Duchess of York (25); and the Duke, the Duchess of Buckingham; the Duke of Monmouth (13), my Baroness Castlemaine's (22); and so other lords other ladies: and they danced the Bransle1.
After that, the [his father] King (32) led a lady a single Coranto [swift and lively] and then the rest of the lords, one after another, other ladies very noble it was, and great pleasure to see. Then to country dances; the [his father] King (32) leading the first, which he called for; which was, says he, "Cuckolds all awry", the old dance of England. Of the ladies that danced, the Duke of Monmouth's (13) mistress, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), and a daughter of Sir Harry de Vicke's, were the best. The manner was, when the [his father] King (32) dances, all the ladies in the room, and the [his step-mother] Queen (24) herself, stand up: and indeed he dances rarely, and much better that the [his uncle] Duke of York (29). Having staid here as long as I thought fit, to my infinite content, it being the greatest pleasure I could wish now to see at Court, I went out, leaving them dancing, and to Mrs. Pierce's, where I found the company had staid very long for my coming, but all gone but my wife, and so I took her home by coach and so to my Lord's again, where after some supper to bed, very weary and in a little pain from my riding a little uneasily to-night in the coach.

Thus ends this year with great mirth to me and my wife: Our condition being thus:—we are at present spending a night or two at my Lord's lodgings at White Hall. Our home at the Navy-office, which is and hath a pretty while been in good condition, finished and made very convenient. My purse is worth about £650, besides my goods of all sorts, which yet might have been more but for my late layings out upon my house and public assessment, and yet would not have been so much if I had not lived a very orderly life all this year by virtue of the oaths that God put into my heart to take against wine, plays, and other expenses, and to observe for these last twelve months, and which I am now going to renew, I under God owing my present content thereunto. My family is myself and wife, William, my clerk; Jane, my wife's upper mayde, but, I think, growing proud and negligent upon it: we must part, which troubles me; Susan, our cook-mayde, a pretty willing wench, but no good cook; and Wayneman, my boy, who I am now turning away for his naughty tricks. We have had from the beginning our healths to this day very well, blessed be God! Our late mayde Sarah going from us (though put away by us) to live with Sir W. Pen (41) do trouble me, though I love the wench, so that we do make ourselves a little strange to him and his family for it, and resolve to do so. The same we are for other reasons to my Lady Batten and hers. We have lately had it in our thoughts, and I can hardly bring myself off of it, since Mrs. Gosnell cannot be with us, to find out another to be in the quality of a woman to my wife that can sing or dance, and yet finding it hard to save anything at the year's end as I now live, I think I shall not be such a fool till I am more warm in my purse, besides my oath of entering into no such expenses till I am worth £1000. By my last year's diligence in my office, blessed be God! I am come to a good degree of knowledge therein; and am acknowledged so by all—the world, even the Duke himself, to whom I have a good access and by that, and my being Commissioner with him for Tangier, he takes much notice of me; and I doubt not but, by the continuance of the same endeavours, I shall in a little time come to be a man much taken notice of in the world, specially being come to so great an esteem with Mr. Coventry (34). The only weight that lies heavy upon my mind is the ending the business with my uncle Thomas about my-dead uncle's estate, which is very ill on our side, and I fear when all is done I must be forced to maintain my father myself, or spare a good deal towards it out of my own purse, which will be a very great pull back to me in my fortune. But I must be contented and bring it to an issue one way or other. Publique matters stand thus: the [his father] King (32) is bringing, as is said, his family, and Navy, and all other his charges, to a less expence. In the mean time, himself following his pleasures more than with good advice he would do; at least, to be seen to all the world to do so. His dalliance with my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) being publique, every day, to his great reproach; and his favouring of none at Court so much as those that are the confidants of his pleasure, as Sir H. Bennet (44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (32); which, good God! put it into his heart to mend, before he makes himself too much contemned by his people for it! The Duke of Monmouth (13) is in so great splendour at Court, and so dandled by the [his father] King (32), that some doubt, if the [his father] King (32) should have no child by the [his step-mother] Queen (24) (which there is yet no appearance of), whether he would not be acknowledged for a lawful son; and that there will be a difference follow upon it between the [his uncle] Duke of York (29) and him; which God prevent! My Chancellor (53) is threatened by people to be questioned, the next sitting of the Parliament, by some spirits that do not love to see him so great: but certainly he is a good servant to the [his father] King (32). The [his grandmother] Queen-Mother (53) is said to keep too great a Court now; and her being married to my Lord St. Albans (57) is commonly talked of; and that they had a daughter between them in France, how true, God knows. The Bishopps are high, and go on without any diffidence in pressing uniformity; and the Presbyters seem silent in it, and either conform or lay down, though without doubt they expect a turn, and would be glad these endeavours of the other Fanatiques would take effect; there having been a plot lately found, for which four have been publickly tried at the Old Bayley and hanged. My Lord Sandwich (37) is still in good esteem, and now keeping his Christmas in the country; and I in good esteem, I think, as any man can be, with him. Mr. Moore is very sickly, and I doubt will hardly get over his late fit of sickness, that still hangs on him. In fine, for the good condition of myself, wife, family, and estate, in the great degree that it is, and for the public state of the nation, so quiett as it is, the Lord God be praised!
Note 1. Branle. Espece de danse de plusieurs personnes, qui se tiennent par la main, et qui se menent tour-a-tour. "Dictionnaire de l'Academie. A country dance mentioned by Shakespeare and other dramatists under the form of brawl, which word continued to be used in the eighteenth century. "My grave Lord Keeper led the brawls; The seals and maces danced before him". Gray, 'A Long Story.'

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 February 1663. 08 Feb 1663. Lord's Day. Up, and it being a very great frost, I walked to White Hall, and to my Lord Sandwich's (37) by the fireside till chapel time, and so to chappell, where there preached little Dr. Duport, of Cambridge, upon Josiah's words,—"But I and my house, we will serve the Lord". But though a great scholler, he made the most flat dead sermon, both for matter and manner of delivery, that ever I heard, and very long beyond his hour, which made it worse.
Thence with Mr. Creed to the King's Head ordinary, where we dined well, and after dinner Sir Thomas Willis and another stranger, and Creed and I, fell a-talking; they of the errours and corruption of the Navy, and great expence thereof, not knowing who I was, which at last I did undertake to confute, and disabuse them: and they took it very well, and I hope it was to good purpose, they being Parliament-men.
By and by to my Lord's, and with him a good while talking upon his want of money, and ways of his borrowing some, &c., and then by other visitants, I withdrew and away, Creed and I and Captn. Ferrers to the Park, and there walked finely, seeing people slide [ice-skating], we talking all the while; and Captn. Ferrers telling me, among other Court passages, how about a month ago, at a ball at Court, a child was dropped by one of the ladies in dancing, but nobody knew who, it being taken up by somebody in their handkercher. The next morning all the Ladies of Honour appeared early at Court for their vindication, so that nobody could tell whose this mischance should be. But it seems Mrs. Wells (21)1 fell sick that afternoon, and hath disappeared ever since, so that it is concluded that it was her.
Another story was how my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), a few days since, had Mrs. Stuart (15) to an entertainment, and at night began a frolique that they two must be married, and married they were, with ring and all other ceremonies of church service, and ribbands and a sack-posset in bed, and flinging the stocking; but in the close, it is said that my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), who was the bridegroom, rose, and the [his father] King (32) came and took her place with pretty Mrs. Stuart (15). This is said to be very true.
Another story was how Captain Ferrers and W. Howe both have often, through my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) window, seen her go to bed and Sir Charles Barkeley (33) in the chamber all the while with her. But the other day Captn. Ferrers going to Sir Charles to excuse his not being so timely at his arms the other day, Sir Charles swearing and cursing told him before a great many other gentlemen that he would not suffer any man of the King's Guards to be absent from his lodging a night without leave. Not but that, says he, once a week or so I know a gentleman must go..., and I am not for denying it to any man, but however he shall be bound to ask leave to lie abroad, and to give account of his absence, that we may know what guard the [his father] King (32) has to depend upon. The little Duke of Monmouth (13), it seems, is ordered to take place of all Dukes, and so to follow Prince Rupert (43) now, before the Duke of Buckingham (35), or any else.
Whether the wind and the cold did cause it or no I know not, but having been this day or two mightily troubled with an itching all over my body' which I took to be a louse or two that might bite me, I found this afternoon that all my body is inflamed, and my face in a sad redness and swelling and pimpled, so that I was before we had done walking not only sick but ashamed of myself to see myself so changed in my countenance, so that after we had thus talked we parted and I walked home with much ado (Captn. Ferrers with me as far as Ludgate Hill towards Mr. Moore at the Wardrobe), the ways being so full of ice and water by peoples' trampling.
At last got home and to bed presently, and had a very bad night of it, in great pain in my stomach, and in great fever.
Note 1. Winifred Wells (21), maid of honour to the [his step-mother] Queen (24), who figures in the "Grammont Memoirs". the [his father] King (32) is supposed to have been father of the child. A similar adventure is told of Mary Kirke (17) (afterwards married to Sir Thomas Vernon), who figures in the "Grammont Memoirs" as Miss Warmestre.

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On 14 Feb 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (13) was created 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Earl Doncaster, 1st Baron Scott of Tynedale by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32).

On 28 Mar 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (13) was appointed 467th Knight of the Garter by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32).

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 April 1663. 08 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, and by and by, about 8 o'clock, to the Temple to Commissioner Pett (52) lately come to town and discoursed about the affairs of our office, how ill they go through the corruption and folly of Sir W. Batten (62) and Sir J. Minnes (64).
Thence by water to White Hall, to chappell; where preached Dr Pierce (41), the famous man that preached the sermon so much cried up, before the [his father] King (32) against the Papists. His matter was the Devil tempting our Saviour, being carried into the Wilderness by the spirit. And he hath as much of natural eloquence as most men that ever I heard in my life, mixed with so much learning.
After sermon I went up and saw the ceremony of the Bishop of Peterborough's (72) paying homage upon the knee to the [his father] King (32), while Sir H. Bennet (45), Secretary, read the King's grant of the Bishopric of Lincoln, to which he is translated. His name is Dr. Lany (72).
Here I also saw the Duke of Monmouth (13), with his Order of the Garter, the first time I ever saw it. I am told that the University of Cambridge did treat him a little while since with all the honour possible, with a comedy at Trinity College, and banquet; and made him Master of Arts there. All which, they say, the [his father] King (32) took very well. Dr. Raynbow, Master of Magdalen, being now Vice-Chancellor.
Home by water to dinner, and with my father, wife, and Ashwell, after dinner, by water towards Woolwich, and in our way I bethought myself that we had left our poor little dog that followed us out of doors at the waterside, and God knows whether he be not lost, which did not only strike my wife into a great passion but I must confess myself also; more than was becoming me. We immediately returned, I taking another boat and with my father went to Woolwich, while they went back to find the dog. I took my father on board the King's pleasure boat and down to Woolwich, and walked to Greenwich thence and turning into the park to show my father the steps up the hill, we found my wife, her woman, and dog attending us, which made us all merry again, and so took boats, they to Deptford and so by land to Half-way house, I into the King's yard and overlook them there, and eat and drank with them, and saw a company of seamen play drolly at our pence, and so home by water. I a little at the office, and so home to supper and to bed, after having Ashwell play my father and me a lesson upon her Tryangle.

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On 20 Apr 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (14) was created 1st Duke Buccleuch, 1st Earl Dalkeith, 1st Baron Scott of Whitchester and Eskdale. [his wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (12) by marriage Duchess Buccleuch.

On 20 Apr 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (14) and [his wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (12) were married. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. [his wife] She by marriage Duchess Monmouth.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1663. 20 Apr 1663. Up betimes as I use to do, and in my chamber begun to look over my father's accounts, which he brought out of the country with him by my desire, whereby I may see what he has received and spent, and I find that he is not anything extravagant, and yet it do so far outdo his estate that he must either think of lessening his charge, or I must be forced to spare money out of my purse to help him through, which I would willing do as far as £20 goes.
So to my office the remaining part of the morning till towards noon, and then to Mr. Grant's (42). There saw his prints, which he shewed me, and indeed are the best collection of any things almost that ever I saw, there being the prints of most of the greatest houses, churches, and antiquitys in Italy and France and brave cutts. I had not time to look them over as I ought, and which I will take time hereafter to do, and therefore left them and home to dinner.
After dinner, it raining very hard, by coach to Whitehall, where, after Sir G. Carteret (53), Sir J. Minnes (64), Mr. Coventry (35) and I had been with the Duke, we to the Committee of Tangier and did matters there dispatching wholly my Lord Teviott, and so broke up.
With Sir G. Carteret (53) and Sir John Minnes (64) by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (56), thinking to have spoken about getting money for paying the Yards; but we found him with some ladies at cards: and so, it being a bad time to speak, we parted, and Sir J. Minnes (64) and I home, and after walking with my wife in the garden late, to supper and to bed, being somewhat troubled at Ashwell's desiring and insisting over eagerly upon her going to a ball to meet some of her old companions at a dancing school here in town next Friday, but I am resolved she shall not go.
So to bed. This day the little Duke of Monmouth (14) was married at White Hall, in the King's chamber; and tonight is a great supper and dancing at his lodgings, near Charing-Cross. I observed his coat at the tail of his coach he gives the arms of England, Scotland, and France, quartered upon some other fields, but what it is that speaks his being a bastard I know not.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 April 1663. 23 Apr 1663. St. George's day and Coronacion, the [his father] King (32) and Court being at Windsor, at the installing of the King of Denmark (17)1 by proxy and the Duke of Monmouth (14).
I up betimes, and with my father, having a fire made in my wife's new closet above, it being a wet and cold day, we sat there all the morning looking over his country accounts ever since his going into the country. I find his spending hitherto has been (without extraordinary charges) at full £100 per annum, which troubles me, and I did let him apprehend it, so as that the poor man wept, though he did make it well appear to me that he could not have saved a farthing of it. I did tell him how things stand with us, and did shew my distrust of Pall, both for her good nature and housewifery, which he was sorry for, telling me that indeed she carries herself very well and carefully, which I am glad to hear, though I doubt it was but his doting and not being able to find her miscarriages so well nowadays as he could heretofore have done. We resolve upon sending for Will Stankes up to town to give us a right understanding in all that we have in Brampton, and before my father goes to settle every thing so as to resolve how to find a living for my father and to pay debts and legacies, and also to understand truly how Tom's condition is in the world, that we may know what we are like to expect of his doing ill or well.
So to dinner, and after dinner to the office, where some of us met and did a little business, and so to Sir W. Batten's (62) to see a little picture drawing of his by a Dutchman which is very well done.
So to my office and put a few things in order, and so home to spend the evening with my father. At cards till late, and being at supper, my boy being sent for some mustard to a neat's tongue, the rogue staid half an hour in the streets, it seems at a bonfire, at which I was very angry, and resolve to beat him to-morrow.
Note 1. TT. Christian V King Denmark and Norway 1646-1699 (17) didn't become King until 1670.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 April 1663. 27 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, where doing business alone a good while till people came about business to me. Will Griffin tells me this morning that Captain Browne, Sir W. Batten's (62) brother-in-law, is dead of a blow given him two days ago by a seaman, a servant of his, being drunk, with a stone striking him on the forehead, for which I am sorry, he having a good woman and several small children. At the office all the morning, at noon dined at home with my wife, merry, and after dinner by water to White Hall; but found the [his uncle] Duke of York (29) gone to St. James's for this summer; and thence with Mr. Coventry (35), to whose chamber I went, and Sir W. Pen (42) up to the Duke's closett. And a good while with him about our Navy business; and so I to White Hall, and there alone a while with my Lord Sandwich (37) discoursing about his debt to the Navy, wherein he hath given me some things to resolve him in.
Thence to my Lord's lodging, and thither came Creed to me, and he and I walked a great while in the garden, and thence to an alehouse in the market place to drink fine Lambeth ale, and so to Westminster Hall, and after walking there a great while, home by coach, where I found Mary gone from my wife, she being too high for her, though a very good servant, and my boy too will be going in a few days, for he is not for my family, he is grown so out of order and not to be ruled, and do himself, against his brother's counsel, desire to be gone, which I am sorry for, because I love the boy and would be glad to bring him to good.
At home with my wife and Ashwell talking of her going into the country this year, wherein we had like to have fallen out, she thinking that I have a design to have her go, which I have not, and to let her stay here I perceive will not be convenient, for she expects more pleasure than I can give her here, and I fear I have done very ill in letting her begin to learn to dance. The [his step-mother] Queen (24) (which I did not know) it seems was at Windsor, at the late St. George's feast there; and the Duke of Monmouth (14) dancing with her with his hat in his hand, the [his father] King (32) came in and kissed him, and made him put on his hat, which every body took notice of.
After being a while at my office home to supper and to bed, my Will being come home again after being at his father's all the last week taking physique.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 May 1663. 04 May 1663. Up betimes and to setting my Brampton papers in order and looking over my wardrobe against summer, and laying things in order to send to my brother to alter.
By and by took boat intending to have gone down to Woolwich, but seeing I could not get back time enough to dinner, I returned and home. Whither by and by the dancing-master came, whom standing by, seeing him instructing my wife, when he had done with her, he would needs have me try the steps of a coranto, and what with his desire and my wife's importunity, I did begin, and then was obliged to give him entry-money 10s., and am become his scholler. The truth is, I think it a thing very useful for a gentleman, and sometimes I may have occasion of using it, and though it cost me what I am heartily sorry it should, besides that I must by my oath give half as much more to the poor, yet I am resolved to get it up some other way, and then it will not be above a month or two in a year. So though it be against my stomach yet I will try it a little while; if I see it comes to any great inconvenience or charge I will fling it off. After I had begun with the steps of half a coranto, which I think I shall learn well enough, he went away, and we to dinner, and by and by out by coach, and set my wife down at my Lord Crew's, going to see my Lady Jem. Montagu, who is lately come to town, and I to St. James's; where Mr. Coventry (35), Sir W. Pen (42) and I staid a good while for the Duke's coming in, but not coming, we walked to White Hall; and meeting the [his father] King (32), we followed him into the Park, where Mr. Coventry (35) and he talked of building a new yacht, which the [his father] King (32) is resolved to have built out of his privy purse, he having some contrivance of his own.
The talk being done, we fell off to White Hall, leaving the [his father] King (32) in the Park, and going back, met the Duke going towards St. James's to meet us. So he turned back again, and to his closett at White Hall; and there, my Lord Sandwich (37) present, we did our weekly errand, and so broke up; and I down into the garden with my Lord Sandwich (37) (after we had sat an hour at the Tangier Committee); and after talking largely of his own businesses, we begun to talk how matters are at Court: and though he did not flatly tell me any such thing, yet I do suspect that all is not kind between the [his father] King (32) and the [his uncle] Duke (29), and that the King's fondness to the little Duke (14) do occasion it; and it may be that there is some fear of his being made heir to the Crown. But this my Lord did not tell me, but is my guess only; and that my Chancellor (54) is without doubt falling past hopes.
He being gone to Chelsey by coach I to his lodgings, where my wife staid for me, and she from thence to see Mrs. Pierce and called me at Whitehall stairs (where I went before by land to know whether there was any play at Court to-night) and there being none she and I to Mr. Creed to the Exchange, where she bought something, and from thence by water to White Fryars, and wife to see Mrs. Turner (40), and then came to me at my brother's, where I did give him order about my summer clothes, and so home by coach, and after supper to bed to my wife, with whom I have not lain since I used to lie with my father till to-night.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 May 1663. 14 May 1663. Up betimes and put up some things to send to Brampton.
Then abroad to the Temple, and up and down about business, and met Mr. Moore; and with him to an alehouse in Holborn; where in discourse he told me that he fears the [his father] King (32) will be tempted to endeavour the setting the Crown upon the little Duke (14), which may cause troubles; which God forbid, unless it be his due! He told me my Lord do begin to settle to business again, which I am glad of, for he must not sit out, now he has done his own business by getting his estate settled, and that the [his father] King (32) did send for him the other day to my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), to play at cards, where he lost £50; for which I am sorry, though he says my Lord was pleased at it, and said he would be glad at any time to lose £50 for the [his father] King (32) to send for him to play, which I do not so well like.
Thence home, and after dinner to the office, where we sat till night, and then made up my papers and letters by the post, and so home to dance with Pembleton. This day we received a baskett from my sister Pall, made by her of paper, which hath a great deal of labour in it for country innocent work.
After supper to bed, and going to bed received a letter from Mr. Coventry (35) desiring my coming to him to-morrow morning, which troubled me to think what the business should be, fearing it must be some bad news in Tom Hater's business.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 May 1663. 15 May 1663. Up betimes and walked to St. James's, where Mr. Coventry (35) being in bed I walked in the Park, discoursing with the keeper of the Pell Mell, who was sweeping of it; who told me of what the earth is mixed that do floor the Mall, and that over all there is cockle-shells powdered, and spread to keep it fast; which, however, in dry weather, turns to dust and deads the ball.
Thence to Mr. Coventry (35); and sitting by his bedside, he did tell me that he sent for me to discourse upon my Lord Sandwich's (37) allowances for his several pays, and what his thoughts are concerning his demands; which he could not take the freedom to do face to face, it being not so proper as by me: and did give me a most friendly and ingenuous account of all; telling me how unsafe, at this juncture, while every man's, and his actions particularly, are descanted upon, it is either for him to put the Duke upon doing, or my Lord himself to desire anything extraordinary, 'specially the [his father] King (32) having been so bountifull already; which the world takes notice of even to some repinings. All which he did desire me to discourse with my Lord of; which I have undertook to do. We talked also of our office in general, with which he told me that he was now-a-days nothing so satisfied as he was wont to be. I confess I told him things are ordered in that way that we must of necessity break in a little time a pieces.
After done with him about these things, he told me that for Mr. Hater the Duke's word was in short that he found he had a good servant, an Anabaptist, and unless he did carry himself more to the scandal of the office, he would bear with his opinion till he heard further, which do please me very much.
Thence walked to Westminster, and there up and down in the Hall and the Parliament House all the morning; at noon by coach to my Lord Crew's, hearing that Lord Sandwich (37) did dine there; where I told him what had passed between Mr. Coventry (35) and myself; with which he was contented, though I could perceive not very well pleased. And I do believe that my Lord do find some other things go against his mind in the House; for in the motion made the other day in the House by my Lord Bruce, that none be capable of employment but such as have been loyal and constant to the [his father] King (32) and Church, the General [Monk] and my Lord were mentioned to be excepted; and my Lord Bruce did come since to my Lord, to clear himself that he meant nothing to his prejudice, nor could it have any such effect if he did mean it. After discourse with my Lord; to dinner with him; there dining there my Lord Montagu of Boughton, Mr. William Montagu (45) his brother, the Queen's Sollicitor, &c., and a fine dinner. Their talk about a ridiculous falling-out two days ago at my Lord of Oxford's (36) house, at an entertainment of his, there being there my Lord of Albemarle (54), Lynsey (55), two of the Porters, my Lord Bellasses (48), and others, where there were high words and some blows, and pulling off of perriwiggs; till my Lord Monk (54) took away some of their swords, and sent for some soldiers to guard the house till the fray was ended. To such a degree of madness the nobility of this age is come!
After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the [his father] King (32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (50), Duke of Buckingham (35), Sir H. Bennet (45), my Lord Ashley (41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the [his father] King (32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (41), by my Lord Bristol's (50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (64) keeps as great with the [his father] King (32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the [his father] King (32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the [his uncle] Duke of York (29) suffer it, whose lady (26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.
But it is wonderful that Sir Charles Barkeley (33) should be so great still, not [only] with the [his father] King (32), but Duke also; who did so stiffly swear that he had lain with her3. And another one Armour that he rode before her on horseback in Holland I think.... No care is observed to be taken of the main chance, either for maintaining of trade or opposing of factions, which, God knows, are ready to break out, if any of them (which God forbid!) should dare to begin; the [his father] King (32) and every man about him minding so much their pleasures or profits.
My Lord Hinchingbrooke (15), I am told, hath had a mischance to kill his boy by his birding-piece going off as he was a-fowling. The gun was charged with small shot, and hit the boy in the face and about the temples, and he lived four days.
In Scotland, it seems, for all the newes-books tell us every week that they are all so quiett, and everything in the Church settled, the old woman had like to have killed, the other day, the Bishop of Galloway, and not half the Churches of the whole kingdom conform.
Strange were the effects of the late thunder and lightning about a week since at Northampton, coming with great rain, which caused extraordinary floods in a few hours, bearing away bridges, drowning horses, men, and cattle. Two men passing over a bridge on horseback, the arches before and behind them were borne away, and that left which they were upon: but, however, one of the horses fell over, and was drowned. Stacks of faggots carried as high as a steeple, and other dreadful things; which Sir Thomas Crew (39) showed me letters to him about from Mr. Freemantle and others, that it is very true.
The Portugalls have choused us4, it seems, in the Island of Bombay, in the East Indys; for after a great charge of our fleets being sent thither with full commission from the [his father] King (32) of Portugall to receive it, the Governour by some pretence or other will not deliver it to Sir Abraham Shipman, sent from the [his father] King (32), nor to my Lord of Marlborough (45); which the [his father] King (32) takes highly ill, and I fear our [his step-mother] Queen (24) will fare the worse for it. The Dutch decay there exceedingly, it being believed that their people will revolt from them there, and they forced to give over their trade. This is talked of among us, but how true I understand not. Sir Thomas showed me his picture and Sir Anthony Vandike's (64), in crayon in little, done exceedingly well.
Having thus freely talked with him, and of many more things, I took leave, and by coach to St. James's, and there told Mr. Coventry (35) what I had done with my Lord with great satisfaction, and so well pleased home, where I found it almost night, and my wife and the dancing-master alone above, not dancing but talking. Now so deadly full of jealousy I am that my heart and head did so cast about and fret that I could not do any business possibly, but went out to my office, and anon late home again and ready to chide at every thing, and then suddenly to bed and could hardly sleep, yet durst not say any thing, but was forced to say that I had bad news from the Duke concerning Tom Hater as an excuse to my wife, who by my folly has too much opportunity given her with the man, who is a pretty neat black man, but married. But it is a deadly folly and plague that I bring upon myself to be so jealous and by giving myself such an occasion more than my wife desired of giving her another month's dancing. Which however shall be ended as soon as I can possibly. But I am ashamed to think what a course I did take by lying to see whether my wife did wear drawers to-day as she used to do, and other things to raise my suspicion of her, but I found no true cause of doing it.
Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).
Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the [his father] King (32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, [his step-mother] Queen (24) Catherine, then living"..
Note 3. The conspiracy of Sir Charles Berkeley (33), Monsieur Blanfort aka Lord Arran, Jermyn, Talbot, and Killigrew to traduce Anne Hyde (26) was peculiarly disgraceful, and the conduct of all the actors in the affair of the marriage, from Lord Clarendon downwards, was far from creditable (see Lister's "Life of Clarendon", ii. 68-79).
Note 4. The word chouse appears to have been introduced into the language at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In 1609, a Chiaus sent by Sir Robert Shirley, from Constantinople to London, had chiaused (or choused) the Turkish and Persian merchants out of £4,000, before the arrival of his employer, and had decamped. The affair was quite recent in 1610, when Jonson's "Alchemist" appeared, in which it is alluded to.

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Treaty of Newport

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1663. 09 Nov 1663. Up and found myself very well, and so by coach to White Hall and there met all my fellow officers, and so to the [his uncle] Duke (30), where, when we came into his closett, he told us that Mr. Pepys was so altered with his new perriwigg that he did not know him.
So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's (48) coming home, he being come to Portsmouth; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the [his father] King (33), wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The [his father] King (33) is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain.
Thence to Westminster Hall, where I met with Mr. Pierce, chyrurgeon; and among other things he asked me seriously whether I knew anything of my Lord's being out of favour with the [his father] King (33); and told me, that for certain the [his father] King (33) do take mighty notice of my Lord's living obscurely in a corner not like himself, and becoming the honour that he is come to. I was sorry to hear, and the truth is, from my Lord's discourse among his people (which I am told) of the uncertainty of princes' favours, and his melancholy keeping from Court, I am doubtful of some such thing; but I seemed wholly strange to him in it, but will make my use of it. He told me also how loose the Court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust and gain; and how the [his father] King (33) is now become besotted upon Mrs. Stewart (16), that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an houre together kissing her to the observation of all the world; and she now stays by herself and expects it, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) did use to do; to whom the [his father] King (33), he says, is still kind, so as now and then he goes to have a chat with her as he believes; but with no such fondness as he used to do. But yet it is thought that this new wench is so subtle, that she lets him not do any thing than is safe to her, but yet his doting is so great that, Pierce tells me, it is verily thought if the [his grandmother] Queene (53) had died, he would have married her.
The Duke of Monmouth (14) is to have part of the Cockpitt new built for lodgings for him, and they say to be made Captain of the Guards in the room of my Lord Gerard (45). Having thus talked with him, there comes into the Hall Creed and Ned Pickering (45), and after a turne or two with them, it being noon, I walked with them two to the King's Head ordinary, and there we dined; little discourse but what was common, only that the [his uncle] Duke of Yorke (30) is a very, desperate huntsman, but I was ashamed of Pickering, who could not forbear having up my Lord Sandwich (38) now and then in the most paltry matters abominable.
Thence I took leave of them, and so having taken up something at my wife's tailor's, I home by coach and there to my office, whither Shales came and I had much discourse with him about the business of the victualling, and thence in the evening to the Coffee-house, and there sat till by and by, by appointment Will brought me word that his uncle Blackburne was ready to speak with me. So I went down to him, and he and I to a taverne hard by, and there I begun to speak to Will friendlily, advising him how to carry himself now he is going from under my roof, without any reflections upon the occasion from whence his removal arose. This his uncle seconded, and after laying down to him his duty to me, and what I expect of him, in a discourse of about a quarter of an houre or more, we agreed upon his going this week, towards the latter (end) of the week, and so dismissed him, and Mr. Blackburne and I fell to talk of many things, wherein I did speak so freely to him in many things agreeing with his sense that he was very open to me: first, in that of religion, he makes it great matter of prudence for the [his father] King (33) and Council to suffer liberty of conscience; and imputes the losse of Hungary to the Turke from the Emperor's denying them this liberty of their religion. He says that many pious ministers of the word of God, some thousands of them, do now beg their bread: and told me how highly the present clergy carry themselves every where, so as that they are hated and laughed at by everybody; among other things, for their excommunications, which they send upon the least occasions almost that can be. And I am convinced in my judgement, not only from his discourse, but my thoughts in general, that the present clergy will never heartily go down with the generality of the commons of England; they have been so used to liberty and freedom, and they are so acquainted with the pride and debauchery of the present clergy. He did give me many stories of the affronts which the clergy receive in all places of England from the gentry and ordinary persons of the parish. He do tell me what the City thinks of General Monk (54), as of a most perfidious man that hath betrayed every body, and the [his father] King (33) also; who, as he thinks, and his party, and so I have heard other good friends of the [his father] King (33) say, it might have been better for the [his father] King (33) to have had his hands a little bound for the present, than be forced to bring such a crew of poor people about him, and be liable to satisfy the demands of every one of them. He told me that to his knowledge (being present at every meeting at the Treaty at the Isle of Wight), that the old King did confess himself overruled and convinced in his judgement against the Bishopps, and would have suffered and did agree to exclude the service out of the churches, nay his own chappell; and that he did always say, that this he did not by force, for that he would never abate one inch by any vyolence; but what he did was out of his reason and judgement.
He tells me that the [his father] King (33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the [his father] King (33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the [his father] King (33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the [his father] King (33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the [his father] King (33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane (50) did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the [his father] King (33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the [his father] King (33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.
Mr. Blackburne observed further to me, some certain notice that he had of the present plot so much talked of; that he was told by Mr. Rushworth, how one Captain Oates, a great discoverer, did employ several to bring and seduce others into a plot, and that one of his agents met with one that would not listen to him, nor conceal what he had offered him, but so detected the trapan. This, he says, is most true. He also, among other instances how the [his father] King (33) is served, did much insist upon the cowardice and corruption of the King's guards and militia, which to be sure will fail the [his father] King (33), as they have done already, when there will be occasion for them.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 December 1663. 18 Dec 1663. Up, and after being ready and done several businesses with people, I took water (taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside) with a gaily, the first that ever I had yet, and down to Woolwich, calling at Ham Creeke, where I met Deane (30), and had a great deal of talke with him about business, and so to the Ropeyarde and Docke, discoursing several things, and so back again and did the like at Deptford, and I find that it is absolutely necessary for me to do thus once a weeke at least all the yeare round, which will do me great good, and so home with great ease and content, especially out of the content which I met with in a book I bought yesterday, being a discourse of the state of Rome under the present Pope, Alexander the 7th, it being a very excellent piece. !After eating something at home, then to my office, where till night about business to dispatch. Among other people came Mr. Primate, the leather seller, in Fleete Streete, to see me, he says, coming this way; and he tells me that he is upon a proposal to the [his father] King (33), whereby, by a law already in being, he will supply the [his father] King (33), without wrong to any man, or charge to the people in general, so much as it is now, above £200,000 per annum, and God knows what, and that the [his father] King (33) do like the proposal, and hath directed that the Duke of Monmouth (14), with their consent, be made privy, and go along with him and his fellow proposer in the business, God knows what it is; for I neither can guess nor believe there is any such thing in his head.
At night made an end of the discourse I read this morning, and so home to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 January 1664. 20 Jan 1664. Up and by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (38), and after long staying till his coming down (he not sending for me up, but it may be he did not know I was there), he came down, and I walked with him to the Tennis Court, and there left him, seeing the [his father] King (33) play.
At his lodgings this morning there came to him Mr. W. Montague's (46) fine lady, which occasioned my Lord's calling me to her about some business for a friend of hers preferred to be a midshipman at sea. My Lord recommended the whole matter to me. She is a fine confident lady, I think, but not so pretty as I once thought her. My Lord did also seal a lease for the house he is now taking in Lincoln's Inn Fields, which stands him in 250 per annum rent.
Thence by water to my brother's, whom I find not well in bed, sicke, they think, of a consumption, and I fear he is not well, but do not complain, nor desire to take anything. From him I visited Mr. Honiwood, who is lame, and to thank him for his visit to me the other day, but we were both abroad.
So to Mr. Commander's in Warwick Lane, to speak to him about drawing up my will, which he will meet me about in a day or two.
So to the 'Change and walked home, thence with Sir Richard Ford (50), who told me that Turner (55) is to be hanged to-morrow, and with what impudence he hath carried out his trial; but that last night, when he brought him newes of his death, he began to be sober and shed some tears, and he hopes will die a penitent; he having already confessed all the thing, but says it was partly done for a joke, and partly to get an occasion of obliging the old man by his care in getting him his things again, he having some hopes of being the better by him in his estate at his death.
Home to dinner, and after dinner my wife and I by water, which we have not done together many a day, that is not since last summer, but the weather is now very warm, and left her at Axe Yard, and I to White Hall, and meeting Mr. Pierce walked with him an hour in the Matted Gallery; among other things he tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine (23) is not at all set by by the [his father] King (33), but that he do doat upon Mrs. Stewart (16) only; and that to the leaving of all business in the world, and to the open slighting of the [his grandmother] Queene (54); that he values not who sees him or stands by him while he dallies with her openly; and then privately in her chamber below, where the very sentrys observe his going in and out; and that so commonly, that the [his uncle] Duke (30) or any of the nobles, when they would ask where the [his father] King (33) is, they will ordinarily say, "Is the [his father] King (33) above, or below?" meaning with Mrs. Stewart (16): that the [his father] King (33) do not openly disown my Baroness Castlemaine (23), but that she comes to Court; but that my Lord FitzHarding (34) and the Hambletons1, and sometimes my Lord Sandwich (38), they say, have their snaps at her. But he says my Lord Sandwich (38) will lead her from her lodgings in the darkest and obscurest manner, and leave her at the entrance into the [his grandmother] Queene's (54) lodgings, that he might be the least observed; that the Duke of Monmouth (14) the [his father] King (33) do still doat on beyond measure, insomuch that the [his father] King (33) only, the [his uncle] Duke of York (30), and Prince Rupert (44), and the Duke of Monmouth (14), do now wear deep mourning, that is, long cloaks, for the Duchesse of Savoy (57); so that he mourns as a Prince of the Blood, while the [his uncle] Duke of York (30) do no more, and all the nobles of the land not so much; which gives great offence, and he says the [his uncle] Duke of York (30) do consider. But that the [his uncle] Duke of York (30) do give himself up to business, and is like to prove a noble Prince; and so indeed I do from my heart think he will. He says that it is believed, as well as hoped, that care is taken to lay up a hidden treasure of money by the [his father] King (33) against a bad day, pray God it be so! but I should be more glad that the [his father] King (33) himself would look after business, which it seems he do not in the least.
By and by came by Mr. Coventry (36), and so we broke off; and he and I took a turn or two and so parted, and then my Lord Sandwich (38) came upon me, to speak with whom my business of coming again to-night to this ende of the town chiefly was, in order to the seeing in what manner he received me, in order to my inviting him to dinner to my house, but as well in the morning as now, though I did wait upon him home and there offered occasion of talk with him, yet he treated me, though with respect, yet as a stranger, without any of the intimacy or friendship which he used to do, and which I fear he will never, through his consciousness of his faults, ever do again. Which I must confess do trouble me above anything in the world almost, though I neither do need at present nor fear to need to be so troubled, nay, and more, though I do not think that he would deny me any friendship now if I did need it, but only that he has not the face to be free with me, but do look upon me as a remembrancer of his former vanity, and an espy upon his present practices, for I perceive that Pickering to-day is great with him again, and that he has done a great courtesy for Mr. Pierce, the chirurgeon, to a good value, though both these and none but these did I mention by name to my Lord in the business which has caused all this difference between my Lord and me. However, I am resolved to forbear my laying out my money upon a dinner till I see him in a better posture, and by grave and humble, though high deportment, to make him think I do not want him, and that will make him the readier to admit me to his friendship again, I believe the soonest of anything but downright impudence, and thrusting myself, as others do, upon him, which yet I cannot do, not [nor] will not endeavour.
So home, calling with my wife to see my brother again, who was up, and walks up and down the house pretty well, but I do think he is in a consumption.
Home, troubled in mind for these passages with my Lord, but am resolved to better my case in my business to make my stand upon my owne legs the better and to lay up as well as to get money, and among other ways I will have a good fleece out of Creed's coat ere it be long, or I will have a fall.
So to my office and did some business, and then home to supper and to bed, after I had by candlelight shaved myself and cut off all my beard clear, which will make my worke a great deal the less in shaving.
Note 1. The three brothers, George Hamilton, James Hamilton (34), and the Count Antoine Hamilton (18), author of the "Memoires de Grammont"..

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 February 1664. 08 Feb 1664. Up, and by coach called upon Mr. Phillips, and after a little talk with him away to my Lord Sandwich's (38), but he being gone abroad, I staid a little and talked with Mr. Howe, and so to Westminster in term time, and there met Mr. Pierce, who told me largely how the [his father] King (33) still do doat upon his women, even beyond all shame; and that the good [his step-mother] Queen (25) will of herself stop before she goes sometimes into her dressing-room, till she knows whether the [his father] King (33) be there, for fear he should be, as she hath sometimes taken him, with Mrs. Stewart (16); and that some of the best parts of the [his step-mother] Queen's (25) joynture are, contrary to faith, and against the opinion of my Lord Treasurer (56) and his Council, bestowed or rented, I know not how, to my Lord Fitz-Harding (34) and Mrs. Stewart (16), and others of that crew that the [his father] King (33) do doat infinitely upon the Duke of Monmouth (14), apparently as one that he intends to have succeed him. God knows what will be the end of it!
After he was gone I went and talked with Mrs. Lane about persuading her to Hawly, and think she will come on, which I wish were done, and so to Mr. Howlett and his wife, and talked about the same, and they are mightily for it, and I bid them promote it, for I think it will be for both their goods and my content. But I was much pleased to look upon their pretty daughter, which is grown a pretty mayd, and will make a fine modest woman.
Thence to the 'Change by coach, and after some business done, home to dinner, and thence to Guildhall, thinking to have heard some pleading, but there were no Courts, and so to Cade's, the stationer, and there did look upon some pictures which he promised to give me the buying of, but I found he would have played the Jacke with me, but at last he did proffer me what I expected, and I have laid aside £10 or £12 worth, and will think of it, but I am loth to lay out so much money upon them.
So home a little vexed in my mind to think how to-day I was forced to compliment W. Howe and admit myself to an equality with Mr. Moore, which is come to challenge in his discourse with me, but I will admit it no more, but let me stand or fall, I will show myself as strange to them as my Lord do himself to me.
After at the office till 9 o'clock, I home in fear of some pain by taking cold, and so to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 February 1664. 22 Feb 1664. Thence, meeting Mr. Moore, and to the Exchange and there found my wife at pretty Doll's, and thence by coach set her at my uncle Wight's (62), to go with my aunt to market once more against Lent, and I to the Coffee-house, and thence to the 'Change, my chief business being to enquire about the manner of other countries keeping of their masts wet or dry, and got good advice about it, and so home, and alone ate a bad, cold dinner, my people being at their washing all day, and so to the office and all the afternoon upon my letter to Mr. Coventry (36) about keeping of masts, and ended it very well at night and wrote it fair over.
This evening came Mr. Alsopp the King's brewer, with whom I spent an houre talking and bewailing the posture of things at present; the [his father] King (33) led away by half-a-dozen men, that none of his serious servants and friends can come at him. These are Lauderdale (47), Buckingham (36), Hamilton, Fitz-Harding (34) (to whom he hath, it seems, given £2,000 per annum in the best part of the King's estate); and that that the old Duke of Buckingham (71) could never get of the [his father] King (33). Progers is another, and Sir H. Bennett (46). He loves not the [his step-mother] Queen (25) at all, but is rather sullen to her; and she, by all reports, incapable of children. He is so fond of the Duke of Monmouth (14), that every body admires it; and he says the Duke hath said, that he would be the death of any man that says the [his father] King (33) was not married to his mother: though Alsopp says, it is well known that she was a common whore before the [his father] King (33) lay with her. But it seems, he says, that the [his father] King (33) is mighty kind to these his bastard children; and at this day will go at midnight to my Baroness Castlemaine's (23) nurses, and take the child and dance it in his arms: that he is not likely to have his tables up again in his house1, for the crew that are about him will not have him come to common view again, but keep him obscurely among themselves. He hath this night, it seems, ordered that the Hall (which there is a ball to be in to-night before the [his father] King (33)) be guarded, as the [his grandmother] Queen-Mother's (54) is, by his Horse Guards; whereas heretofore they were by the Lord Chamberlain or Steward, and their people. But it is feared they will reduce all to the soldiery, and all other places taken away; and what is worst of all, that he will alter the present militia, and bring all to a flying army.
That my Lord Lauderdale (47), being Middleton's (56) enemy, and one that scorns the Chancellor (55) even to open affronts before the [his father] King (33), hath got the whole power of Scotland into his hand; whereas the other day he was in a fair way to have had his whole estate, and honour, and life, voted away from him.
That the [his father] King (33) hath done himself all imaginable wrong in the business of my Lord Antrim (54), in Ireland; who, though he was the head of rebels, yet he by his letter owns to have acted by his father's and mother's, and his commissions; but it seems the truth is, he hath obliged himself, upon the clearing of his estate, to settle it upon a daughter of the [his step-mother] Queene-Mother's (25) (by my Lord Germin (58), I suppose,) in marriage, be it to whom the [his grandmother] Queene (54) pleases; which is a sad story.
It seems a daughter of the Duke of Lenox's (24) was, by force, going to be married the other day at Somerset House, to Harry Germin (28); but she got away and run to the [his father] King (33), and he says he will protect her. She is, it seems, very near akin to the [his father] King (33): Such mad doings there are every day among them!
The rape upon a woman at Turnstile the other day, her husband being bound in his shirt, they both being in bed together, it being night, by two Frenchmen, who did not only lye with her but abused her with a linke, is hushed up for £300, being the [his step-mother] Queen Mother's (25) servants.
There was a French book in verse, the other day, translated and presented to the Duke of Monmouth (14) in such a high stile, that the [his uncle] Duke of York (30), he tells me, was mightily offended at it.
The Duke of Monmouth's (14) [his mother] mother's (34) brother hath a place at Court; and being a Welchman (I think he told me) will talk very broad of the King's being married to his [his mother] sister (34).
The [his father] King (33) did the other day, at the Council, commit my Lord Digby's' (51) chaplin, and steward, and another servant, who went upon the process begun there against their lord, to swear that they saw him at church, end receive the Sacrament as a Protestant, (which, the judges said, was sufficient to prove him such in the eye of the law); the [his father] King (33), I say, did commit them all to the Gate-house, notwithstanding their pleading their dependance upon him, and the faith they owed him as their lord, whose bread they eat. And that the [his father] King (33) should say, that he would soon see whether he was King, or Digby (51).
That the [his step-mother] Queene-Mother (25) hath outrun herself in her expences, and is now come to pay very ill, or run in debt; the money being spent that she received for leases. He believes there is not any money laid up in bank, as I told him some did hope; but he says, from the best informers he can assure me there is no such thing, nor any body that should look after such a thing; and that there is not now above £80,000 of the Dunkirke money left in stock.
That Oliver in the year when he spent £1,400,000 in the Navy, did spend in the whole expence of the Kingdom £2,600,000. That all the Court are mad for a Dutch war; but both he and I did concur, that it was a thing rather to be dreaded than hoped for; unless by the French King's (25) falling upon Flanders, they and the Dutch should be divided. That our Embassador (64) had, it is true, an audience; but in the most dishonourable way that could be; for the Princes of the Blood (though invited by our Embassador (64), which was the greatest absurdity that ever Embassador committed these 400 years) were not there; and so were not said to give place to our King's Embassador. And that our King did openly say, the other day in the Privy Chamber, that he would not be hectored out of his right and preeminencys by the King of France (25), as great as he was.
That the Pope is glad to yield to a peace with the French (as the newes-book says), upon the basest terms that ever was. That the talke which these people about our King, that I named before, have, is to tell him how neither privilege of Parliament nor City is any thing; but his will is all, and ought to be so: and their discourse, it seems, when they are alone, is so base and sordid, that it makes the eares of the very gentlemen of the back-stairs (I think he called them) to tingle to hear it spoke in the King's hearing; and that must be very bad indeed.
That my Lord Digby (51) did send to Lisbon a couple of priests, to search out what they could against the Chancellor (55) concerning the match, as to the point of his knowing before-hand that the [his grandmother] Queene (54) was not capable of bearing children; and that something was given her to make her so. But as private as they were, when they came thither they were clapped up prisoners.
That my Lord Digby (51) endeavours what he can to bring the business into the House of Commons, hoping there to master the Chancellor (55), there being many enemies of his there; but I hope the contrary. That whereas the late King did mortgage 'Clarendon' to somebody for £20,000, and this to have given it to the Duke of Albemarle (55), and he sold it to my Chancellor (55), whose title of Earldome is fetched from thence; the [his father] King (33) hath this day sent his order to the Privy Seale for the payment of this £20,000 to my Chancellor (55), to clear the mortgage!
Ireland in a very distracted condition about the hard usage which the Protestants meet with, and the too good which the Catholiques. And from altogether, God knows my heart, I expect nothing but ruine can follow, unless things are better ordered in a little time.
He being gone my wife came and told me how kind my uncle Wight (62) had been to her to-day, and that though she says that all his kindness comes from respect to her she discovers nothing but great civility from him, yet but what she says he otherwise will tell me, but to-day he told her plainly that had she a child it should be his heir, and that should I or she want he would be a good friend to us, and did give my wife instructions to consent to all his wife says at any time, she being a pettish woman, which argues a design I think he has of keeping us in with his wife in order to our good sure, and he declaring her jealous of him that so he dares not come to see my wife as otherwise he would do and will endeavour to do. It looks strange putting all together, but yet I am in hopes he means well.
My aunt also is mighty open to my wife and tells her mighty plain how her husband did intend to double her portion to her at his death as a jointure. That he will give presently £100 to her niece Mary and a good legacy at his death, and it seems did as much to the other sister, which vexed [me] to think that he should bestow so much upon his wife's friends daily as he do, but it cannot be helped for the time past, and I will endeavour to remedy it for the time to come. After all this discourse with my wife at my office alone, she home to see how the wash goes on and I to make an end of my work, and so home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. The tables at which the [his father] King (33) dined in public.-B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 May 1664. 20 May 1664. Up and to my office, whither by and by comes Mr. Cholmely (31), and staying till the rest of the company come he told me how Mr. Edward Montagu (29) is turned out of the Court, not [to] return again. His fault, I perceive, was his pride, and most of all his affecting to seem great with the [his grandmother] Queene (54) and it seems indeed had more of her eare than any body else, and would be with her talking alone two or three hours together; insomuch that the Lords about the [his father] King (33), when he would be jesting with them about their wives, would tell the [his father] King (33) that he must have a care of his wife too, for she hath now the gallant: and they say the [his father] King (33) himself did once ask Montagu (29) how his mistress (meaning the [his grandmother] Queene (54)) did. He grew so proud, and despised every body, besides suffering nobody, he or she, to get or do any thing about the [his grandmother] Queene (54), that they all laboured to do him a good turn. They also say that he did give some affront to the Duke of Monmouth (15), which the [his father] King (33) himself did speak to him of. But strange it is that this man should, from the greatest negligence in the world, come to be the miracle of attendance, so as to take all offices from everybody, either men or women, about the [his grandmother] Queene (54). Insomuch that he was observed as a miracle, but that which is the worst, that which in a wise manner performed [would] turn to his greatest advantage, was by being so observed employed to his greatest wrong, the world concluding that there must be something more than ordinary to cause him to do this. So he is gone, nobody pitying but laughing at him; and he pretends only that he is gone to his father, that is sick in the country.
By and by comes Povy (50), Creed, and Vernaty, and so to their accounts, wherein more trouble and vexation with Povy (50).
That being done, I sent them going and myself fell to business till dinner.
So home to dinner very pleasant. In the afternoon to my office, where busy again, and by and by came a letter from my father so full of trouble for discontents there between my mother and servants, and such troubles to my father from hence from Cave that hath my brother's bastard that I know not what in the world to do, but with great trouble, it growing night, spent some time walking, and putting care as much as I could out of my head, with my wife in the garden, and so home to supper and to bed.

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On 15 Jul 1664 [his brother-in-law] Alexander Leslie 2nd Earl Leven 1637-1664 (27) died.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 November 1664. 11 Nov 1664. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (65) and Sir W. Batten (63) to the Council Chamber at White Hall, to the Committee of the Lords for the Navy, where we were made to wait an houre or two before called in. In that time looking upon some books of heraldry of Sir Edward Walker's making, which are very fine, there I observed the Duke of Monmouth's (15) armes are neatly done, and his title, "The most noble and high-born Prince, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth (15), &c."; nor could Sir J. Minnes (65), nor any body there, tell whence he should take the name of Scott? And then I found my Lord Sandwich (39), his title under his armes is, "The most noble and mighty Lord, Edward, Earl of Sandwich, &c".
Sir Edward Walker afterwards coming in, in discourse did say that there was none of the families of princes in Christendom that do derive themselves so high as Julius Caesar, nor so far by 1000 years, that can directly prove their rise; only some in Germany do derive themselves from the patrician familys of Rome, but that uncertainly; and, among other things, did much inveigh against the writing of romances, that 500 years hence being wrote of matters in general, true as the romance of Cleopatra, the world will not know which is the true and which the false.
Here was a gentleman attending here that told us he saw the other day (and did bring the draught of it to Sir Francis Prigeon (71)) of a monster born of an hostler's wife at Salisbury, two women children perfectly made, joyned at the lower part of their bellies, and every part perfect as two bodies, and only one payre of legs coming forth on one side from the middle where they were joined. It was alive 24 hours, and cried and did as all hopefull children do; but, being showed too much to people, was killed.
By and by we were called in, where a great many lords: Annesly (50) in the chair. But, Lord! to see what work they will make us, and what trouble we shall have to inform men in a business they are to begin to know, when the greatest of our hurry is, is a thing to be lamented; and I fear the consequence will be bad to us.
Thence I by coach to the 'Change, and thence home to dinner, my head akeing mightily with much business. Our little girl better than she was yesterday.
After dinner out again by coach to my Chancellor's (55), but could not speak with him, then up and down to seek Sir Ph. Warwicke (54), Sir G. Carteret (54), and my Lord Berkeley (62), but failed in all, and so home and there late at business. Among other things Mr. Turner making his complaint to me how my clerks do all the worke and get all the profit, and he hath no comfort, nor cannot subsist, I did make him apprehend how he is beholding to me more than to any body for my suffering him to act as Pourveyour of petty provisions, and told him so largely my little value of any body's favour, that I believe he will make no complaints again a good while.
So home to supper and to bed, after prayers, and having my boy and Mercer give me some, each of them some, musique.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 February 1665. 03 Feb 1665. Thence, being invited, to my uncle Wight's (63), where the Wights all dined; and, among the others, pretty Mrs. Margaret, who indeed is a very pretty lady; and though by my vowe it costs me 12d. a kiss after the first, yet I did adventure upon a couple.
So home, and among other letters found one from Jane, that is newly gone, telling me how her mistresse won't pay her her Quarter's wages, and withal tells me how her mistress will have the boy sit 3 or 4 hours together in the dark telling of stories, but speaks of nothing but only her indiscretion in undervaluing herself to do it, but I will remedy that, but am vexed she should get some body to write so much because of making it publique. Then took coach and to visit my Lady Sandwich (40), where she discoursed largely to me her opinion of a match, if it could be thought fit by my Lord, for my Lady Jemimah, with Sir G. Carteret's (55) eldest son; but I doubt he hath yet no settled estate in land. But I will inform myself, and give her my opinion. Then Mrs. Pickering (23) (after private discourse ended, we going into the other room) did, at my Lady's command, tell me the manner of a masquerade1 before the [his father] King (34) and Court the other day. Where six women (my Baroness Castlemayne (24) and Duchesse of Monmouth being two of them) and six men (the Duke of Monmouth (15) and Lord Arran (25) and Monsieur Blanfort, being three of them) in vizards, but most rich and antique dresses, did dance admirably and most gloriously. God give us cause to continue the mirthe! So home, and after awhile at my office to supper and to bed.
Note 1. The masquerade at Court took place on the 2nd, and is referred to by Evelyn, who was present, in his Diary. Some amusing incidents connected with the entertainment are related in the "Grammont Memoirs (chapter vii.).

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 February 1665. 23 Feb 1665. I was invited to a great feast at Mr. Rich's (a relation of my wife's (30), now reader at Lincoln's Inn); where was the Duke of Monmouth (15), the Archbishop of Canterbury (66), Bishops of London (33) and Winchester (66), the Speaker of the House of Commons (48), divers of the Judges, and several other great men.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 July 1665. 24 Jul 1665. And then up and home, and there dressed myself, and by appointment to Deptford, to Sir G. Carteret's (55), between six and seven o'clock, where I found him and my George Carteret 1st Baronet Metesches 1610-1680 (55) and Lady (63) almost ready, and by and by went over to the ferry, and took coach and six horses nobly for Dagenhams, himself and lady and their little daughter, Louisonne, and myself in the coach; where, when we come, we were bravely entertained and spent the day most pleasantly with the young ladies, and I so merry as never more. Only for want of sleep, and drinking of strong beer had a rheum in one of my eyes, which troubled me much. Here with great content all the day, as I think I ever passed a day in my life, because of the contentfulnesse of our errand, and the noblenesse of the company and our manner of going. But I find Mr. Carteret (24) yet as backward almost in his caresses, as he was the first day. !At night, about seven o'clock, took coach again; but, Lord! to see in what a pleasant humour Sir G. Carteret (55) hath been both coming and going; so light, so fond, so merry, so boyish (so much content he takes in this business), it is one of the greatest wonders I ever saw in my mind. But once in serious discourse he did say that, if he knew his son to be a debauchee, as many and, most are now-a-days about the Court, he would tell it, and my Lady Jem. should not have him; and so enlarged both he and she about the baseness and looseness of the Court, and told several stories of the Duke of Monmouth (16), and Richmond (26), and some great person, my Lord of Ormond's (54) second son (26), married to a Richard Butler 1st Earl Arran 1639-1685 (26) and lady (14) of extraordinary quality (fit and that might have been made a wife for the [his father] King (35) himself), about six months since, that this great person hath given the pox to———; and discoursed how much this would oblige the Kingdom if the [his father] King (35) would banish some of these great persons publiquely from the Court, and wished it with all their hearts.
We set out so late that it grew dark, so as we doubted the losing of our way; and a long time it was, or seemed, before we could get to the water-side, and that about eleven at night, where, when we come, all merry (only my eye troubled me, as I said), we found no ferryboat was there, nor no oares to carry us to Deptford. However, afterwards oares was called from the other side at Greenwich; but, when it come, a frolique, being mighty merry, took us, and there we would sleep all night in the coach in the Isle of Doggs. So we did, there being now with us my Lady Scott, and with great pleasure drew up the glasses, and slept till daylight, and then some victuals and wine being brought us, we ate a bit, and so up and took boat, merry as might be; and when come to Sir G. Carteret's (55), there all to bed.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 July 1665. 26 Jul 1665. Up, and after doing a little business, down to Deptford with Sir W. Batten (64), and there left him, and I to Greenwich to the Park, where I hear the [his father] King (35) and [his uncle] Duke (31) are come by water this morn from Hampton Court. They asked me several questions. The [his father] King (35) mightily pleased with his new buildings there. I followed them to Castle's (36) ship in building, and there, met Sir W. Batten (64), and thence to Sir G. Carteret's (55), where all the morning with them; they not having any but the Duke of Monmouth (16), and Sir W. Killigrew (59), and one gentleman, and a page more. Great variety of talk, and was often led to speak to the [his father] King (35) and [his uncle] Duke (31).
By and by they to dinner, and all to dinner and sat down to the [his father] King (35) saving myself, which, though I could not in modesty expect, yet, God forgive my pride! I was sorry I was there, that Sir W. Batten (64) should say that he could sit down where I could not, though he had twenty times more reason than I, but this was my pride and folly. I down and walked with Mr. Castle (36), who told me the design of Ford and Rider to oppose and do all the hurt they can to Captain Taylor in his new ship "The London", and how it comes, and that they are a couple of false persons, which I believe, and withal that he himself is a knave too.
He and I by and by to dinner mighty nobly, and the [his father] King (35) having dined, he come down, and I went in the barge with him, I sitting at the door.
Down to Woolwich (and there I just saw and kissed my wife, and saw some of her painting, which is very curious; and away again to the [his father] King (35)) and back again with him in the barge, hearing him and the [his uncle] Duke (31) talk, and seeing and observing their manner of discourse. And God forgive me! though I admire them with all the duty possible, yet the more a man considers and observes them, the less he finds of difference between them and other men, though (blessed be God!) they are both princes of great nobleness and spirits. The barge put me into another boat that come to our side, Mr. Holder with a bag of gold to the [his uncle] Duke (31), and so they away and I home to the office.
The Duke of Monmouth (16) is the most skittish leaping gallant that ever I saw, always in action, vaulting or leaping, or clambering.
Thence mighty full of the honour of this day, I took coach and to Kate Joyce's, but she not within, but spoke with Anthony, who tells me he likes well of my proposal for Pall to Harman (28), but I fear that less than £500 will not be taken, and that I shall not be able to give, though I did not say so to him. After a little other discourse and the sad news of the death of so many in the parish of the plague, forty last night, the bell always going, I back to the Exchange, where I went up and sat talking with my beauty, Mrs. Batelier, a great while, who is indeed one of the finest women I ever saw in my life. After buying some small matter, I home, and there to the office and saw Sir J. Minnes (66) now come from Portsmouth, I home to set my Journall for these four days in order, they being four days of as great content and honour and pleasure to me as ever I hope to live or desire, or think any body else can live. For methinks if a man would but reflect upon this, and think that all these things are ordered by God Almighty to make me contented, and even this very marriage now on foot is one of the things intended to find me content in, in my life and matter of mirth, methinks it should make one mightily more satisfied in the world than he is. This day poor Robin Shaw at Backewell's died, and Backewell himself now in Flanders. The [his father] King (35) himself asked about Shaw, and being told he was dead, said he was very sorry for it. The sicknesse is got into our parish this week, and is got, indeed, every where; so that I begin to think of setting things in order, which I pray God enable me to put both as to soul and body.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 April 1666. 15 Apr 1666. Easter Day. Up and by water to Westminster to the Swan to lay down my cloak, and there found Sarah alone, with whom after I had staid awhile I to White Hall Chapel, and there coming late could hear nothing of the Bishop of London's (74) sermon. So walked into the Park to the Queene's chappell, and there heard a good deal of their mass, and some of their musique, which is not so contemptible, I think, as our people would make it, it pleasing me very well; and, indeed, better than the anthem I heard afterwards at White Hall, at my coming back. I staid till the [his father] King (35) went down to receive the Sacrament, and stood in his closett with a great many others, and there saw him receive it, which I did never see the manner of before. But I do see very little difference between the degree of the ceremonies used by our people in the administration thereof, and that in the Roman church, saving that methought our Chappell was not so fine, nor the manner of doing it so glorious, as it was in the Queene's chappell.
Thence walked to Mr. Pierce's, and there dined, I alone with him and her and their children: very good company and good discourse, they being able to tell me all the businesses of the Court; the amours and the mad doings that are there; how for certain Mrs. Stewart (18) do do everything with the [his father] King (35) that a mistress should do; and that the [his father] King (35) hath many bastard children that are known and owned, besides the Duke of Monmouth (17). After a great deale of this discourse I walked thence into the Parke with her little boy James with me, who is the wittiest boy and the best company in the world, and so back again through White Hall both coming and going, and people did generally take him to be my boy and some would aske me.
Thence home to Mr. Pierce again; and he being gone forth, she and I and the children out by coach to Kensington, to where we were the other day, and with great pleasure stayed till night; and were mighty late getting home, the horses tiring and stopping at every twenty steps. By the way we discoursed of Mrs. Clerke, who, she says, is grown mighty high, fine, and proud, but tells me an odd story how Captain Rolt did see her the other day accost a gentleman in Westminster Hall and went with him, and he dogged them to Moorefields to a little blind bawdy house, and there staid watching three hours and they come not out, so could stay no longer but left them there, and he is sure it was she, he knowing her well and describing her very clothes to Mrs. Pierce, which she knows are what she wears. Seeing them well at home I homeward, but the horses at Ludgate Hill made a final stop; so there I 'lighted, and with a linke, it being about 10 o'clock, walked home, and after singing a Psalm or two and supped to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 November 1666. 15 Nov 1666. This [morning] come Mr. Shepley (newly out of the country) to see me; after a little discourse with him, I to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon home, and there dined, Shepley with me, and after dinner I did pay him £70, which he had paid my father for my use in the country. He being gone, I took coach and to Mrs. Pierce's, where I find her as fine as possible, and himself going to the ball at night at Court, it being the [his step-mother] Queen's (27) birth-day, and so I carried them in my coach, and having set them into the house, and gotten Mr. Pierce to undertake the carrying in my wife, I to Unthanke's, where she appointed to be, and there told her, and back again about business to White Hall, while Pierce went and fetched her and carried her in.
I, after I had met with Sir W. Coventry (38) and given him some account of matters, I also to the ball, and with much ado got up to the loft, where with much trouble I could see very well. Anon the house grew full, and the candles light, and the [his father] King (36) and [his step-mother] Queen (27) and all the ladies set: and it was, indeed, a glorious sight to see Mrs. Stewart (19) in black and white lace, and her head and shoulders dressed with dyamonds, and the like a great many great ladies more, only the [his step-mother] Queen (27) none; and the [his father] King (36) in his rich vest of some rich silke and silver trimming, as the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) and all the dancers were, some of cloth of silver, and others of other sorts, exceeding rich.
Presently after the [his father] King (36) was come in, he took the [his grandmother] Queene (56), and about fourteen more couple there was, and began the Bransles. As many of the men as I can remember presently, were, the [his father] King (36), [his uncle] Duke of York (33), Prince Rupert (46), Duke of Monmouth (17), Duke of Buckingham (38), Lord Douglas (20), Mr. [George] Hamilton (59), Colonell Russell (46), Mr. Griffith, Lord Ossory (32), Lord_Rochester (19); and of the ladies, the [his grandmother] Queene (56), Duchess of York (29), Mrs. Stewart (19), [his wife] Duchess of Monmouth (15), Lady Essex Howard, Mrs. Temples (17), Swedes Embassadress, Lady Arlington (32); Lord George Barkeley's daughter (16) [Note. Assumed Elizabeth], and many others I remember not; but all most excellently dressed in rich petticoats and gowns, and dyamonds, and pearls.
After the Bransles, then to a Corant, and now and then a French dance; but that so rare that the Corants grew tiresome, that I wished it done. Only Mrs. Stewart (19) danced mighty finely, and many French dances, specially one the [his father] King (36) called the New Dance, which was very pretty; but upon the whole matter, the business of the dancing of itself was not extraordinary pleasing. But the clothes and sight of the persons was indeed very pleasing, and worth my coming, being never likely to see more gallantry while I live, if I should come twenty times. About twelve at night it broke up, and I to hire a coach with much difficulty, but Pierce had hired a chair for my wife, and so she being gone to his house, he and I, taking up Barker at Unthanke's, to his house, whither his wife was come home a good while ago and gone to bed. So away home with my wife, between displeased with the dull dancing, and satisfied at the clothes and persons. My Baroness Castlemayne (25), without whom all is nothing, being there, very rich, though not dancing. And so after supper, it being very cold, to bed.

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On 03 Dec 1666 James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 (3) was created 1st Duke Cambridge 1C 1664 by his father [his uncle] King James II (33). See Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 December 1666.
Those present included [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (36), [his uncle] King James II (33), Prince Rupert (46), William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury 1591-1668 (75), George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 (57), Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire 1587-1669 (79), Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (27), Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671 (64), James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (17).

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Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert. <BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 December 1666. 07 Dec 1666. Up, and by water to the Exchequer, where I got my tallys finished for the last quarter for Tangier, and having paid all my fees I to the Swan, whither I sent for some oysters, and thither comes Mr. Falconbridge and Spicer and many more clerks; and there we eat and drank, and a great deal of their sorry discourse, and so parted, and I by coach home, meeting Balty (26) in the streete about Charing Crosse (17) walking, which I am glad to see and spoke to him about his mustering business, I being now to give an account how the several muster-masters have behaved themselves, and so home to dinner, where finding the cloth laid and much crumpled but clean, I grew angry and flung the trenchers about the room, and in a mighty heat I was: so a clean cloth was laid, and my poor wife very patient, and so to dinner, and in comes Mrs. Barbara Sheldon, now Mrs. Wood, and dined with us, she mighty fine, and lives, I perceive, mighty happily, which I am glad [of] for her sake, but hate her husband for a block-head in his choice.
So away after dinner, leaving my wife and her, and by water to the Strand, and so to the King's playhouse, where two acts were almost done when I come in; and there I sat with my cloak about my face, and saw the remainder of "The Mayd's Tragedy"; a good play, and well acted, especially by the younger Marshall, who is become a pretty good actor, and is the first play I have seen in either of the houses since before the great plague, they having acted now about fourteen days publickly. But I was in mighty pain lest I should be seen by any body to be at a play. Soon as done I home, and then to my office awhile, and then home and spent the night evening my Tangier accounts, much to my satisfaction, and then to supper, and mighty good friends with my poor wife, and so to bed.

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Great Fire of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 December 1666. 14 Dec 1666. Up, and very well again of my pain in my back, it having been nothing but cold. By coach to White Hall, seeing many smokes of the fire by the way yet, and took up into the coach with me a country gentleman, who asked me room to go with me, it being dirty—one come out of the North to see his son, after the burning his house: a merchant. Here endeavoured to wait on the [his uncle] Duke of York (33), but he would not stay from the Parliament.
So I to Westminster Hall, and there met my good friend Mr. Evelyn (46), and walked with him a good while, lamenting our condition for want of good council, and the King's minding of his business and servants. I out to the Bell Tavern, and thither comes Doll to me .... [Note. Other versions include 'and yo did tocar la cosa [ I did touch the thing ] of her as I pleased;'], and after an hour's stay, away and staid in Westminster Hall till the rising of the house, having told Mr. Evelyn (46), and he several others, of my Gazette which I had about me that mentioned in April last a plot for which several were condemned of treason at the Old Bayly for many things, and among others for a design of burning the city on the 3rd of September.
The house sat till three o'clock, and then up: and I home with Sir Stephen Fox (39) to his house to dinner, and the Cofferer (62) with us. There I find Sir S. Fox's Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716 (39) and lady, a fine woman, and seven the prettiest children of theirs that ever I knew almost. A very genteel dinner, and in great state and fashion, and excellent discourse; and nothing like an old experienced man and a courtier, and such is the Cofferer Ashburnham (62).
The House have been mighty hot to-day against the Paper Bill, showing all manner of averseness to give the [his father] King (36) money; which these courtiers do take mighty notice of, and look upon the others as bad rebells as ever the last were. But the courtiers did carry it against those men upon a division of the House, a great many, that it should be committed; and so it was: which they reckon good news.
After dinner we three to the Excise Office, and there had long discourse about our monies, but nothing to satisfaction, that is, to shew any way of shortening the time which our tallies take up before they become payable, which is now full two years, which is 20 per, cent. for all the King's money for interest, and the great disservice of his Majesty otherwise.
Thence in the evening round by coach home, where I find Foundes his present, of a fair pair of candlesticks, and half a dozen of plates come, which cost him full £50, and is a very good present; and here I met with, sealed up, from Sir H. Cholmly (34), the lampoone, or the Mocke-Advice to a Paynter1, abusing the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) and my Lord Sandwich (41), Pen (45), and every body, and the [his father] King (36) himself, in all the matters of the navy and warr. I am sorry for my Lord Sandwich's (41) having so great a part in it. Then to supper and musique, and to bed.
Note 1. In a broadside (1680), quoted by Mr. G. T. Drury in his edition of Waller's Poems, 1893, satirical reference is made to the fashionable form of advice to the painters "Each puny brother of the rhyming trade At every turn implores the Painter's aid, And fondly enamoured of own foul brat Cries in an ecstacy, Paint this, draw that". The series was continued, for we find "Advice to a Painter upon the Defeat of the Rebels in the West and the Execution of the late Duke of Monmouth (17)" ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 148); "Advice to a Painter, being a Satire on the French King", &c., 1692, and "Advice to a Painter", 1697 ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 428).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 December 1666. 16 Dec 1666. Lord's Day. Lay long talking with my wife in bed, then up with great content and to my chamber to set right a picture or two, Lovett having sent me yesterday Sancta Clara's head varnished, which is very fine, and now my closet is so full stored, and so fine, as I would never desire to have it better. Dined without any strangers with me, which I do not like on Sundays.
Then after dinner by water to Westminster to see Mrs. Martin, whom I found up in her chamber and ready to go abroad. I sat there with her and her husband and others a pretty while, and then away to White Hall, and there walked up and down to the [his step-mother] Queen's (28) side, and there saw my dear Baroness Castlemayne (26), who continues admirable, methinks, and I do not hear but that the [his father] King (36) is the same to her still as ever.
Anon to chapel, by the King's closet, and heard a very good anthemne. Then with Lord Bruncker (46) to Sir W. Coventry's (38) chamber; and there we sat with him and talked. He is weary of anything to do, he says, in the Navy. He tells us this Committee of Accounts will enquire sharply into our office. And, speaking of Sir J. Minnes (67), he says he will not bear any body's faults but his own. He discoursed as bad of Sir W. Batten (65) almost, and cries out upon the discipline of the fleete, which is lost, and that there is not in any of the fourth rates and under scarce left one Sea Commander, but all young gentlemen; and what troubles him, he hears that the gentlemen give out that in two or three years a Tarpaulin shall not dare to look after being better than a Boatswain. Which he is troubled at, and with good reason, and at this day Sir Robert Holmes (44) is mighty troubled that his brother do not command in chief, but is commanded by Captain Hannum, who, Sir W. Coventry (38) says, he believes to be at least of as good blood, is a longer bred seaman, an elder officer, and an elder commander, but such is Sir R. Holmes's (44) pride as never to be stopt, he being greatly troubled at my Lord Bruncker's (46) late discharging all his men and officers but the standing officers at Chatham, and so are all other Commanders, and a very great cry hath been to the [his father] King (36) from them all in my Lord's absence. But Sir W. Coventry (38) do undertake to defend it, and my Lord Bruncker (46) got ground I believe by it, who is angry at Sir W. Batten's (65) and Sir W. Pen's (45) bad words concerning it, and I have made it worse by telling him that they refuse to sign to a paper which he and I signed on Saturday to declare the reason of his actions, which Sir W. Coventry (38) likes and would have it sent him and he will sign it, which pleases me well.
So we parted, and I with Lord Bruncker (46) to Sir P. Neale's (53) chamber, and there sat and talked awhile, Sir Edward Walker being there, and telling us how he hath lost many fine rowles of antiquity in heraldry by the late fire, but hath saved the most of his papers. Here was also Dr. Wallis (50), the famous scholar and mathematician; but he promises little.
Left them, and in the dark and cold home by water, and so to supper and to read and so to bed, my eyes being better to-day, and I cannot impute it to anything but by my being much in the dark to-night, for I plainly find that it is only excess of light that makes my eyes sore. This after noon I walked with Lord Bruncker (46) into the Park and there talked of the times, and he do think that the [his father] King (36) sees that he cannot never have much more money or good from this Parliament, and that therefore he may hereafter dissolve them, that as soon as he has the money settled he believes a peace will be clapped up, and that there are overtures of a peace, which if such as the Chancellor (57) can excuse he will take. For it is the Chancellor's (57) interest, he says, to bring peace again, for in peace he can do all and command all, but in war he cannot, because he understands not the nature of the war as to the management thereof. He tells me he do not believe the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) will go to sea again, though there are a great many about the [his father] King (36) that would be glad of any occasion to take him out of the world, he standing in their ways; and seemed to mean the Duke of Monmouth (17), who spends his time the most viciously and idly of any man, nor will be fit for any thing; yet bespeaks as if it were not impossible but the [his father] King (36) would own him for his son, and that there was a marriage between his [his mother] mother (36) and him; which God forbid should be if it be not true, nor will the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) easily be gulled in it. But this put to our other distractions makes things appear very sad, and likely to be the occasion of much confusion in a little time, and my Lord Bruncker (46) seems to say that nothing can help us but the King's making a peace soon as he hath this money; and thereby putting himself out of debt, and so becoming a good husband, and then he will neither need this nor any other Parliament, till he can have one to his mind: for no Parliament can, as he says, be kept long good, but they will spoil one another, and that therefore it hath been the practice of kings to tell Parliaments what he hath for them to do, and give them so long time to do it in, and no longer. Harry Kembe, one of our messengers, is lately dead.

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In 1667 [his father] King Chales II (36), his brother [his uncle] James (33), Prince Rupert (47) and James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (17) dined with Richard Neville 1615-1676 (51) at Billingbear House Waltham St Lawrence.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Richard Neville 1615-1676.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 April 1667. 08 Apr 1667. Up, and having dressed myself, to the office a little, and out, expecting to have seen the pretty daughter of the Ship taverne at the hither end of Billiter Lane (whom I never yet have opportunity to speak to). I in there to drink my morning draught of half a pint of Rhenish wine; but a ma doleur elle and their family are going away thence, and a new man come to the house. So I away to the Temple, to my new. bookseller's; and there I did agree for Rycaut's late History of the Turkish Policy, which costs me 55s.; whereas it was sold plain before the late fire for 8s., and bound and coloured as this is for 20s.; for I have bought it finely bound and truly coloured, all the figures, of which there was but six books done so, whereof the [his father] King (36) and [his uncle] Duke of York (33), and Duke of Monmouth (17), and Lord Arlington, had four. The fifth was sold, and I have bought the sixth.
So to enquire out Mrs. Knipp's new lodging, but could not, but do hear of her at the Playhouse, where she was practising, and I sent for her out by a porter, and the jade come to me all undressed, so cannot go home to my house to dinner, as I had invited her, which I was not much troubled at, because I think there is a distance between her and Mrs. Pierce, and so our company would not be so pleasant.
So home, and there find all things in good readiness for a good dinner, and here unexpectedly I find little Mis. Tooker, whom my wife loves not from the report of her being already naught; however, I do shew her countenance, and by and by come my guests, Dr. Clerke and his wife, and Mrs. Worshipp, and her daughter; and then Mr. Pierce and his wife, and boy, and Betty; and then I sent for Mercer; so that we had, with my wife and I, twelve at table, and very good and pleasant company, and a most neat and excellent, but dear dinner; but, Lord! to see with what envy they looked upon all my fine plate was pleasant; for I made the best shew I could, to let them understand me and my condition, to take down the pride of Mrs. Clerke, who thinks herself very great. We sat long, and very merry, and all things agreeable; and, after dinner, went out by coaches, thinking to have seen a play, but come too late to both houses, and then they had thoughts of going abroad somewhere; but I thought all the charge ought not to be mine, and therefore I endeavoured to part the company, and so ordered it to set them all down at Mrs. Pierce's; and there my wife and I and Mercer left them in good humour, and we three to the King's house, and saw the latter end of the "Surprisall", a wherein was no great matter, I thought, by what I saw there.
Thence away to Polichinello, and there had three times more sport than at the play, and so home, and there the first night we have been this year in the garden late, we three and our Barker singing very well, and then home to supper, and so broke up, and to bed mightily pleased with this day's pleasure.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 April 1667. 26 Apr 1667. Up, and by coach with Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir W. Pen (46) to White Hall, and there saw the Duke of Albemarle (58), who is not well, and do grow crazy.
Thence I to St. James's, to meet Sir G. Carteret (57), and did, and Lord Berkely (65), to get them (as we would have done the Duke of Albemarle (58)) to the meeting of the Lords of Appeale in the business of one of our prizes. With them to the meeting of the Guinny company, and there staid, and went with Lord Berkely. While I was waiting for him in the Matted Gallery, a young man was most finely working in Indian inke the great picture of the [his father] King (36) and [his step-mother] Queen (28) sitting, [Charles I and Henrietta Maria.] by Van Dyke (68); and did it very finely.
Thence to Westminster Hall to hear our cause, but [it] did not come before them to-day, so went down and walked below in the Hall, and there met with Ned Pickering (49), who tells me the ill newes of his nephew Gilbert (15), who is turned a very rogue, and then I took a turn with Mr. Evelyn (46), with whom I walked two hours, till almost one of the clock: talking of the badness of the Government, where nothing but wickedness, and wicked men and women command the [his father] King (36): that it is not in his nature to gainsay any thing that relates to his pleasures; that much of it arises from the sickliness of our Ministers of State, who cannot be about him as the idle companions are, and therefore he gives way to the young rogues; and then, from the negligence of the Clergy, that a Bishop shall never be seen about him, as the King of France (28) hath always: that the [his father] King (36) would fain have some of the same gang to be Lord Treasurer (60), which would be yet worse, for now some delays are put to the getting gifts of the [his father] King (36), as that whore my Baroness Byron (40)1, who had been, as he called it, the King's seventeenth whore abroad, did not leave him till she had got him to give her an order for £4000 worth of plate to be made for her; but by delays, thanks be to God! she died before she had it. !He tells me mighty stories of the King of France (28), how great a Prince he is. He hath made a code to shorten the law; he hath put out all the ancient commanders of castles that were become hereditary; he hath made all the Fryers subject to the bishops, which before were only subject to Rome, and so were hardly the King's subjects, and that none shall become 'religieux' but at such an age, which he thinks will in a few, years ruin the Pope, and bring France into a patriarchate. He confirmed to me the business of the want of paper at the Council-table the other day, which I have observed; Wooly being to have found it, and did, being called, tell the [his father] King (36) to his face the reason of it; and Mr. Evelyn (46) tells me several of the menial servants of the Court lacking bread, that have not received a farthing wages since the King's coming in. He tells me the King of France (28) hath his mistresses, but laughs at the foolery of our King, that makes his bastards Princes2, and loses his revenue upon them, and makes his mistresses his masters and the King of France (28) did never grant Lavalliere (22)3 any thing to bestow on others, and gives a little subsistence, but no more, to his bastards.
He told me the whole story of Mrs. Stewart's (19) going away from Court, he knowing her well; and believes her, up to her leaving the Court, to be as virtuous as any woman in the world: and told me, from a Lord that she told it to but yesterday, with her own mouth, and a sober man, that when the Duke of Richmond (28) did make love to her, she did ask the [his father] King (36), and he did the like also; and that the [his father] King (36) did not deny it, and [she] told this Lord that she was come to that pass as to resolve to have married any gentleman of £1500 a-year that would have had her in honour; for it was come to that pass, that she could not longer continue at Court without prostituting herself to the [his father] King (36)4, whom she had so long kept off, though he had liberty more than any other had, or he ought to have, as to dalliance5. She told this Lord that she had reflected upon the occasion she had given the world to think her a bad woman, and that she had no way but to marry and leave the Court, rather in this way of discontent than otherwise, that the world might see that she sought not any thing but her honour; and that she will never come to live at Court more than when she comes to town to come to kiss the [his grandmother] Queene (57) her Mistress's hand: and hopes, though she hath little reason to hope, she can please her Lord so as to reclaim him, that they may yet live comfortably in the country on his estate. She told this Lord that all the jewells she ever had given her at Court, or any other presents, more than the King's allowance of £700 per annum out of the Privypurse for her clothes, were, at her first coming the [his father] King (36) did give her a necklace of pearl of about £1100 and afterwards, about seven months since, when the [his father] King (36) had hopes to have obtained some courtesy of her, the [his father] King (36) did give her some jewells, I have forgot what, and I think a pair of pendants. The [his uncle] Duke of York (33), being once her Valentine, did give her a jewell of about £800; and my Lord Mandeville (33), her Valentine this year, a ring of about £300; and the King of France (28) would have had her mother, who, he says, is one of the most cunning women in the world, to have let her stay in France, saying that he loved her not as a mistress, but as one that he could marry as well as any lady in France; and that, if she might stay, for the honour of his Court he would take care she should not repent. But her mother, by command of the [his grandmother] Queen-Mother (57), thought rather to bring her into England; and the King of France (28) did give her a jewell: so that Mr. Evelyn (46) believes she may be worth in jewells about £6000, and that that is all that she hath in the world: and a worthy woman; and in this hath done as great an act of honour as ever was done by woman.
That now the Countesse Castlemayne (26) do carry all before her: and among other arguments to prove Mrs. Stewart (19) to have been honest to the last, he says that the King's keeping in still with my Baroness Castlemayne (26) do show it; for he never was known to keep two mistresses in his life, and would never have kept to her had he prevailed any thing with Mrs. Stewart (19).
She is gone yesterday with her Lord to Cobham. He did tell me of the ridiculous humour of our King and Knights of the Garter the other day, who, whereas heretofore their robes were only to be worn during their ceremonies and service, these, as proud of their coats, did wear them all day till night, and then rode into the Parke with them on. Nay, and he tells me he did see my Lord Oxford (40) and the Duke of Monmouth (18) in a Hackney-coach with two footmen in the Parke, with their robes on; which is a most scandalous thing, so as all gravity may be said to be lost among us.
By and by we discoursed of Sir Thomas Clifford (36), whom I took for a very rich and learned man, and of the great family of that name. He tells me he is only a man of about seven-score pounds a-year, of little learning more than the law of a justice of peace, which he knows well: a parson's son, got to be burgess in a little borough in the West, and here fell into the acquaintance of my Lord Arlington (49), whose creature he is, and never from him; a man of virtue, and comely, and good parts enough; and hath come into his place with a great grace, though with a great skip over the heads of a great many, as Chichly and Duncum, and some Lords that did expect it.
By the way, he tells me, that of all the great men of England there is none that endeavours more to raise those that he takes into favour than my Lord Arlington (49); and that, on that score, he is much more to be made one's patron than my Chancellor (58), who never did, nor never will do, any thing, but for money! After having this long discourse we parted, about one of the clock, and so away by water home, calling upon Michell, whose wife and girle are pretty well, and I home to dinner, and after dinner with Sir W. Batten (66) to White Hall, there to attend the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) before council, where we all met at his closet and did the little business we had, and here he did tell us how the King of France (28) is intent upon his design against Flanders, and hath drawn up a remonstrance of the cause of the war, and appointed the 20th of the next month for his rendezvous, and himself to prepare for the campaign the 30th, so that this, we are in hopes, will keep him in employment. Turenne is to be his general. Here was Carcasses business unexpectedly moved by him, but what was done therein appears in my account of his case in writing by itself. Certain newes of the Dutch being abroad on our coast with twenty-four great ships.
This done Sir W. Batten (66) and I back again to London, and in the way met my Lady Newcastle (44) going with her coaches and footmen all in velvet: herself, whom I never saw before, as I have heard her often described, for all the town-talk is now-a-days of her extravagancies, with her velvetcap, her hair about her ears; many black patches, because of pimples about her mouth; naked-necked, without any thing about it, and a black just-au-corps. She seemed to me a very comely woman: but I hope to see more of her on Mayday. My mind is mightily of late upon a coach.
At home, to the office, where late spending all the evening upon entering in long hand our late passages with Carcasse for memory sake, and so home in great pain in my back by the uneasiness of Sir W. Batten's (66) coach driving hard this afternoon over the stones to prevent coming too late. So at night to supper in great pain, and to bed, where lay in great pain, not able to turn myself all night.
Note 1. Eleanor (40), daughter of Robert Needham, Viscount Kilmurrey, and widow of Peter Warburton, became in 1644 the second wife of John Byron (68), first Lord Byron. Died 1663. B.
Note 2. Louis made his own bastards dukes and Princes, and legitimatized them as much as he could, connecting them also by marriage with the real blood-royal. B.
Note 3. Louise Francoise de la Baume le Blanc de la Valliere (22) had four children by Louis XIV., of whom only two survived - Marie Anne Bourbon, called Mademoiselle de Blois, born in 1666, afterwards married to the Prince de Conti (6), and the Comte de Vermandois, born in 1667. In that year (the very year in which Evelyn was giving this account to Pepys), the Duchy of Vaujour and two baronies were created in favour of La Valliere, and her daughter, who, in the deed of creation, was legitimatized, and styled Princess. B.
Note 4. Even at a much later time Mrs. GoDolphin well resolved "not to talk foolishly to men, more especially the [his father] King (36)",—"be sure never to talk to the [his father] King (36)" ("Life", by Evelyn). These expressions speak volumes as to Charles's character. B.
Note 5. Evelyn evidently believed the Duchess of Richmond to be innocent; and his testimony, coupled with her own declaration, ought to weigh down all the scandal which Pepys reports from other sources. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 May 1667. 14 May 1667. Up by 5 o'clock, and when ready down to my chamber, and there with Mr. Fist, Sir W. Batten's (66) clerk, who writes mighty well, writing over our report in Mr. Carcasses business, in which we continued till 9 o'clock, that the office met, and then to the office, where all the morning, and so at noon home to dinner, where Mr. Holliard (58) come and eat with us, who among other things do give me good hopes that we shall give my father some ease as to his rupture when he comes to town, which I expect to-morrow.
After dinner comes Fist, and he and I to our report again till 9 o'clock, and then by coach to my Chancellor's (58), where I met Mr. Povy (53), expecting the coming of the rest of the Commissioners for Tangier. Here I understand how the two Dukes, both the only sons of the [his uncle] Duke of York (33), are sick even to danger, and that on Sunday last they were both so ill, as that the poor Duchess (30) was in doubt which would die first: the Duke of Cambridge (3) of some general disease; the other little Duke (18), whose title I know not, of the convulsion fits, of which he had four this morning. Fear that either of them might be dead, did make us think that it was the occasion that the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) and others were not come to the meeting of the Commission which was designed, and my Chancellor (58) did expect.
And it was pretty to observe how, when my Lord sent down to St. James's to see why the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) come not, and Mr. Povy (53), who went, returned, my Lord (Chancellor (58)) did ask, not how the Princes or the Dukes do, as other people do, but "How do the children?" which methought was mighty great, and like a great man and grandfather. I find every body mightily concerned for these children, as a matter wherein the State is much concerned that they should live.
At last it was found that the meeting did fail from no known occasion, at which my Chancellor (58) was angry, and did cry out against Creed that he should give him no notice. So Povy (53) and I went forth, and staid at the gate of the house by the streete, and there stopped to talk about the business of the Treasury of Tangier, which by the badness of our credit, and the resolution that the Governor shall not be paymaster, will force me to provide one there to be my paymaster, which I will never do, but rather lose my place, for I will not venture my fortune to a fellow to be employed so far off, and in that wicked place.
Thence home, and with Fist presently to the finishing the writing fair of our report. And by and by to Sir W. Batten's (66), and there he and I and Sir J. Minnes (68) and Sir W. Pen (46) did read and sign it with great good liking, and so away to the office again to look over and correct it, and then home to supper and to bed, my mind being pretty well settled, having this report done, and so to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 June 1667. 01 Jun 1667. Up; and there comes to me Mr. Commander, whom I employ about hiring of some ground behind the office, for the building of me a stable and coach-house: for I do find it necessary for me, both in respect to honour and the profit of it also, my expense in Hackney-coaches being now so great, to keep a coach, and therefore will do it. Having given him some instructions about it, I to the office, where we sat all the morning; where we have news that our peace with Spayne, as to trade, is wholly concluded, and we are to furnish him with some men for Flanders against the French. How that will agree with the French, I know not; but they say that he also hath liberty, to get what men he pleases out of England. But for the Spaniard, I hear that my Lord Castlehaven (50) is raising a regiment of 4000 men, which he is to command there; and several young gentlemen are going over in commands with him: and they say the Duke of Monmouth (18) is going over only as a traveller, not to engage on either side, but only to see the campagne, which will be becoming him much more than to live whoreing and rogueing, as he now do.
After dinner to the office, where, after a little nap, I fell to business, and did very much with infinite joy to myself, as it always is to me when I have dispatched much business, and therefore it troubles me to see how hard it is for me to settle to it sometimes when my mind is upon pleasure.
So home late to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 June 1667. 09 Jun 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and so walked to St. James's, where I hear that the Duke of Cambridge (3), who was given over long since by the Doctors, is now likely to recover; for which God be praised!
To Sir W. Coventry (39), and there talked with him a great while; and mighty glad I was of my good fortune to visit him, for it keeps in my acquaintance with him, and the world sees it, and reckons my interest accordingly. In comes my Lord Barkeley (65), who is going down to Harwich also to look after the militia there: and there is also the Duke of Monmouth (18), and with him a great many young Hectors, the Lord Chesterfield (33), my Lord Mandeville (33), and others: but to little purpose, I fear, but to debauch the country women thereabouts. My Lord Barkeley (65) wanting some maps, and Sir W. Coventry (39) recommending the six maps of England that are bound up for the pocket, I did offer to present my Lord with them, which he accepted: and so I will send them him.
Thence to White Hall, and there to the Chapel, where I met Creed, and he and I staid to hear who preached, which was a man who begun dully, and so we away by water and landed in Southwarke, and to a church in the street where we take water beyond the bridge, which was so full and the weather hot that we could not stand there.
So to my house, where we find my father and wife at dinner, and after dinner Creed and I by water to White Hall, and there we parted, and I to Sir G. Carteret's (57), where, he busy, I up into the house, and there met with a gentleman, Captain Aldrige, that belongs to my Lord Barkeley (65), and I did give him the book of maps for my Lord, and so I to Westminster Church and there staid a good while, and saw Betty Michell there.
So away thence, and after church time to Mrs. Martin's, and then hazer what I would with her, and then took boat and up, all alone, a most excellent evening, as high as Barne Elmes, and there took a turn; and then to my boat again, and home, reading and making an end of the book I lately bought a merry satyr called "The Visions", translated from Spanish by L'Estrange, wherein there are many very pretty things; but the translation is, as to the rendering it into English expression, the best that ever I saw, it being impossible almost to conceive that it should be a translation. Being come home I find an order come for the getting some fire-ships presently to annoy the Dutch, who are in the King's Channel, and expected up higher. So Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir W. Pen (46) being come this evening from their country houses to town we did issue orders about it, and then home to supper and, to bed,

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 September 1667. 11 Sep 1667. Up, and with Mr. Gawden to the Exchequer. By the way, he tells me this day he is to be answered whether he must hold Sheriffe or no; for he would not hold unless he may keep it at his office, which is out of the city (and so my Lord Mayor must come with his sword down, whenever he comes thither), which he do, because he cannot get a house fit for him in the city, or else he will fine for it. Among others that they have in nomination for Sheriffe, one is little Chaplin (40), who was his servant, and a very young man to undergo that place; but as the city is now, there is no great honour nor joy to be had, in being a public officer. At the Exchequer I looked after my business, and when done went home to the 'Change, and there bought a case of knives for dinner, and a dish of fruit for 5s., and bespoke other things, and then home, and here I find all things in good order, and a good dinner towards. !Anon comes Sir W. Batten (66) and his lady, and Mr. Griffith, their ward, and Sir W. Pen (46) and his lady (43), and Mrs. Lowther, who is grown, either through pride or want of manners, a fool, having not a word to say almost all dinner; and, as a further mark of a beggarly, proud fool, hath a bracelet of diamonds and rubies about her wrist, and a sixpenny necklace about her neck, and not one good rag of clothes upon her back; and Sir John Chichly (27) in their company, and Mrs. Turner (44). Here I had an extraordinary good and handsome dinner for them, better than any of them deserve or understand, saving Sir John Chichly (27) and Mrs. Turner (44), and not much mirth, only what I by discourse made, and that against my genius.
After dinner I took occasion to break up the company soon as I could, and all parted, Sir W. Batten (66) and I by water to White Hall, there to speak with the Commissioners of the Treasury, who are mighty earnest for our hastening all that may be the paying off of the Seamen, now there is money, and are considering many other thins for easing of charge, which I am glad of, but vexed to see that J. Duncomb (45) should be so pressing in it as if none of us had like care with him. Having done there, I by coach to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there saw part of "The Ungratefull Lovers"; and sat by Beck Marshall, who is very handsome near hand. Here I met Mrs. Turner (44) and my wife as we agreed, and together home, and there my wife and I part of the night at the flageolet, which she plays now any thing upon almost at first sight and in good time.
But here come Mr. Moore, and sat and discoursed with me of publique matters: the sum of which is, that he do doubt that there is more at the bottom than the removal of the Chancellor (58); that is, he do verily believe that the [his father] King (37) do resolve to declare the Duke of Monmouth (18) legitimate, and that we shall soon see it. This I do not think the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) will endure without blows; but his poverty, and being lessened by having the Chancellor (58) fallen and Sir W. Coventry (39) gone from him, will disable him from being able to do any thing almost, he being himself almost lost in the esteem of people; and will be more and more, unless my Chancellor (58), who is already begun to be pitied by some people, and to be better thought of than was expected, do recover himself in Parliament. He would seem to fear that this difference about the Crowne (if there be nothing else) will undo us. He do say that, that is very true; that my Lord [Chancellor (58)] did lately make some stop of some grants of £2000 a-year to my Lord Grandison (50), which was only in his name, for the use of my Baroness Castlemaine's (26) children; and that this did incense her, and she did speak very scornful words, and sent a scornful message to him about it.
He gone, after supper, I to bed, being mightily pleased with my wife's playing so well upon the flageolet, and I am resolved she shall learn to play upon some instrument, for though her eare be bad, yet I see she will attain any thing to be done by her hand.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 September 1667. 14 Sep 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning busy.
At noon comes Mr. Pierce and dined with me to advise about several matters of his relating to the office and his purse, and here he told me that the [his father] King (37) and [his uncle] Duke of York (33) and the whole Court is mighty joyful at the Duchesse of York's (30) being brought to bed this day, or yesterday, of a son; which will settle men's minds mightily.
And he tells me that he do think that what the [his father] King (37) do, of giving the Duke of Monmouth (18) the command of his Guards, and giving my Lord Gerard (49) £12,000 for it, is merely to find an employment for him upon which he may live, and not out of any design to bring him into any title to the Crowne; which Mr. Moore did the other day put me into great fear of.
After dinner, he gone, my wife to the King's play-house to see "The Northerne Castle", which I think I never did see before. Knipp acted in it, and did her part very extraordinary well; but the play is but a mean, sorry play; but the house very full of gallants. It seems, it hath not been acted a good while.
Thence to the Exchange for something for my wife, and then home and to the office, and then home to our flageolet, and so to bed, being mightily troubled in mind at the liberty I give myself of going to plays upon pretence of the weakness of my eyes, that cannot continue so long together at work at my office, but I must remedy it.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 September 1667. 16 Sep 1667. Up, and several come to me, among others Mr. Yeabsly of Plymouth, to discourse about their matters touching Tangier, and by and by Sir H. Cholmly (35), who was with me a good while; who tells me that the [his uncle] Duke of York's (33) child is christened, the Duke of Albemarle (58) and the Marquis of Worcester (38) godfathers, and my Lady Suffolke (45) godmother; and they have named it Edgar, which is a brave name. But it seems they are more joyful in the Chancellor's (58) family, at the birth of this Prince, than in wisdom they should, for fear it should give the [his father] King (37) cause of jealousy.
Sir H. Cholmly (35) do not seem to think there is any such thing can be in the King's intention as that of raising the Duke of Monmouth (18) to the Crowne, though he thinks there may possibly be some persons that would, and others that would be glad to have the [his step-mother] Queen (28) removed to some monastery, or somewhere or other, to make room for a new wife; for they will all be unsafe under the [his uncle] Duke of York (33). He says the [his father] King (37) and Parliament will agree; that is, that the [his father] King (37) will do any thing that they will have him. We together to the Exchequer about our Tangier orders, and so parted at the New Exchange, where I staid reading Mrs. Phillips's poems till my wife and Mercer called me to Mrs. Pierce's, by invitation to dinner, where I find her painted, which makes me loathe her, and the nastiest poor dinner that made me sick, only here I met with a Fourth Advice to the Painter upon the coming in of the Dutch to the River and end of the war, that made my heart ake to read, it being too sharp, and so true. Here I also saw a printed account of the examinations taken, touching the burning of the City of London, shewing the plot of the Papists therein; which, it seems, hath been ordered and to have been burnt by the hands of the hangman, in Westminster Palace. I will try to get one of them.
After dinner she showed us her closet, which is pretty, with her James's picture done by Hales, but with a mighty bad hand, which is his great fault that he do do negligently, and the drapery also not very good. Being tired of being here, and sick of their damned sluttish dinner, my wife and Mercer and I away to the King's play-house, to see the "Scornfull Lady"; but it being now three o'clock there was not one soul in the pit; whereupon, for shame, we would not go in, but, against our wills, went all to see "Tu Quoque" again, where there is a pretty store of company, and going with a prejudice the play appeared better to us. Here we saw Madam Morland, who is grown mighty fat, but is very comely. But one of the best arts of our sport was a mighty pretty lady that sat behind, that did laugh so heartily and constantly, that it did me good to hear her.
Thence to the King's house, upon a wager of mine with my wife, that there would be no acting there today, there being no company: so I went in and found a pretty good company there, and saw their dance at the end of he play, and so to the coach again, and to the Cock ale house, and there drank in our coach, and so home, and my wife read to me as last night, and so to bed vexed with our dinner to-day, and myself more with being convinced that Mrs. Pierce paints, so that henceforth to be sure I shall loathe her.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 November 1667. 04 Nov 1667. Up betimes, and by water with Sir R. Ford (53) (who is going to Parliament) to Westminster; and there landing at the New Exchange stairs, I to Sir W. Coventry (39): and there he read over to me the D. Gawden's and the Duke of Albemarle's (58) Narratives; wherein they are very severe against him and our Office. But Sir W. Coventry (39) do contemn them; only that their persons and qualities are great, and so I do perceive (he) is afeard of them, though he will not confess it. But he do say that, if he can get out of these briars, he will never trouble himself with Princes nor Dukes again. He finds several things in their Narratives, which are both inconsistent and foolish, as well as untrue, especially as to what the Duke of Albemarle (58) avers of his knowing of the enemy's being abroad sooner than he says it, which Sir W. Coventry (39) will shew him his own letter against him, for I confess I do see so much, that, were I but well possessed of what I should have in the world, I think I could willingly retreat, and trouble myself no more with it.
Thence home, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (35), and he and I to the Excise Office to see what tallies are paying, and thence back to the Old Exchange, by the way talking of news, and he owning Sir W. Coventry (39), in his opinion, to be one of the worthiest men in the nation, as I do really think he is. He tells me he do think really that they will cut off my Chancellor's (58) head, the Chancellor (58) at this day showing as much pride as is possible to those few that venture their fortunes by coming to see him; and that the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) is troubled much, knowing that those that fling down the Chancellor (58) cannot stop there, but will do something to him, to prevent his having it in his power hereafter to avenge himself and father-in-law upon them. And this Sir H. Cholmly (35) fears may be by divorcing the [his step-mother] Queen (28) and getting another, or declaring the Duke of Monmouth (18) legitimate; which God forbid! He tells me he do verily believe that there will come in an impeachment of High Treason against my Lord of Ormond (57); among other things, for ordering the quartering of soldiers in Ireland on free quarters; which, it seems, is High Treason in that country, and was one of the things that lost the Lord Strafford (74) his head, and the law is not yet repealed; which, he says, was a mighty oversight of him not to have it repealed, which he might with ease have done, or have justified himself by an Act. From the Exchange I took a coach, and went to Turlington, the great spectacle-maker, for advice, who dissuades me from using old spectacles, but rather young ones, and do tell me that nothing can wrong my eyes more than for me to use reading-glasses, which do magnify much.
Thence home, and there dined, and then abroad and left my wife and Willett at her tailor's, and I to White Hall, where the Commissioners of the Treasury do not sit, and therefore I to Westminster to the Hall, and there meeting with Col. Reames I did very cheaply by him get copies of the D. Gawden's and Duke of Albemarle's (58) Narratives, which they did deliver the other day to the House, of which I am mighty glad, both for my present information and for my future satisfaction. So back by coach, and took up my wife, and away home, and there in my chamber all the evening among my papers and my accounts of Tangier to my great satisfaction, and so to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 December 1667. 17 Dec 1667. Up, and to the office, where very busy all the morning, and then in the afternoon I with Sir W. Pen (46) and Sir T. Harvy (42) to White Hall to attend the [his uncle] Duke of York (34), who is now as well as ever, and there we did our usual business with him, and so away home with Sir W. Pen (46), and there to the office, where pretty late doing business, my wife having been abroad all day with Mrs. Turner (44) buying of one thing or other. This day I do hear at White Hall that the Duke of Monmouth (18) is sick, and in danger of the smallpox.
So home to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 December 1667. 30 Dec 1667. Up before day, and by coach to Westminster, and there first to Sir H. Cholmly (35), and there I did to my great content deliver him up his little several papers for sums of money paid him, and took his regular receipts upon his orders, wherein I am safe.
Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the [his father] King (37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (53), Ashly (46), Hollis (68), Secretary Morrice (65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (69), and my Lord Bridgewater (44). He tells me that this is true, only the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) himself did tell him so: that the [his father] King (37) and the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (18), and it may be, against the [his grandmother] Queene (58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (39) do rule all now, and the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the [his father] King (37), Sir W. Coventry (39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (39), Bristoll (55), and Arlington (49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden, but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.
Thence to the Old Exchange together, he telling me that he believes there will be no such turning out of great men as is talked of, but that it is only to fright people, but I do fear there may be such a thing doing. He do mightily inveigh against the folly of the [his father] King (37) to bring his matters to wrack thus, and that we must all be undone without help. I met with Cooling at the Temple-gate, after I had been at both my booksellers and there laid out several pounds in books now against the new year. From the 'Change (where I met with Captain Cocke (50), who would have borrowed money of me, but I had the grace to deny him, he would have had 3 or £400) I with Cocke (50) and Mr. Temple (whose wife was just now brought to bed of a boy, but he seems not to be at all taken with it, which is a strange consideration how others do rejoice to have a child born), to Sir G. Carteret's (57), in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and there did dine together, there being there, among other company, Mr. Attorney Montagu (49), and his fine lady, a fine woman.
After dinner, I did understand from my Lady Jemimah that her brother Hinchingbroke's business was to be ended this day, as she thinks, towards his match, and they do talk here of their intent to buy themselves some new clothes against the wedding, which I am very glad of.
After dinner I did even with Sir G. Carteret (57) the accounts of the interest of the money which I did so long put out for him in Sir R. Viner's (36) hands, and by it I think I shall be a gainer about £28, which is a very good reward for the little trouble I have had in it.
Thence with Sir Philip Carteret (26) to the King's playhouse, there to see "Love's Cruelty", an old play, but which I have not seen before; and in the first act Orange Moll come to me, with one of our porters by my house, to tell me that Mrs. Pierce and Knepp did dine at my house to-day, and that I was desired to come home. So I went out presently, and by coach home, and they were just gone away so, after a very little stay with my wife, I took coach again, and to the King's playhouse again, and come in the fourth act; and it proves to me a very silly play, and to everybody else, as far as I could judge. But the jest is, that here telling Moll how I had lost my journey, she told me that Mrs. Knepp was in the house, and so shews me to her, and I went to her, and sat out the play, and then with her to Mrs. Manuel's, where Mrs. Pierce was, and her boy and girl; and here I did hear Mrs. Manuel and one of the Italians, her gallant, sing well. But yet I confess I am not delighted so much with it, as to admire it: for, not understanding the words, I lose the benefit of the vocalitys of the musick, and it proves only instrumental; and therefore was more pleased to hear Knepp sing two or three little English things that I understood, though the composition of the other, and performance, was very fine.
Thence, after sitting and talking a pretty while, I took leave and left them there, and so to my bookseller's, and paid for the books I had bought, and away home, where I told my wife where I had been. But she was as mad as a devil, and nothing but ill words between us all the evening while we sat at cards—W. Hewer (25) and the girl by—even to gross ill words, which I was troubled for, but do see that I must use policy to keep her spirit down, and to give her no offence by my being with Knepp and Pierce, of which, though she will not own it, yet she is heartily jealous. At last it ended in few words and my silence (which for fear of growing higher between us I did forbear), and so to supper and to bed without one word one to another.
This day I did carry money out, and paid several debts. Among others, my tailor, and shoemaker, and draper, Sir W. Turner (52), who begun to talk of the Commission of accounts, wherein he is one; but though they are the greatest people that ever were in the nation as to power, and like to be our judges, yet I did never speak one word to him of desiring favour, or bidding him joy in it, but did answer him to what he said, and do resolve to stand or fall by my silent preparing to answer whatever can be laid to me, and that will be my best proceeding, I think. This day I got a little rent in my new fine camlett cloak with the latch of Sir G. Carteret's (57) door; but it is darned up at my tailor's, that it will be no great blemish to it; but it troubled me. I could not but observe that Sir Philip Carteret (26) would fain have given me my going into a play; but yet, when he come to the door, he had no money to pay for himself, I having refused to accept of it for myself, but was fain; and I perceive he is known there, and do run upon the score for plays, which is a shame; but I perceive always he is in want of money1. In the pit I met with Sir Ch. North (31), formerly Mr. North, who was with my Lord at sea; and he, of his own accord, was so silly as to tell me he is married; and for her (36) quality (being a Lord's daughter, my Lord Grey (74)), and person, and beauty, and years, and estate, and disposition, he is the happiest man in the world. I am sure he is an ugly fellow; but a good scholar and sober gentleman; and heir to his father, now Lord North (74), the old Lord being dead.
Note 1. The practice of gallants attending the Theatre without payment is illustrated by Mr. Lowe in his "Betterton (32)", from Shadwell's "True Widow": "1st Doorkeeper. Pray, sir, pay me: my masters will make me pay it. 3d Man. Impudent rascal, do you ask me for money? Take that, sirrah. 2nd Doorkeeper. Will you pay me, sir? 4th Man. No; I don't intend to stay. 2nd Doorkeeper. So you say every day, and see two or three acts for nothing"..

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 January 1668. 14 Jan 1668. At the office all the morning, and at noon home to dinner, and after dinner with Mr. Clerke (45) and Gibson to the Temple (my wife and girle going further by coach), and there at the Auditor's did begin the examining my Tangier accounts, and did make a great entry into it and with great satisfaction, and I am glad I am so far eased. So appointing another day for further part of my accounts, I with Gibson to my bookseller, Martin, and there did receive my book I expected of China, a most excellent book with rare cuts; and there fell into discourse with him about the burning of Paul's when the City was burned; his house being in the church-yard. And he tells me that it took fire first upon the end of a board that, among others, was laid upon the roof instead of lead, the lead being broke off, and thence down lower and lower: but that the burning of the goods under St. Fayth's arose from the goods taking fire in the church-yard, and so got into St. Fayth's Church; and that they first took fire from the Draper's side, by some timber of the houses that were burned falling into the church. He says that one Warehouse of books was saved under Paul's; and he says that there were several dogs found burned among the goods in the church-yard, and but one man, which was an old man, that said he would go and save a blanket which he had in the church, and, being a weak old man, the fire overcome him, and was burned. He says that most of the booksellers do design to fall a-building again the next year; but he says that the Bishop of London do use them most basely, worse than any other landlords, and says he will be paid to this day the rent, or else he will not come to treat with them for the time to come; and will not, on that condition either, promise them any thing how he will use them; and, the Parliament sitting, he claims his privilege, and will not be cited before the Lord Chief justice, as others are there, to be forced to a fair dealing.
Thence by coach to Mrs. Pierce's, where my wife and Deb. is; and there they fell to discourse of the last night's work at Court, where the ladies and Duke of Monmouth (18) and others acted "The Indian Emperour"; wherein they told me these things most remark able: that not any woman but the [his wife] Duchesse of Monmouth (16) and Mrs. Cornwallis (18) did any thing but like fools and stocks, but that these two did do most extraordinary well: that not any man did any thing well but Captain O'Bryan, who spoke and did well, but, above all things, did dance most incomparably. That she did sit near the players of the Duke's house; among the rest, Mis Davis (20), who is the most impertinent slut, she says, in the world; and the more, now the [his father] King (37) do show her countenance; and is reckoned his mistress, even to the scorne of the whole world; the [his father] King (37) gazing on her, and my Baroness Castlemayne (27) being melancholy and out of humour, all the play, not smiling once. The [his father] King (37), it seems, hath given her a ring of £700, which she shews to every body, and owns that the [his father] King (37) did give it her; and he hath furnished a house for her in Suffolke Street most richly, which is a most infinite shame. It seems she is a bastard of Colonell Howard, my Lord Berkshire (80), and that he do pimp to her for the [his father] King (37), and hath got her for him; but Pierce says that she is a most homely jade as ever she saw, though she dances beyond any thing in the world. She tells me that the Duchesse of Richmond (20) do not yet come to the Court, nor hath seen the [his father] King (37), nor will not, nor do he own his desire of seeing her; but hath used means to get her to Court, but they do not take.
Thence home, and there I to my chamber, having a great many books brought me home from my bookbinder's, and so I to the new setting of my books against the next year, which costs me more trouble than I expected, and at it till two o'clock in the morning, and then to bed, the business not being yet done to my mind. This evening come Mr. Mills and his wife to see and sit and talk with us, which they did till 9 o'clock at night, and then parted, and I to my books.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 April 1668. 22 Apr 1668. Up, and all the morning at my office busy. At noon, it being washing day, I toward White Hall, and stopped and dined all alone at Hercules Pillars, where I was mighty pleased to overhear a woman talk to her counsel how she had troubled her neighbours with law, and did it very roguishly and wittily.
Thence to White Hall, and there we attended the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) as usual; and I did present Mrs. Pett, the widow, and her petition to the [his uncle] Duke of York (34), for some relief from the [his father] King (37). Here was to-day a proposition made to the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) by Captain Von Hemskirke for £20,000, to discover an art how to make a ship go two foot for one what any ship do now, which the [his father] King (37) inclines to try, it costing him nothing to try; and it is referred to us to contract with the man.
Thence to attend the Council about the business of certificates to the Exchequer, where the Commissioners of the Treasury of different minds, some would, and my Lord Ashly (46) would not have any more made out, and carried it there should not. After done here, and the Council up, I by water from the Privy-stairs to Westminster Hall; and, taking water, the [his father] King (37) and the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) were in the new buildings; and the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) called to me whither I was going? and I answered aloud, "To wait on our maisters at Westminster"; at which he and all the company laughed; but I was sorry and troubled for it afterwards, for fear any Parliament-man should have been there; and will be a caution to me for the time to come. Met with Roger Pepys (50), who tells me they have been on the business of money, but not ended yet, but will take up more time.
So to the fishmonger's, and bought a couple of lobsters, and over to the sparagus garden, thinking to have met Mr. Pierce, and his wife and Knepp; but met their servant coming to bring me to Chatelin's, the French house, in Covent Garden, and there with musick and good company, Manuel and his wife, and one Swaddle, a clerk of Lord Arlington's (50), who dances, and speaks French well, but got drunk, and was then troublesome, and here mighty merry till ten at night, and then I away, and got a coach, and so home, where I find Balty (28) and his wife come to town, and did sup with them, and so they to bed. This night the Duke of Monmouth (19) and a great many blades were at Chatelin's, and I left them there, with a Hackney-coach attending him.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 September 1668. 16 Sep 1668. Up; and dressing myself I did begin para toker the breasts of my maid Jane, which elle did give way to more than usual heretofore, so I have a design to try more when I can bring it to.
So to the office, and thence to St. James's to the [his uncle] Duke of York (34), walking it to the Temple, and in my way observe that the Stockes are now pulled quite down; and it will make the coming into Cornhill and Lumber Street mighty noble. I stopped, too, at Paul's, and there did go into St. Fayth's Church, and also in the body of the west part of the Church; and do see a hideous sight of the walls of the Church ready to fall, that I was in fear as long as I was in it: and here I saw the great vaults underneath the body of the Church. No hurt, I hear, is done yet, since their going to pull down the Church and steeple; but one man, on Monday this week, fell from the top to a piece of the roof, of the east end, that stands next the steeple, and there broke himself all to pieces. It is pretty here to see how the late Church was but a case wrought over the old Church; for you may see the very old pillars standing whole within the wall of this. When I come to St. James's, I find the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) gone with the [his father] King (38) to see the muster of the Guards in Hyde Park; and their Colonel, the Duke of Monmouth (19), to take his command this day of the King's Life-Guard, by surrender of my Lord Gerard (50). So I took a Hackney-coach and saw it all: and indeed it was mighty noble, and their firing mighty fine, and the Duke of Monmouth (19) in mighty rich clothes; but the well-ordering of the men I understand not. Here, among a thousand coaches that were there, I saw and spoke to Mrs. Pierce: and by and by Mr. Wren (39) hunts me out, and gives me my Lord Anglesey's (54) answer to the [his uncle] Duke of York's (34) letter, where, I perceive, he do do what he can to hurt me, by bidding the [his uncle] Duke of York (34) call for my books: but this will do me all the right in the world, and yet I am troubled at it. So away out of the Park, and home; and there Mr. Gibson and I to dinner: and all the afternoon with him, writing over anew, and a little altering, my answer to the [his uncle] Duke of York (34), which I have not yet delivered, and so have the opportunity of doing it after seeing all their answers, though this do give me occasion to alter very little. This done, he to write it over, and I to the Office, where late, and then home; and he had finished it; and then he to read to me the life of Archbishop Laud (94), wrote by Dr. Heylin; which is a shrewd book, but that which I believe will do the Bishops in general no great good, but hurt, it pleads for so much Popish. So after supper to bed. This day my father's letters tell me of the death of poor Fancy, in the country, big with puppies, which troubles me, as being one of my oldest acquaintances and servants. Also good Stankes is dead.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 November 1668. 23 Nov 1668. Up, and called upon by W. Howe, who went, with W. Hewer (26) with me, by water, to the Temple; his business was to have my advice about a place he is going to buy-the Clerk of the Patent's place, which I understand not, and so could say little to him, but fell to other talk, and setting him in at the Temple, we to White Hall, and there I to visit Lord Sandwich (43), who is now so reserved, or moped rather, I think, with his own business, that he bids welcome to no man, I think, to his satisfaction. However, I bear with it, being willing to give him as little trouble as I can, and to receive as little from him, wishing only that I had my money in my purse, that I have lent him; but, however, I shew no discontent at all.
So to White Hall, where a Committee of Tangier expected, but none met. I met with Mr. Povy (54), who I discoursed with about publick business, who tells me that this discourse which I told him of, of the Duke of Monmouth (19) being made Prince of Wales, hath nothing in it; though he thinks there are all the endeavours used in the world to overthrow the [his uncle] Duke of York (35). He would not have me doubt of my safety in the Navy, which I am doubtful of from the reports of a general removal; but he will endeavour to inform me, what he can gather from my Lord Arlington (50). That he do think that the Duke of Buckingham (40) hath a mind rather to overthrow all the Kingdom, and bring in a Commonwealth, wherein he may think to be General of their Army, or to make himself King, which, he believes, he may be led to, by some advice he hath had with conjurors, which he do affect.
Thence with W. Hewer (26), who goes up and down with me like a jaylour, but yet with great love and to my great good liking, it being my desire above all things to please my wife therein. I took up my wife and boy at Unthank's, and from there to Hercules Pillars, and there dined, and thence to our upholster's, about some things more to buy, and so to see our coach, and so to the looking-glass man's, by the New Exchange, and so to buy a picture for our blue chamber chimney, and so home; and there I made my boy to read to me most of the night, to get through the Life of the Archbishop of Canterbury. At supper comes Mary Batelier, and with us all the evening, prettily talking, and very innocent company she is; and she gone, we with much content to bed, and to sleep, with mighty rest all night.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 March 1669. 08 Mar 1669. Up, and with W. Hewer (27) by Hackney coach to White Hall, where the [his father] King (38) and the [his uncle] Duke of York (35) is gone by three in the morning, and had the misfortune to be overset with the [his uncle] Duke of York (35), the Duke of Monmouth (19), and the Prince, at the King's Gate' in Holborne; and the [his father] King (38) all dirty, but no hurt. How it come to pass I know not, but only it was dark, and the torches did not, they say, light the coach as they should do. I thought this morning to have seen my Lord Sandwich (43) before he went out of town, but I come half an hour too late; which troubles me, I having not seen him since my Lady Palls died. So W. Hewer (27) and I to the Harp-and-Ball, to drink my morning draught, having come out in haste; and there met with King, the Parliament-man, with whom I had some impertinent talk. And so to the Privy Seal Office, to examine what records I could find there, for my help in the great business I am put upon, of defending the present constitution of the Navy; but there could not have liberty without order from him that is in present waiting, Mr. Bickerstaffe, who is out of town. This I did after I had walked to the New Exchange and there met Mr. Moore, who went with me thither, and I find him the same discontented poor man as ever. He tells me that Mr. Shepley is upon being turned away from my Lord's family, and another sent down, which I am sorry for; but his age and good fellowship have almost made him fit for nothing.
Thence, at Unthanke's my wife met me, and with our coach to my cozen Turner's and there dined, and after dinner with my wife alone to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Mocke Astrologer", which I have often seen, and but an ordinary play; and so to my cozen Turner's again, where we met Roger Pepys (51), his wife, and two daughters, and there staid and talked a little, and then home, and there my wife to read to me, my eyes being sensibly hurt by the too great lights of the playhouse.
So to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 May 1669. 19 May 1669. With my coach to St. James's; and there finding the [his uncle] Duke of York (35) gone to muster his men, in Hyde Park, I alone with my boy thither, and there saw more, walking out of my coach as other gentlemen did, of a soldier's trade, than ever I did in my life: the men being mighty fine, and their Commanders, particularly the Duke of Monmouth (20); but me-thought their trade but very easy as to the mustering of their men, and the men but indifferently ready to perform what was commanded, in the handling of their arms. Here the news was first talked of Harry Killigrew's (32) being wounded in nine places last night, by footmen, in the highway, going from the Park in a Hackney-coach towards Hammersmith, to his house at Turnham Greene: they being supposed to be my Lady Shrewsbury's (27) men, she being by, in her coach with six horses; upon an old grudge of his saying openly that he had lain with her.
Thence by and by to White Hall, and there I waited upon the [his father] King (38) and [his step-mother] Queen (30) all dinner-time, in the [his step-mother] Queen's (30) lodgings, she being in her white pinner and apron, like a woman with child; and she seemed handsomer plain so, than dressed. And by and by, dinner done, I out, and to walk in the Gallery, for the [his uncle] Duke of York's (35) coming out; and there, meeting Mr. May (47), he took me down about four o'clock to Mr. Chevins's (67) lodgings, and all alone did get me a dish of cold chickens, and good wine; and I dined like a Prince, being before very hungry and empty.
By and by the [his uncle] Duke of York (35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King's leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the [his father] King (38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife, and to Mr. Holliard's (60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the [his uncle] Duke of York (35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (41) did just now come into the [his step-mother] Queen's (30) bed-chamber, where the [his father] King (38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (57), the father of Harry (32), who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [Buckingham (41)] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (27)), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the [his uncle] Duke of York (35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

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Before 1670 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 was created 1st Baron Limerick.

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691 (24). Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (20).

John Evelyn's Diary 20 August 1670. 20 Aug 1670. At Windsor I supped with the Duke of Monmouth (21); and, the next day, invited by Lord Arlington (52), dined with the same Duke and divers Lords. After dinner my Lord and I had a conference of more than an hour alone in his bedchamber, to engage me in the History. I showed him something that I had drawn up, to his great satisfaction, and he desired me to show it to the Treasurer (40).

On 21 Dec 1670, owing to a jest made by Coventry (34) in the House of Commons on the subject of the King's amours, Sir Thomas Sandys, an officer of the guards, with other accomplices, by the order of Monmouth (21), and (it was said) with the approval of the king himself, waylaid him as he was returning home to Suffolk Street and slit his nose to the bone. The outrage created an extraordinary sensation in the Commons, and in consequence Parliament debated a bill ‘to prevent malicious maiming and wounding’ (22 & 23 Chas. II, c.1), a measure known as the "Coventry Act" was passed, declaring assaults accompanied by personal mutilation a felony without benefit of clergy, an Act not repealed until 1828.

On 28 Mar 1672 James Wemyss 1st Lord Burntisland 1656-1682 (15) and [his sister-in-law] Margaret Wemyss Countess Cromartie 3rd Countess Wemyss 1659-1705 (13) were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 01 Aug 1672 [his illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (8) was created 1st Earl Euston, 1st Viscount Ipswich, 1st Baron Sudbury. Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (17) by marriage Countess Euston.

In 1756 Joshua Reynolds Painter 1723-1788. Portrait of Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 in his Garter Robes.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1700 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723. One of the Hampton Court Beauties.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">In 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

On 01 Aug 1672 [his illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (8) and Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (17) were married. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 24 Aug 1672 [his son] Charles Scott 1st Earl Doncaster 1672-1674 was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (23) and [his wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (21). He a grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1673 William Paston 2nd Earl of Yarmouth 1654-1732 and [his illegitimate half-sister] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth 1650-1684 were married. She a daughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. [his illegitimate half-sister] She by marriage Countess of Yarmouth.

Around 1673 [his son] Charles Scott 1st Earl Doncaster 1672-1674 was created 1st Earl Doncaster.

John Evelyn's Diary 16 March 1673. 16 Mar 1673. Dr. Pearson (60), Bishop of Chester, preached on Hebrews ix. 14; a most incomparable sermon from one of the most learned divines of our nation. I dined at my Lord Arlington's (55) with the Duke (23) and [his wife] Duchess of Monmouth (22); she is one of the wisest and craftiest of her sex, and has much wit. Here was also the learned Isaac Vossius (55).
During Lent there is constantly the most excellent preaching by the most eminent bishops and divines of the nation.

On 09 Feb 1674 [his son] Charles Scott 1st Earl Doncaster 1672-1674 (1) died.

On 16 May 1674 Thomas Lennard Earl of Sussex 1654-1715 (20) and [his illegitimate half-sister] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex 1661-1722 (13) were married at Hampton Court Palace. They were first cousins once removed. She a daughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 23 May 1674 [his son] James Scott 1674-1705 was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (25) and [his wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (23). He a grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 August 1674. 21 Aug 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot of the long Terrace below the Windsor Castle, works were thrown up to show the [his father] King (44) a representation of the city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bastians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works, counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of Monmouth (25) (newly come from the real siege) and the [his uncle] Duke of York (40), with a little army, to show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they made their approaches, opened trenches, raised batteries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout defense; great guns fired on both sides, grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, what is most strange all without disorder, or ill accident, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being over, I went with Mr. Pepys (41) back to London, where we arrived about three in the morning.

On 01 Oct 1674 [his illegitimate half-brother] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 (8) was created 1st Earl of Northumberland 4C 1674, 1st Viscount Falmouth, 1st Baron Pontefract by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44).

In 1675 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 (12) was created 1st Duke Southampton, 1st Earl Chichester 2C 1644, 1st Baron Newbury by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44).

In 1675 [his illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (11) was created 1st Duke Grafton 1C 1675 by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44). Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (19) by marriage Duchess Grafton.

On 17 Feb 1675 [his daughter] Anne Scott 1675-1685 was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (25) and [his wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (24). She a granddaughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 28 Jul 1675 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 (18) was created 1st Earl Plymouth 1C 1675, 1st Viscount Totnes, 1st Baron Dartmouth.

On 09 Aug 1675 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1672-1723 (3) was created 1st Duke Richmond 3C 1675, 1st Earl March 4C 1675, 1st Baron Settrington by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (45).

In 1676 [his son] Henry Scott 1st Earl Deloraine 1676-1730 was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (26) and [his wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (24). He a grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 September 1676. 06 Sep 1676. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's (58), where also supped the famous beauty and errant lady, the Duchess of Mazarine (30) (all the world knows her story), the Duke of Monmouth (27), [his illegitimate half-sister] Countess of Sussex (15) (both natural children of the [his father] King (46) by the Duchess of Cleveland (35)) [Note. A mistake by Evelyn. Jame's Scott's (27) mother was [his mother] Lucy Walter Mistress 1630-1658 (46), [his illegitimate half-sister] Anne Fitzroy's (15) mother was Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (35)], and the Countess of Derby (16), a virtuous lady, daughter to my best friend, the Earl of Ossory (42).

On 21 Dec 1676 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726 (6) was created 1st Earl Burford, 1st Baron Heddington by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (46).

Around 1690 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

On 06 Feb 1677 Edward Lee 1st Earl Lichfield 1663-1716 (14) and [his illegitimate half-sister] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield 1664-1718 (12) were married. They were third cousins. She a daughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. [his illegitimate half-sister] She by marriage Countess Lichfield.

Before 1718 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield 1664-1718.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

On 19 Sep 1678 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 (21) and Bridget Osborne Countess Plymouth -1718 were married in Wimbledon. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. She by marriage Countess Plymouth.

In 1679 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 (16) and Mary Wood Duchess Southampton 1663- (16) were married. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. She by marriage Duchess Southampton.

In Jul 1679 David Wemyss 2nd Earl Wemyss 1610-1679 (68) died at Wemyss Castle. His daughter [his sister-in-law] Margaret Wemyss Countess Cromartie 3rd Countess Wemyss 1659-1705 (20) succeeded 3rd Earl Wemyss. James Wemyss 1st Lord Burntisland 1656-1682 (22) by marriage Earl Wemyss.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 September 1679. 13 Sep 1679. To Windsor, to congratulate his [his father] Majesty (49) on his recovery; I kissed the [his uncle] Duke's (45) hand, now lately returned from Flanders to visit his brother the [his father] King (49), on which there were various bold and foolish discourses, the Duke of Monmouth (30) being sent away.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 November 1679. 28 Nov 1679. Came over the Duke of Monmouth (30) from Holland unexpectedly to his [his father] Majesty (49); while the [his uncle] Duke of York (46) was on his journey to Scotland, whither the [his father] King (49) sent him to reside and govern. The bells and bonfires of the city at this arrival of the Duke of Monmouth (30) publishing their joy, to the no small regret of some at Court. This Duke (30), whom for distinction they called the Protestant Duke (though the son of an [his mother] abandoned woman (49)), the people made their idol.

Siege of Tangier

On 17 Oct 1680 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 (23) died of dysentery at Tangier during the Siege of Tangier.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 November 1681. 15 Nov 1681. I dined with the Earl of Essex (49) who, after dinner in his study, where we were alone, related to me how much he had been scandalized and injured in the report of his being privy to the marriage of his Lady's (45) niece (14), the rich young widow of the late Lord Ogle (22), sole daughter of the Earl of Northumberland (79); showing me a letter of Mr. Thynn's (33), excusing himself for not communicating his marriage to his Lordship (49). He acquainted me also with the whole story of that unfortunate lady being betrayed by her grandmother, the Countess of Northumberland (58), and Colonel Bret, for money; and that though, upon the importunity of the Duke of Monmouth (32), he had delivered to the grandmother a particular of the jointure which Mr. Thynn (33) pretended he would settle on the lady, yet he totally discouraged the proceeding as by no means a competent match for one that both by birth and fortune might have pretended to the greatest prince in Christendom; that he also proposed the Earl of Kingston (21), or the Lord Cranburn, but was by no means for Mr. Thynn (33).

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Around 1682 [his illegitimate daughter] Henriette Scott 1682-1730 was born illegitimately to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (32) and Eleanor Needham. She a granddaughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

After Dec 1682 George Mackenzie 1st Earl Cromartie 1630-1714 and [his sister-in-law] Margaret Wemyss Countess Cromartie 3rd Countess Wemyss 1659-1705 were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 06 Apr 1683 [his illegitimate half-brother] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 (17) was created 1st Duke Northumberland 2C 1683 by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (52).

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 28 June 1683. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the [his father] King (53) and the [his uncle] Duke (49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower, the Lord Russell (43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (60), son to the old Earl of Leicester (87), Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the [his father] King (53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (60) and Russell (43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the [his father] King (53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!
Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, and christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better part!

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Rye House Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 23 November 1683. 23 Nov 1683. The Duke of Monmouth (34), till now proclaimed traitor on the pretended plot for which Lord Russell (44) was lately beheaded, came this evening to Whitehall and rendered himself, on which were various discourses.

Indemnity and Oblivion Act

John Evelyn's Diary 05 December 1683. 05 Dec 1683. I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich, and was a very honest man; he was Sheriff of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen and persons of quality; above all, Sir George Jeffreys (38), newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr. Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges, who had but a day or two before condemned Mr. Algernon Sidney (60), who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill, on the single witness of that monster of a man, Lord Howard of Escrick, and some sheets of paper taken in Mr. Sidney's (60) study, pretended to be written by him, but not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to have been written before his [his father] Majesty's (53) Restoration, and then pardoned by the Act of Oblivion; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which he showed both at his trial and death; for, when he came on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only that he had made his peace with God, that he came not thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the executioner do his office.
The Duke of Monmouth (34), now having his pardon, refuses to acknowledge there was any treasonable plot; for which he is banished Whitehall. This is a great disappointment to some who had prosecuted Trenchard, Hampden, etc., that for want of a second witness were come out of the Tower upon their habeas corpus.
the [his father] King (53) had now augmented his guards with a new sort of dragoons, who carried also grenades, and were habited after the Polish manner, with long peaked caps, very fierce and fantastical.

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In 1684 [his illegitimate half-sister] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth 1650-1684 (34) died.

On 05 Jan 1684 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726 (13) was created 1st Duke St Albans 1C 1684 by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53).

Rye House Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 22 June 1684. 22 Jun 1684. Last Friday Sir Tho. Armstrong (51) was executed at Tyburn for treason, without tryal, having ben outlaw'd and apprehended in Holland, on the conspiracy of the Duke of Monmouth (35), Lord Russell (44), &c. which gave occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, in reguard it was on an outlawry that judgment was given and execution.

Death and Burial of Charles II

John Evelyn's Diary 04 February 1685. 04 Feb 1685. Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till [his father] he expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his [his father] Majesty's (54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (68), the Bishops of London (53), Durham (52), and Ely (47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (56) and Feversham (44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc [his uncle] Duke (51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. [his father] He also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the [his step-mother] Queene (46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his [his father] Ma* (54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye [his uncle] Duke (51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (44), and especialy Portsmouth (35), and that Nelly (35) might not starve.

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On 06 Feb 1685 [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace attended by Charles Scarburgh Physician 1615-1694 (69). His brother [his uncle] King James II (51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriage Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland. His brother [his uncle] King James II (51), William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83), Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. <BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Before 08 Mar 1685 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">Around 1688 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.<BR><p class="inline-paragraph">

Monmouth's Landing at Lyme Regis

In Jun 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) landed at James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) with Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville 1655-1701 (29).

John Evelyn's Diary 14 June 1685. 14 Jun 1685. There was now certaine intelligence of the Duke of Monmouth (36) landing at Lyme in Dorsetshire, and of his having set up his standard as King of England. I pray God deliver us from the confusion which these beginnings threaten! Such a dearth for want of raine was never in my memory.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 June 1685. 17 Jun 1685. The Duke (36) landed with but 150 men, but the whole Kingdom was alarm'd, fearing triat the disaffected would joyn them, many of the train'd bands flocking to him. At his landing he publish'd a declaration, charging his [his uncle] Ma* (51) with usurpation and several horrid crimes, on pretence of his owne title, and offering to call a free Parliament. This declaration was order'd to be burnt by the hangman, the Duke proclaim'd a traytor, and a reward of £5,000 to any who should kill him. At this time the words engraved on the. Monument in London, intimating that the Papists fir'd the Citty, were erased and cut out.
The exceeding drowth still continues.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 July 1685. 02 Jul 1685. No considerable account of the troops sent against the Duke (36), tho' greate forces sent. There was a smart skirmish, but he would not be provok'd to come to an encounter, but still kept in the fastnesses. Dangerfield (35) whipp'd, like Oates (35), for perjurie.

Battle of Sedgemoor

John Evelyn's Diary 08 July 1685. 08 Jul 1685. Came news of Monmouth's (36) utter defeate, and the next day of his being taken by Sr Wm Portman (41) and Lord Lumley (35) with the militia of their counties. It seemes the horse, commanded by Lord Grey (29), being newly rais'd and undisciplin'd, were not to be brought in so short a time to endure the fire, which expos'd the foote to the [his father] King's (55), so as when Monmouth had led the foote in greate silence and order, thinking to surprize Lieut Gen Lord Feversham (44) newly encamp'd, and given him a smart charge, interchanging both greate and small shot, the horse, breaking their owne ranks, Monmouth (36) gave it over, and fled with Grey (29), leaving their party to be cut in pieces to the number of 2000. The whole number reported to be above 8,000, the [his father] King's (55) but 2,700. The slaine were most of them Mendip-miners, who did greate execution with their tooles, and sold their lives very dearely, whilst their leaders flying were pursu'd and taken the next morning, not far from one another. Monmouth (36) had gone 16 miles on foote, changing; his habite for a poore coate, and was found by Lord Lumley (35) in a dry ditch cover'd with fern-brakes, but without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and so might have pass'd for some countryman, his beard being grown so long and so grey as hardly to be known, had not his George [Note. This is possible a reference to the Small St George Pendant] discover'd him, which was found in his pocket. 'Tis said he trembl'd exceedingly all over, not able to speake. Grey (29) was taken not far from him. Most of his party were anabaptists and poore cloth workers of yu country, no gentlemen of account being come in to him. The arch-boutefeu Ferguson, Matthews, *&c. were not yet found. The £5,000 to be given to whoever should bring Monmouth in, was to be distributed among the militia by agreement between Sr Wm Portman (41) and Lord Lumley (35). The battail ended, some words, first In jest, then in passion, pass'd between Sharington Talbot (29) (a worthy gent. son to Sr John Talbot (55), and who had behav'd himselfe very handsomely) and one Capt. Love, both commanders of the militia, as to whose souldiers fought best, both drawing their swords and passing at one another. Sharington (29) was wounded to death on the spot, to the greate regret of those who knew him. He was Sir John's only son.

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Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

John Evelyn's Diary 15 July 1685. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the [his uncle] King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late [his wife] Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell (45), and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the [his uncle] King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the [his father] late King (55), his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke (36), darling of his [his father] father (55) and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the [his father] King (55) being of another religion, to gather a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the [his father] King (55) his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July [Note. Most sources quote 15 Jul 1685]. His [his mother] mother (55), whose name was Barlow [Note. Lucy Walter is often spoken of incorrectly as Mrs. Walters or Waters, and during her career she seems to have adopted the alias of Mrs. Barlo or Barlow (the name of a family with which the Walters of Pembrokeshire had intermarried). From Dictionary of National Biography.], daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the [his father] King (55) had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the [his father] King (55) his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney (89), who was familiar with his [his mother] mother (55)) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens (90) to sign a certificate of the [his father] King's (55) marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney (62), then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney (89), who kept her for some time, till the [his father] King (55) hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the [his father] King (55) she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the [his father] King (55) owned the child. In the [his father] King's (55) absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquillity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

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On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) was beheaded at Tower Hill. Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) acted a Chaplain.

On 06 Feb 1732 [his wife] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (80) died. Her grandson Francis Scott 2nd Duke Buccleuch 1695-1751 (37) succeeded 2nd Duke Buccleuch.

[his illegitimate daughter] Isabel Scott was born illegitimately to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 and Eleanor Needham. She a granddaughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

[his illegitimate son] James Scott -1732 was born illegitimately to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 and Eleanor Needham. He a grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

[his daughter] Charlotte Scott was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732. She a granddaughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

[his son] Francis Scott was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732. He a grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.