Biography of King Edward "Confessor" of England 1003-1066

Paternal Family Tree: Wessex

978 Murder of King Edward Martyr

1016 Death of King Æthelred "Unready"

1017 Marriage of Canute and Emma of Normandy

1036 Murder of Aelfred Ætheling Wessex by Godwinson

1042 Death of King Harthacnut

1043 Coronation of Edward the Confessor

1045 Marriage of Edward "The Confessor" and Edith of Wessex

1051 William the Conqueror visits King Edward the Confessor

1051 Banishment of the Godwins

1052 Christmas Court

1052 Godwins Restored

1054 Battle of Dunsinane

1065 Consecration of Westminster Abbey

1066 Death of Edward the Confessor

1239 Christening of Edward I

1269 Translation of the Relics of Edward the Confessor

Murder of King Edward Martyr

On 18 Mar 978 [his uncle] Edward "Martyr" I King England (age 16) was murdered at Corfe Castle, Dorset [Map] when visiting [his father] King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 12) and his mother [his grandmother] Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 33). He was buried in Wareham, Dorset [Map] without ceremony. His half brother King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 12) succeeded II King England.

Around 985 [his father] King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 19) and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Thored Northumbria. He the son of King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England and Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 40).

In 1002 [his father] King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 36) and [his mother] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England and Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 57).

Around 1003 King Edward "Confessor" of England was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 37) and Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 18) at Islip, Oxfordshire [Map].

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1013. The year after that Archbishop Elfeah was martyred, the [his father] king (age 47) appointed Lifing to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. And in the same year, before the month August, came King Sweyne (age 53) with his fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; and very soon went about East-Anglia into the Humber-mouth, and so upward along the Trent, until he came to Gainsborough [Map]. Then soon submitted to him Earl Utred, and all the Northumbrians, and all the people of Lindsey, and afterwards the people of the Five Boroughs, and soon after all the army to the north of Watling-street; and hostages were given him from each shire. When he understood that all the people were subject to him, then ordered he that his army should have provision and horses; and he then went southward with his main army, committing his ships and the hostages to his son [his step-father] Knute (age 18). And after he came over Watling-street, they wrought the greatest mischief that any army could do. Then he went to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; and the population soon submitted, and gave hostages; thence to Winchester, where they did the same. Thence went they eastward to London; and many of the party sunk in the Thames, because they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city, the population would not submit; but held their ground in full fight against him, because therein was King Ethelred (age 47), and Thurkill with him. Then went King Sweyne (age 53) thence to Wallingford; and so over Thames westward to Bath, where he abode with his army. Thither came Alderman Ethelmar, and all the western thanes with him, and all submitted to Sweyne (age 53), and gave hostages. When he had thus settled all, then went he northward to his ships; and all the population fully received him, and considered him full king. The population of London also after this submitted to him, and gave hostages; because they dreaded that he would undo them. Then bade Sweyne (age 53) full tribute and forage for his army during the winter; and Thurkill bade the same for the army that lay at Greenwich, Kent [Map]: besides this, they plundered as oft as they would. And when this nation could neither resist in the south nor in the north, King Ethelred (age 47) abode some while with the fleet that lay in the Thames; and the [his mother] lady (age 28)57 went afterwards over sea to her brother [his uncle] Richard (age 49), accompanied by Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough. The king sent Bishop Elfun with the ethelings, Edward (age 10) and [his brother] Alfred (age 8), over sea; that he might instruct them. Then went the king from the fleet, about midwinter, to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and there abode for the season; after which he went over sea to Richard (age 49), with whom he abode till the time when Sweyne (age 53) died. Whilst the lady (age 28) was with her brother (age 49) beyond sea, Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough, who was there with her, went to the abbey called Boneval, where St. Florentine's body lay; and there found a miserable place, a miserable abbot, and miserable monks: because they had been plundered. There he bought of the abbot, and of the monks, the body of St. Florentine, all but the head, for 500 pounds; which, on his return home, he offered to Christ and St. Peter.

Note 57. This was a title bestowed on the queen.

Death of King Æthelred "Unready"

On 23 Apr 1016 [his father] King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 50) died. His son [his half-brother] King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) succeeded I King England although tthe Witan meeting at Southampton chose [his step-father] King Canute of England (age 21).

Marriage of Canute and Emma of Normandy

Around Aug 1017 [his step-father] King Canute of England (age 22) and [his mother] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 32) were married. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of Sweyn "Forkbeard" King Denmark King Norway King England.

Murder of Aelfred Ætheling Wessex by Godwinson

John of Worcester. 1036. At the same tune he dispersed some of his attendants, others he put in fetters and afterwards deprived of their sight, some he scalped and tortured, amputated their hands and feet and heavily mulcted: many he ordered to be sold, and put to death six hundred of them at Guildford, Surrey [Map] with various torments: but we trust that the souls of those, who, guilty of no crime, had their bodies so cruelly slaughtered in the fields, are now rejoicing with the saints in paradise. On hearing of this, queen [his mother] Elgiva (age 51) sent back her son Edward (age 33), who had remained with her, in all haste to Normandy. Then, by order of Godwin (age 35) and others, [his brother] Alfred (age 31) was conducted, heavily chained, to the Isle of Ely [Map]; but as soon as the ship touched the land, his eyes were most barbarously plucked out while he was on board, and in this state he was taken to the monastery [Map] and handed over to the custody of the monks. There he shortly afterwards died, and his body was buried, with due honours, in the south porch at the west end of the church [Map]; but his spirit is in the enjoyment of the delights of paradise.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1041. This year was the tribute paid to the army; that was, 21,099 pounds; and afterwards to thirty-two ships, 11,048 pounds. This year also ordered [his half-brother] Hardacnute (age 23) to lay waste all Worcestershire, on account of the two servants of his household, who exacted the heavy tribute. That people slew them in the town within the minster. Early in this same year came Edward (age 38), the son of King Ethelred, hither to land, from Weal-land to Madron. He was the brother [Note. maternal half-brother] of King Hardacnute, and had been driven from this land for many years: but he was nevertheless sworn as king, and abode in his brother's court while he lived. They were both sons of Elfgive Emma (age 56), who was the daughter o[of] Earl Richard. In this year also Hardacnute (age 23) betrayed Eadulf, under the mask of friendship. He was also allied to him by marriage. This year was Egelric consecrated Bishop of York, on the third day before the ides of January.

John of Worcester. 12 Nov 1041. They arrived there on the second of the ides [the 12th] of November, and beginning their work of destruction through the city and province continued it for four days; but very few of the citizens or provincials were taken or slain, because, having notice of their coming, the people fled in all directions. A great number of the citizens took refuge in a small island, called Beverege, situated in the middle of the river Severn, and having fortified it, defended themselves so stoutly against their enemies that they obtained terms of peace, and were allowed free liberty to return home. On the fifth day, the city having been burnt, every one marched off loaded with plunder, and the king's wrath was satisfied. Soon afterwards, Edward (age 38), son of Ethelred the late king of England, came over from Normandy, where he had been an exile many years, and being honourably received by his brother [Note. Half-brother. Both sons of [his mother] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 56).], king [his half-brother] Hardicanute (age 23), remained at his court.

Charter S998 King Edward to Ordgar. 1042. King Edward to Ordgar, his faithful minister; grant of a half hide (mansa) at Littleham, Devon. Latin with English bounds

Px In nomine domini nostri Iesu Christi. Omnis quidem susceptio et datio passionum terrarum melius litterarum exemplis confirmanda sit ne in posterum aliquis testamenti confirmationem ignorans presumptionis peccatum uel direptionis incaute crimen incurrat. Qua de re ego EADWARD (age 39) rex regali fretus dignitate aliquam terram cuidam fideli meo ministro uocitato nomine ORDGAR - unum dimidium mansam in loco ubi dictum est Littleham; cum sylua ad se pertinente in australi parte in hereditatem perennem impendere curaui. Sit uero predictum rus ab omni seculari grauedine expers. nisi expeditione pontis arcisue munitione. Quicumque hoc decretum minuere seu transmutare satagerit; noscat se reum esse in die iudicii coram Christo et sanctis eius. Terra autem ista his terminibus circumdatur. Ðis syndon þære healfan hide landgemæro æt Lytlanhamme. Ærest on Exanmuðan. þonne up on stryem. be norðan lydewicnæsse on þone norþran mere. up andlang riðan of þone æwylm. þanone east rihte to hafocys setle. þanone east rihte to þan hricgwege. andlang þæs hricgweges. on þa ealdan dic. east andlang þære dic of þære wega gelæto be norðan ðam fulan landa. þanon norð on þone grenan weg on auan ford. of þam fordan up andlang stryemes on þone sele. of þam sele norð on þone grenan weg to þam slæde. east up andlang þæs slædes to ðære plegin stowe. þonne to þan herpaðe. andlang þæs herpaðas to fugelis beorh dune. andlang þære dune to fuhgeles beorhge. fram þam beorhge suð to ellewurðie. þanon to þan broce. adun þonne andlang þæs broces eft ut on sæ: - Acta est autem hec prefata donatio anno ab incarnatione domini nostri Iesu Christi. millesimo. xl. ii. indictione. x.

Ego Eadweard rex Britannie totius Anglorum (age 39) monarchus hoc agie Crucis taumate roboraui.

Eadsige Dorobernensis ecclesie archiepiscopus eiusdem regis principatum et beniuolentiam sub sigillo Sancte Crucis conclusi.

Ego [his mother] Ælfgyfu (age 57) regina humillima adiuui.

Ego Ælfwine episcopus assensum prebui.

Ego Byrhtwold episcopus dictando titulaui.

Ego Dudoc episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Lyfing episcopus dignum duxi.

Ego Godwine dux.

Ego Sigwerd dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Sigwerd abbas.

Ego Ælfwine abbas.

Ego Odda (age 49) minister.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Godwine minister.

Ego Æþelric minister.

Ego Toky minister.

Ego Toui minister.

Ego Dodda minister.

Ego Ælfwerd minister.

Ego Osmær minister.

Death of King Harthacnut

John of Worcester. 1042. [his half-brother] Hardicanute (age 24), king of England, while he was present at a joyous feast given at a place called Lambeth, Surrey [Map], by Osgod Clapa, a man of great wealth, on occasion of his giving the hand of his daughter Githa in marriage to Tovi, surnamed Prudan, a noble and powerful Dane,—and carousing, full of health and merriment, with the bride and some others, fell down, by a sad mischance, while in the act of drinking, and continued speechless until Tuesday the sixth of the ides [the 8th] of June, when he expired. He was carried to Winchester and buried near his father [his step-father] Canute. His brother Edward (age 39) was proclaimed king at London, chiefly by the exertions of [his future father-in-law] earl Godwin (age 41), and Living, bishop of Worcester. Edward (age 39) was the son of Ethelred, who was the son of Edgar, who was the son of Edmund, who was the son of Edward the Elder, who was the son of Alfred.

On 08 Jun 1042 [his half-brother] King Harthacnut of Denmark and England (age 24) died. His half brother King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 39) succeeded King England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 08 Jun 1042. This year died [his half-brother] King Hardacnute (age 24) at Lambeth, as he stood drinking: he fell suddenly to the earth with a tremendous struggle; but those who were nigh at hand took him up; and he spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the sixth day before the ides of June. He was king over all England two years wanting ten nights; and he is buried in the old minster at Winchester with King Knute his father. And his mother for his soul gave to the new minster the head of St. Valentine the Martyr: and ere he was buried all people chose Edward (age 39) for king in London. And they received him as their king, as was natural; and he reigned as long as God granted him. All that year was the season very severe in many and various respects: both from the inclemency of the weather, and the loss of the fruits of the earth. More cattle died this year than any man ever remembered, either from various diseases, or from the severity of the weather. At this same time died Elfsinus, Abbot of Peterborough; and they chose Arnwy, a monk, for their abbot; because he was a very good and benevolent man.

Charter S999 King Edward to Ælfstan. A.D. 1043. King Edward (age 40) to Ælfstan, his minister; grant of 10 hides (mansae) at Sevington in Leigh Delamere, Wilts. Latin with English bounds

Nichil ergo in hoc seculo prolixa felicitate fruitur, nichil diuturna dominatione potitur, nichil quod non ad fatalem uite terminum ueloci cursu tendatur, ideoque ut ortodoxorum demonstrant paracdigmata sic nobis mundanarum rerum patrimonie sunt perfruende ut tamen eterne patrie emolumentis numquam fraudemur. Quam ob rem ego Eadward, annuente altitroni moderatoris imperio Anglorum basileus, quodam ministro meo Ælfstan nominato .x. mansas ubi dicitur æt Seofonhæmtune libens donabo, quatinus habeat atque possideat ac post se qualicumque uoluerit heredi derelinquat. Sit autem rus predictum ab omni mundano seruitio liberum, tribus tam exceptis, uiatici restauratione pontis, arcis construccione regalis, expeditione etiam populari. Siquis uero quod absit cupiditatis flamma accensus hoc nostrum infringere temptauerit donum, sciat se dampnaturum cum filiis perdicionis in tartareis tormentis, nisi resipiscens digna satisfactione emendauerit. Nam predicta ruris particula his metis constat circumcincta. Erest on þa haran apeldran, of þare apeldran 7lang pinnan rode, of þære rode betweox Mor sceagan 7 Middel lea, ðwyres on þa ealdan dic, of ðære dic andlang hricges on byde wil, of ðan wille 7lang stræte on hægla þorn, of þan ðorne 7lang hricges on hodan mere, on gerihte on fif þornas, of fif þornon þwyres on ðane ealdan ellen styb, of ðan stybbe on ða ealdan dic, of þære dic andlang herpaðes þæt hit cymð be norðan bien hylle in on þæt slæd, swa 7lang fura on þæne smalan weg, swa 7lang weges on ðone wiðig, of ðan wiþige on stan wyl, of þan wille þwyres on ðæne garan, of þan garan on þæs broces bige, of þan bige on þa ealdan eorð byrig, of þære byrig on ðone ac styb, of þan stibbe eft on þa haran apeldran. Scripta est ergo huius regalis doni cartula anno dominice incarnationis .xliii. post mille, indiccione .xi., his confirmantibus quorum uocabula infra sunt pretitulata et cernentibus apparent adnotata.

Ego Eadward (age 40) rex Anglorum meum donum signo crucis confirmaui [King of the English, I confirmed my gift with the sign of the cross].

Ego [his mother] Ælfgyfa (age 58) predicti regis mater regium munus corroboraui [the royal office of the mother of the said king].

Ego Eadsinus archiepiscopus almo sancte crucis uexillo confortaui [archbishop with the standard of the holy cross].

Ego Ælfric archipresul istud datum consolidaui.

Ego Bryhtwold episcopus.

Ego Æþelstan episcopus.

Ego Godwine dux.

Ego Godeman presbiter.

Ego Karl minister.

Ego Ælfeget minister.

Ego Ælfwig prefectus.

Ego Ælfwine episcopus.

Ego Grimkyl episcopus.

Ego Dudoca episcopus.

Ego Lyfing episcopus.

Ego Brihtwine episcopus.

Ego Eadnoþ episcopus.

Ego Æþelweard abbas.

Ego Ælfwine abbas.

Ego Siward abbas.

Ego Wulfsige abbas.

Ego Leofric presbiter.

Ego Siward (age 33) dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Eadwold presbiter.

Ego Hereman presbiter.

Ego Leofric presbiter.

Ego Osgod miles.

Ego Ælfstan miles.

Ego Esbern miles.

Ego Lyfing miles.

Ego Ordgar miles.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Brihtric minister.

Ego Dodda, Æþelmer.

Ego Urki minister.

Ego Ælfget minister.

Ego Wulfnoð prefectus.

Ego Kinewerd prefectus.

Ego Tokig minister.

Ego Æþelwig minister.

Ego Leofric 7 Tofig ministri.

Ego Ælfwig prefectus.

Ego Æþelmær minister.

Ego Æþelric minister.

Ego Totig minister.

Ego Leofwine minister.

Ego Godsunu minister.

Ego Ulfkitel 7 Æþelric ministri.

In 1043 Coventry Priory was founded by Leofric Earldorman Mercia and Godgifu aka Lady Godiva. It was consecrated on 04 Oct 1043 by Archbishop Eadsige. Among the witnesses to this foundation charter were Edward the Confessor (age 40), the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishops of Worcester and Lichfield, the abbots of Winchcombe and Pershore, and the earls [his future father-in-law] Godwin (age 42), [his future brother-in-law] Harold (age 21), Siward (age 33), and Ordgar.

Coronation of Edward the Confessor

John of Worcester. 1043. Edward (age 40) was anointed king at Winchester on the first day of Easter, being the third of the nones [the 3rd] of April, by Eadsige, archbishop of Canterbury, Jilric, archbishop of York, and nearly all the bishops of England. In the same year, fourteen days before the feast-day of St. Andrew the apostle [16th November], the king went suddenly and unexpectedly from the city of Gloucester to Winchester, accompanied by the earls [his future father-in-law] Godwin (age 42), Leofric, and Siward (age 33); and by their advice took from his [his mother] mother (age 58) all the gold, silver, jewels, precious stones, and other valuables she possessed, because she had been less liberal to him than he expected, and had treated him harshly both before and after he was king. Notwithstanding, he gave orders for her being supplied with all necessaries, and ordered her to remain there quiet.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 03 Apr 1043. This year was Edward (age 40) consecrated king at Winchester [Map], early on Easter-day, with much pomp. Then was Easter on the third day before the nones of April. Archbishop Edsy consecrated him, and before all people well admonished him. And Stigand the priest was consecrated bishop over the East Angles. And this year, fourteen nights before the mass of St. Andrew, it was advised the king, that he and Earl Leofric and [his future father-in-law] Earl Godwin (age 42) and Earl Siward (age 33) with their retinue, should ride from Gloucester to Winchester unawares upon the [his mother] lady (age 58); and they deprived her of all the treasures that she had; which were immense; because she was formerly very hard upon the king her son, and did less for him than he wished before he was king, and also since: but they suffered her to remain there afterwards. And soon after this the king determined to invest all the land that his mother (age 58) had in her hands, and took from her all that she had in gold and in silver and in numberless things; because she formerly held it too fast against him. Soon after this Stigand was deprived of his bishopric; and they took all that he had into their hands for the king, because he was highest the counsel of his mother; and she acted as he advised, as men supposed.

On 03 Apr 1043 King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 40) was crowned King England at Winchester Cathedral [Map] by Archbishop Eadsige.

Charter S1001 King Edward to Ælfwine. A.D. 1044. King Edward (age 41) to Ælfwine, bishop (of Winchester); grant of 30 hides (mansae) at Witney, Oxon [Map]. Latin with English bounds

Rubric: ˘is is ∂ara .xxx. hidæ boc æt Witanigæ ∂e Eadward cing gebocode Ælfwinæ bisceope on ece yrfe. + Christi omnipotentis dei largiflua bonitas omnino laudanda, omnique est laude praeferenda, quae nullo bonitatis termino ualet concludi, utpote idem deus ipse sit suae bonitatis bonitas, distribuens gratis non tantum dignis uerum etiam indignis participium bonitatis suae; est quippe rex regum, omniumque subsistentium uisibilium aeque inuisibilium creator et suae creationis discretissimus dispositor, disponens omnia sibi libito uti competi diuinae dominationi eius; nam quosdam libero arbitrio quibusdam praeficit dignitate huius saeculi et opibus diuersis, quibus rursum mandat ut ipsi eorum inopiam sua sufficientia releuare debeant qui minus abundant saecularibus negociis, et pro hoc possint maiori mercede ab eo donari. Unde ego Eadwardus rex Anglicae nationis eius ammonitione prouocatus, pro adipiscenda remunerationis mercede, dono cuidam familiari episcopo meo Ælfwino pro fideli obsequio quo michi fideliter obsecundatur .xxx. uidelicet mansas, in loco quem soicolae illius uocant Wittannige, ut eas quoad uiuit libere possideat; et post mortem det sibi placito cuicunque elegerit. Sit itaque rurisculum illud ab omni mundiali seruitio liberum, excepto communi seruitio, hoc est, arcis recuperatione, et pontis restauratione, ac expeditione in hostes patriae. Si quispiam quoquomodo malae mentis conamine hoc meum donatiuum donum infringere uel abripere per uiolentiam uoluerit, priuatus a consortio dei qui nos imperat iuniorum nostrorum necessitatibus subuenire pro suo amore, constringatur et obligetur inextricabilium nodorum habenis perpetuae dampnationis, nisi resipiscat et poenitentiae uenia deleat. ˘is synt ∂a landgemæra to Wittannige. Ærest andlang ∂æs streames on ∂one mædham ∂e hyrn∂ into Scylftune; and fram Scylftune andlang streames ∂æt it cym∂ to ∂am mylewere ∂e hyrn∂ into duceling dune; of ∂æm wære ofær ∂one wegean mor into hocslew; ∂anon on ∂a niwan dic; of ∂ære dic on horninga mære; of horninga mære andlang ∂æs gemæres to hlæwan slæde; of ∂am slæde into dufan doppe and swa andlang gemæres into Leofstanes bricge; of Leofestanes bricge into kytelaceras; of kytelacæras innon ∂a wudestret; andlang ∂ære strete into hafoces hlæwe; of hafoces hlewæ innon wænric; of wenric to swondæne; æfter swondæne to ∂ære haran apeldran; of ∂ære apeldran andlang gemæres innan swonlege; of swonleage upp to ∂am heafdam; of ∂am heafdan andlang surode innan huntenan weg; andlang huntenan wege into Wicham; of Wicham a be ∂are wyrtruman ∂æt hit cym∂ on sceapa weg; of sceapa wege andlang rihtes gemæres innan æcenes feld; of æcenes felda andlang rihtes gemæres of kicgestan; of kicgestane into æceres felda; of æcenes felda ∂ær ∂a cnihtas licga∂; and fram ham ∂e ∂a cnihtas licga∂ on mætseg; andlang metseg into wenric. Anno dominicae incarnationis millesimo quadragesimo quarto, indictione duodecima et septem concurrentibus, atque .xviii. epactis rotantibus, haec regalis concessio atque donatio facta est sub astipulatione primatum quorum nomina hic caraxata sunt.

Ego Eadwardus (age 41) rex totius Brittanniae praefatam meam donationem cum sigillo sanctae crucis regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego [his mother] Ælfgyfu (age 59) eiusdem regis mater hanc regalem donationem cum trophaeo agiae crucis ouanter diuulgaui.

Ego Eadsinus archiepiscopus triumphalem agiae crucis trophaeum huic regio muneri gaudenter impressi.

Ego Ælfricus archipraesul hanc territoriam scedulam signo sanctae crucis diligenter adsignare curaui.

Ego Ælfwinus Wintoniensis episcopus consolidaui.

Ego Beorhtwoldus Wiltuniensis episcopus coadunaui.

Ego Ea∂no∂us Dorcensis episcopus corroboraui.

Ego Lyfingus Cridiensis episcopus confirmaui.

Ego Æ∂elstanus Herfordensis episcopus consigillaui.

Ego Ælfweardus Lundoniensis episcopus conscripsi.

Ego Duduco Uuillensis episcopus condixi.

Ego Grimkyllus Australium Saxonum episcoups consensi.

Ego Wulfsynus Licetfeldensis episcopus conclusi.

Ego Bryhtwinus Scirburnensis episcopus commodum duxi.

Ego [his future father-in-law] Godwine (age 43) dux.

Ego Leofric dux.

Ego Siwerd (age 34) dux.

Ego Swegen dux.

Ego Ælfwine dux.

Ego Ælfwerd dux.

Ego Sywerd dux.

Ego Leofsige dux.

Ego Ælfsige dux.

Ego Ælfstan dux.

Ego Ordgar minister.

Ego Osgod minister.

Ego Odda minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Brihtric minister.

Ego Æ∂elwig minister.

Ego ˘ure∂ minister.

Ego Ælfstan minister.

Ego Carl minister.

Ego Ordulf minister.

John of Worcester. 1045. Brihtwold, bishop of Wilton, died; and was succeeded by the king's chaplain, Heriman, a native of Lorraine. The same year, Edward (age 42), king of England, assembled a very powerful fleet at the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], to oppose Magnus (age 21), king of Norway, who threatened to invade England; but the expedition was abandoned in consequence of Sweyn (age 26), king of Denmark, having commenced hostilities against him.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1045. King Edward (age 42) during the year collected a large fleet at Sandwich, Kent [Map], through the threatening of Magnus (age 21) of Norway; but his contests with Sweyne in Denmark prevented him from coming hither.

Marriage of Edward "The Confessor" and Edith of Wessex

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 23 Jan 1045. In the same year also King Edward (age 42) took to wife [his wife] Edgitha (age 19), the daughter of Earl Godwin (age 44), ten nights before Candlemas.

On 23 Jan 1045 King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 42) and Edith of Wessex Queen Consort England (age 19) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 23 years. She the daughter of Godwin Godwinson 1st Earl Kent and Wessex (age 44) and Gytha Estrigen Countess Kent and Wessex. He the son of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 60).

John of Worcester. 1047. So much snow fell in the West, that it crushed the woods, and this year the winter was very severe. Grimkytel, bishop of Sussex, died, and was succeeded by Heca, the king's chaplain. Ælfwine, bishop of Winchester, also died, and Stigand, bishop of East-Anglia, was translated to his see. Sweyn (age 28), king of Denmark, sent ambassadors to Edward (age 44), king of England, requesting that he would send a fleet to join him against Magnus (age 23), king of Norway. Then [his father-in-law] earl Godwin (age 46) counselled the king to send at least fifty ships, full of soldiers; but as the proposal was objected to by earl Leofric and all the people, he declined to furnish any. After this Magnus (age 23), king of Norway, having collected a numerous and powerful fleet, fought a battle with Sweyn (age 28), in which a vast number of troops were killed on both sides, and having driven him out of Denmark, reigned there himself, and made the Danes pay him a heavy tribute: shortly afterwards he died.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1048. This year came Sweyne (age 29) back to Denmark; and Harold (age 33), the uncle of Magnus, went to Norway on the death of Magnus, and the Northmen submitted to him. He sent an embassy of peace to this land, as did also Sweyne (age 29) from Denmark, requesting of King Edward (age 45) naval assistance to the amount at least of fifty ships; but all the people resisted it.

This year also there was an earthquake, on the calends of May, in many places; at Worcester, at Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere wide throughout England; with very great loss by disease of men and of cattle over all England; and the wild fire in Derbyshire and elsewhere did much harm. In the same year the enemy plundered Sandwich, Kent [Map], and the Isle of Wight [Map], and slew the best men that were there; and King Edward (age 45) and the earls went out after them with their ships. The same year Bishop Siward resigned his bishopric from infirmity, and retired to Abingdon [Map]; upon which Archbishop Edsy resumed the bishopric; and he died within eight weeks of this, on the tenth day before the calends of November.

John of Worcester. 1049. The emperor Henry (age 31) assembled a vast army against Baldwin (age 36), count of Flanders, chiefly because he had burnt and ruined his stately palace at Nimeguen. In this expedition were pope Leo, and many great and noble men from various countries. Sweyn (age 30), king of Denmark, was also there with his fleet at the emperor's command, and swore fealty to the emperor for that occasion. He sent also to Edward (age 46), king of England, and requested him not to let Baldwin (age 36) escape, if he should retreat to the sea. In consequence, the king went with a large fleet to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and remained there until the emperor had obtained of Baldwin (age 36) all he desired. Meanwhile, earl [his brother-in-law] Sweyn (age 28), son of earl Godwin (age 48) and Githa, who had left England and gone to Denmark, because he was not permitted to marry Edgiva, abbess of the monastery of Leominster, whom he had debauched, returned with eight ships, alleging falsely that he would now remain loyally with the king.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. Then the king and all the army proclaimed [his brother-in-law] Sweyne (age 28) an outlaw. A little before this the men of Hastings and thereabout fought his two ships with their ships, and slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich, Kent [Map] to the king. Eight ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn; afterwards they all forsook him except two; whereupon he went eastward to the land of Baldwin (age 36), and sat there all the winter at Bruges [Map], in full security. In the same year came up from Ireland thirty-six ships on the Welsh coast, and thereabout committed outrages, with the aid of Griffin, the Welsh king. The people were soon gathered against them, and there was also with them Bishop Eldred, but they had too little assistance, and the enemy came unawares on them very early in the morning, and slew on the spot many good men; but the others burst forth with the bishop. This was done on the fourth day before the calends of August. This year died the good Bishop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; and Oswy, Abbot of Thomey; and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and King Edward (age 46) gave the bishopric which Ednoth had to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided him; and he was driven from it, because he did nought like a bishop therein, so that it shameth us now to say more. Bishop Siward also died who lies at Abingdon.

John of Worcester. 1049. During these occurrences earl [his brother-in-law] Sweyn (age 28) went to Pevensey [Map], and perfidiously requested earl Beorn, his cousin, to go with him to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and make his peace with the king (age 46), according to promise. Beorn, relying on his relationship, accompanied him with only three attendants; but Sweyn (age 28) conducted him to Bosham, where his ships lay, and, taking him on board one of them, ordered him to be bound with thongs, and kept him on board until they reached the mouth of the river Dart. There they slew him, and threw him into a deep trench, and covered him with earth. They then sent away six of the ships, two of which were soon afterwards taken by the men of Hastings, who, having killed all on board, carried them to Sandwich, Kent [Map] and presented them to the king (age 46). Sweyn (age 28), however, escaped to Flanders with two ships, and remained there until he was brought back by Aldred, bishop of Worcester, who reconciled him with the king.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. In this same year King Edward (age 46) put nine ships out of pay; and the crews departed, and went away with the ships withal, leaving five ships only behind, for whom the king ordered twelve months pay. The same year went Bishops Hereman and Aldred to the pope at Rome on the king's errand. This year was also consecrated the great minster at Rheims [Map], in the presence of Pope Leo and the emperor. There was also a great synod at St. Remy;64 at which was present Pope Leo, with the Archbishops of Burgundy, of Besancon, of Treves, and of Rheims; and many wise men besides, both clergy and laity. A great synod there held they respecting the service of God, at the instance of St. Leo the pope. It is difficult to recognise all the bishops that came thither, and also abbots. King Edward (age 46) sent thither Bishop Dudoc, and Abbot Wulfric, of St. Augustine's, and Elfwin, Abbot of Ramsey, with the intent that they should report to the king what was determined there concerning Christendom. This same year came [his brother-in-law] Earl Sweyne (age 28) into England.

Note 64. "Vid. Flor." A.D. 1049, and verbatim from him in the same year, Sim. Dunelm. "inter X. Script. p. 184, I, 10. See also Ordericus Vitalis, A.D. 1050. This dedication of the church of St. Remi, a structure well worth the attention of the architectural antiquary, is still commemorated by an annual loire, or fair, on the first of October, at which the editor was present in the year 1815, and purchased at a stall a valuable and scarce history of Rheims, from which he extracts the following account of the synod mentioned above:

"Il fut assemble a l'occasion de la dedicace de la nouvelle eglise qu' Herimar, abbe de ce monastere, avoit fait batir, seconde par les liberalites des citoyens, etc." ("Hist. de Reims", p. 226.) But, according to our Chronicle, the pope took occasion from this synod to make some general regulations which concerned all Christendom.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. Then the king (age 46) gave leave to all the Mercians to return home, and they did so. Then it was told the king that Osgod lay at Ulps with thirty-nine ships; whereupon the king sent after the ships that he might dispatch, which before had gone homewards, but still lay at the Nore.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1049. [Note 62] This year the emperor gathered an innumerable army against Baldwin of Bruges (age 36), because he had destroyed the palace of Nimeguen, and because of many other ungracious acts that he did against him. The army was immense that he had collected together. There was Leo, the Pope of Rome, and the patriarch, and many other great men of several provinces. He sent also to King Edward (age 46), and requested of him naval aid, that he might not permit him to escape from him by water. Whereupon he went to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and lay there with a large naval armament, until the emperor had all that he wished of Baldwin (age 36). Thither also came back again [his brother-in-law] Earl Sweyne (age 28), who had gone from this land to Denmark, and there ruined his cause with the Danes. He came hither with a pretence, saying that he would again submit to the king, and be his man; and he requested Earl Beorn to be of assistance to him, and give him land to feed him on. But [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 27), his brother, and Earl Beorn resisted, and would give him nothing of that which the king had given them. The king also refused him everything. Whereupon Sweyne (age 28) retired to his ships at Bosham. Then, after the settlement between the emperor and Baldwin (age 36), many ships went home, and the king remained behind Sandwich, Kent [Map] with a few ships. [his father-in-law] Earl Godwin (age 48) also sailed forty-two ships from Sandwich, Kent [Map] to Pevensey [Map], and Earl Beorn went with him.

Note 62. So Florence of Worcester, whose authority we here follow for the sake of perspicuity, though some of these events are placed in the MSS. to very different years; as the story of Beorn.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1050. This year returned the bishops home from Rome;65 and [his brother-in-law] Earl Sweyne (age 29) had his sentence of outlawry reversed. The same year died Edsy, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the fourth day before the calends of November; and also in the same year Elfric, Archbishop of York, on the eleventh before the calends of February, a very venerable man and wise, and his body lies at Peterborough. Then had King Edward (age 47) a meeting of the great council in London, in mid-lent, at which he appointed Robert the Frank, who was before Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury; and he, during the same Lent, went to Rome after his pall. The king (age 47) meanwhile gave the see of London to Sparhawk, Abbot of Abingdon, but it was taken from him again before he was consecrated. The king (age 47) also gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulph his cousin. The same year he put all the lightermen out of pay.66 The pope held a council again, at Vercelli; and Bishop Ulf came thither, where he nearly had his staff broken, had he not paid more money, because he could not perform his duties so well as he should do. The same year King Edward (age 47) abolished the Danegeld which King Ethelred imposed. That was in the thirty-ninth year after it had begun. That tribute harassed all the people of England so long as is above written; and it was always paid before other imposts, which were levied indiscriminately, and vexed men variously.

Note 65. Hereman and Aldred, who went on a mission to the pope from King Edward (age 47), as stated in the preceding year.

Note 66. Nine ships were put out of commission the year before; but five being left on the pay-list for a twelvemonth, they were also now laid up.

Before 1051 [his brother-in-law] Tostig Godwinson Earl Northumbria (age 25) and Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Baldwin "Bearded" IV Count Flanders and Matilda Normandy Countess Flanders (age 37). He the son of Godwin Godwinson 1st Earl Kent and Wessex (age 49) and Gytha Estrigen Countess Kent and Wessex.

William the Conqueror visits King Edward the Confessor

John of Worcester. 1051. After these occurrences, William (age 23), earl [duke] of Normandy, came over to England with a vast retinue of Normans. King Edward (age 48) honourably entertained him and his companions, and on their return made them many valuable presents. The same year, William, the king's chaplain, was appointed to the bishopric of London, which was before given to Spearheafoc.

John of Worcester. 1051. Ælfric, archbishop of York, died at Southwell, and was buried at Peterborough [Map]; Kinsige, the king's chaplain, succeeded him. King Edward (age 48) released the English from the heavy tax payable to the Danish troops, in the thirty-eighth year after his father Ethelred had first imposed it. After this, in the month of September, Eustace (age 36) the elder, count of Boulogne, who had married a sister of king Edward, named [his sister] Goda, sailed to Dover, Kent [Map] with a small fleet.66 His soldiers, while they were bluntly and indiscreetly inquiring for lodgings, killed one of the townsmen. A neighbour of his witnessing this, slew one of the soldiers in revenge. At this the count and his followers were much enraged, and put many men and women to the sword, trampling their babes and children under their horses' hoofs. But seeing the townsmen flocking together to resist them, they made their escape, like cowards, with some difficulty, and leaving seven of their number slain, they fled to king Edward (age 48), who was then at Gloucester. [his father-in-law] Earl Godwin (age 50), being indignant that such things should be done within his jurisdiction, in great wrath raised an immense army from the whole of his earldom, that is, from Kent, Sussex, and Wessex; his eldest son, Sweyn, also assembled the men of his earldom, that is, of the counties of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and Berks; and his other son, [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 29), assembled the men of his earldom, namely, Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon, and Cambridge. This did not escape the notice of king Edward (age 48), and he therefore sent messages to Leofric, earl of Mercia, and Siward (age 41), earl of Northumbria, begging them to hasten to him with all the men they could muster, as he was in great peril. They came at first with only a few followers but when they learnt the real state of affairs, they sent swift messengers throughout their earldoms and gathered a large army. Likewise earl Ralph, son of Goda, king Edward's sister, assembled as many as he could from his county.

Note 66. Cf. Saxon Chronicle under the years 1048 and 1052.

Banishment of the Godwins

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (age 36), who had the [his sister] sister of King Edward (age 48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover, Kent [Map]. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, Kent [Map], he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (age 36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (age 36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (age 48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (age 48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off [his father-in-law] Earl Godwin (age 50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover, Kent [Map]. For Eustace (age 36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (age 50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (age 50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and [his brother-in-law] Earl Sweyne (age 30), his son, over his; and [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, Gloucestershire, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (age 36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (age 48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (age 41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (age 48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (age 48), that they would seek Godwin's (age 50) army if the king (age 48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (age 41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (age 50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, Surrey [Map], and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (age 48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (age 29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (age 30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (age 48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (age 48) held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (age 50) and his wife, and all his three sons - Sweyne (age 30) and [his brother-in-law] Tosty (age 25) and [his brother-in-law] Grith (age 19). And he went south to Thorney67, with his wife, and Sweyne (age 30) his son, and Tosty (age 25) and his wife (age 18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (age 38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria (age 18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38)], and his son Grith (age 19). Earl Harold (age 29) with [his brother-in-law] Leofwine (age 16) went to Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map] in the ship that Earl Sweyne (age 30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (age 48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (age 30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (age 48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (age 50), and Earl Sweyne (age 30), and Earl Harold (age 29), together at Beverstone [Map], and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (age 48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (age 48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (age 48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (age 48). There was now assembled before the king (age 48)68 Earl Siward (age 41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (age 50) and his sons, that the king (age 48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (age 48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (age 48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (age 48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (age 30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Harold (age 29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (age 48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (age 48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (age 48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Sweyne (age 30) to Bosham [Map], and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (age 38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (age 29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (age 48) security.

It was from Thorney69 that Godwin (age 50) and those that were with him went to Bruges [Map], to Baldwin's (age 38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (age 48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (age 48) darlings; and his [his wife] daughter (age 25) wedded and united to the king (age 48). Soon after this took place, the king (age 48) dismissed the lady (age 25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his [his half-sister] sister at Wherwell [Map]. Soon after came Earl William (age 23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (age 48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (age 23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (age 29) before possessed.

Note 67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.

Note 68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.

Note 69. Now Westminster.

John of Worcester. 08 Sep 1051. Meanwhile, [his father-in-law] Godwin (age 50) and his sons [Note. [his brother-in-law] Sweyn (age 30), [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 29), [his brother-in-law] Tostig (age 25), [his brother-in-law] Gyrth (age 19), [his brother-in-law] Leofwine (age 16) and [his brother-in-law] Wulfnoth (age 11); it isn't clear whether all were present?], with their respective armies, entered Gloucestershire after the feast of the nativity of St. Mary [8th September], and encamping at a place called Langtreo, sent envoys to the king at Gloucester, demanding the surrender of count Eustace (age 36) and his followers, as well as of the Normans and men of Boulogne, who were in possession of the castle on the cliff at Dover, Kent [Map], on pain of hostilities. The king, alarmed for a time at this message, was in great distress, and in the utmost perplexity what to do. But when he found that the troops of the earls Leofric, Siward (age 41), and Ralph were on their march, he replied with firmness that he would by no means consent to give up Eustace (age 36) and the rest who were demanded. On hearing this, the envoys returned from their bootless errand. As they were departing, the army entered Gloucester, so exasperated, and unanimously ready to fight, that, if the king had given permission, they would have instantly engaged earl Godwin's (age 50) army. But earl Leofric considering that all the men of greatest note in England were assembled either on his side or the other, it appeared to him and some others a great folly to fight with their own countrymen, and he proposed that, hostages having been given by both parties, the king and Godwin (age 50) should meet at London on a day appointed, and settle their controversy in a legal way. This advice being approved, and after the exchange of messages, hostages having been given and received, the earl (age 50) returned into Wessex; and the king assembled a more powerful army from the whole of Mercia and Northumbria, and led it to London. Meanwhile, Godwin (age 50) and his sons came to Southwark with a vast multitude of the people of Wessex; but his army gradually dwindling away and deserting him, he did not venture to abide the judgment of the king's court, but fled, under cover of night. When, therefore, the morning came, the king, in his witan, with the unanimous consent of the whole army, made a decree that Godwin (age 50) and his five sons should be banished. Thereupon he and his wife Githa, and Tosti (age 25) and his wife Judith (age 18), the daughter of Baldwin, count of Flanders, and two of his. other sons, namely, Sweyn (age 30) and Gurth (age 19), went, without loss of time, to Thorney, where a ship had been got ready for them. They quickly laded her with as much gold, silver, and other valuable articles as she could hold, and, embarking in great haste, directed her course towards Flanders and Baldwin (age 39) the count. His sons Harold (age 29) and Leofwine (age 16), making their way to Brycgstowe [Map], went on board a ship which their brother Sweyn (age 30) had prepared for them, and crossed over to Ireland. The king (age 48) repudiated the queen [his wife] Edgitha (age 25), on account of his wrath against her father Godwin (age 50), and sent her in disgrace, with only a single handmaid, to Wherwell [Map], where she was committed to the custody of the [his half-sister] abbess.67

Note 67. She was a sister of the king.

Godwins Restored

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. Then proceeded they to the Nore, and so toward London; but some of the ships landed on the Isle of Sheppey, Kent [Map], and did much harm there; whence they steered to Milton Regis, Kent [Map], and burned it all, and then proceeded toward London after the earls. When they came to London, there lay the king (age 49) and all his earls to meet them, with fifty ships. The earls73 then sent to the king (age 49), praying that they might be each possessed of those things which had been unjustly taken from them. But the king (age 49) resisted some while; so long that the people who were with the [his father-in-law] earl (age 51) were very much stirred against the king (age 49) and against his people, so that the earl (age 51) himself with difficulty appeased them. When King Edward (age 49) understood that, then sent he upward after more aid; but they came very late. And Godwin (age 51) stationed himself continually before London with his fleet, till he came to Southwark, Surrey [Map]; where he abode some time, until the flood74 came up. On this occasion he also contrived with the burgesses that they should do almost all that he would. When he had arranged his whole expedition, then came the flood; and they soon weighed anchor, and steered through the bridge by the south side. The land-force meanwhile came above, and arranged themselves by the Strand [Map]; and they formed an angle with the ships against the north side, as if they wished to surround the king's (age 49) ships. The king (age 49) had also a great land-force on his side, to add to his shipmen: but they were most of them loth to fight with their own kinsmen-for there was little else of any great importance but Englishmen on either side; and they were also unwilling that this land should be the more exposed to outlandish people, because they destroyed each other. Then it was determined that wise men should be sent between them, who should settle peace on either side. Godwin (age 51) went up, and [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 30) his son, and their navy, as many as they then thought proper. Then advanced Bishop Stigand with God's assistance, and the wise men both within the town and without; who determined that hostages should be given on either side.

Note 73. i.e. Godwin and his son Harold.

Note 74. i.e. the tide of the river.

John of Worcester. 1052. As soon as his arrival was known in the king's fleet, which lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map], it went in chase of him; but he escaped and concealed himself wherever he could, and the fleet returned to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and thence sailed to London. On hearing this, [his father-in-law] Godwin (age 51) shaped his course again for the Isle of Wight [Map], and kept hovering about along the shore until his sons [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 30) and [his brother-in-law] Leofwine (age 17) joined him with their fleet. After this junction, they desisted from plundering and wasting the country, taking only such provisions as necessity required for the subsistence of their troops. Having increased their force by enlisting as many men as they could on the sea-coast and in other places, and by collecting all the mariners they met with in every direction, they directed their course towards the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map]. Their arrival there was notified to king Edward (age 49), who was then at London, and he lost no time sending messengers requiring all persons, who had not revolted from him, to hasten to his succour; but they were too slow in their movements, and did not arrive in time. Meanwhile, earl Godwin (age 51), having sailed up the Thames against the current, reached Southwark, Surrey [Map] on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14th September], being Monday, and waited there until the flood-tide came up. In the interval, he so dealt with the citizens of London, some in person, others through his emissaries, having before seduced them by a variety of promises, that he persuaded nearly all of them to enter heartily into his designs. At last, everything being duly planned and set in order, on the tide's flowing up they quickly weighed anchor, and, no one offering them any resistance at the bridge, sailed upwards along the south bank of the river. The land army also arrived, and, being drawn up on the river-bank, formed a close and formidable column. Then the fleet drew towards the northern bank, with the intention, apparently, of enclosing the king's fleet, for the king had also a fleet, as well as a numerous land army. But as there were very few men of any courage, either on the king's or Godwin's (age 51) side, who were not Englishmen, nearly all shrunk from fighting against their kinsfolk and countrymen; so that the wiser sort on both sides interfered to restore peace between the king and the earl, and both armies received orders to lay down their arms. The next morning the king (age 49) held a council, and fully restored to their former honours Godwin (age 51), and his wife, and all his sons, except [his brother-in-law] Sweyn (age 31), who, touched with repentance for the murder of his cousin Beorn, mentioned before, had undertaken a journey barefoot from Flanders to Jerusalem, and who, on his return, died in Lycia70 from illness brought on by the severity of the cold. The king, also, took back with due honour queen [his wife] Edgitha (age 26), the earl's (age 51) daughter, and restored her to her former dignity.

Note 70. According to the Saxon Chronicle, Sweyn died at Constantinople on his journey home. Malmesbury relates that he was slain by the Saracens.

Christmas Court

In 1052 during his Christmas Court King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 49) ordered the killing of Rhys ap Rhydderch in reprisal for his raiding of England. The chronicle of Florence of Worcester recorded a bit more information, stating that Rhys was killed at "Bulendun", which may be Bullen's Bank near Clyro in Radnorshire.

On 05 Jan 1053 the head of Rhys ap Rhydderch was brought before King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 50).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. And so they did. When Archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen knew that, they took horse; and went some west to Pentecost Castle, some north to Robert's castle. Archbishop Robert and Bishop Ulf, with their companions, went out at Eastgate, slaying or else maiming many young men, and betook themselves at once to Eadulf's-ness; where he put himself on board a crazy ship, and went at once over sea, leaving his pall and all Christendom here on land, as God ordained, because he had obtained an honour which God disclaimed. Then was proclaimed a general council without London; and all the earls and the best men in the land were at the council. There took up [his father-in-law] Earl Godwin (age 51) his burthen, and cleared himself there before his lord King Edward (age 49), and before all the nation; proving that he was innocent of the crime laid to his charge, and to his son [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 30) and all his children. And the king (age 49) gave the earl and his children, and all the men that were with him, his full friendship, and the full earldom, and all that he possessed before; and he gave the lady all that she had before. Archbishop Robert was fully proclaimed an outlaw, with all the Frenchmen; because they chiefly made the discord between Earl Godwin (age 51) and the king (age 49): and Bishop Stigand succeeded to the archbishopric at Canterbury.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. At the council therefore they gave [his father-in-law] Godwin (age 51) fairly his earldom, so full and so free as he at first possessed it; and his sons also all that they formerly had; and his wife and his [his wife] daughter (age 26) so full and so free as they formerly had. And they fastened full friendship between them, and ordained good laws to all people. Then they outlawed all Frenchmen-who before instituted bad laws, and judged unrighteous judgment, and brought bad counsels into this land-except so many as they concluded it was agreeable to the king (age 49) to have with him, who were true to him and to all his people. It was with difficulty that Bishop Robert, and Bishop William, and Bishop Ulf, escaped with the Frenchmen that were with them, and so went over sea. Earl Godwin (age 51), and [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 30), and the queen, sat in their stations. [his brother-in-law] Sweyne (age 31) had before gone to Jerusalem from Bruges [Map], and died on his way home at Constantinople, at Michaelmas. It was on the Monday after the festival of St. Mary, that Godwin (age 51) came with his ships to Southwark, Surrey [Map]: and on the morning afterwards, on the Tuesday, they were reconciled as it stands here before recorded. Godwin (age 51) then sickened soon after he came up, and returned back. But he made altogether too little restitution of God's property, which he acquired from many places.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. At the same time Arnwy, Abbot of Peterborough, resigned his abbacy in full health; and gave it to the monk Leofric, with the king's (age 49) leave and that of the monks; and the Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight winters. The Abbot Leofric gilded the minster [Map], so that it was called Gildenborough; and it then waxed very much in land, and in gold, and in silver.

Note 73 i.e. Godwin and his son Harold.

Note 74 i.e. the tide of the river.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. After 05 Mar 1052. Meanwhile [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 30) had gone out from Ireland with nine ships, and came up at Porlock, Somerset with his ships to the mouth of the Severn, near the boundaries of Somerset and Devonshire, and there plundered much. The land-folk collected against him, both from Somerset and from Devonshire: but he put them to flight, and slew there more than thirty good thanes, besides others; and went soon after about Penwithstert [Note. Possibly Plymouth, Devon [Map]], where was much people gathered against him; but he spared not to provide himself with meat, and went up and slew on the spot a great number of the people-seizing in cattle, in men, and in money, whatever he could. Then went he eastward to his father; and they went both together eastward71 until they came to the Isle of Wight [Map], where they seized whatever had been left them before. Thence they went to Pevensey [Map], and got out with them as many ships as had gone in there, and so proceeded forth till they came to the Ness;72 getting all the ships that were at Romney, and at Hithe, and at Folkstone. Then ordered King Edward (age 49) to fit out forty smacks that lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map] many weeks, to watch [his father-in-law] Earl Godwin (age 51), who was at Bruges [Map] during the winter; but he nevertheless came hither first to land, so as to escape their notice. And whilst he abode in this land, he enticed to him all the Kentish men, and all the boatmen from Hastings, and everywhere thereabout by the sea-coast, and all the men of Essex and Sussex and Surrey, and many others besides. Then said they all that they would with him live or die. When the fleet that lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map] had intelligence about Godwin's expedition, they set sail after him; but he escaped them, and betook himself wherever he might: and the fleet returned to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and so homeward to London. When Godwin understood that the fleet that lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map] was gone home, then went he back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea-coast so long that they came together-he and his son Earl Harold. But they did no great harm after they came together; save that they took meat, and enticed to them all the land-folk by the sea-coast and also upward in the land. And they proceeded toward Sandwich, Kent [Map], ever alluring forth with them all the boatmen that they met; and to Sandwich, Kent [Map] they came with an increasing army. They then steered eastward round to Dover, and landing there, took as many ships and hostages as they chose, and so returned to Sandwich, Kent [Map], where they did the same; and men everywhere gave them hostages and provisions, wherever they required them.

Note 70 i.e. Earl Godwin and his crew.

Note 71 i.e. from the Isle of Portland; where Godwin had landed after the plunder of the Isle of Wight.

Note 72 i.e. Dungeness; where they collected all the ships stationed in the great bay formed by the ports of Romney, Hithe, and Folkstone.

On 06 Mar 1052 [his mother] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 67) died.

John of Worcester. After 06 Mar 1052. A short time afterwards, earl [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 30) and his brother [his brother-in-law] Leofwine (age 17), returning from Ireland, and sailing into the mouth of the river Severn with a large fleet, landed on the borders of Somersetshire and Dorsetshire, and plundered many villages and farms in those parts. A great number of the people of Devonshire and Somersetshire gathered together in arms against them; but Harold (age 30) defeated them with the loss of more than thirty noble thanes, and many others. He then returned to his fleet with the booty, and sailed round Penwithsteort.68 Thereupon, king Edward (age 49) quickly despatched forty ships, well provisioned, and having on board a chosen body of soldiers, to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], with orders to wait and look out for the arrival of [his father-in-law] earl Godwin (age 51). Notwithstanding this, he escaped observation, and, returning with a few ships, landed in Kent; and, by his secret emissaries, gained over to espouse his cause, first, the Kentishmen, and then the people of Sussex, Essex, and Surrey, with all the seamen69 of Hastings and other places on the sea-coast, besides some others. All these, with one voice, declared that they were ready to live or die with him.

Note 68. Penwith-Steort—the Land's End.

Note 69. Butsecarles—Boats-carles. Our author uses the word again, a few sentences later, in the general sense of mariners, seamen.

John of Worcester. 1053. Rhys, the brother of Griffyth, king of South Wales, was put to death by order of king Edward (age 50) at a place called Bullington, Hampshire [Map], on account of the plundering inroads he had frequently made, and his head was brought to the king at Gloucester on the eve of our Lord's Epiphany [5th January]. In the same year, on the second day of the festival of Easter [12th April], which was celebrated at Winchester, Hampshire [Map], [his father-in-law] earl Godwin (age 52) came to his end while he was sitting at table with the king, according to his usual custom; for, being suddenly seized with a violent illness, he fell speechless from his seat. His sons, earl [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 31), [his brother-in-law] Tosti (age 27), and [his brother-in-law] Gurth (age 21), perceiving it, carried him into the king's chamber, hoping that he would presently recover; but his strength failing, he died in great suffering on the fifth day afterwards [15th April], and was buried in the Old Minster. His son Harold (age 31) succeeded to his earldom, and Harold's (age 31) earldom was given to Algar, son of earl Leofric.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 15 Apr 1053. In this year was the king (age 50) at Winchester, Hampshire [Map], at Easter; and [his father-in-law] Earl Godwin (age 52) with him, and [his brother-in-law] Earl Harold (age 31) his son, and [his brother-in-law] Tosty (age 27). On the day after Easter sat he with the king at table; when he suddenly sunk beneath against the foot-rail, deprived of speech and of all his strength. He was brought into the king's chamber; and they supposed that it would pass over: but it was not so. He continued thus speechless and helpless till the Thursday; when he resigned his life, on the seventeenth before the calends of May; and he was buried at Winchester in the old minster. Earl Harold (age 31), his son, took to the earldom that his father had before, and to all that his father possessed; whilst Earl Elgar took to the earldom that Harold (age 31) had before. The Welshmen this year slew a great many of the warders of the English people at Westbury, Wiltshire [Map]. This year there was no archbishop in this land: but Bishop Stigand held the see of Canterbury at Christ church, and Kinsey that of York. Leofwine and Wulfwy went over sea, and had themselves consecrated bishops there. Wulfwy took to the bishopric which Ulf had whilst he was living and in exile.

Battle of Dunsinane

John of Worcester. 27 Jul 1054. Siward (age 44), the stout earl of Northumbria, by order of the king (age 51) entered Scotland, with a large body of cavalry and a powerful fleet, and fought a battle with Macbeth (age 49), king of the Scots, in which the king was defeated with the loss of many thousands both of the Scots and of the Normans before mentioned; he then, as the king had commanded, raised to the throne Malcolm (age 23), son of the king of the Cumbrians. However, his own son and many English and Danes fell in that battle.

John of Worcester. 1055. Siward (age 45), earl of Northumberland, died at York, and was buried in the monastery at Galmanho [Map]72, which he had himself founded: his earldom was given to [his brother-in-law] Tosti (age 29), earl [his brother-in-law] Harold's (age 33) brother. Shortly afterwards, king Edward (age 52), in a council held at London, banished earl Algar, earl Leofric's son, without any just cause of offence. Algar presently went to Ireland, and having collected eighteen pirate ships, returned with them to Wales, where he implored Griffyth the king to lend him his aid against king Edward. Griffyth immediately assembled a numerous army from all parts of his dominions, and directed Algar to join him and his army at a place appointed with his own troops; and having united their forces they entered Herefordshire, intending to lay waste the English marshes.

Note 72. An abbey at York, afterwards restored, and called St. Mary's [Map].

Flowers of History 1055. 1055. In the same year, Siward, duke of Northumberland (age 45), died, and king Eadward (age 52) conferred that dukedom on [his brother-in-law] Tosti (age 29), [his brother-in-law] duke Harold's (age 33) brother. Not long after this, king Eadward (age 52) held a council at London, and banished from England earl Algar, who thereupon went into Ireland, where he got eighteen piratical vessels, and joining himself to GGriffin king of Wales, made incursions into the kingdom of England. Having invaded Herefordshire, they were met by duke Ranulph, son of king Eadward's sister; but at the first onset Ranulph and his men fled; whereupon Algar and Griffin pursued the fugitives and slew five hundred of them. After this victory they entered the city of Hereford, and having slain seven ecclesiastics who defended the doors of the cathedral, they burned that church with its ornaments and relics. Then, after slaying some of the inhabitants, and taking others captives, and burning the town, they retired with a rich booty. On hearing of this deed, king Eadward assembled a large army at Gloucester, and giving it in command to Harold, son of Godwin, he ordered him to make a fierce attack on the enemy. Accordingly, he boldly entered Wales and advanced with his army as far as Snowdon; but Algar and Griffin, well acquainted with Harold's valour, avoided an encounter. After terribly ravaging Wales, Harold marched to Hereford, which he environed with a broad and high rampart, and strengthened the city with gates and bars. At length, by the intervention of messengers, a peace of short duration was made between Algar and the king. In the same year, Hermann bishop of Ramesbury, annoyed at the king's refusal to allow the episcopal seat to be transferred to Salisbury, resigned his bishopric, and crossing the sea, assumed the monastic habit at St. Bertin's, and remained three years in that monastery. The first bishop of Ramesbury was Ethelstan, the second Odo, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, the third Osulf, the fourth Algar, the fifth Elstan, the sixth Siric, the seventh Alfric, the eighth Brithwold, who continued from the time of king Ethelred to St. Eadward. We read of this Brithwold, that in the time of king Cnute, he would frequently turn his thoughts to the English royal race, then well nigh destroyed, and would wonder whether it would ever be restored, and that one night, as he lay on his bed musing on this subject, he was caught up on high, where he saw Peter, the prince of the apostles, holding in his arms Eadward the future king, then in Normandy, whom he consecrated to be king, and foretold that he would lead a life of celibacy and reign twenty-four years. It is said also that Brithwold inquired respecting the succession of the kincrs of England, and received this answer, " The kingdom of England belongs to God, and he will provide himself kings." The aforesaid Hermann returned to his bishopric, and, with king Eadward's leave, united the bishopric of Sherborne with that of Ramesbury, and transferred the cathedral see to Salisbury.

Flowers of History 1057. 1057. Eadward king of England (age 54), being advanced in years, sent Aldred bishop of Worcester into Hungary, and recalled thence Eadward (age 41), son of king Eadmund his brother, with the intention of making him his successor. Eadward came accordingly, with his son Eadgar (age 6) and his daughters Margaret (age 12) and Christina, but died not long after his arrival in the city of London, leaving the king the charge of his son Eadgar and his daughters before mentioned.

John of Worcester. 1057. Edward the etheling (age 41), son of king Edmund Ironside, accepting the invitation of his uncle, king Edward (age 54), returned to England from Hungary, where he had been exiled many years before. For the king had determined to appoint him his successor and heir to the crown; but he died at London soon after his arrival.

John of Worcester. 1058. Algar, earl of Mercia, was outlawed by king Edward (age 55) for the second time, but, supported by Griffyth, king of Wales, and aided by a Norwegian fleet, which unexpectedly came to his relief, he speedily recovered his earldom by force of arms. Pope Stephen died on the third of the calends of April [30th March]. He was succeeded by Benedict, who sent the pallium to Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury. Æthelric was ordained bishop of Sussex; and abbot Siward was consecrated bishop of Rochester. Aldred, bishop of Worcester, dedicated with great ceremony to Peter, prince of the apostles, the church [Map] which he had built from the foundations in the city of Worcester, and afterwards, with the king's license, appointed Wulfstan (age 50), a monk of Worcester, ordained by him, abbot of the new foundation. Then, having resigned the bishopric of Wilton, which he held in commendam, and restored it to Heriman, before mentioned, he crossed the sea, and went through Hungary to Jerusalem; a pilgrimage which no English archbishop or bishop is known to have performed before.

Around 03 May 1060 Archbishop Cynesige consecrated Waltham Abbey [Map] in the presence of King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 57) at the invitation of [his brother-in-law] Harold Godwinson (age 38).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1063. This year went [his brother-in-law] Earl Harold (age 41), after mid-winter, from Gloucester to Rhyddlan; which belonged to Griffin: and that habitation he burned, with his ships and all the rigging belonging thereto; and put him to flight. Then in the gang-days went Harold with his ships from Bristol about Wales; where he made a truce with the people, and they gave him hostages. [his brother-in-law] Tosty (age 37) meanwhile advanced with a land-force against them, and plundered the land. But in the harvest of the same year was King Griffin slain, on the nones of August, by his own men, through the war that he waged with Earl Harold (age 41). He was king over all the Welsh nation. And his head was brought to Earl Harold (age 41); who sent it to the king (age 60), with his ship's head, and the rigging therewith. King Edward (age 60) committed the land to his two brothers, Blethgent (age 50) and Rigwatle; who swore oaths, and gave hostages to the king and to the earl, that they would be faithful to him in all things, ready to aid him everywhere by water and land, and would pay him such tribute from the land as was paid long before to other kings.

John of Worcester. 05 Aug 1064. Griffyth, king of Wales, was slain by his own people, on the nones [the 5th] of August, and his head and the beak of his ship, with its ornaments, were sent to earl [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 42), who, shortly afterwards, presented them to king Edward (age 61). The king then gave the territories of the Welsh king to his brothers Blethgent (age 51) and Rithwalon77, and they swore to be faithful to him and Harold (age 42), and promised to be ready to obey their orders by sea and land, and that they would faithfully pay whatever was paid before from that country to former kings.

Note 77. Blethyn and Rhywallon, princes of North Wales and Powis, 1060—1066.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1065. This year, before Lammas, ordered [his brother-in-law] Earl Harold (age 43) his men to build at Portskeweth in Wales. But when he had begun, and collected many materials, and thought to have King Edward (age 62) there for the purpose of hunting, even when it was all ready, came Caradoc, son of Griffin, with all the gang that he could get, and slew almost all that were building there; and they seized the materials that were there got ready. Wist we not who first advised the wicked deed. This was done on the mass-day of St. Bartholomew.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1065. Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed their [his brother-in-law] Earl Tosty (age 39); slaying all the men of his clan that they could reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York, with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere there find. They then sent after Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and chose him for their earl. He went south with all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he came to Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map]; where his brother Edwin came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom. Many Britons also came with him. [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 43) also there met them; on whom they imposed an errand to King Edward (age 62), sending also messengers with him, and requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl. This the king granted; and sent back Harold (age 43) to them, to Northampton, on the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of Knute. But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton, whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could come at; which amounted to many thousands. Many hundred men also they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters.

Consecration of Westminster Abbey

On 28 Dec 1065 the Westminster Abbey [Map] that preceded the current building, known as St Peter's Abbey, was consecrated. King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 62) was too ill to attend (he died eight days later).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. This year came [his brother-in-law] King Harold (age 44) from York to Westminster, on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward) died. Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of May. Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever saw before. Some men said that it was the comet-star, which others denominate the long-hair'd star. It appeared first on the eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the calends off May; and so shone all the week. Soon after this came in [his brother-in-law] Earl Tosty (age 40) from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight [Map], with as large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with money and provisions. Thence he proceeded, and committed outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until he came to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. When it was told King Harold (age 44), who was in London, that his brother Tosty (age 40) was come to Sandwich, Kent [Map], he gathered so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from Normandy (age 38), King Edward's (age 63) cousin, would come hither and gain this land; just as it afterwards happened. When Tosty (age 40) understood that King Harold (age 44) was on the way to Sandwich, Kent [Map], he departed thence, and took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered in Lindsey [Map], and there slew many good men. When the Earls Edwin and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from the land. And the boatmen forsook him. Then he went to Scotland with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him, and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer. There met him Harold, King of Norway (age 51), with three hundred ships. And Tosty (age 40) submitted to him, and became his man.87 Then came King Harold (age 44)88 to Sandwich, Kent [Map], where he awaited his fleet; for it was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he went into the Isle of Wight [Map], and there lay all the summer and the autumn. There was also a land-force every where by the sea, though it availed nought in the end. It was now the nativity of St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man could keep them there any longer. They therefore had leave to go home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London; but many perished ere they came thither.

Note 87. These facts, though stated in one MS. only, prove the early cooperation of Tosty with the King of Norway. It is remarkable that this statement is confirmed by Snorre, who says that Tosty was with Harald, the King of Norway, in all these expeditions. Vid "Antiq. Celto-Scand." p. 204.

Note 88. i.e. Harold, King of England; "our" king, as we find him. Afterwards called in B iv., to distinguish him from Harald, King of Norway.

Around 1066 [his sister-in-law] Elgiva Godwinson died.

Death of Edward the Confessor

On 05 Jan 1066 King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 63) died. He was buried the same day at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. About midwinter King Edward (age 63) came to Westminster, and had the minster there consecrated, which he had himself built to the honour of God, and St. Peter, and all God's saints. This church-hallowing was on Childermas-day. He died on the eve of twelfth-day; and he was buried on twelfth-day in the same minster; as it is hereafter said. Here Edward king86, of Angles lord, sent his stedfast soul to Christ. In the kingdom of God a holy spirit! He in the world here abode awhile, in the kingly throng of council sage. Four and twenty winters wielding the sceptre freely, wealth he dispensed. In the tide of health, the youthful monarch, offspring of Ethelred! ruled well his subjects; the Welsh and the Scots, and the Britons also, Angles and Saxons relations of old. So apprehend the first in rank, that to Edward all the noble king were firmly held high-seated men. Blithe-minded aye was the harmless king; though he long ere, of land bereft, abode in exile wide on the earth; when Knute o'ercame the kin of Ethelred, and the Danes wielded the dear kingdom of Engle-land. Eight and twenty winters' rounds they wealth dispensed. Then came forth free in his chambers, in royal array, good, pure, and mild, Edward the noble; by his country defended- by land and people. Until suddenly came the bitter Death and this king so dear snatched from the earth. Angels carried his soul sincere into the light of heaven. But the prudent king had settled the realm on high-born men- on [his brother-in-law] Harold (age 44) himself, the noble earl; who in every season faithfully heard and obeyed his lord, in word and deed; nor gave to any what might be wanted by the nation's king. This year also was Earl Harold (age 44) hallowed to king; but he enjoyed little tranquillity therein the while that he wielded the kingdom.

Note 86. This threnodia on the death of Edward the Confessor will be found to correspond, both in metre and expression, with the poetical paraphrase of Genesis ascribed to Caedmon.

On 18 Dec 1075 [his former wife] Edith of Wessex Queen Consort England (age 49) died.

Christening of Edward I

On 22 Jun 1239 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England was christened at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex (age 35) was godfather. He was named after King Edward "Confessor" of England.

Translation of the Relics of Edward the Confessor

On 13 Oct 1269 the remains of King Edward "Confessor" of England were moved to a chapel east of the sanctuary in Westminster Abbey [Map]. Alexander III King Scotland (age 28) and Margaret Queen of Scotland (age 29) attended.

Vesta Monumenta. 1724. Plate 1.16. Engraving of the Shrine of Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Thirteenth-century shrine base and feretory canopy of St Edward at Westminster Abbey. Engraving by George Vertue (age 40) after John Talman (age 46). 445 x 336 mm (bifolium).

Charter S1000 King Edward to Coventry Abbey. A.D. 1043. King Edward to Coventry Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander] Latin

Pace regnante, largiflua Christi omnipotentis bonitas semper ab omnibus est laudanda omnique laude praeferenda, quia nullo bonitatis termino ualet concludi in saeculorum saecula, utpote quia idem deus ipse sit suae propriae bonitatis bonitas, distribuens gratis non tantum dignis uerum etiam indignis partem suae bonitatis; est quippe rex regum et dominus dominantium omniumque subsistentium uisibilium atque inuisibilium creator, et suae creationis discretissimus dispositor, attingens a fine usque ad finem suauiterque disponens omnem creaturam ut competit diuinae dominationi eius. Nam quosdam libero arbitrio quibusdam praefecit dignitate huius saeculi et operibus diuersis, quibus rursum mandat ut ipsi sua sufficienta et bonorum habundantia illorum releuare et sustentare debeant inopiam qui minus saecularibus habundant negotiis, ut pro hoc maiori possint mercede ab eo donari. Unde ego Eadwardus Anglorum rex omnibus post me futuris regibus, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, ducibus, omnibusque Christi fidelibus notum fieri uolo quod uenerabilis dux Leofricus, diuina inspirante gratia monitisque gloriosi ac deo dilecti summi pontificis Alexandri, monasterium sanctae dei genitricis Mariae sanctique Petri et omnium sanctorum in uilla quae dicitur Couentre extruxit largisque muneribus adornauit, atque subscripta maneria ad uictuale subsidium abbatis et monachorum in eodem loco deo perpetue seruientium mea larga donatione et concessione ibidem contulit; uidelicet medietatem eiusdem uillae in qua fundata est ipsa aecclesia, deinde Sou∂am, Greneburgan, Icketonam, Hunitonam, Neowenham, Hulhtune, Chadeleshunte, Herdewyk, Cestretune, Waspertune, Suohham, Byrtingabirig iuxta Auen, Merston, item Merstuna, in Gloecestria, medietatem uillae de Ruitune, Sowe, Salewarp, Eatuna iuxta fluuium Dee, Kildesbig, Winewican, Burhbeca, Barwalle, Scrapetoft, Pakinton, pro reuerentia itaque et honore sanctae dei genitricis Mariae sanctique aduocati mei apostoli Petri, do et concedo abbati Leofwino, et omnibus futuris ibidem post eum abbatibus, in tota possessione monasterii, sakam et socnam, et theloneum suum in terra et in aqua, in urbe et extra, et omnes leges et consuetudines tam plene et tam libere sicut eas praefatus dux honorificentius et liberius de me tenuit. Praecipio itaque ut omnia quae ad ipsam aecclesiam pertinent sint omnino libera, terrae cultae et incultae, cum exitibus atque redditibus praedictorum necnon maneria et aecclesiae, cimiteria, decimae, redditus, et seruitia debita, oblationes, luminaria, causarum discussiones, emendationes aecclesiasticae uel saeculares, et quicquid illi loco collatum est sub integra inmunitate concedimus et perpetuo firmamus. Et ne quis praesentium uel magis futurorum ambiget quae sit illa libertas quam amabiliter et firmiter concedo, omnimodis cuncta illius aecclesiae possessio nullis sit unquam grauata oneribus nec expeditionis nec pontis et arcis aedificatione, nec iuris regalis fragimine nec furis apprehensione. Et ut omnia simul comprehendam, nil debet exsolui nec regi nec regis praeposito uel episcopo uel ulli homini, sed omnia debita exsoluantur iugiter quae in ipsa ditione fuerint ad supradictum sanctum locum secundum quod ordinauerint fratres eiusdem coenobii. Ut autem cunctis haec transgredientibus ad damnationem suam euidenter possit ostendi literas summi pontificis papae Alexandri quas ab eo suscepimus, directas tam posteris quam praesentibus hic manifestari curauimus. Alexander episcopus seruus seruorum dei dilecto filio Eadwardo regi Anglorum salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Scriptorum uestrorum eloquia incolumitatem uestram significantia laeti suscepimus, gratias itaque omnipotenti deo retulimus qui cordis uestri sinceritatem ad omnia utilia sanctae matris aecclesiae compungit. Proinde iuxta scripta uestra monasterio sanctae Mariae de Couentria ubi seruorum dei constituta est congregatio a reuerendae memoriae Leofrico duce nuper exstructo, huiusmodi priuilegia praesentis authoritatis nostrae indulgemus, concedimus, atque confirmamus, statuentes ut ipse locus regiis praeceptis et priuilegiis apostolicis fultus per omnia tempora sine conuexatione cuiuscumque diocesani episcopi, aut alicuius iudiciariae potestatis cuiuscumque ordinis uel dignitatis sit, sed semper sicut praeoptat et expetit beneuolentia tua regalis futuro tempore permaneat. Fratres igitur eiusdem loci idoneos ex se uel ex qua uoluerint congregatione abbates siue decanos sibi per successiones eligendi habeant potestatem, et ne impediantur auctoritate apostolica prohibemus. Praeterea quicquid illi loco contuleris, uel collatum est, uel conferetur, diuina et nostra auctoritate roboramus; necnon priuilegia uestra ad honorem dei pertinentia quae ibi instituere uolueris gratanti affectu annuimus, confirmamus, et confirmando imperpetuum stare decreuimus; et infractores eorum aeterna maledictione damnamus. Anno incarnationis dominicae .m.xliii. scripta est haec syngrapha, hiis consentientibus ierarchis qui subter notati: uidelicet,

Ego Eadwardus rex hanc meam libertatem regali stabilimento affirmaui.

Ego [his mother] Ælfgyfa mater eiusdem regis assensum accommodaui.

Ego Eadgi∂ regina eiusdem collateralis regis eiusdem donationi regali consensi [The queen of the same collateral agreed to the king's royal donation of the same.].

Ego Eadsinus Dorobernensis aecclesiae archiepiscopus adquieui.

Ego Ælfricus Eboracensis aecclesiae archipraesul corroboraui.

Ego Ælfwoldus Londoniensis episcopus subposui.

Ego Ealdredus episcopus Wygornensis impressi.

Ego Duduco episcopus Willensis adnotaui.

Ego Wlfinus episcopus Lichesfeldensis consolidaui.

Ego Æ∂elstanus episcopus Herfordensis stabiliui.

Ego Liuingus episcopus Cridiensis adposui.

Ego Eadno∂us episcopus Dorcensis consensum praebui.

Ego Brihtwinus episcopus Scirbernensis confirmaui.

Ego Berhtwold episcopus Wiltuniensis conclusi.

Ego Manni abbas.

Ego Siward abbas.

Ego Ælfwinus abbas.

Ego Godwinus abbas.

Ego Ælfstanus abbas.

Ego Godwinus dux.

Ego Haroldus dux.

Ego Leofricus dux.

Ego Siward dux.

Ego Sweyn dux.

Ego Tostig dux.

Ego Radulphus More.

Ego Esgar.

Ego Rodbord minister.

Ego Hulfketel minister.

Ego Godwine minister.

Ego Frewine minister.

Ego Leofric minister.

Ego Morcere minister.

Ego Ælfgar minister.

Ego Godric minister.

Ego Leofric minister.

Ego Siwerd minister.

Ego Æ∂elsi minister.

King Edward "Confessor" of England 1003-1066 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex 849-899

Rollo Normandy Duke Normandy 846-930

Royal Ancestors of King Edward "Confessor" of England 1003-1066

Kings Wessex: Son of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England

Ancestors of King Edward "Confessor" of England 1003-1066

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edmund I of England

GrandFather: King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury Queen Consort England

Father: King Æthelred "Unready" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Ordgar Earldorman Devon

GrandMother: Aelfthryth Queen Consort England

King Edward "Confessor" of England

GrandFather: Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy

Great x 1 Grandmother: Sprota Unknown

Mother: Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Unknown Unknown

GrandMother: Gunnora Countess Ponthieu