The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 is in The Chronicles of Froissart.

1314 Battle of Bannockburn

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge

1327 Coronation of Edward III

1327 Weardale Campaign

1327 Battle of Stanhope Park

1328 Death of Charles IV of France Sucession of Philip VI

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1328 Roger Mortimer created Earl of March

1328 Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

1329 Death of Robert the Bruce

1330 Battle of Teba

1337 Battle of Cadzand

1338 French Raid on Southampton

1339 Attack on Honnecourt

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 2

Here follow the names of the most courageous and celebrated figures in this history both from France and England

1326. To encourage all noble hearts and show them worthy examples, I, Jehan Froissart, following on from the account made by my lord Jean le Bel, canon of Saint Lambert's in Liège, will begin by saying that while many noble and common people alike have often spoken about the wars of France and England, they did not know the truth, if questioned or interrogated on the matter, of how or why they began, here you will find the proper root of the matter. To that end I will not omit, forget, alter, or abridge anything at all in this history for want of language, but will rather enrich and elaborate where I am able, and thoroughly relate every event point by point from the birth of king Edward of England who reigned and participated in so many remarkable and perilous ventures and battles, and other feats of arms and great prowess since the year of grace 1326 in which this noble king was crowned in England. All of those who were with him in his battles and most fortunate encounters, or with his people when he was not present in person, which you will subsequently hear about, should rightly be renowned for their valour; notwithstanding that there are a good many of them who may well be deemed to have achieved the very pinnacle of valour amongst their peers, such as the person of the aforementioned noble king, the prince of Wales his son, the duke of Lancaster, Sir Gauthier de Mauny of Hainault, Sir John Chandos, Sir Franck de Hale, and several others who will be remembered in this book for their integrity and skill. For in all the battles in which they have taken part, they have achieved renown as the best, by land and sea, and have shown such valour that they ought rightly to be held up as valorous above all other. Not that the others, let it be said, who have served with them should be considered less worthy. In France there are also to be found strong, robust and vigorous exemplars of chivalry, for the realm of France was never brought so low that one might not find those prepared to join in combat. And the noble Valois king named Philippe was a bold and chivalrous knight, along with king Jean, his son, Charles, king of Bohemia, the count of Alençon, the count of Foix, my lord Saintré, Sir Arnoul d'Audrehem, my lord Boucicaut, Sir Guichard d'Angle, my lord Guichard de Beaujeu, father and son, and several others whom I cannot all name at this time and who will be honoured in timely fashion, for in truth we must recognise the courage of all those who have been seen to do their rightful duty in such cruel and treacherous battles and stand their ground until defeat.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 3

Here the matter speaketh of some of the predecessors of king Edward of England

FIRST, the better to enter into the matter of this honourable and pleasant history of the noble Edward king of England (age 1), who was crowned at London the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday, living the king his father and the queen his mother, it is certain that the opinion of Englishmen most commonly was as then, and oftentimes it was seen in England after the time of king Arthur, how that between two valiant kings of England there was most commonly one between them of less sufficiency both of wit and of prowess: and this was right well apparent by the same King Edward the third (age 1); for his grandfather, called the good king Edward the first, was right valiant, sage, wise and hardy, adventurous and fortunate jn all feats of war, and had much ado against the Scots, and conquered them three or four times; for the Scots could never have victory nor endure against him: and after his decease his son of his first wife, who was father to the said good king Edward the third, was crowned king and called Edward the second (age 30), who resembled nothing to his father in wit nor in prowess, but governed and kept his realm right wildly, and ruled himself by sinister counsel of certain persons, whereby at length he had no profit nor land, as ye shall hear after; for anon after he was crowned, Robert Bruce king of Scotland, who had often before given much ado to the said good king Edward the first, conquered again all Scotland, and brent and wasted a great part of the realm of England, a four or five days' journey within the realm at two times, and discomfited the king and all the barons of England at a place in Scotland called Stirling [Map], by battle arranged the day of Saint John Baptist, in the seventh year of the reign of the same king Edward, in the year of our Lord MCCCXIV. The chase of this discomfiture endured two days and two nights, and the king of England (age 30) went with a small company to London and on mid-lent Sunday in the year of our Lord MCCCXVI. The Scots won again the city of Berwick [Map] by treason; but because this is no part of our matter, I will leave speaking thereof.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 4

Here mine author maketh mention of the parent of this good king Edward the third

THIS king Edward the second, father to the noble king Edward the third, had two brethren, the one called [the earl] marshal, who was right wild and diverse of conditions, the other called sir Edmund earl of Kent, right wise, amiable, gentle and well beloved with all people.

This king Edward the second was married to Isabel, the daughter of Philip le Beau king of France, who was one of the fairest ladies of the world. The king had by her two sons and two daughters. The first son was the noble and hardy king Edward the third, of whom this history is begun. The second was named John, and died young. The first of the daughters was called Isabel, married to the young king David of Scotland, son to king Robert de Bruce, married in her tender youth by the accord of both realms of England and Scotland for to make perfect peace. The other daughter was married to the earl Raynold, who after was called duke of Gueldres, and he had by her two sons, Raynold and Edward, who after reigned in great puissance.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 5

Hereafter beginneth the occasion whereby the war moved between the kings of France and England

Now sheweth the history that this Philip le Beau king of France had three sons and a fair daughter named Isabel, married into England to king Edward the second; and these three sons, the eldest named Louis, who was king of Navarre in his father's days and was called king Louis Hutin, the second had to name Philip the Great or the Long, and the third was called Charles; and all three were kings of France after iheir father's decease by right succession each after other, without having any issue male of their bodies lawfully begotten. So that after the death of Charles, last king of the three, the twelve peers and all the barons of France would not give the realm to Isabel the sister, who was queen of England, because they said and maintained, and yet do, that the realm of France is so noble that it ought not to go to a woman, and so consequently to Isabel, nor to the king of England her eldest son for they determined the son of the woman to have no right nor succession by his mother, since they declared the mother to have no right: so that by these reasons the twelve peers and barons of France by their common accord did give the realm of France to the lord Philip of Valois, nephew sometime to Philip le Beau king of France, and so put out the queen of England and her son, who was as the next heir male, as son to the sister of Charles, last king of France. Thus went the realm of France out of the right lineage, as it seemed to many folk, whereby great wars hath moved and fallen, and great destructions of people and countries in the realm of France and other places, as ye may hereafter [see]. This is the very right foundation of this history, to recount the great enterprises and great feats of arms that have fortuned and fallen. Sith the time of the good Charlemagne king of France there never fell so great adventures.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 6

Of the earl Thomas of Lancaster and twenty two other of the great lords and knights of England that were beheaded

1322. THE foresaid king Edward the second (age 37), father to the noble king Edward the third (age 9), on whom our matter is founded, this said king governed right diversely his realm by the exhortation of sir Hugh Spencer (age 36), who had been nourished with him sith the beginning of his yongth; the which sir Hugh (age 36) had so enticed the king (age 37), that his father and he were the greatest masters in all the realm, and by envy thought to surmount all other barons of England; whereby after the great discomfiture that the Scots had made at Stirling [Map] great murmuring there arose in England between. The noble barons and the king's council, and namely against sir Hugh Spencer (age 36). They put on him that by his counsel they were discomfited, and that he was favourable to the king of Scots. And on this point the barons had divers times communication together, to be advised what they might do, whereof Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was uncle to the king, was chief. And anon when sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) had espied this, he purveyed for remedy, for he was so great with the king (age 37) and so near him, that he was more beloved with the king (age 37) than all the world after. So on a day he came to the king (age 37) and said, 'Sir, certain lords of your realm have made alliance together against you, and without ye take heed thereto betimes, they purpose to put you out of your realm': and so by his malicious means he caused that the king made all the said lords to be taken, and their heads to be stricken off without delay, and without knowledge or answer to any cause. First of all sir Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was a noble and a wise, holy knight, and hath done sith many fair miracles in Pomfret, where he was beheaded, for the which deed the said sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) achieved great hate in all the realm, and specially of the queen (age 27) and of the earl of Kent (age 20), brother to the king (age 37). And when he perceived the displeasure of the queen (age 27), by his subtle wit he set great discord between the king and the queen (age 27), so that the king (age 37) would not see the queen nor come in her company, the which discord endured a long space. Then was it skewed to the queen (age 27) secretly and to the earl of Kent (age 20), that without they took good heed to themselves, they were likely to be destroyage to Saint Thomas of Canterbury, and so to Winchelsea [Map], and in the night went into a ship that was ready for her, and her young son Edward (age 9) with her, and the earl of Kent (age 20) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 34), and in another ship they had put all their purveyance, and had wind at will, and the next morning they arrived in the haven of Boulogne [Map].

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 7

How the queen of England went and complained her to the king of France her brother of sir Hugh Spencer

1324. When queen Isabel (age 29) was arrived at Boulogne [Map], and her son (age 11) with her and the earl of Kent (age 22), the captains and abbot of the town came against her and joyously received her and her company into the abbey, and there she abode two days: then she departed and rode so long by her journeys that she arrived at Paris [Map]. Then king Charles (age 29) her brother, who was informed of her coming, sent to meet her divers of the greatest lords of his realm, as the lord sir Robert de Artois (age 37), the lord of Coucy, the lord of Sully, the lord of Roye and divers other, who honourably did receive her and brought her into the city of Paris to the king her brother (age 29). And when the king (age 29) saw his sister (age 29), whom he had not seen long before, as she should have entered into his chamber he met her and took her in his arms and kissed her, and said, ' Ye be welcome, fair sister, with my fair nephew your son,' and took them by the hands and led them forth. The queen, who had no great joy at her heart but that she was so near to the king her brother, she would have kneeled down two or three times at the feet of the king, but the king would not suffer her, but held her still by the right hand, demanding right sweetly of her estate and business. And she answered him right sagely, and lamentably recounted to him all the felonies and injuries done to her by sir Hugh Spencer (age 38), and required him of his aid and comfort. When the noble King Charles of France (age 29) had heard his sister's lamentation, who weepingly had shewed him all her need and business, be said to her: ' Fair sister, appease yourself, for by the faith I owe to God and to Saint Denis I shall right well purvey for you some remedy.' The queen then kneeled down, whether the king would or not, and said: 'My right dear lord and fair brother, I pray God reward you.' The king then took her in his arms and led her into another chamber, the which was apparelled for her and for the young Edward her son, and so departed from her, and caused at his costs and charges all things to be delivered that was behoveful for her and for her son. After it was not long, but that for this occasion Charles king of France (age 29) assembled together many great lords and barons of the realm of France, to have their counsel and good advice how they should ordain for the need and besynes of his sister queen of England. Then it was counselled to the king that he should let the queen his sister to purchase for herself friends, whereas she would, in the realm of France or in any other place, and himself to feign and be not known thereof; for they said, to move war with the king of England (age 39), and to bring his own realm into hatred, it were nothing appertinent nor profitable to him nor to his realm. But they concluded that conveniently he might aid her with gold and silver, for that is the metal whereby love is attained both of gentlemen and of poor soldiers. And to this counsel and advice accorded the king, and caused this to be shewed to the queen privily by sir Robert d'Artois (age 37), who as then was one of the greatest lords of all France.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 8

How that sir Hugh Spencer purchased that the queen Isabel was banished out of France

1325. Now let us speak somewhat of Sir Hugh Spencer (age 39). When he saw that he had drawn the king of England so much to his will, that he could desire nothing of him but it was granted, he caused many noblemen and other to be put to death without justice or law, because he held them suspect to be against him; and by his pride he did so many marvels, that the barons that were left alive in the land could not bear nor suffer it any longer, but they besought and required each other among themselves to be of a peaceable accord, and caused it secretly to be known to the queen their lady, who had been as then at Paris the space of three year, certifying her by writing, that if she could find the means to have any company of men of arms, if it were but to the number of a thousand, and to bring her son and heir with her into England, that then they would all draw to her and obey her and her son Edward, as theywere bound to do of duty. These letters thus sent secretly to her out of England, she shewed them to king Charles her brother, who answered her and said: 'Fair sister, God be your aid, your business shall avail much the better. Take of my men and subjects to the number that your friends have written you for, and I consent well to this voyage. I shall cause to be delivered unto you gold and silver as much as shall suffice you.' And in this matter the queen had done so much, what with her prayer, gifts and promises, that many great lords and young knights were of her accord, as to bring her with great strength again into England. Then the queen, as secretly as she could, she ordained for her voyage and made her purveyance; but she could not do it so secretly but sir Hugh Spencer had knowledge thereof. Then he thought to win and withdraw the king of France from her by great gifts, and so sent secret messengers into France with great plenty of gold and silver and rich jewels, and specially to the king and his privy council, and did so much that in short space the king of France and all his privy council were as cold to help the queen in her voyage as they had before great desire to do it. And the king brake all that voyage,. and defended every person in his realm on pain of banishing the same, that none should be so hardy to go with the queen to bring her again into England. And yet the said sir Hugh Spencer advised him of more malice, and bethought him how he might get again the queen into England, to be under the king's danger and his. Then he caused the king to write to the holy father the pope affectuously, desiring him that he would send and write to the king of France, that he should send the queen his wife again into England; for he will acquit. himself to God and the world, and that it was not his fault that she departed from him, for he would nothing to her but all love and good faith, such as he ought to hold in marriage. Also there were like letters written to the cardinals, devised by many subtle ways, the which all may not be written here. Also he sent gold and silver great plenty to divers cardinals and prelates, such as were most nearest and secretest with the pope, and right sage and able ambassadors were sent on this message; and they led the pope in such wise by their gifts and subtle ways, that he wrote to the king of France that on pain of cursing he should send his sister Isabel into England to the king her husband. These letters were brought to the king of France by the bishop of Saintes, whom the pope sent in that legation. And when the king had read the letters, he caused them to be shewed to the queen his sister, whom he had not seen of long space before, commanding her hastily to avoid his realm, or else he would cause her to avoid with shame.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 9

How that queen Isabel departed from France and entered into the Empire

1326. When the Queen (age 31) heard this tidings, she knew not what to say nor what advice to take; for as then the barons of the realm of France were withdrawn from her by the commandment of the king of France, and so she had no comfort nor succour, but all only of her dear cousin Sir Robert de Artois (age 39); for he secretly did counsel and comfort her as much as he might, for otherwise he durst not, for the king had defended him. But he knew well that the Queen (age 31) was chased out of England and also out of France for evil will and by envy, which grieved him greatly. Thus was Sir Robert de Artois (age 39) at the queen's commandment; but be durst not speak nor be known thereof, for he had heard the king and the Earl of Kent (age 24) and Sir Roger Mortimer (age 38), and to put them all in the hands of the king and of Sir Hugh Spencer (age 40). Wherefore he came on a night and declared all this to the queen (age 31), and advised her of the peril that she was in. Then the queen (age 31) was greatly abashed, and required biro all weeping of his good counsel. Then he said: 'Madam, I counsel you that ye depart and go into the Empire, whereas there be many great lords, who may right well aid you, and specially the earl Guilliam of Hainault (age 40) and sir John of Hainault (age 38) his brother. These two are great lords and wise men, true, drad and redoubted of their enemies.' Then the queen (age 31) caused to be made ready all her purveyance, and paid for everything as secretly as she might, and so she and her son (age 13), the Earl of Kent (age 24) and all her company departed from Paris and rode toward Hainault, and so long she rode that she came to Cambresis; and when she knew she was in the Empire, she was better assured than she was before, and so passed through Cambresis and entered into Ostrevant in Hainault, and lodged at Bugnicourt, in a knight's house who was called sir d'Aubrecicourt, who received her right joyously in the best manner to his power, insomuch that afterward the queen of England (age 31) and her son (age 13) had with them into England for ever the knight and his wife and all his children, and advanced them in divers manners. The coming thus of the queen of England (age 31) and of her son and heir into the country of Hainault was anon well known in the house of the good earl of Hainault, who as then was at Valenciennes; and sir John of Hainault (age 38) was certified of the time when the queen arrived at the place of sir d'Aubrecicourt, the which sir John (age 38) was brother to the said earl Guilliam (age 40), and as he that was young and lusty, desiring all honour, mounted on his horse and departed with a small company from Valenciennes, and came the same night to Bugnicourt, and did to the queen all honour and reverence that he could devise. The queen, who was right sorrowful, began to declare (complaining to him right piteously) her dolours; whereof the said sir John (age 38) had great pity, so that the water dashed in his eyen, and said, ' Certainly, fair lady, behold me here your own knight, who shall you into your estates in England, by the grace of God and with the help of your friends in that parts: and I and such other as I can desire shall put our lives and goods in adventure for your sake, and shall get men of war sufficient, if God be pleased, without the danger of the king of France your brother.' Then the queen would have kneeled down for great joy that she had, and for the good-will he offered her, but this noble knight took her up quickly in his arms and said: 'By the grace of God the noble queen of England shall not kneel to me; but, madam, recomfort yourself and all your company, for I shall keep you faithful promise; and ye shall go see the earl my brother (age 40) and the countess his wife (age 32) and all their fair children, who shall receive you with great joy, for so I heard them report they would do.' Then the queen said: 'Sir, I find in you more love and comfort than in all the world, and for this that ye say and affirm me I thank you a thousand times; and if ye will do this ye have promised in all courtesy and honour, I and my son shall be to you for ever bound, and will put all the realm of England in your abandon; for it is right that it so should be.' And after these words, when they were thus accorded, sir John of Hainault (age 38) took leave of the queen (age 31) for that night, and went to Denaing and lay in the abbey; and in the morning after mass he leapt on his horse and came again to the queen (age 31), who received him with great joy. By that time she had dined and was ready to mount on her horse to, depart with him; and so the queen departed from the castle of Bugnicourt, and took leave of the knight and of the lady, and thanked them for their good cheer that they bad made her, and said that she trusted once to see the time that she or her son should well remember their courtesy. Thus departed the queen in the company of the said sir John to the countess his wife, and feasted her right nobly. And as then this earl (age 40) had four fair daughters, Margaret (age 14), Philippa (age 11), Jane (age 11) and Isabel (age 3), among whom the young Edward (age 13) yet most his love and company on Philippa (age 11), and also the young lady in all honour was more conversant with him than any of her sisters. Thus the queen Isabel (age 31) abode at Valenciennes by the space of eight days with the good earl (age 40) and with the countess Jane de Valois. In the meantime the queen apparelled for her needs and business, and the said sir John wrote letters right affectuously unto knights and such companions as he trusted best in all Hainault, in Brabant and in Bohemia, and prayed them for all amities that was between them, that they would go with him in this enterprise into England; and so there were great plenty, what of one country and other, that were content to go with him for his love. But this said sir John of Hainault (age 38) was greatly reproved and counselled the contrary both of the earl his brother (age 40) and of the chief of the council of the country, because it seemed to them that the enterprise was right high and perilous, seeing the great discords and great hates that as then was between the barons of England among themselves, and also considering that these Englishmen most commonly have ever great envy at strangers. Therefore they doubted that the said sir John of Hainault and his company should not return again' with honour. But howsoever they blamed or counselled him, the gentle knight would never change his purpose, but said he had but one death to die, the which was in the will of God; and also said that all knights ought to aid to their powers all ladies and damosels chased out of their own countries, being without counsel or comfort.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 10

How that the queen Isabel arrived in England with sir John of Hainault in her company

1326. THUS was sir John of Hainault (age 38) moved in his courage and made his assembly, and prayed the Hainowes to be ready at Hal, and the Brabances at Breda, and the Hollanders to be at Dordrecht at a day limited. Then the queen of England (age 31) took leave of the earl of Hainault (age 40) and of the countess (age 32), and thanked them greatly of their honour, feast and good cheer that they had made her, kissing them at her departing. Thus this lady (age 31) departed and her son (age 13) and all her company with Sir John of Hainault (age 38), who with great pain gat leave of his brother, saying to him: 'My lord and brother, I am young and think that God hath purveyed for me this enterprise for mine advancement. I believe and think verily that wrongfully and sinfully this lady hath been chased out of England, and also her son. It is alms and glory to God and to the world to comfort and help them that be comfortless, and specially so high and so noble a lady as this is, who is daughter to a king and descended of a royal king; we be of her blood and she of ours. I had rather renounce and forsake all that I have and go serve God over the sea and never to return into this country, rather than this good lady should have departed from us without comfort and help. Therefore, dear brother, suffer me to go with your good-will, wherein ye shall do nobly, and I shall humbly thank you thereof, and the better thereby I shall accomplish all the voyage.' And when the good earl of Hainault had well heard his brother (age 38), and perceived the great desire that he had to his enterprise, and saw well it might turn him and his heirs to great honour hereafter, said to him: 'My fair brother, God forbid that your good purpose should be broken or let: therefore in the name of God I give you leave'; and kissed him, straining him by the hand in sign of great love. Thus he departed and rode the same night to Mons in Hainault with the queen of England (age 31). What should I make long process? They did so much by their journeys that they came to Dordrecht in Holland, whereas their special assembly was made. And there they purveyed for ships great and small, such as they could get, and shipped their horses and harness and purveyance, and so commended themselves into the keeping of God and took their passage by sea. In Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Vertaing, the lord of Potelle, the lord Villers, the' lord of Hennin, the lord of Sars, the lord of Bousies, the lord of Aubrecicourt, the lord of Estrumel, and sir Wulfart of Ghistelles, and divers other knights and squires, all in great desire to serve their master. And when they were all departed from the haven of Dordrecht, it was a fair fleet as for the quantity, and well ordered, the season was fair and clear and right temperate, and at their departing with the first flood they came before the dikes of Holland; and the next day they drew up their sails and took their way in coasting Zealand; and their intents were to have, taken land at Dongport;1 but they could not, for a tempest took them in the sea, that put them so far out of their course that they wist not of two days where they were: of the which God did them great grace, for if they had taken land at the port whereas they had thought, they had been all lost, for they had fallen in the hands of their enemies, who knew well of their coming, and abode them there to have put them all to death. So it was that about the end of two days the tempest ceased, and the mariners perceived land in England and drew to that part right joyously, and there took land on the sands without any right haven or port at Harwich [Map], as the English chronicle saith, the 24th day of September, the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., and so abode on the sands three days with little purveyance of victual, and unshipped their horses and harness, nor they wist not in what part of England they were in, other in the power of their friends or in the power of their enemies. On the fourth day they took forth their way in the adventure of God and of Saint George, as such people as had suffered great disease of cold by night and hunger and great fear, whereof they were not as then clean rid. And so they rode forth by hills and dales on the one side and on the other, till at the last they found villages and a great abbey of black monks, the which is called SaintEdmund [Map], whereas they three days refreshed themselves.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 11

How the queen of England besieged the King her husband in the town of Bristow

Oct 1326. AND then this tiding spread about the realm so much, that at the last it came to the knowledge of the lords by whom the queen (age 31) was called again into England. And they apparelled them in all haste to come to Edward (age 13) her son, whom they would have to their sovereign lord. And the first that came and gave them most comfort was Henry earl of Lancaster (age 45) with the wry neck, called Tort Col, who was brother to Thomas earl of Lancaster, beheaded as ye have heard herebefore, who was a good knight and greatly recommended, as ye shall hear after in this history. This earl Henry (age 45) came to the queen (age 31) with great company of men of war, and after him came from one part and other earls, barons, knights and squires, with so much people that they thought them clean out of perils, and always increased their power as they went forward. Then they took counsel among them that they should ride straight to the town of Bristow [Map], whereas the king (age 42) was, and with him the Spencers. The which was a good town and a strong, and well closed, standing on a good port of the sea, and a strong castle, the sea beating round about it. And therein was the king (age 42) and Sir Hugh Spencer the elder (age 65), who was about ninety of age, and Sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) his son, who was chief governour of the king (age 42) and counselled him in all his evil deeds. Also there was the earl of Arundel (age 20), who had wedded the daughter (age 14) of sir Hugh Spencer (age 40), and di at Bristow, and besieged the town round about as near as they might: and the king (age 42) and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40) held them in the castle [Map], and the old sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and the earl of Arundel (age 41) held them in the town. And when the people of the town saw the great power that the queen (age 31) was of (for almost all England was of her accord), and perceived what peril and danger evidently they were in, they took counsel among themselves and determined that they would yield up the town to the queen (age 31), so that their lives and goods might be saved. And so they sent to treat with the queen and her council in this matter; but the queen nor her council would not agree thereto without she might do with sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and with the earl of Arundel (age 20) what it pleased her. When the people of the town saw they could have no peace otherwise, nor save the town nor their goods nor their lives, in that distress they accorded to the queen (age 31) and opened the gates, so that the queen (age 31) and sir John of Hainault (age 38), and all her barons, knights and squires, entered into the town and took their lodgings within, as many as might, and the residue without. Then sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and the earl of Arundel (age 20) were taken and brought before the queen (age 31), to do her pleasure with them. Then there was brought to the queen her own children, John her son (age 10) and her two daughters [Note. Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet (age 8) and Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland (age 5)], the which were found there in the keeping of the said sir Hugh Spencer (age 65), whereof the queen had great joy, for she had not seen them long 'before. Then the king (age 42) might have great sorrow and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40), who were fast enclosed in the strong castle, and the most part of all the realm turned to the queen's part and to Edward (age 13) her eldest son.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 12

How that sir Hugh Spencer the elder and the earl of Arundel were judged to death

WHEN the queen (age 31) and her barons and all her company were lodged at their ease, then they besieged the castle [Map] as near as they might. The queen (age 31) caused sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) the elder and the earl of Arundel (age 41) to be brought forth before Edward her son (age 13) and all the barons that were there present, and said how that she and her son (age 13) should take right and law on them according to their deserts. Then sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) said, 'Madam, God be to you a good judge and give you good judgment1, and if we cannot have it in this world, I pray God we may have it in another.' Then stept forth Sir Thomas Wake (age 29), a good knight and marshal of the host, and there openly he recounted their deeds in writing, and then turned him to another ancient knight to the intent that he should bring him on that case fauty1, and to declare what should be done with such persons, and what judgment they should have for such causes. Then the said knight counselled with other barons and knights, and so reported their opinions, the which was, how they had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds, the which they have commised, for all the trespass rehearsed before to justify to be of truth;3 wherefore they have deserved for the diversities of their trespasses to have judgment in three divers manners-first, to be drawn, and after to be headed, and then to be hanged on the gibbet. This in likewise as they were judged so it was done and executed before the castle of Bristow [Map] in the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40). This judgment was done in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Saint Denis' day in October [Note. Saint Denis' day is 09 Oct not 27 Oct?].

Note 1. This should be, 'God give us a good judge and good judgment ' ; but Verard's edition, from which the translation was made, has 'vous' for 'nous.'

Note 2. This appears to mean, ' To the intent that he should find him guilty on the charge' ('fauty' for 'faulty'); but the original means, 'To the intent that he should declare upon his fealty (féaulté) what should be done with such persons,' etc.

Note 3. Or rather as follows: ' That the accused had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds which they had heard in that place rehearsed, and held them for true and manifest.'

And after this execution the king (age 42) and the young Spencer (age 40), seeing themselves thus besieged in this mischief, and knew no comfort that might come to them, in a morning betimes they two with a small company entered into a little vessel behind the castle [Map], thinking to have fled to the country of Wales. But they were eleven days in the ship, and enforced it to sail as much as they might; but whatsoever they did, the wind was every day so contrary to them by the will of God, that every day once or twice they were ever brought again within a quarter of a mile to the same castle [Map].

At the last it fortuned, sir Henry Beaumont (age 47), son to the viscount Beaumont in England, entered into a barge and certain company with him, and spied this vessel and rowed after him so long that the ship wherein the king (age 42) was could not flee fast before them, but finally they were overtaken, and so brought again to the town of Bristow [Map] and delivered to the queen (age 31) and her son (age 13) as prisoners.

Thus it befell of this high and hardy enterprise of sir John of Hainault (age 38) and his company. For when they departed and entered into their ships at Dordrecht, they were but three hundred men of arms; and thus by their help and the lords in England, the queen Isabel conquered again all her estate and dignity, and put unto execution all her enemies, whereof all the most part of the realm were right joyous, without it were a few persons such as were favourable to sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) and of his part. And when the king (age 42) and sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) were brought to Bristow [Map] by the said sir Henry Beaumont, the king (age 42) was then sent by the counsel of all the barons and knights to the strong castle of Berkeley [Map], and put under good keeping and honest, and there were ordained people of estate about him, such as knew right well what they ought to do; but they were straitly commanded that they should in no wise suffer him to pass out of the castle. And sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) was delivered to sir Thomas Wake (age 29), marshal of the host. And after that the queen (age 31) departed and all her host toward London, which was the chief city of England, and so rid forth on their journeys, and sir Thomas Wake (age 29) caused sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) to be fast bound on the least and leanest 2 horse of all the host, and caused him to wear on a tabard such as traitors and thieves were wont to wear.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 13

How sir Hugh Spencer was put to his judgment

24 Nov 1326. WHEN this feast was done, then sir Hugh Spencer (age 40), who was nothing beloved, was brought forth before the queen (age 31) and all the lords and knights, and there before him in writing was rehearsed all his deeds, against the which he could give no manner of answer. And so he was then judged by plain sentence, first to be drawn on an hurdle with trumps and trumpets through all the city of Hereford [Map], and after to be brought into the market-place [Map], whereas all the people were assembled, and there to be tied on high upon a ladder that every man might see him; and in the same place there to be made a great fire, and there his privy members cut from him, because they reputed him as an heretic and so deemed, and so to be burnt in the fire before his face; and then his heart to be drawn out of his body and cast into the fire, because he was a false traitor of heart, and that by his traitor's counsel and exhortation the king (age 42) had shamed his realm and brought it to great mischief, for he had caused to be beheaded the greatest lords of his realm, by whom the realm ought to have been sustained and defended; and he had so induced the king (age 42) that he would not see the queen his wife nor Edward his eldest son (age 14), and caused him to chase them out of the realm for fear of their lives; and then his head to be stricken off and sent to London. And according to his judgment he was executed. Then the queen (age 31) and all her lords took their way toward London, and did so much by their journeys that they arrived at the city of London, and they of the city with great company met them and did to the queen and to her son great reverence, and to all their company, as they thought it best bestowed. And when they had been thus received and feasted the space of fifteen days, the knights strangers, and namely sir John of Hainault (age 38), had great desire to return again into their own countries, for they thought they had well done their devoir and achieved great honour, and so took their leave of the queen and of the lords of the realm: and the queen and the lords required them to tarry longer a little space, to see what should be done with the king (age 42), who was in prison; but the strangers had so great desire to return into their own countries that to pray them the contrary availed not. And when the queen and her council saw that, they yet desired sir John of Hainault (age 38) to tarry till it was past Christmas, and to retain with him such of his company as pleased him best. The gentle knight would not leave to perform his service, but courteously granted the queen to tarry as long as it pleased her, and caused to tarry such of his company as he could get that was but a few, for the remnant would in no wise tarry, whereof he was displeased. When the queen and her council saw that they would not abide for no prayers, then they made them great cheer and feasts. And the queen made to be given to them plenty of gold and silver for their costs and services, and did give great jewels to each of them according to their degrees, so as they all held themselves right well content. And over that they had silver for their horses, such as they would leave behind them, at their own estimation without any grudging. And thus sir John of Hainault (age 38) abode still with a small company among the Englishmen, who always did him as much honour as they could imagine, and to all his company. And in likewise so did the ladies and damosels of the country; for there were great plenty of countesses and great ladies [and] gentle pucelles, who were come thither to accompany the queen. For it seemed well to them that the knight sir John of Hainault (age 38) had well deserved the cheer and feast that they made him.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 14

The coronation of king Edward the third

01 Feb 1327. AFTER that the most part of the company of Hainault were departed and sir John Hainault (age 39) lord of Beaumont tarried, the queen (age 32) gave leave to her people to depart, saving a certain noble knights, the which she kept still about her and her son to counsel them, and commanded all then that departed to be at London the next Christmas, for as then she was determined to keep open court, and all they promised her so to do. And when Christmas was come, she held a great court. And thither came dukes,' earls, barons, knights, and all the nobles of the realm, with prelates and burgesses of good towns; and at this assembly it was advised that the realm could not long endure without a head and a chief lord. Then they put in writing all the deeds of the king (age 42) who was in prison, and all that he had done by evil counsel, and all his usages and evil behavings, and how evil he had governed his realm, the which was read openly in plain audience, to the intent that the noble sages of the realm might take thereof good advice, and to fall at accord how the realm should be governed from thenceforth. And when all the cases and deeds that the king had done and consented to, and all his behaving and usages were read and well understanded, the barons and knights and all the counsels of the realm drew them apart to counsel; and the most part of them accorded, and namely the great lords and nobles with the burgesses of the good towns, according as they had heard say and knew themselves the most part of his deeds. Wherefore they concluded that such a man (age 42) was not worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown royal, nor to have the name of a king. But they all accorded that Edward (age 14) his eldest son, who was there present and was rightful heir, should be crowned king instead of his father, so that he would take good counsel, sage and true, about him, so than it was before, and that the old king his father (age 42) should be well and honestly kept as long as he lived, according to his estate. And thus as it was agreed by all the nobles, so it was accomplished; and then was crowned with a crown royal at the palace of Westminster [Map] beside London the young king Edward the third (age 14), who in his, days after was right fortunate and happy in arms. This coronation was in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday [Note. Other sources day 01 Feb 1327], and as then the young king was about the age of sixteen; and they held the feast till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, and in the meantime greatly was feasted sir John of Hainault (age 39) and all the princes and nobles of his country, and was given to him and to his company many rich jewels. And so he and his company in great feast and solace both with lords and ladies tarried till the Twelfth day. And then sir John of Hainault (age 39) heard tidings how that the king of Bohemia (age 30) and the earl of Hainault (age 41) his brother and other great plenty of lords of France had ordained to be at Conde [Map] at a great feast and tourney that was there cried. Then would sir John of Hainault no longer abide for no prayer, so great desire he had to be at the said tourney, and to see the earl his brother and other lords of his country, and specially the right noble king in largess the gentle Charles king of Bohemia. When the young king Edward (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and the barons saw that he would no longer tarry, and that their request could not avail, they gave him leave sore against their wills, and the king (age 14) by the counsel of the queen (age 32) his mother did give him four hundred marks sterlings of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to be paid every year in the town of Bruges [Map], and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid at the said place [Map], and also delivered him much money to pay therewith the costs of him and of his company, till he come into his own country, and caused him to be conducted with many noble knights to Dover, Kent [Map], and there delivered hint all his passage free. And to the ladies that were come into England with the queen (age 32), and namely to the countess of Garennes, who was sister to the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies and damosels, there were given many fair and rich jewels at their departing. And when sir John of Hainault was departed from the young king Edward, and all his company, and were come to Dover, Kent [Map], they entered incontinent into their ships to pass the sea, to the intent to come betimes to the said tourney; and there went with him fifteen young lusty knights of England, to go to this tourney with him and to acquaint them with the strange lords and knights that should be there, and they had great honour of all the company that tourneyed at that time at Conde [Map].

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 15

How that king Robert de Bruce of Scotland defied king Edward

AFTER that sir John of Hainault (age 39) was departed from king Edward (age 14), he and the queen (age 32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the earl of Kent (age 25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (age 39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the queen (age 32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (age 30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (age 52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (age 14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old king Edward the second (age 42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (age 14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said: therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling [Map], whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (age 14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York [Map], standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (age 39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York [Map], with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (age 39) heard the king's (age 14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant [Map], for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (age 39) was come to Wissant [Map], there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, Kent [Map], and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York [Map], whereas the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (age 39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (age 39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (age 14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (age 28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 16

The dissension that was between the archers of England and them of Hainault

Around Jun 1327. THE gentle king of England (age 14), the better to feast these strange lords and all their company, held a great court on Trinity Sunday in the Friars, whereas he and the queen his mother were lodged, keeping their house each of them apart. At his feast the king had well five hundred knignts, and fifteen were new made. And the queen had well in her court sixty ladies and damosels,. who were there ready to make feast and cheer to sir John of Hainault (age 39) and to his company. There might have been seen great nobless [in serving] plenty of all manner of strange victuals. There were ladies and damosels freshly apparelled, ready to have danced if they might have leave. But incontinent after dinner there began great fray between some of the grooms and pages of the strangers and of the archers of England, who were lodged among them in the said suburbs; and anon all the archers assembled them together with their bows, and drove the strangers home to their lodging. And the most part of the knights and masters of them were as then in the king's court; but as soon as they heard tidings of the fray, each of them drew to their own lodging in great haste, such as might enter. And such as could not get in were in great peril, for the archers, who were to the number of three thousand, shot fast their arrows, not sparing masters nor varlets. And it was thought and supposed that this fray was begun by some of the friends of the Spencers and of the earl of Arundel's, who were put to death before by the aid and counsel of sir John of Hainault (age 39), as ye have heard before, [who] as then peradventure thought to be somewhat revenged and' to set discord in the host. And so the Englishmen, that were hosts to these strangers, shut fast their doors and windows and would not suffer them to enter into their lodgings: howbeit some gat in on the back side and quickly armed them, but they durst not issue out into the street for fear of the arrows. Then the strangers brake out on the back side, and brake down pales aid hedges of gardens, and drew them into a certain plain place and abode their company, till at the last they were a hundred and above of men of arms and as many unharnessed, such as could not get to their lodgings. And when they were assembled together, they hasted them to go and succour their companions, who defended their lodgings in the great street. And as they went forth, they passed by the lodging of the lord d'Enghien, whereas there were great gates both before and behind, open ing into the great street. And the archers of England shot fiercely at the house, and there were many o such strokes that men durst not approach to them. They three beat down that day, with such few company as they had, more than sixty; for they were great and mighty knights. Finally the archers that were at the fray were discomfited and put to chase, and there was dead in the place well to the number of three hundred. And it was said they were all of the bishopric of Lincoln. I trow God did never give more grace and fortune to any people than he did as then to this gentle knight sir John of Hainault and to his company. For these English archers intended to none other thing but to murder and to rob them, for all that they were come to serve the king in his business. These strangers were never in so great peril all the season that they lay, nor they were never after in surety till they were again at Wissant in their own country. For they were fallen in so great hate with all the archers of the host, that some of the barons and knights of England shewed unto the lords of Hainault, giving them warning that the archers and other of the common people were allied together to the number of six thousand to the intent to bren or to kill them in their lodgings either by night or by day. And so they lived at a hard adventure; but each of them promised to help and aid other, and to sell dearly their lives or they were slain. So they made many fair ordinances among themselves by good and great advice, whereby they were fain oftentimes to lie in their harness by night, and in the day to keep their lodgings and to have all their harness ready and their horses saddled. Thus continually they were fain to make watch by their constables in the fields and highways about the court, and to send out scout-watches a mile off to see ever if any such people were coming to themward, as they were informed of, to the intent that if their scoutwatch heard any noise or moving of people drawing to the city-ward, then incontinent they should give them knowledge, whereby they might the sooner gather together, each of them under their own banner in a certain place, the which they had advised for the same intent. And in this tribulation they abode in the said suburbs by the space of four weeks, and in all that season they durst not go far from their harness nor from their lodgings, saving a certain of the chief lords among them, who went to the court to see the king and his council, who made them right good cheer. For if the said evil adventure had not been, they had sojourned there in great ease, for the city and the country about them was right plentiful. For all the time of six weeks that the king and the lords of England and more than sixty thousand men of war lay there, the victuals were never the dearer; for ever they had a pennyworth for a penny, as well as other had before they came there, and there was good wine of Gascoyne and of Alsace, and of the Rhine, and plenty thereof, with right good cheap as well of pullen as of other victuals; and there was daily brought before their lodgings hay, oats and litter, whereof they were well served for their horses and at a meetly price.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 17

Here the history speaketh of the manner of the Scots and how they can war

AND when they had sojourned three weeks after this said fray, then they had knowledge from the king by the marshals of the host, that the next week every man should provide for carts and charettes, tents and pavilions, to lie in the field, and for all other necessaries thereto belonging, to the intent to draw toward Scotland. And when every man was ready apparelled, the king and all his barons went out of the city, and the first night they lodged six mile forward. And sir John of Hainault and his company were lodged always as per the king as might be, to do him the more honour, and also to the intent that the archers should have no advantage of him nor of his company. And there the king abode two days and two nights, tarrying for all them that were behind, and to be well advised that they lacked nothing.

And on the third day they dislodged and went forward till they came to the full of flint and great stones, called the water of Tyne. And on this river standeth the town and castle of Carlisle, [Note. Carlisle is on the River Eden rather than the River Tyne] the which sometime was king Arthur's, and held his court there oftentimes. Also on that river is assised the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne [Map], in the which town was ready the marshal of England with a great company of men of arms, to keep the country against the Scots: and at Carlisle [Map] was the lord Hereford and the lord Mowbray, who were governours there, to defend the Scots the passage; for the Scots could not enter into England, but they must pass this said river in one place or other. The Englishmen could hear no tidings of the Scots till they were come to the entry of the said country. The Scots were passed this river so privily, that they of Carlisle [Map] nor yet of Newcastle [Map] knew nothing thereof, for between the said towns it was twenty-four English mile. [Note. Geographical error. Fifty miles]

These Scottish men are right hardy and sore travailing in harness and in wars. For when they will enter into England, within a day and a night they will drive their whole host twenty-four mile, for they are all a-horseback, without it be the trandals and laggers of the host, who follow after afoot. The knights and squires are well horsed, and the common people and other on little hackneys and geldings; and they carry with them no carts nor chariots, for the diversities of the mountains that they must pass through in the country of Northumberland. They take with them no purveyance of bread nor wine, for their usage and soberness is such in time of war, that they will pass in the journey a great long time with flesh half sodden, without bread, and drink of the river water without wine, and they neither care for pots nor pans, for they seethe beasts in their own skins. They are ever sure to find plenty of beasts in the country that they will pass through: therefore they carry with them none other purveyance, but on their horse between the saddle and the panel they truss a broad plate of metal, and behind the saddle they will have a little sack full of oatmeal, to the intent that when they have eaten of the sodden flesh,' then they lay this plate on the fire and temper a little of the oatmeal; and when the plate is hot, they cast of the thin paste thereon, and so make a little cake in manner of a cracknell or biscuit, and that they eat to comfort withal their stomachs. Wherefore it is no great marvel though they make greater journeys than other people do. And in this manner were the Scots entered into the said country, and wasted and brent all about as they went, and took great number of beasts. They were to the number of four thousand men of arms, knights and squires, mounted on good horses, and other ten thousand men of war were armed after their guise, right hardy and fierce, mounted on little hackneys, the which were never tied nor kept at hard meat, but let go to pasture in the fields and bushes. They had two good captains, for king Robert of Scotland, who in his days had been hardy and prudent, was as then of great age and sore grieved with the great sickness; but he had made one of his captains a gentle prince and a valiant in arms called the earl of Moray, bearing in his arms silver, three oreillers gules; and the other was the lord William Douglas, who was reputed for the most hardy knight and greatest adventurer in all the realm of Scotland, and he bare azure, a chief silver. These two lords were renowned as chief in all deeds of arms and great prowess in all Scotland.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 18

How the king of England made his first journey against the Scots

Aug 1327. WHEN the king of England (age 14) and his host had seen and heard of the fires that the Scots had made in England, incontinent was cried alarm, and every man commanded to dislodge and follow after the marshals' banners. Then every man drew to the field ready apparelled to fight. There was ordained three great battles afoot, and to every battle two wings of five hundred men of arms, knights and squires, and thirty thousand other, armed and well apparelled, the one half on little hackneys and the other were men of the country afoot, sent out of good towns at their wages; and twenty-four thousand archers afoot, beside all the other rascal and followers of the host. And as these battles were thus ordered, so they advanced forward, well ranged and in good order, and followed the Scots by the sithe of the smoke that they made with burning; and thus they followed all that day till it was near night. Then the host lodged them in a wood by a little river side, there to rest and to abide for their carriage and purveyances. And at that day the Scots had brent and wasted and pilled the country about within five miles of the English host; but the Englishmen could not overtake them. And the next day in the morning all the host armed them and displayed their banners on the field, every man ready apparelled in his own battle, and so advanced without disordering all the day through mountains and valleys; but for all that they could never approach near to the Scots, who vent wasting the country before them. There were such marishes and savage deserts, mountains and dales, that it was commanded on pain of death that none of the host should pass before the banners of the marshals. And when it drew toward the night, the people, horse and carriage, and namely the men afoot, were so sore travailed, that they could not endure to labour any further that day. And when the lords saw that their labour in following the Scots was in vain, and also they perceived well, though the Scots would abide them, yet they might take their field in such a place or on such a hill that they could not fight with them, without it were to their great damage and jeopardy, then was it commanded in the king's name by the marshals that the host should take their lodging for that night, and so to take counsel and advice what should be best to do the next day. So the host was lodged in a wood by a river side, and the king was lodged in a little poor abbey: his men of war, horse and carriage were marvellously fortravailed. And when every man had taken his place to lodge there all night, then the lords drew them apart to take counsel how they might fight with the Scots, considering the country that they were in: for as far as they could understand, the Scots went ever forwards, all about burning and wasting the country, and perceived well how they could not in any wise fight with them among these mountains without great peril or danger, and they saw well also they could not overtake them: but it was thought that the Scots must needs pass again the river Tyne homeward; therefore it was deter ruined by great advice and counsel that all the host should remove at midnight, and to make haste in the morning to the intent to stop the passage of the river from the Scots, whereby they should be advised' by force either to fight with them, or else to abide still in England to their great danger and loss. And to this conclusion all the host was accorded, and so supped and lodged as well as they might that night, and every man was warned to be ready at the first sounding of the trumpet, and at the second blast every man to arm him without delay, and at the third every man quickly to mount on their horses and to draw under their own standard and banner; and every man to take with him but one loaf of bread, and to truss it behind him on his horse. It was also determined that they should leave behind them all their loose harness and all manner of carriages and purveyances, for they thought surely to fight with the Scots the next day, whatsoever danger they were in, thinking to jeopard, either to win or to lose all. And thus it was ordained and so it was accomplished: for about midnight every man was ready apparelled; few had slept but little, and yet they had sore travailed the day before. As great haste as they made, or they were well ranged in battle the day began to appear. Then they advanced forward in all haste through mountains, valleys and rocks, and through many evil passages without any plain country. And on the highest of these hills and on the plain of these valleys there were marvellous great marshes and dangerous passages, that it was great marvel that much people had not been lost, for they rode ever still forward and never tarried one for another; for whosoever fell in any of these marshes with much pain could get any aid to help them out again, so that in divers places there were many lost, and specially horse and carriages; and oftentimes in the day there was cried alarum, for it was said ever that the foremost company of their host were fighting with their enemies, so that the hindermost weened it had been true; wherefore they hasted them over rocks and stones and mountains with helm and shield ready apparelled to fight, with spear and sword ready in hand, without tarrying for father, brother or companion. And when they had thus run forth oftentimes in the day the space of half a mile together toward the cry, weening it had been their enemies, they were deceived; for the cry ever arose by the raising of harts, hinds and other savage beasts that were seen by them in the forward, after the which beasts they made such shouting and crying, that they that came after weened they had been a-fighting with their enemies.

Thus rode forth all that day the young king of England by mountains and deserts without finding any highway, town or village. And when it was against night they came to the river of Tyne, to the same place whereas the Scots had passed over into England, wtening to them that they must needs repass again the same way. Then the king of England and his host passed over the same river with such guides as he had, with much pain and travail, for the passage was full of great stones. And when they were over, they lodged them that night by the river side, and by that time the sun was gone to rest, and there was but few among them that had either axe or hook, or any instrument to cut down any wood to make their lodgings withal; and there were many that had lost their own company and wist not where they were. Some of the footmen were far behind and wist not well what way to take; but such as knew best the country said plainly they had ridden the same day twenty-four English miles, for they rode as fast as they might without any rest, but at such passages as they could not choose. All this night they lay by this river side, still in their harness, holding their horses by their reins in their hands, for they wist not whereunto to tie them. Thus their horses did eat no meat of all that night nor day before: they had neither oats for forage for them, nor the people of the host had no sustenance of all that day nor night, but every man his loaf that he had carried behind him, the which was sore wet with the sweat of the horses; nor they drank none other drink but the water of the river, without it were some of the lords that had carried bottles with them; nor they had no fire nor light, for they had nothing to make light withal, without it were some of the lords that had torches brought with them.

In this great trouble and danger they passed all that night, their armour still on their backs, their horses ready saddled. And when the day began to appear, the which was greatly desired of all the whole host, they trusted then to find some redress for themselves and for their horses, or else to fight with their enemies, the which they greatly desired to the intent to be delivered out of tantes; but so all that night they were fain to fast, nor their horses had nothing but leaves of trees and herbs: they cut down boughs of trees with their swords to tie withal their horses and to make themselves lodges. And about noon some poor folks of the country were found, and they said how they were as then fourteen mile from Newcastle-upon-Tyne [Map], and eleven mile from Carlisle [Map], and that there was no town nearer to them wherein they might find anything to do them ease withal. And when this was shewed to the king and to the lords of his council, incontinent were sent thither horses and sumpters to fetch thence some purveyance; and there was a cry in the king's name made in the town of Newcastle, that whosoever would bring bread or wine or any other victual should be paid therefore incontinent at a good price, and that they should be conducted to the host in safe-guard; for it was published openly that the king nor his host would not depart from the place that they were in, till they had some tidings where their enemies were become. And the next day by noon such as had been sent for victual returned again to the host with such purveyances as they could get, and that was not over much, and with them came other folks of the country with little nags charged with bread evil baken in panniers, and small poor wine in barrels, and other victual to sell in the host, whereby great part of the host were well refreshed and eased.

And thus they continued day by day the space of eight days, abiding every day the returning again of the Scots, who knew no more where the English host lay than they knew where they were; so each of them were ignorant of other. Thus three days and three nights they were in manner without bread, wine, candle or light, fodder or forage, or any manner of purveyance, either for horse or man: and after the space of four days a loaf of bread was sold for sixpence the which was worth but a penny, and a gallon of wine for six groats that was worth but sixpence. And yet for all that, there was such rage of famine that each took victuals out of other's hands, whereby there rose divers battles and strifes between sundry companions; and yet beside all these mischiefs it never ceased to rain all the whole week, whereby their saddles, panels and countersingles were all rotten and broken, and most part of their horses hurt on their backs: nor they had not wherewith to shoe them that were unshod, nor they had nothing to cover themselves withal from the rain and cold but green bushes and their armour, nor they had nothing to make fire withal but green boughs, the which would not burn because of the rain. In this great mischief they were all the week without hearing of any word of the Scots, upon trust they should repass again into their own countries the same way or near thereabout; whereby great noise and murmur began to rise in the host, for some said and laid it to others' charge that by their counsel the king and all they were brought into that danger, and that they had done it to betray the king and all his host. Wherefore it was ordained by the king and by his council that the next morning they should remove the host and repass again the river about seven mile thence, whereas they might pass more at their ease. Then it was cried throughout the host that every man should be ready apparelled to remove the next day betimes.: also there was a cry made that whosoever could bring to the king certain knowledge where the Scots were, he that brought first tidings thereof should have for his labour a hundred pounds [of] land to him and to his heirs for ever, and to be made a knight of the king's hand.

When this cry was made in the host, divers English knights and squires to the number of fifteen or sixteen, for covetise of winning of this promise, they passed the river in great peril and rode forth through the mountains, and departed each one from other, taking their adventure. The next morning the host dislodged and rode fair and easily all the day, for they were but evil apparelled, and did so much that they day till it was noon, and then they found some villages brent by the Scots, and thereabout was some champaign country with corn and meadows, and so that night the host lodged there. Again the third day they rode forth, so that the most part of the host wist not which way, for they knew not the country nor they could hear no tidings of the Scots. And again the fourth day they rode forth in like manner, till it was about the hour of three, [Note. Translation error. Should 9am] and there came a squire fast riding toward the king and said: 'An it like your grace, I have brought you perfect tidings of the Scots your enemies. Surely they be within three mile of you, lodged on a great mountain, abiding there for you; and there they have been all this eight days, nor they knew no more tidings of you than ye did of them. Sir, this that I skew you is of truth, for I approached so near to them that I was taken prisoner and brought before the lords of their host; and there I skewed them tidings of you, and how that ye seek for them to the intent to have battle. And the lords did quit me my ransom and prison, when I had skewed them how your grace had promised a hundred pounds sterling of rent to him that brought first tidings of them to you; and they made me to promise that I should not rest till I had skewed you this tidings, for they said they had as great desire to fight with you as ye had with them: and there shall ye find them without fault' And as soon as the king had heard this tidings, he assembled all his host in a fair meadow to pasture their horses; and beside there was a little abbey [Map], the which was all brent, called in the days of king Arthur le Blanche Lande. There the king confessed him, and every man made him ready. The king caused many masses to be sung to housed all such as had devotion thereto; and incontinent he assigned a hundred pounds sterling of rent to the squire that had brought him tidings of the Scots, according to his promise, and made him knight [with] his own hands' before all the host.

03 Aug 1327. Battle of Stanhope Park. And when they had well rested them and taken repast, then the trumpet sounded to horse, and every man mounted, and the banners and standards followed this new-made knight, every battle by itself in good order, through mountains and dales, ranged as well as they might, ever ready apparelled to fight; and they rode and made such haste that about noon they were so near the Scots that each of them might clearly see other. And as soon as the Scots saw them, they issued out of their lodges afoot, and ordained three great battles in the availing of the hill, and at the foot of this mountain there ran a great river full of great rocks and stones, so that none might pass over without great danger or jeopardy; and though the Englishmen had passed over the river, yet was there no place nor room between the hill and the river to set the battle in good order. The Scots had stablished their two first battles at the two corners of the mountain, joining to the rocks, so that none might well mount upon the hill to assail them, but the Scots were ever ready to beat with stones the assailants, if they passed the river. And when the lords of England saw the behaving and the manner of the Scots, they made all their people to alight afoot and to put off their spurs, and arranged three great battles, as they had done before, and there were made many new knights. And when their battles were set in good order, then some of the lords of England brought their young king a-horseback before all the battles of the host, to the intent to give thereby the more courage to all his people, the which king in full goodly manner prayed and required them right graciously that every man would pain them to do their best to save his honour and common weal of his realm. And it was commanded upon pain of death that were so near together that they might know each other's arms. Then the host stood still to take other counsel. And some of the host mounted on good horses and rode forth to skirmish with them and to behold the passage of the river and to see the countenance of their enemies more nearer. And there were heralds of arms sent to the Scots, giving them knowledge, if that they would come and pass the river to fight with them in the plain field, they would draw back from the river and give them sufficient place to arrange their battles either the same day or else the next, as they would choose themselves, or else to let them do likewise and they would come over to them. And when the Scots heard this, they took counsel among themselves, and anon they answered the heralds, how they would do neither the one nor the other, and said, 'Sirs, your king and his lords see well how we be here in this realm and have brent and wasted the country as we have passed through, and if they be displeased therewith, let them amend it when they will, for here we will abide as long as it shall please us.' And as soon as the king of England (age 14) heard that answer, it was incontinent cried that all the host should lodge there that night without reculing back.

And so the host lodged there that night with much pain on the hard ground and stones, always still armed. They had no stakes nor rods to tie withal their horses, nor forage, nor bush to make withal any fire. And when they were thus lodged, then the Scots caused some of their people to keep still the field, whereas they had ordained their battles; and the remnant went to their lodgings, and they made such fires that it was marvel to behold. And between the day and the night they made a marvellous great bruit, with blowing of horns all at once, that it seemed properly that all the devils of hell had been there. Thus these two hosts were lodged that night, the which was Saint Peter's night in the beginning of August the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. And the next morning the lords of England heard mass and ranged again their battles as they had done the day before; and the Scots in like wise ordered their battles. Thus both the hosts stood still in battle till it was noon. The Scots made never semblant to come to the English host to fight with them, nor in like wise the Englishmen to them; for they could not approach together without great damage. There were divers companions a-horseback that passed the river, and some afoot, to scrimmish with the Scots, and in likewise some of the Scots brake out and scrimmished with them; so that there were divers on both parties slain, wounded and taken prisoners. And after that noon was past, the lords of England commanded every man to draw to their lodging, for they saw well the Scots would not fight with them. And in like manner thus they did three days together, and the Scots in like case kept still their mountains. Howbeit there was scrimmishing on both parties, and divers slain and prisoners taken. And every night the Scots made great fires and great bruit with shouting and blowing of horns.

The intention of the Englishmen was to hold the Scots there in manner as besieged (for they could not fight with them thereas they were), thinking to have famished them. And the Englishmen knew well by such prisoners as they had taken that the Scots had neither bread, wine nor salt, nor other purveyance, save of beasts they had great plenty, the which they had taken in the country and might eat at their pleasure without bread, which was an evil diet, for they lacked oaten meal to make cakes withal, as is said before;' the which diet some of the Englishmen used when they had need, specially borderers when they make roads into Scotland. And in the morning the fourth day the Englishmen looked on the mountain whereas the Scots were, and they could see no creature, for the Scots were departed at midnight. Then was there sent men a-horseback and afoot over the river to know where they were become; and about noon lodged, and drew to that part, embattled in good order, and lodged them on another hill against the Scots, and ranged their battles and made semblant to have come to them. Then the Scots issued out of their lodges and set their battles along the river side against them; but they would never come toward the English host, and the Englishmen could not go to them, without they would have been slain or taken at advantage. Thus they lodged each against other the space of eighteen days; and oftentimes the king of England sent to them his heralds of arms, offering them that if they would come and fight with him, he would give them place sufficient on the plain ground to pitch their field; or else let them give him room and place, and he assured them that he would come over the river and fight with them but the Scots would never agree thereto.

Thus both the hosts suffered much pain and travail the space that they lay so near together: and the first night that the English host was thus lodged on the second mountain the lord William Douglas took with him about two hundred men of arms and passed the river far off from the host, so that he was not perceived, and suddenly he brake into the English host about midnight crying, 'Douglas! Douglas! Ye shall all die, thieves of England!' and he slew, or he ceased, three hundred men, some in their beds and some scant ready; and he strake his horse with the spurs and came to the king's own tent, always crying, Douglas!' and strake asunder two or three cords of the king's tent and so departed, and in that retreat he lost some of his men. Then he returned again to the Scots, so that there was no more done but every night the English host made good and sure watch, for they doubted making of skryes; and ever the most part of-the host lay in their harness; and every day there were scrimmishes made, and men slain on both parties: and in conclusion, the last day of~twenty-four, there was a Scottish knight taken, who against his will shewed to the lords of England what state and condition the Scots were in: he was so sore examined that for fear of his life he shewed how the lords of Scotland were accorded among themselves that the same night every man should be ready armed, and to follow the banners of the lord William Douglas, and every man to keep him secret. But the knight could not shew them what they intended to do.

Then the lords of England drew them to council, and there it was thought among them that the Scots. might in the night time come and assail their host on both sides, to adventure themselves either to live or die, for they could endure no longer the famine that was among them. Then the English lords ordained three great battles, and so stood in three parties without their lodgings, and made great fires, thereby to see the better, and caused all their pages to keep their lodgings and horses. Thus they stood still all that night armed, every man under his own standard and banner; and in the breaking of the day two trumpets of Scotland met with the English scout-watch, who took the trumpets and brought them before the king of England and his council, and then they said openly, 'Sirs, what do ye watch here? Ye lose but your time, for on the jeopardy of our heads the Scots are gone and departed before midnight, and they are at the least by this time three or four mile on their way; and they left us two behind to the intent that we should shew this to you.' Then the English lords said that it were but a folly to follow the Scots, for they saw well they could not overtake them: yet for doubt of deceiving they kept still the two trumpets privily, and caused their battles to stand still arranged till it was near prime. And when they saw for truth that the Scots were departed, then every man had leave to retray to their lodging, and the lords took counsel to determine what should be hest to do. And in the meantime divers of the English host mounted on their horses and passed. over the river, and came to the mountain whereas the Scots bad been; and there they found more than five hundred greatbeasts ready slain, because the Scots could not drive them before their host and because that the Englishmen should have but small profit of them. Also there they found three hundred cauldrons made of beasts' skins with the hair still on them, strained on stakes over the fire, full of water and full of flesh to be sodden, and more than a thousand spits full of flesh to be roasted, and more than ten thousand old shoes made of raw leather with the hair still on them, the which the Scots had left behind them; also there they found five poor Englishmen prisoners, bound fast to certain trees, and some of their legs broken.' Then they were loosed and let go: and then they returned again, and by that time all the host was dislodged: and it was ordained by the king and by the advice of his council that the whole host should follow the marshals' banners and draw homeward into England. And so they did, and at the last came into a fair meadow, whereas they found forage sufficient for their horses and carriages,2 whereof they had great need, for they were nigh so feeble that it should have been great pain for them to have gone any further.

The English chronicle saith that the Scots had been fought withal, an sir Roger Mortimer, a lord of England, had not betrayed the king; for he took meed and money of the Scots, to the intent they might depart privily by night unfought withal, as it may be seen more plainly in the English chronicle, and divers other matters, the which I pass over at this time and follow mine author. 3 And so then the next day the host dislodged again and went forth, and about noon they came to a great abbey two mile from the city of Durham; and there the king lodged, and the host there about in the fields, whereas they found forage sufficient for themselves and for their horses. And the next day the host lay there still, and the king went to the city of Durham to see the church, and there he offered.4 And in this city every man found their own carriages, the which they had left thirty-two days before in a wood at mid-night, when they followed the Scots first, as it bath been skewed before; for the burgesses and people of Durham had found and brought them into their town at their own costs and charges. And all these carriages were set in void granges and barns in safe-guard, and on every man's carriage his own cognisance or arms, whereby every man might know his own. And the lords and gentlemen were glad when they had thus found their carriages. Thus they abode two days in the city of Durham, and the host round about, for they could not all lodge within the city; and there their horses were new shod.

And then they took their way to the city of York, and so within three days they came thither; and there the king found the queen his mother, who received him with great joy, and so did all other ladies, damosels, burgesses and commons of the city. The king gave licence to all manner of people, every man to draw homeward to their own countries. And the king thanked greatly the earls, barons and knights of their good counsel and aid that they had done to him in his journey; and he retained still with him sir John of Hainault and all his company, who were greatly feasted by the queen and all other ladies. Then the knights and other strangers of his company made a bill of their horses and such other stuff as they had lost in that journey, and delivered it to the king's council, every man by itself; and in trust of the king's promise, sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont bound himself to all his company that they should be content for everything comprised in their own bills within a short space them, the which ships with their stuff arrived at Sluys in Flanders. And sir John of Hainault and his company took their leave of the king, of the old queen, of the earl of Kent, of the earl of Lancaster and of all the other barons, who greatly did honour them. And the king caused twelve knights and two hundred men of arms to company them, for doubt of the archers of England, of whom they were not well assured, for they must needs pass through the bishopric of Lincoln. Thus departed sir John of Hainault and his rout in the conduct of these knights. and rode so long in their journey that they came to Dover, Kent [Map], and there entered into the sea in ships and vessels that they found ready there apparelled for them. Then the English knights departed from thence, and returned to their own houses; And the Hainowes arrived at Wissant [Map], and there they sojourned two days in making ready their horses and harness. And in the meantime sir John of Hainault and some of his company rode a pilgrimage to our Lady of Boulogne; and after they returned into Hainault, and departed each from other to their own houses and countries. Sir John of Hainault rode to the earl his brother, who was at Valenciennes, who received him joyously, for greatly he loved him, to whom he recounted all his tidings, that ye have heard herebefore.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 19

How king Edward was married to my lady Philippa of Hainault

24 Jan 1328. It was not long after but that the king (age 15) and the queen (age 33) his mother, the earl of Kent (age 26) his uncle, the earl of Lancaster (age 47), sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop1 and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (age 40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the earl's (age 42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (age 42), named Philippa (age 13); for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (age 42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (age 15) your prince and the queen (age 33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope (age 84) will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon [Map], to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren2. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope (age 84), and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope (age 84) with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant [Map], and arrived with all her company at Dover, Kent [Map]. And sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York [Map] with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of king Edward of Caernarvon, and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth: the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (age 13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (age 18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.

Note 1. This should be: 'And the other barons of England who had continued to be of the council of the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent a bishop,' etc.

Note 2. The meaning is that the kinship came by the relationship of both to the house of France. The mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles I of Valois [who were brothers; Edward and Philippa were second cousins].

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 20

How king Robert of Scotland died

17 Mar 1328. Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton. AND when that the Scots were departed by night from the mountain, whereas the king of England (age 15) had besieged them, as ye have heard herebefore, they went twentytwo mile through that savage country without resting, and passed the river of Tyne right near to Carlisle, Cumberland [Map]1; and the next day they went into their own land, and so departed every man to his own mansion. And within a space after there was a peace purchased between the kings of England and Scotland; and as the English chronicle saith,' it was done by the special counsel of the old queen (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40); for by their means there was a parliament holden at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], at the which the king (age 15) being within age granted to the Scots to release all the fealties and homages that they ought to have done to the crown of England, by his charter ensealed, and also there was delivered to the Scots an indenture, the which was called the Ragman, wherein was contained all the homages and fealties that the king of Scots and all the prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought to have done to the crown of England, sealed with all their seals, with all other rights that sundry barons and knights ought to have had in the realm of Scotland.

Note 1. This may be a mistake since the River Tyne doesn't flows near Carlisle. The River Eden flows through Carlisle.

17 Mar 1328. And also they delivered to them again the black cross of Scotland, the which the good king Edward conquered and brought it out of the abbey of Scone [Map], the which was a precious relic; and all rights and interests that every baron had in Scotland was then clean forgiven. And many other things were done at that parliament to the great hurt and prejudice of the realm of England, and in manner against the wills of all the nobles of the realm, save only of Isabel (age 33) the old queen and the bishop of Ely and the lord Mortimer (age 40): they ruled the realm in such wise, that every man was miscontent. So that the earl Henry of Lancaster (age 47) and sir Thomas Brotherton (age 27), earl marshal, and sir Edmund of Woodstock (age 26), the king's uncle, and divers other lords and commons were agreed together to amend these faults, if they might. And in that meantime the queen Isabel (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) caused another parliament to be holden at Salisbury, at the which parliament sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) was made earl of March against all the barons' wills of England, in prejudice of king and his realm, and sir John of Eltham (age 11) the king's brother was made earl of Cornwall. To the which parliament the earl Henry of Lancaster (age 47) would not come, wherefore the king was brought in belief that he would have destroyed his person; for the which they assembled a great host and went toward Bedford [Map], whereas the earl Henry (age 47) was with his company.

17 Mar 1328. Then the earl marshal (age 27) and the earl of Kent (age 26), the king's uncle, made a peace between the king (age 15) and the earl of Lancaster (age 47), on whose part was sir Henry lord Beaumont (age 49), sir Fulke Fitz-Warin (age 43), sir Thomas Rocelin, sir William Trussel (age 48), sir Thomas Wither and about a hundred knights, who were all expelled out of England by the counsel of queen Isabel and the earl Mortimer: for he was so covetous, that he thought to have the most part of all their lands into his own hands, as it is more plainly shewed in the English chronicle, the which I pass over and follow mine author.

The foresaid peace, which was purchased between England and Scotland, was to endure three year; and in the meantime it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (age 54) was right sore aged and feeble: for he was greatly charged with the great sickness, so that there was no way with him but death. And when he felt that his end drew near, he sent for such barons and lords of his realm as he trusted best, and shewed them how there was no remedy with him, but he must needs leave this transitory life, commanding them on the faith and truth that they owed him, truly to keep the realm and aid the young prince David (age 5) his son, and that when he were of age they should obey him and crown him king, and to marry him in such a place as was convenient for his estate. Then he called to him the gentle knight sir William Douglas (age 43) [Note. William appears to be a mistake since it was James "Black" Douglas (age 43) who took Robert's heart?], and said before all the lords, 'Sir William, my dear friend, ye know well that I have had much ado in my days to uphold and sustain the right of this realm; and when I had most ado, I made a solemn vow, the which as yet I have not accomplished, whereof I am right sorry: the which was, if I might achieve and make an end of all my wars, so that I might once have brought this realm in rest nd peace, then I promised in my mind to rave gone and warred on Christ's enemies, adversaries to our holy Christian faith. To this purpose mine heart hath ever intended, but our Lord would not consent thereto; for I have had so much ado in my days, and now in my last enterprise I have taken such a malady that I cannot escape. And sith it is so, that my body cannot go nor achieve that my heart desireth, I will send the heart instead of the body to accomplish mine avow. And because I know not in all my realm no knight more valiant than ye be, nor of body so well furnished to accomplish mine avow instead of myself, therefore I require you, mine own dear especial friend, that ye will take on you this voyage, for the love of me, and to acquit my soul against my Lord God. For I trust so much in your nobleness and truth, that an ye will take on you, I doubt not but that ye shall achieve it, and declare then shall I die in more ease and quiet, so that it be done in such manner as I shall declare unto you. I will that as soon as I am trespassed out of this world, that ye take my heart out of my body and embalm it, and take of my treasure, as ye shall think sufficient for that enterprise, both for yourself and such company as ye will take with you, and present my heart to the Holy Sepulchre, whereas our Lord lay, seeing my body cannot come there: and take with you such company and purveyance as shall be appertaining to your estate. And wheresoever ye come, let it be known how ye carry with you the heart of king Robert of Scotland (age 54) at his instance and desire, to be presented to the Holy Sepulchre.' Then all the lords that heard these words wept for pity: and when this knight sir William Douglas (age 43) might speak for weeping, he said: ' Ah, gentle and noble king, a hundred times I thank your grace of the great honour that ye do to me, sith of so noble and great treasure ye give me in charge; and, sir, I shall do with a glad heart all that ye have commanded me, to the best of my true power, howbeit I am not worthy nor sufficient to achieve such a noble enterprise.' Then the king said, ' Ah, gentle knight, I thank you, so that ye will promise to do it.' 'Sir,' said the knight, ' I shall ... embalmed, and honourably he was interred in the abbey of Dunfermline [Map] in the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVII., the seventh day of the month of November [Note. Appears to be an error here 1329 rather than 1327?].' And when the springing-time began, then sir William Douglas purveyed him of that which appertained for his enterprise and took his ship at the port of Montrose in Scotland, and sailed into Flanders, to Sluys, to hear tidings and to know if there were any nobleman in that country that would go to Jerusalem, to the intent to have more company. And he lay still at Sluys the space of twelve days or he departed, but he would never come a-land, but kept still his ship, and kept always his port and behaviour with great triumph, with trumpets and clarions, as though' he had been king of Scots himself; and in his company there was a knight banneret and seven other knights of the realm of Scotland, and twenty-six young squires and gentlemen to serve him; and all his vessel was of gold and silver-pots, basins, ewers, dishes, flagons, barrels, cups and all other things; and all such as would come and see him, they were well served with two manner of wines and divers manner of spices, all manner. of people according to their degrees. And when he had thus tarried there the space of twelve days, he heard reported that Alphonso king of Spain (age 17) made war against a Saracen king of Granade. Then he thought to draw to that part, thinking surely he could not bestow his time more nobly than to war against God's enemies and that enterprise done, then he thought to go forth to Jerusalem and to achieve that he was charged with. And so he departed and took the sea toward Spain, and arrived at the port of Valence the great. Then he went straight to the king of Spain (age 17), who held his host against the king of Granade Saracen, and they were near together, on the frontiers of his land.

25 Aug 1330. Battle of Teba. And within a while after that this knight sir William Douglas (age 44) was come to the king of Spain (age 19), on a day the king issued out into the field to approach near to his enemies. And the king of Granade issued out in like wise on his part, so that each king might see other with all their banners displayed. Then they arranged their battles each against other. Then sir William Douglas (age 44) drew out on the one side with all his company, to the intent to shew his prowess the better. And when he saw these battles thus ranged on both parties, and saw that the battle of the king of Spain (age 19) began somewhat to advance toward their enemies, he thought then verily that they should soon assemble together to fight at hand strokes; and then he thought rather to be with the foremost than with the hindermost, and strake his horse with the spurs, and all his company also, and dashed into the battle of the king of Granade, crying, 'Douglas! Douglas!' weening to him the king of Spain (age 19) and his host had followed, but they did not; wherefore he was deceived, for the Spanish host stood still. And so this gentle knight (age 44) was enclosed, and all his company, with the Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, but finally he could not endure, so that he and all his company were slain. The which was great damage, that the Spaniards would not rescue them. Also in this season there were certain lords that treated for peace between England and Scotland. So that at the last there was a marriage made and solemnised between the young king of Scotland (age 4) and dame Joan of the Tower (age 7), sister to king Edward of England (age 15), at Berwick [Map], as the English chronicle saith, on Mary Maudlin day [Note. the Feast of Mary Magdalen is 22 Jul?], the year 'of our Lord MCCCXXVIII., against the assent of many of the nobles of the realm. But queen Isabel (age 35) the king's mother and the earl Mortimer (age 43) made that marriage; at the which, as mine author saith, there was great feast made on both parties.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 21

How Philip of Valois was crowned king of France

1328. King Charles of France (age 33), son to the fair king Philip, was three times married, and yet died without issue male. The first of his wives was one of the most fairest ladies in all the world, and she was daughter to the earl of Artois. Howbeit she kept but evil the sacrament of matrimony, but brake her wedlock; wherefore she was kept a long space in prison in the castle Gaillard [Map], before that her husband was made king. And when the realm of France was fallen to him, he was crowned by the assent of the twelve douze-peers1 of France, and then because they would not that the realm of France should be long without an heir male, they advised by their counsel that the king should be remarried again; and so he was, to the daughter of the emperor Henry of Luxembourg, sister to the gentle king of Bohemia (age 31); whereby the first marriage of the king was fordone, between him and his wife that was in prison, by the licence and declaration of the pope that was then. And by his second wife, who was right humble, and a noble wise lady, the king had a son, who died in his young age, and the queen also at Issoudun [Map] in Berry. And they both died suspiciously, wherefore divers persons were put to blame after privily. And after this, the same king Charles was married again the third time to the daughter (age 18) of his uncle, the lord Louis earl of Evreux, and she was sister to the king of Navarre (age 21), and was named queen Joan. And so in time and space this lady was with child, and in the mean-time the king Charles her husband fell sick and lay down on his death-bed. And when he saw there was no way with him but death, he devised that if it fortuned the queen to be delivered of a son, then he would that the lord Philip of Valois should be his governour, and regent of all his realm, till his son come to such age as he might be crowned king; and if it fortuned the queen to have a daughter, then he would that all the twelve peers of France should take advice and counsel for the further ordering of the realm, and that they should give the realm and regaly to him that had most right thereto. And so within a while after the king Charles died, about Easter in the year of our Lord Mcccxxviii., and within a short space after the queen was delivered of a daughter.

Note 1. Froissart says simply 'les douze pers.'

Then all the peers of France assembled a council together at Paris, as shortly as they might conveniently, and there they gave the realm by common accord to sir Philip of Valois (age 34), and put clean out the queen Isabel (age 33) of England and king Edward (age 15) her son. For she was sister-german to king Charles last dead, but the opinion of the nobles of France was, and said and maintained that the realm of France was of so great nobless, that it ought not by succession to fall into a woman's hand. And so thus they crowned king of France Philip Valois at Rheims [Map] on Trinity Sunday next after.

And anon after he summoned all his barons and men of war, and went with all his power to the town of Cassel and laid siege thereto, in making war against the Flemings, who rebelled against their own lord, and namely they of Bruges [Map], of Ypres, and of [the] Franc; for they would not obey the earl of Flanders, but they had chased him out of his own country, so that he might not abide in no part thereof, but only in Gaunt, and scantly there. These Flemings were a sixteen thousand, and had a captain called Colin Dannequin1, a hardy man and a courageous. And they had made their garrison at Cassel, at the wages of divers towns in Flanders, to the intent to keep the frontiers there about; but ye shall hear how the Flemings were discomfited, and all by their own outrage.

Note 1. Nicholas (or Clais) Zannequin.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 31

The Battle of Cadsant, between the English and the Flemings, attched to the Earl of Flanders

1337When the English saw the town of Cadsant, whither they were bending their course to attack those that were within it, they considered, that, as the wind and tide were in their favour, in the name of God and St. George they would run close up to it. They ordered the trumpets to sound, and each made himself quickly ready; they ranged their vessels, and placing the archers on the prows, made full sail for the town. The sentinels and guards at Cadsant had plainly perceived the approach of this large fleet, and taking it for granted that it must be English, had already armed and placed themselves upon the dykes and the sands, with their banners in their proper position before them. They had also created a number of knights upon the occasion, as many as sixteen: their numbers might be about five thousand, taking all together, very valiant knights and bachelors, as they proved by their deeds. Among them were sir Guy of Flanders, a good knight, but a bastard*, who was very anxious that all in his train should do their duty; sir Dutres de Halluyn, sir John de Rhodes, sir Giles de l'Estrief, sir Simon and sir John de Bouquedent, who were then knighted, and Peter d'Aglemoustier, with many other bachelors and esquires, valiant men at arms. There was no parley between them, for the English were as eager to attack as the Flemings were to defend themselves. The archers were ordered to draw their bows stiff and strong, and to set up their shouts; upon which those that guarded the haven were forced to retire, whether they would or not, for this first discharge did much mischief, and many were maimed and hurt. The English barons and knights then landed, and with battle-axes, swords, and lances, combated their enemies. Many gallant deeds of prowess and courage were done that day:- the Flemings fought valiantly, and the English attacked them in all the spirit of chivalry. The gallant earl of Derby (age 27) proved himself a good knight, and advanced so forward at the first assault, that he was struck down: and then the lord of Manny (age 27) was of essential service to him; for, by his feats of arms, he covered him and raised him up, and placed him out of danger, crying, "Lancaster for the earl of Derby!" They then closed with each other; - many were wounded, but more of the Flemings than of the English; for the English archers made such continual discharges, from the time they landed, that they did them much damage.

The battle was very severe and fierce before the town of Cadsant, for the Flemings were good men, and expert in arms; the earl had selected and placed them there to defend the passage against the English, and they were desirous of performing their duty in every respect» which they did. Of the barons and knights of England, there were, first, the earl of Derby, son of Henry of Lancaster, surnamed Wryneck; the earl of Suffolk, lord Reginald Cobham (age 42), lord Lewis Beauchamp, lord William, son of the earl of Warwick, the lord William Beauclerk, sir Walter Manny, and many others, who most vigorously assaulted the Flemings. The combat was very sharp and well fought, for they were engaged hand to fist; but at length the Flemings were put to the rout, and more than three thousand killed, as well at the haven as in the streets and houses. Sir Guy, the Bastard, of Flanders, was taken prisoner. Of the killed, were sir Dutres de Halluyn, sir John of Rhodes, the two brothers Bonquedent, sir Giles de D'Estrief, and more than twunty-six other knights and esquires. The town was taken and pillaged: and when every thing was put on board the vessels with the prisoners, it was burnt. The English returned without accident to England. The king made the Jord Guy of Flanders pledge his troth, that he would remain a prisoner; hot in the course of the year he turned to the English, and did his homage and fealty to the king.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 32

King Edward makes great alliances in the Empire

Nov 1337. The news of the discomfiture at Cadsant was soon spread abroad; - the Flemings said, that they were not sorry for it, as the earl had placed that garrison there without their consent or advice; nor was Jacob von Artaveld (age 47) displeased at the event. He instantly sent over ambassadors to king Edward recommending himself to his grace with his whole heart and faith. He signified to the king, that it was his opinion he should immediately cross the sea, and come to Antwerp [Map], by which means he would acquit himself towards the Flemings, who were very anxious to see him; and he imagined, if he were on that side of the water, his affair would go on more prosperously, and to his greater advantage. The king of England (age 24), upon this, made very great preparations; and when the winter was over, he embarked, accompanied by many earls, barons, and knights, and came to the city of Antwerp, which at that time was held for the duke of Brabant (age 37): multitudes came thither to see him, and witness the great state and pomp in which he lived. He sent to the duke of Brabant (age 37), his cousin, to his brother-in-law, the duke of Gueldres (age 42), to the marquis of Juliers, the lord John of Hainault, and to all those from whom he expected support and assistance, that he should be happy to have some conversation with them. They all therefore came to Antwerp between Whitsuntide and St. Johns day; and when the king had sufficiently entertained them, he was eager to know from them when they could enter upon what they had promised, and entreated them to make dispatch: for this was his reason of coming to Antwerp; ud as he had all his preparations ready, it would be a great loss to him if they were tardy. These lords of Germany had a long consultation together, and finally made this their answer:-

"Dear sir, when we came hither, it was more for the pleasure of seeing you, than for any thing else; we are not yet in a situation to give a positive answer to your demand; but we will return home, and come again to you whenever you please, and give you so full an answer, that the matter shall not remain with us."

They fixed upon that day three weeks after St. John's day. The king of England remonstrated with them upon the great expenses and loss he should be at by their delays, for he thought they would all have been ready with their answers by the time he had come thither; and added, that he would never return to England, until he knew what their intentions were. Upon this the lords departed, and the king remained quietly in the monastery of St. Bernard: some of his lords staid at Antwerp, to keep him company; the rest went about the country amusing themselves in a magnificent style, and were well received and feasted wherever they came. The duke of Brabant went to Louvain [Map], and made a long stay there; thence he sent (as he had done before) frequently to the king of France (age 43), to entreat that he would not pay attention to any reports that were injurious to him, for he should be very sorry to form any connexion or alliance contrary to his interests; but the king of England being his cousin-german, he could not forbid his passing through his country. The day came when the king expected the answers from the above-mentioned lords: they sent excuses, saying, they were not quite ready, neither themselves nor their men; that he must exert himself to make the duke of Brabant prepare to act with them, as he was much nearer to France, and seemed to them very indifferent in the matter; and that an soon as they should for a certainty he informed that the duke was ready, they would pat themselves in motion, and he as soon in action as he should he.

Upon this the king of England had a conference with the duke of Brabant, and showed him the answers he had received, and begged of him, hy his friendship and his kindred, that no delay might come from him, for he suspected that he was not warmly inclined to the cause, and added, that, if he were so cool and indifferent, he much feared he should lose the aid of these German lords. The duke replied, that he would summon his council. After long deliberations, he told the king, that he would he ready the moment the business required it - but that he must first see these lords; to whom he wrote, to desire they would meet him at whatever place was the most agreeable to them. The day for this conference was fixed for the middle of August, and it was unanimously agreed to be held at Halle, on account of the young earl of Hainault, who was to be there, as well as the lord John, his uncle.

When all these lords of the empire were assembled in the city of Halle, they had long deliberations together, and said to the king of England, "Dear sir, we do not see any cause for us to challenge the king of France, all things considered, unless you can procure the consent of the emperor, and that he will command us so to do on his account, which may easily be done; for there is an ordinance of a very old date, sealed, that no king of France should take and keep possession of any thing that belongs to tho empire. Now king Philip has gotten possession of the castles of Crevecoaur, in Cambresis, and of Arleux, in Artois, as well as the city of Cambray [Map], for which the emperor has good grounds to challenge him through us, if you will have the goodness to obtain it from him, in order to save our honour." The king of England replied, that he would very cheerfully conform himself to their advice.

It was then determined, that the marquis of Juliers should go to the emperor, and with him knights and counsellors from the king, and some from the duke of Gueldres: but the duke of Brabant would not send any; he lent, however, his castle of Louvain [Map] to the king for his residence. The marquis of Juliers and his company found the emperor at Nuremberg: they obtained by their solicitations the object of their mission; for the lady Margaret of Hainault (age 25), whom the lord Lewis of Bavaria (age 55), then emperor, had married, took great pains and trouble to bring it about. The marquis was then created an earl, and the duke of Gueldres (age 42), who was but an earl, was raised to the dignity of a duke. The emperor gave a commission to four knights and two counsellors in the law, who were members of his council, investing them with powers to make king Edward his vicar over all parts of the empire; and these lords took out sufficient instruments, publicly sealed and confirmed by the emperor.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 33

How king David of Scotland made alliance with king Philip of France

Nov 1337. In this season the young king David of Scotland (age 13), who had lost the best part of his land and could not recover it out of the hold of the Englishmen, departed privily with a small company and the queen (age 16) his wife with him, and took shipping and arrived at Boulogne [Map], and so rode to Paris to king Philip (age 43), who greatly did feast him, and offered him of his castles to abide in and of his goods to dispend, on the condition that he should make no peace with the king of England without his counsel and agreement; for king Philip knew well how the king of England apparelled greatly to make him war. So thus the king there retained king David and the queen a long season, and they had all that they needed at his cost and charge; for out'of Scotland came but little substance to maintain withal their estates. And the French king sent certain messengers into Scotland to the lords there, such as kept war against the Englishmen, offering them great aid and comfort, so that they would take no peace nor truce with the king of England, without it were by his agreement or by the accord of their own king, who had in like wise promised and sworn.

Then the lords of Scotland counselled together, and joyously they accorded to his request, and so sealed and sware with the king their lord. Thus this alliance was made between Scotland and France, the which endured a long season after and the French king sent men of war into Scotland, to keep war against the Englishmen, as Sir Arnold d'Audrehem, who was after marshal of France, and the Lord of Garencieres, and divers other knights and squires. The French king thought that the Scots should give so much ado to the realm of England, that the Englishmen should not come over the sea to annoy him.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 34

How king Edward of England was made vicar-general of the Empire of Almaine

Nov 1337. When the king of England (age 24) and the other lords to him allied were departed from the parliament of Hal, the king went to Louvain [Map] and made ready the castle for his abiding, and sent for the queen (age 23) to come thither, if it pleased her; for he sent her word he would not come thence of an whole year, and sent home certain of his knights to keep his land from the Scots. And the other lords and knights that were there still with the king rode about the realm of Flanders and Hainault, making great dispense, giving great rewards and jewels to the lords, ladies and damosels of the country, to get their good-wills. They did so much that they were greatly praised, and specially of the common people, because of the port and state that they kept.

And then about the feast of All Saints the marquis of Juliers and his company sent word to the king how they had sped; and the king sent to him that he should be with him about the feast of Saint Martin; and also he sent to the duke of Brabant, to know his mind where he would the parliament should be holden; and he answered at Herck in the county of Loos, near to his country. And then the king sent to all other of his allies that they should be there. And so the hall of the town was apparelled and hanged as though it had been the king's chamber; and there the king sate crowned with gold, five foot higher than any other, and there openly was read the letters of the emperor, by the which the king was made vicar-general and lieutenant for the emperor, and had power given him to make laws and to minister justice to every person in the emperor's name, and to make money of gold and silver. The emperor also there commanded by his letters that all persons of his Empire and all other his subjects should obey to the king of England his vicar, as to himself, and to do him homage. And incontinent there was claim and answer made between parties, as before the emperor, and right and judgment given. Also there was renewed a judgment, and a statute affirmed, that had been made before in the emperor's court; and that was this, that whosoever would any hurt to other should make his defiance three days before his deed, and he that did otherwise should be reputed as an evil-doer and for a villain's deed. And when all this was done, the lords departed and took day that they should all appear before Cambray [Map] three weeks after the feast of Saint John; the which town was become French.

Thus they all departed and every man went to his own. And king Edward, as vicar of the Empire, went then to Louvain to the queen, who was newly come thither out of England with great nobleness and well accompanied with ladies and damosels of England. So there the king and the queen kept their house right honourably all that winter, and caused money, gold and silver, to be made at Antwerp, great plenty. Yet for all this the duke of Brabant left not, but with great diligence sent often messengers to king Philip, as the lord Leon of Crainhem, his chief counsellor, with divers other, ever to excuse him for the which cause this knight was oftentimes sent, and at the last abode still in the French court with the king, to the intent always to excuse him against all informations that might be made of him the which knight did all his devoir in that behalf.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 35

How king Edward and all his allies did defy the French king

1338. Thus the winter passed and summer came, and the feast of Saint John Baptist approached; and the lords of England and of Almaine apparelled themselves to accomplish their enterprise and the French king wrought as much as he could to the contrary, for he knew much of their intents. King Edward made all his provision in England, and all his men of war, to be ready to pass the sea incontinent after the feast of Saint John; and so they did. Then the king went to Vilvorde, and there made his company to be lodged, as many as might in the town and the other without along on the river side in tents and pavilions: and there he tarried from Maudlinticfe till our Lady day in September, abiding weekly for the lords of the Empire, and specially for the duke of Brabant, on whose coming all the other abode. And when the king of England saw how they came not, he sent great messengers to each of them, summoning them to come as they had promised, and to meet with him at Mechlin on Saint Giles' day, and then to show him why they had tarried so long.

Thus king Edward lay at Vilvorde and kept daily at his cost and charge well to the number of sixteen hundred men of arms, all come from the other side of the sea, and ten thousand archers, beside all other provisions; the which was a marvellous great charge, beside the great rewards that he had given to the lords, and beside the great armies that he had on the sea. The French king on his part had set Genoways, Normans, Bretons, Picards and Spaniards to be ready on the sea to enter into England as soon as the war were opened.

These lords of Almaine at the king of England's summons came to Mechlin [Map] and with much business. Finally they accorded that the king of England might well set forward within fifteen days after; and to the intent that their war should be the more laudable, they agreed to send their defiances to the French king - first the king of England, the duke of Gueldres, the marquis of Juliers, sir Robert d'Artois, sir John of Hainault, the marquis of Meissen, the marquis of Brandebourg, the lord of Fauquemont, sir Arnold of Baquehem, the archbishop of Cologne, sir Waleran his brother, and all other lords of the Empire. These defiances were written and sealed by all the lords except the duke of Brabant, who said he would do his deed by himself at time convenient. To bear these defiances into France was charged the bishop of Lincoln (age 46), who bare them to Paris and did his message in such manner that he could not be reproached nor blamed: and so he had a safe-conduct to return again to his king, who was as then at Mechlin.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 36

Sir Walter Manny, after the challenges had been sent, makes the first incursion into France

Sir Walter Manny, a week after these challenges had been sent, and when he imagined the king of France had received them, collected about forty lances, on whom he knew he could depend, and rode through Brabant night and day; so that he came into Hainault, and entered the wood of Blaton, before any of his followers knew where and why they were thus hastening: he then told some of his intimates, that he had made a promise in England, before the nobles and ladies, that he would be the first that would enter France, and take some castle or strong town, and perform some gallant deed of arms; and that his intention was to push forward as far as Mortaigne, to surprise the town, which was a part of the kingdom of France. Those to whom he thus opened himself cheerfully consented to follow him. They then regirthed their horses, tightened their armour, and rode in close order: having passed through the wood of Blaton, they came at one stretch, a little before sunrise, to Mortaigne, where luckily they found the wicket open. Sir Walter alighted with some of his companions, and having passed the wicket in silence, and placed there a guard, he then with his pennon marched down the street before the great tower, but the gate and the wicket were close shut. The watch of the castle heard their voice, and seeing them from his post, began to Mow his horn, and to cry out "Treason! treason!" This awakened the soldiers and inhabitants, bnt they did not make any sally from the fort. Sir Walter, upon this, retreated handsomely into the street, and ordered those houses to be set on fire that were near the castle: full fifty houses were burnt that morning, and the inhabitants much frightened, at they concluded they must all have been taken prisoners; but sir Walter and his company marched away, and came straight to Condé, where they passed by the pond and river Haynes, taking the' road to Valenciennes; leaving which on the right hand, they came to Avesnes, and took up their quarters in the abbey. They then pushed forward towards Douchain, and managed matters so well with the governor, that the gates of the castle were opened to them: they crossed a river which empties itself into the Scheld, and which rises near Arleux. Afterward they came to a very strong castle, called Thin l'Evêque, that belonged to the bishop of Cambray [Map], which was so suddenly surprised, the governor and his wife were taken in it. Sir Walter placed a strong garrison there, and made his brother, sir Giles Manny, governor, who gave much disturbance to the Cambresians, as this castle was but a short league from the city of Cambray [Map]. When sir Walter had performed these enterprises, he returned into Brabant towards the king, his lord, whom he found at Mechlin [Map], and related to him all that he had done.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 37

The French, after the Challenges, invade England

05 Oct 1338. Upon king Philip's (age 44) receiving the challenges from king Edward (age 25) and his allies, he collected men at arms and soldiers from all quarters; he sent the lord Gallois de la Bausme, a good knight from Savoy, to the city of Cambray [Map], and made him governor thereof, in conjunction with sir Thibault de Marneil and the lord of Roye: they might be, including Spaniards and French, full two hundred lances. The king seized the county of Ponthieu [Map], which the king of England had before held by right of his mother (age 43); and he also sent and entreated some lords of the empire, such as the count of Hainault his nephew (age 31), the duke of Lorrain (age 18), the Count of Bar (age 23), the bishop of Metz, the bishop of Liege, not to commit any hostile acts against him or his kingdom. The greater part of them answered as he could have wished; but the count of Hainault, in a very civil reply, said that although he should be at all times ready to assist him or his realm against any one, yet as the king of England made war in behalf of the empire, as vicar and lieutenant of it, he could not refuse him aid and assistance in his country, as he held lands under the empire. The king of France appeared satisfied with this answer, not however laying much stress on it, as he felt himself in sufficient strength to oppose his enemies.

As soon as sir Hugh Quiriel, sir Peter Bahucet, and Barbenoire, were informed that hostilities had commenced, they landed one Sunday morning in the harbour at Southampton, Hampshire [Map], whilst the inhabitants were at church: Normans, Picards, and Spaniards entered the town, pillaged it, killed many, deflowered maidens and forced wives; and having loaded their vessels with the booty, they fell down with the tide, and made sail for the coast of Normandy. They landed at Dieppe, and there divided the plunder.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 38

How King Edward besieged the city of Cambray

1339. The king of England (age 26) departed from Mechlin [Map] and went to Brussels, and all his people passed on by the town. Then came to the king a twenty thousand Almains, and the king sent and demanded of the duke of Brabant what was his intention, to go to Cambray [Map] or else to leave it. The duke answered and said that as soon as he knew that he had besieged Cambray [Map], he would come thither with twelve hundred spears, of good men of war. Then the king went to Nivelle and there lay one night, and the next day to Mons in Hainault; and there he found the young earl of Hainault, who received him joyously. And ever sir Robert of Artois was about the king, as one of his privy council, and a sixteen or twenty other great lords and knights of England, the which were ever about the king for his honour and estate, and to counsel him in all his deeds. Also with him was the bishop of Lincoln (age 47), who was greatly renowned in this journey both in wisdom and in prowess. Thus the Englishmen passed forth and lodged abroad in the country, and found provision enough before them for their money; howbeit some paid truly and some not.

And when the king had tarried two days at Mons in Hainault, then he went to Valenciennes; and he and twelve with him entered into the town, and no more persons. And thither was come the earl of Hainault and sir John his uncle, and the lord of Fagnolle, the lord of Werchin, the lord of Havreth and divers other, who were about the earl their lord. And the king and the earl went hand in hand to the great hall, which was ready apparelled to receive them; and as they went up the stairs of the hall, the bishop of Lincoln, who was there present, spake out aloud and said: "William bishop of Cambray [Map], I admonish you as procurer to the king of England, vicar of the Empire of Rome, that ye open the gates of the city of Cambray [Map]; and if ye do not, ye shall forfeit your lands and we will enter by force." There was none that answered to that matter, for the bishop was not there present. Then the bishop of Lincoln said again: "Earl of Hainault, we admonish you in the name of the emperor, that ye come and serve the king of England his vicar before the city of Cambray [Map] with such number as ye ought to do." The earl, who was there present, said, 'With a right good will I am ready.' So thus they entered into the hall, and the earl led the king into his chamber, and anon the supper was ready.

And the next day the king departed and went to Haspres, and there tarried two days and suffered all his men to pass forth; and so then went to Cambray [Map] and lodged at Iwuy, and besieged the city of Cambray [Map] round about, and daily his power increased. Thither came the young earl of Hainault in great array, and sir John his uncle, and they lodged near to the king, and the duke of Gueldres and his company, the marquis of Meissen, the earl of Mons, the earl of Salm, the lord of Fauquemont, sir Arnold of Bakehem, with all the other lords of the Empire, such as were allied with the king of England.

And the sixth day after the siege laid thither came the duke of Brabant with a nine hundred spears, beside other, and he lodged toward Ostrevant on the river of I'Escault, and made a bridge over the water to the intent to go from the one host to the other. And as soon as he was come, he sent to defy the French king, who was at Compiegne, whereof Leon of Crainhem, who had always before excused the duke, was so confused, that he would no more return again into Brabant, but died for sorrow in France.

This siege during there were many skirmishes; and sir John of Hainault and the lord of Fauquemont rode ever lightly together, and brent and wasted sore the country of Cambresis. And on a day these lords, with the number of five hundred spears and a thousand of other men of war, came to the castle of Oisy in Cambresis, pertaining to the lord of Coucy, and made there a great assault: but they within did defend them so valiantly, that they had no damage; and so the said lords returned to their lodgings.

The earl of Hainault and his company on a Saturday came to the gate toward Saint-Quentin's, and made there a great assault. There was John Chandos, who was then but a squire, of whose prowess this book speaketh much, he cast himself between the barriers and the gate, and fought valiantly with a squire of Vermandois called John of Saint-Disier: there was goodly feats of arms done between them. And so the Hainowes conquered by force the bails, and there was entered the earl of Hainault and his marshals, sir Gerard of Werchin, sir Henry d'Antoing and other, who adventured them valiantly to advance their honour. And at another gate, called the gate Robert, was the lord Beaumont and the lord of Fauquemont, the lord d'Enghien, sir Walter of Manny, and their companies, made there a sore and a hard assault. But they of Cambray [Map] and the soldiers set there by the French king defended themselves and the city so valiantly, that the assaulters won nothing, but so returned right weary and well beaten to their lodgings. The young earl of Namur came thither to serve the young earl of Hainault by desire, and he said he would be on their part as long as they were in the Empire, but as soon as they entered into the realm of France, he said, he would forsake them and go and serve the French king, who had retained him. And in likewise so was the intent of the earl of Hainault, for he had commanded all his men on pain of death, that none of them should do anything within the realm of France.

In this season, while the king of England lay at siege before Cambray [Map] with forty thousand men of arms, and greatly constrained them by assaults, king Philip made his summons at Peronne in Verman-dois. And the king of England counselled with sir Robert d'Artois, in whom he had great affiance, demanding of him whether it were better for him to enter into the realm of France and to encounter his adversary, or else to abide still before Cambray, till he had won it by force. The lords of England and such other of his council saw well how the city was strong and well furnished of men of war and victuals and artillery, and that it should be long to abide there till they had won the city, whereof they were in no certainty; and also they saw well how that winter approached near, and as yet had done no manner of enterprise, but lay at great expense. Theri they counselled the king to set forward into the realm, whereas they might find more plenty of forage. This counsel was taken, and all the lords ordained to dislodge, and trussed tents and pavilions and all manner of harness, and so departed and rode toward Mount Saint-Martin, the which was at the entry of France. Thus they rode in good order, every lord among his own men; marshals of the English host were the earl of Northampton and Gloucester and the earl of Suffolk, and constable of England was the earl of Warwick. And so they passed there the river of I'Escault at their ease.

And when the earl of Hainault had accompanied the king unto the departing out of the Empire, and that he should pass the river and enter into the realm of France, then he took leave of the king and said how he would ride no further with him at that time, for king Philip his uncle had sent for him, and he would not have his evil will, but that he would go and serve him in France, as he had served the king of England in the Empire. So thus the earl of Hainault and the earl of Namur and their companies rode back to Quesnoy. And the earl of Hainault gave the most part of his company leave to depart, desiring them to be ready when he [should] send for them, for he said that shortly after he would go to king Philip his uncle.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 39

How king Edward made sir Henry of Flanders knight

Around 10 Oct 1339. As soon as king Edward had passed the river of I'Escault and was entered into the realm of France, he called to him sir Henry of Flanders, who was as then a young squire, and there he made him knight, and gave him yearly two hundred pounds sterling, sufficiently assigned him in England. Then the king went and lodged in the abbey of Mount Saint-Martin, and there tarried two days, and his people abroad in the country; and the duke of Brabant was lodged in the abbey of Vaucelles.

When the French king at Compiegne heard these tidings, then he enforced his summons, and sent the earl of Eu and of Guines his constable to Saint-Quentin's, to keep the town and frontiers there against his enemies, and sent the lord of Coucy into his own country, and the lord of Ham to his, and sent many men of arms to Guise and to Ribemont, to Bohain, and the fortresses joining to the entry of the realm; and so went himself toward Peronne.

In the mean season that king Edward lay at the abbey of Mount Saint-Martin, his men ran abroad in the country to Bapaume and near to Peronne and to Saint-Quentin's. They found the country plentiful, for there had been no war of a long season; and so it fortuned that sir Henry of Flanders, to advance his body and to increase his honour, [went] on a day with other knights, whereof sir John of Hainault was chief, and with him the lord of Fauquemont, the lord of Berg, the lord of Bautersem, the lord of Cuyk and divers other to the number of five hundred: and they avised a town thereby, called Honnecourt, wherein much people were gathered on trust of the fortresses, and therein they had conveyed all their goods; and there had been sir Arnold of Baquehem and sir William of Duvenvoorde and their company, but they attained nothing there.

There was at this Honnecourt an abbot of great wisdom and hardiness; and he caused to be made without the town a barrier overthwart the street, like a grate, not past half a foot wide every grate, and he made great provisions of stones and quicklime, and men ready to defend the place. And these lords, when they came thither, they lighted afoot and entered to the barrier with their glaives in their hands, and there began a sore assault, and they within valiantly defended themselves. There was the abbot himself, who received and gave many great strokes: there was a fierce assault: they within cast down stones, pieces of timber, pots full of chalk1 and did much hurt to the assailers: and sir Henry of Flanders, who held his glaive in his hands, and gave therewith great strokes. At the last the abbot took the glaive in his hands and drew it so to him, that at last he set hands on sir Henry's arm, and drew it so sore that he pulled out his arm at the barrier to the shoulder and held him at a great advantage, for an the barrier had been wide enough, he had drawn him through; but sir Henry would not let his weapon go for saving of his honour. Then the other knights strake at the abbot to rescue their fellow: so this wrastling endured a long space, but finally the knight was rescued, but his glaive abode with the abbot. And on a day, when I wrote this book, as I passed by I was shewed the glaive by the monks there, that kept it for a treasure.2

So this said day Honnecourt was sore assailed, the which endured till it was night, and divers were slain and sore hurt. Sir John of Hainault lost there a knight of Holland called sir Herman. When the Flemings, Hainowes, Englishmen and Almains saw the fierce wills of them within, and saw how they could get nothing there, withdrew themselves against night. And the next day on the morning the king departed from Mount Saint-Martin, commanding that no person should do any hurt to the abbey, the which commandment was kept. And so then they entered into Vermandois, and took that day their lodging betimes on the mount Saint-Quentin in good order of battle: and they of Saint-Quentin's might well see them, howbeit they had no desire to issue out of their town. The foreriders came running to the barriers skirmishing, and the host tarried still on the mount till the next day. Then the lords took counsel what way they should draw, and by the advice of the duke of Brabant they took the way to Thierache, for that way their provision came daily to them, and were determined that if king Philip did follow them, as they supposed he would do, that theii they would abide him in the plain field and give him battle.

Thus they went forth in three great battles: the marshals and the Almains had the first, the king of England in the middleward, and the duke of Brabant in the rearward. Thus they rode forth, brenning and pilling the country, a three or four leagues a day, and ever took their lodging betimes. And a company of Englishmen and Almains passed the river of Somme by the abbey of Vermand, and wasted the country all about: another company, whereof sir John of Hainault, the lord of P'auquemont and sir Arnold of Baquehem were chief, rode to Origny-Saint-Benoiste, a good town, but it was but easily closed: incontinent it was taken by assault and robbed, and an abbey of ladies violated, and the town brent. Then they departed and rode toward Guise and Ribemont, and the king of England lodged at Boheries, and there tarried a day, and his men ran abroad and destroyed the country.

Then the king took the way to the Flamengerie3, to come to Leschelle in Thierache; and the marshals and the bishop of Lincoln (age 47) with a five hundred spears passed the river of Oise and entered into Laonnois, toward the land of the lord of Coucy, and brent Saint-Gobain and the town of Marie, and on a night lodged in the valley beside Laon: and the next day they drew again to their host, for they knew by some of their prisoners that the French king was come to Saint-Quentin's with a hundred thousand men, and there to pass the river of Somme. So these lords in their returning brent a good town called Crecy and divers other towns and hamlets there-about.

Now let us speak of sir John of Hainault and his company, who were a five hundred spears. He came to Guise and brent all the town and beat down the mills: and within the fortress was the lady Jane (age 16), his own daughter, wife to the earl of Blois called Louis: she desired her father to spare the heritage of the earl his son-in-law, but for all that sir John of Hainault (age 51) would not spare his enterprise. And so then he returned again to the king, who was lodged in the abbey of Fervaques, and ever his people ran over the country.

And the lord of Fauquemont with a hundred spears came to Nouvion in Thierache, a great town; and the men of the town were fled into a great wood and had all their goods with them, and had fortified the wood with felling of timber about them. The Almains rode thither, and there met with them sir Arnold of Baquehem and his company, and so there they assailed them in the wood, who defended them as well as they might; but finally they were conquered and put to flight; and there were slain and sore hurt more than forty, and lost all that they had. Thus the country was over-ridden, for they did what they list.

Note 1. 'Chaulx,' i.e. 'quicklime.'

Note 2. The fuller text has it as follows: ' But his glaive abode with the abbot by reason of his great prowess, who kept it many years after; and it is still, as I believe, in the hall of Honnecourt. It was there assuredly at the time when I wrote this book, and it was shewed to me on a day when I passed that way, and I had relation made to me of the truth of the matter and of the manner how the assault was made; and the monks kept it still as a great ornament."

Note 3. La Flamengerie, dep. Aisne.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 40

How the king of England and the French king took day of journey to fight together

The king of England departed from Fervaques and went to Montreuil [Map], and there lodged a night, and the next day he went to the Flamengerie and made all his men to lodge near about him, whereof he had more than forty thousand: and there he was counselled to abide king Philip and to fight with him.

The French king departed from Saint-Quentin's, and daily men came to him from all parts, and so came to Buironfosse. There the king tarried, and said how he would not go thence till he had fought with the king of England and with his allies, seeing they were within two leagues together. And when the earl of Hainault, who was at Quesnoy ready purveyed of men of war, knew that the French king was at Buironfosse thinking there to give battle to the Englishmen, he rode forth till he came to the French host with five hundred spears, and presented himself to the king his uncle, who made him but small cheer, because he had been with his adversary before Cambray. Howbeit the earl excused himself so sagely, that the king and his council were well content. And it was ordained by the marshals, that is to say by the marshal Bertrand and by the marshal of Trie1, that the earl should be lodged next the English host.

Thus these two kings were lodged between Buironfosse and Flamengerie, in the plain fields without any advantage. I think there was never seen before so goodly an assembly of noblemen together as was there2. When the king of England, being in the Chapel of Thierache2, knew how that king Philip was within two leagues, then he called the lords of his host together and demanded of them what he should do, his honour saved, for he said that his intention was to give battle. Then the lords beheld each other, and they desired the duke of Brabant to shew first his intent. The duke said that he was of the accord that they should give battle, for otherwise, he said, they could not depart, saving their honours: wherefore he counselled that they should send heralds to the French king to demand a day of battle. Then an herald of the duke of Gueldres, who could well the language of French, was informed what he should say, and so he rode till he came into the French host. And then he drew him to king Philip and to his council and said, 'Sir, the king of England is in the field and desireth to have battle, power against power.' The which thing king Philip granted, and took the day, the Friday next after, and as then it was Wednesday. And so the herald returned, well rewarded with good furred gowns given him by the French king and other lords because of the tidings that he brought. So thus the journey was agreed, and knowledge was made thereof to all the lords of both the hosts, and so every man made him ready to the matter.

The Thursday in the morning there were two knights of the earl of Hainault's, the lord Fagnolle and the lord of Tupigny, they mounted on their horses and they two all only departed from the French host and rode to aview the English host. So they rode coasting the host, and it fortuned that the lord of Fagnolle's horse took the bridle in the teeth in such wise, that his master could not rule him; and so, whether he would or not, the horse brought him into the English host, and there he fell into the hands of the Almains, who perceived well that he was none of their company and set on him and took him and his horse. And so he was prisoner to a five or six gentlemen of Almaine, and anon they set him to his ransom. And when they understood that he was a Hainowe, they demanded of him if he knew sir John of Hainault, and he answered, 'Yes,' and desired them for the love of God to bring him to his presence, for he knew well that he would quit him his ransom. Thereof were the Almains joyous, and so brought him to the lord Beaumont, who incontinent did pledge him out from his master's hands; and the lord of Fagnolle returned again to the earl of Hainault, and he had his horse again delivered him at the request of the lord Beaumont. Thus passed that day, and none other thing done that ought to be remembered.

Note 1. The marshals of the French host were Robert Bertrand and Matthieu de Trie.

Note 2. In the fuller text it is observed that there were in the French army four kings, France, Bohemia, Navarre and Scotland.

Note 3. La Capelle-en-Thirache, a village in the department of Aisne.

Late Medieval Books, The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 41

How these kings ordained their battles at Buironfosse

1339. When the Friday came in the morning, both hosts apparelled themselves ready, and every lord heard mass among their own companies and divers were shriven.

First we will speak of the order of the Englishmen, who drew them forward into the field and made three battles afoot, and did put all their horses and baggages into a little wood behind them, and fortified it. The first battle led1 the duke of Gueldres, the marquis of Meissen, the marquis of Brandebourg, sir John of Hainault, the earl of Mons, the earl of Salm, the lord of Fauquemont, sir William of Duvenvoorde, sir Arnold of Baquehem and the Almains; and among them was twenty-two banners and sixty pennons in the whole, and eight thousand men. The second battle had the duke of Brabant and the lords and knights of his country - first the lord of Cuyk, the lord Berg, the lord of Breda, the lord of Rotselaer, the lord of Vorsselaer, the lord of Borgneval, the lord of Schoonvorst, the lord of Witham, the lord of Aerschot, the lord of Gaesbeck, the lord of Duffel, sir Thierry of Walcourt, sir Rasse of Gres, sir John of Kesterbeke, sir John Pyliser, sir Giles of Coterebbe, sir Walter of Huldeberg, the three brethren of Harlebeke, sir Henry of Flanders, and divers other barons and knights of Flanders, who were all under the duke of Brabant's banner, as the lord of Halewyn, the lord of Gruthuse, sir Hector Vilain, sir John of Rhodes, sir Wulfart of Ghistelles, sir William of Straten, sir Gossuin de la Moere, and many other: the duke of Brabant had a twenty-four banners and eighty pennons, and in all a seven thousand men. The third battle and the greatest had the king of England and with him his cousin the earl of Derby (age 29), the bishop of Lincoln (age 47), the bishop of Durham, the earl of Salisbury (age 38), the earl of Northampton (age 29), and of Gloucester (age 48), the earl of Suffolk (age 40), sir Robert d'Artois (age 52), as then called earl of Richmond5, the lord Raynold Cobham (age 44), the lord Percy, the lord Ros (age 54), the lord Mowbray (age 28), sir Lewis and sir John Beauchamp, the lord Delaware (age 62), the lord of Langton, the lord Basset, the lord Fitzwalter, sir Walter Manny (age 29), sir Hugh Hastings (age 29), sir John Lisle (age 20), and divers other that I cannot name: among other was sir John Chandos (age 19), of whom much honour is spoken in this book2. The king had with him twenty-eight banners and ninety pennons, and in his battle a six thousand men of arms and six thousand archers; and he had set another battle as in a wing, whereof the earl of Warwick (age 25), the earl of Pembroke (age 19), the lord Berkeley (age 43), the lord Multon and divers other were as chief, and they were on horseback3. Thus when every lord was under his banner, as it was commanded by the marshals, the king of England mounted on a palfrey, accompanied all only with sir Robert d'Artois (age 52), sir Raynold Cobham (age 44) and sir Walter of Manny, and rode along before all his battles, and right sweetly desired all his lords and other that they would that day aid to defend his honour. And they all promised him so to do. Then he returned to his own battle and set everything in good order and commanded that none should go before the marshals' banners.

Now let us speak of the lords of France, what they did. They were eleven score banners, four kings, six dukes, twenty-six earls, and more than four thousand knights, and of the commons of France more than sixty thousand. The kings that were there with king Philip of Valois was the king of Bohemia, the king of Navarre, and king David of Scotland: the duke of Normandy, the duke of Bretayne, the duke of Bourbon, the duke of Lorraine and the duke of Athens: 2 of earls, the earl of Alencon (age 42) brother to the king, the earl of Flanders, the earl of Hainault, the earl of Blois, the earl of Bar, the earl of Forez, the earl of Foix, the earl of Armagnac, the earl Dolphin of Auvergne, the earl of Joinville, the earl of Etampes, the earl of Vendome, the earl of Harcourt, the earl of Saint-Pol, the earl of Guines, the earl of Boulogne, the earl of Roucy, the earl of Dammartin, the earl of Valentinois, the earl of Auxerre, the earl of Sancerre, the earl of Geneva, the earl of Dreux; and of Gascoyne and of Languedoc so many earls and viscounts, that it were long to rehearse. It was a great beauty to behold the banners and standards waving in the wind, and horses barded, and knights and squires richly armed. The Frenchmen ordained three great battles, in each of them fifteen thousand men of arms and twenty thousand men afoot.

Note 1. Perhaps a misprint for 'had.' The original is 'eut.'

Note 2. In the later revision the writer says: 'I, Froissart, writer of these chronicles, more than once heard the gentle knight sir John Chandos say that he was made knight by the hand of the king Edward of England on this Friday that the assembly was at Buironfosse; and since that he was more valiant than any other who took arms on the side of the English, I make mention of this here.'

Note 3. The original says: ' So these remained on horseback to support those battles which should waver, and were as a rear-guard.'

Note 4. The name of the duke of Burgundy is omitted.

Note 5. TT. Robert III Artois (age 52) wasn't created Earl Richmond until 1341?