Biography of Admiral William Penn 1621-1670

Paternal Family Tree: Penn

1655 Capture of Jamaica

1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Holme's Bonfire

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Poll Bill

1667 Raid on the Medway

1668 Bawdy House Riots

1668 Great Barbados Fire

In or before 1620 [his father] Captain Giles Penn (age 48) and [his mother] Joan Gilbert were married.

On 23 Apr 1621 Admiral William Penn was born to Captain Giles Penn (age 49) and Joan Gilbert in St Thomas Parish Bristol.

In 1642 [his father] Captain Giles Penn (age 70) died.

On 06 Jun 1643 Admiral William Penn (age 22) and Margaret Jasper (age 19) were married.

On 14 Oct 1644 [his son] William Penn was born to Admiral William Penn (age 23) and [his wife] Margaret Jasper (age 20).

In 1651 [his daughter] Margaret Penn was born to Admiral William Penn (age 29) and [his wife] Margaret Jasper (age 27).

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jan 1655. A stranger preached from Colossians iii. 2, inciting our affections to the obtaining heavenly things. I understood afterward that this man had been both chaplain and lieutenant to Admiral Penn (age 33), using both swords; whether ordained or not I cannot say; into such times were we fallen!

Capture of Jamaica

In May 1655 the English under Admiral William Penn (age 34) captured Jamaica. Vice-Admiral William Goodson was present.

Calendars. 04 Jun 1655. 37. Sir William Coventry (age 27) and Sir William Penn (age 34) to the Navy Comrs, A good quantity of masts, yards, and all other stores must be sent immediately to the Downs. Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m.; chased them all the rest of the day and all night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (age 37), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Capt. Kirby'are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 40) wounded. [Adm. Paper.]

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1660. This morning I dispatch many letters of my own private business to London. There come Colonel Thomson with the wooden leg, and General Pen (age 38) [Note. This is the first mention in the Diary of Admiral (afterwards Sir William) Penn, with whom Pepys was subsequently so particularly intimate. At this time admirals were sometimes styled generals. William Penn was born at Bristol in 1621, of the ancient family of the Penns of Penn Lodge, Wilts. He was Captain at the age of twenty-one; Rear-Admiral of Ireland at twenty-three; Vice-Admiral of England and General in the first Dutch war, at thirty-two. He was subsequently M.P. for Weymouth, Governor of Kingsale, and Vice-Admiral of Munster. He was a highly successful commander, and in 1654 he obtained possession of Jamaica. He was appointed a Commissioner of the Navy in 1660, in which year he was knighted. After the Dutch fight in 1665, where he distinguished himself as second in command under the Duke of York, he took leave of the sea, but continued to act as a Commissioner for the Navy till 1669, when he retired to Wanstead, on account of his bodily infirmities, and dying there, September 16th, 1670, aged forty-nine, was buried in the church of St. Mary Redcliffe, in Bristol, where a monument to his memory was erected.] and dined with my Lord and Mr. Blackburne, who told me that it was certain now that the King must of necessity come in, and that one of the Council told him there is something doing in order to a treaty already among them. And it was strange to hear how Mr. Blackburne did already begin to commend him for a sober man, and how quiet he would be under his government, &c. I dined all alone to prevent company, which was exceeding great to-day, in my cabin. After these two were gone Sir W. Wheeler (age 49) and Sir John Petters came on board and staid about two or three hours, and so went away. The Commissioners came to-day, only to consult about a further reducement of the Fleet, and to pay them as fast as they can. I did give Davis, their servant, £5 10s. to give to Mr. Moore from me, in part of the £7 that I borrowed of him, and he is to discount the rest out of the 36s. that he do owe me. At night, my Lord resolved to send the Captain of our ship to Waymouth and promote his being chosen there, which he did put himself into a readiness to do the next morning.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1660. Infinite of business that my heart and head and all were full. Met with purser Washington, with whom and a lady, a friend of his, I dined at the Bell Tavern in King Street, but the rogue had no more manners than to invite me and to let me pay my club. All the afternoon with my Lord, going up and down the town; at seven at night he went home, and there the principal Officers of the Navy1, among the rest myself was reckoned one. We had order to meet to-morrow, to draw up such an order of the Council as would put us into action before our patents were passed. At which my heart was glad. At night supped with my Lord, he and I together, in the great dining-room alone by ourselves, the first time I ever did it in London. Home to bed, my maid pretty well again.

Note 1. A list of the Officers of the Admiralty, May 31st, 1660. From a MS. in the Pepysian Library in Pepys's own handwriting. His Royal Highness James, Duke of York, Lord High Admiral, Sir George Carteret (age 50), Treasurer, Sir Robert Slingsby (age 49), (soon after) Comptroller. Sir William Batten (age 59), Surveyor. Samuel Pepys, Esq., Clerk of the Acts. John, Lord Berkeley (age 58) (of Stratton,) Sir William Pen (age 39), Commissioners. Peter Pett, Esq. B.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1660. With Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water to the Navy office, where we met, and dispatched business. And that being done, we went all to dinner to the Dolphin, upon Major Brown's invitation. After that to the office again, where I was vexed, and so was Commissioner Pett (age 49), to see a busy fellow come to look out the best lodgings for my Lord Barkley (age 58), and the combining between him and Sir W. Pen (age 39); and, indeed, was troubled much at it. Home to White Hall, and took out my bill signed by the King, and carried it to Mr. Watkins of the Privy Seal to be despatched there, and going home to take a cap, I borrowed a pair of sheets of Mr. Howe, and by coach went to the Navy office, and lay (Mr. Hater, my clerk, with me) at Commissioner Willoughby's' house, where I was received by him very civilly and slept well.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1660. The last night Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) came to their houses at the office. Met this morning and did business till noon. Dined at home and from thence to my Lord's where Will, my clerk, and I were all the afternoon making up my accounts, which we had done by night, and I find myself worth about £100 after all my expenses. At night I sent to W. Bowyer to bring me £100, being that he had in his hands of my Lord's. in keeping, out of which I paid Mr. Sheply all that remained due to my Lord upon my balance, and took the rest home with me late at night. We got a coach, but the horses were tired and could not carry us farther than St. Dunstan's [Map]. So we 'light and took a link and so home weary to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Aug 1660. To Westminster by water with Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) (our servants in another boat) to the Admiralty; and from thence I went to my Lord's to fetch him thither, where we stayed in the morning about ordering of money for the victuailers, and advising how to get a sum of money to carry on the business of the Navy. From thence dined with Mr. Blackburne at his house with his friends (his wife being in the country and just upon her return to London), where we were very well treated and merry. From thence W. Hewer (age 18) and I to the office of Privy Seal, where I stayed all the afternoon, and received about £40 for yesterday and to-day, at which my heart rejoiced for God's blessing to me, to give me this advantage by chance, there being of this £40 about £10 due to me for this day's work. So great is the present profit of this office, above what it was in the King's (age 30) time; there being the last month about 300 bills; whereas in the late King's (age 30) time it was much to have 40. With my money home by coach, it, being the first time that I could get home before our gates were shut since I came to the Navy office. When I came home I found my wife not very well of her old pain.... which she had when we were married first. I went and cast up the expense that I laid out upon my former house (because there are so many that are desirous of it, and I am, in my mind, loth to let it go out of my hands, for fear of a turn). I find my layings-out to come to about £20, which with my fine will come to about £22 to him that shall hire my house of me. [Pepys wished to let his house in Axe Yard [Map] now that he had apartments at the Navy Office.] To bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1660. Up betimes this morning, and after the barber had done with me, then to the office, where I and Sir William Pen (age 39) only did meet and despatch business. At noon my wife and I by coach to Dr. Clerke's to dinner: I was very much taken with his lady, a comely, proper woman, though not handsome; but a woman of the best language I ever heard. Here dined Mrs. Pierce and her husband. After dinner I took leave to go to Westminster, where I was at the Privy Seal Office all day, signing things and taking money, so that I could not do as I had intended, that is to return to them and go to the Red Bull Playhouse1, but I took coach and went to see whether it was done so or no, and I found it done. So I returned to Dr. Clerke's, where I found them and my wife, and by and by took leave and went away home.

Note 1. This well-known theatre was situated in St. John's Street on the site of Red Bull Yard. Pepys went there on March 23rd, 1661, when he expressed a very poor opinion of the place. T. Carew, in some commendatory lines on Sir William. Davenant's (age 54) play, "The Just Italian", 1630, abuses both audiences and actors:- "There are the men in crowded heaps that throng To that adulterate stage, where not a tongue Of th' untun'd kennel can a line repeat Of serious sense". There is a token of this house (see "Boyne's Trade Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., 1889, p. 725).

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1660. Lord's Day. In the morning my wife tells me that the bitch has whelped four young ones and is very well after it, my wife having had a great fear that she would die thereof, the dog that got them being very big. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 59), Pen (age 39), and myself, went to church to the churchwardens, to demand a pew, which at present could not be given us, but we are resolved to have one built. So we staid and heard Mr. Mills;' a very, good minister. Home to dinner, where my wife had on her new petticoat that she bought yesterday, which indeed is a very fine cloth and a fine lace; but that being of a light colour, and the lace all silver, it makes no great show. Mr. Creed and my brother Tom (age 26) dined with me. After dinner my wife went and fetched the little puppies to us, which are very pretty ones. After they were gone, I went up to put my papers in order, and finding my wife's clothes lie carelessly laid up, I was angry with her, which I was troubled for. After that my wife and I went and walked in the garden, and so home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1660. Office Day. As Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I were walking in the garden, a messenger came to me from the Duke of York (age 26) to fetch me to the Lord Chancellor (age 51). So (Mrs. Turner (age 37) with her daughter The. being come to my house to speak with me about a friend of hers to send to sea) I went with her in her coach as far as Worcester House, but my Lord Chancellor (age 51) being gone to the House of Lords, I went thither, and (there being a law case before them this day) got in, and there staid all the morning, seeing their manner of sitting on woolpacks1, &c., which I never did before.

Note 1. It is said that these woolpacks were placed in the House of Lords for the judges to sit on, so that the fact that wool was a main source of our national wealth might be kept in the popular mind. The Lord Chancellor's (age 51) seat is now called the Woolsack.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1660. This morning I went to White Hall with Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water, who in our passage told me how he was bred up under Sir W. Batten (age 59). We went to Mr. Coventry's (age 32) chamber, and consulted of drawing my papers of debts of the Navy against the afternoon for the Committee. So to the Admiralty, where W. Hewer (age 18) and I did them, and after that he went to his Aunt's Blackburn (who has a kinswoman dead at her house to-day, and was to be buried to-night, by which means he staid very late out). I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Mr. Crew (age 62) and dined with him, where there dined one Mr. Hickeman, an Oxford man, who spoke very much against the height of the now old clergy, for putting out many of the religious fellows of Colleges, and inveighing against them for their being drunk, which, if true, I am sorry to hear. After that towards Westminster, where I called on Mr. Pim, and there found my velvet coat (the first that ever I had) done, and a velvet mantle, which I took to the Privy Seal Office, and there locked them up, and went to the Queen's Court, and there, after much waiting, spoke with Colonel Birch (age 44), who read my papers, and desired some addition, which done I returned to the Privy Seal, where little to do, and with Mr. Moore towards London, and in our way meeting Monsieur Eschar (Mr. Montagu's man), about the Savoy, he took us to the Brazennose Tavern, and there drank and so parted, and I home by coach, and there, it being post-night, I wrote to my Lord to give him notice that all things are well; that General Monk (age 51) is made Lieutenant of Ireland, which my Lord Roberts (age 54) (made Deputy) do not like of, to be Deputy to any man but the King himself. After that to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1660. Office, which done, Sir W. Pen (age 39) took me into the garden, and there told me how Mr. Turner do intend to petition the Duke for an allowance extra as one of the Clerks of the Navy, which he desired me to join with him in the furthering of, which I promised to do so that it did not reflect upon me or to my damage to have any other added, as if I was not able to perform my place; which he did wholly disown to be any of his intention, but far from it. I took Mr. Hater home with me to dinner, with whom I did advise, who did give me the same counsel. After dinner he and I to the office about doing something more as to the debts of the Navy than I had done yesterday, and so to Whitehall to the Privy Seal, and having done there, with my father (who came to see me) to Westminster Hall [Map] and the Parliament House to look for Col. Birch (age 44), but found him not. In the House, after the Committee was up, I met with Mr. G. Montagu (age 38), and joyed him in his entrance (this being his 3d day) for Dover. Here he made me sit all alone in the House, none but he and I, half an hour, discoursing how things stand, and in short he told me how there was like to be many factions at Court between Marquis Ormond, General Monk (age 51), and the Lord Roberts (age 54), about the business of Ireland; as there is already between the two Houses about the Act of Indemnity; and in the House of Commons, between the Episcopalian and Presbyterian men. Hence to my father's (age 59) (walking with Mr. Herring, the minister of St. Bride's), and took them to the Sun Tavern, where I found George, my old drawer, come again. From thence by water, landed them at Blackfriars, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Aug 1660. Office, and thence with Sir William Batten (age 59) and Sir William Pen (age 39) to the parish church to find out a place where to build a seat or a gallery to sit in, and did find one which is to be done speedily. Hence with them to dinner at a tavern in Thames Street, where they were invited to a roasted haunch of venison and other very good victuals and company. Hence to Whitehall to the Privy Seal, but nothing to do. At night by land to my father's (age 59), where I found my mother not very well. I did give her a pint of sack. My father came in, and Dr. T. Pepys (age 39), who talked with me in French about looking out for a place for him. But I found him a weak man, and speaks the worst French that ever I heard of one that had been so long beyond sea. Hence into St Pauls's Churchyard and bought Barkley's Argenis in Latin, and so home and to bed. I found at home that Captain Burr had sent me 4 dozen bottles of wine today. The King came back to Whitehall to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1660. Lord's Day. With Sir W. Pen (age 39) to the parish church, where we are placed in the highest pew of all, where a stranger preached a dry and tedious long sermon. Dined at home. To church again in the afternoon with my wife; in the garden and on the leads at night, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1660. I did many things this morning at home before I went out, as looking over the joiners, who are flooring my diningroom, and doing business with Sir Williams1 both at the office, and so to Whitehall, and so to the Bullhead [Map], where we had the remains of our pasty, where I did give my verdict against Mr. Moore upon last Saturday's wager, where Dr. Fuller (age 52) coming in do confirm me in my verdict. From thence to my Lord's and despatched Mr. Cooke away with the things to my Lord. From thence to Axe Yard [Map] to my house, where standing at the door Mrs. Diana comes by, whom I took into my house upstairs, and there did dally with her a great while, and found that in Latin "Nulla puella negat2". So home by water, and there sat up late setting my papers in order, and my money also, and teaching my wife her music lesson, in which I take great pleasure. So to bed.

Note 1. "Both Sir Williams" is a favourite expression with Pepys, meaning Sir William Batten (age 59) and Sir William Pen (age 39).

Note 2. Nulla puella negat. She refused me nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1660. All day also at home. At night sent for by Sir W. Pen (age 39), with whom I sat late drinking a glass of wine and discoursing, and I find him to be a very sociable man, and an able man, and very cunning.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1660. Sunday. In the morning with Sir W. Pen (age 39) to church, and a very good sermon of Mr. Mills. Home to dinner, and Sir W. Pen (age 39) with me to such as I had, and it was very handsome, it being the first time that he ever saw my wife or house since we came hither. Afternoon to church with my wife, and after that home, and there walked with Major Hart, who came to see me, in the garden, who tells me that we are all like to be speedily disbanded1; and then I lose the benefit of a muster. After supper to bed.

Note 1. The Trained Bands were abolished in 1663, but those of the City of London were specially excepted. The officers of the Trained Bands were supplied by the Hon. Artillery Company.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1660. At Sir W. Batten's (age 59) with Sir W. Pen (age 39) we drank our morning draft, and from thence for an hour in the office and dispatch a little business. Dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 59), and by this time I see that we are like to have a very good correspondence and neighbourhood, but chargeable. All the afternoon at home looking over my carpenters. At night I called Thos. Hater out of the office to my house to sit and talk with me. After he was gone I caused the girl to wash the wainscot of our parlour, which she did very well, which caused my wife and I good sport. Up to my chamber to read a little, and wrote my Diary for three or four days past. The Duke of York did go to-day by break of day to the Downs. The Duke of Gloucester (age 20) ill. The House of Parliament was to adjourn to-day. I know not yet whether it be done or no. To bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1660. To the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 59), Colonel Slingsby (age 49), and I sat awhile, and Sir R. Ford (age 46)1 coming to us about some business, we talked together of the interest of this kingdom to have a peace with Spain and a war with France and Holland; where Sir R. Ford (age 46) talked like a man of great reason and experience. And afterwards I did send for a cup of tee2 (a China drink) of which I never had drank before, and went away. Then came Col. Birch (age 45) and Sir R. Browne by a former appointment, and with them from Tower wharf in the barge belonging to our office we went to Deptford, Kent [Map] to pay off the ship Success, which (Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) coming afterwards to us) we did, Col. Birch (age 45) being a mighty busy man and one that is the most indefatigable and forward to make himself work of any man that ever I knew in my life. At the Globe we had a very good dinner, and after that to the pay again, which being finished we returned by water again, and I from our office with Col. Slingsby (age 49) by coach to Westminster (I setting him down at his lodgings by the way) to inquire for my Lord's coming thither (the King and the Princess3 coming up the river this afternoon as we were at our pay), and I found him gone to Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I found him well, only had got some corns upon his foot which was not well yet. My Lord told me how the ship that brought the Princess and him (The Tredagh) did knock six times upon the Kentish Knock4, which put them in great fear for the ship; but got off well. He told me also how the King had knighted Vice-Admiral Lawson (age 45) and Sir Richard Stayner (age 35). From him late and by coach home, where the plasterers being at work in all the rooms in my house, my wife was fain to make a bed upon the ground for her and me, and so there we lay all night.

Note 1. Sir Richard Ford was one of the commissioners sent to Breda to desire Charles II to return to England immediately.

Note 2. That excellent and by all Physicians, approved, China drink, called by the Chineans Tcha, by other nations Tay alias Tee, is sold at the Sultaness Head Coffee-House, in Sweetings Rents, by the "Royal Exchange, London". "Coffee, chocolate, and a kind of drink called tee, sold in almost every street in 1659".-Rugge's Diurnal. It is stated in "Boyne's Trade Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., 1889, p. 593 that the word tea occurs on no other tokens than those issued from 'the Great Turk' (Morat ye Great) coffeehouse in Exchange Alley. The Dutch East India Company introduced tea into Europe in 1610, and it is said to have been first imported into England from Holland about 1650. The English "East India Company" purchased and presented 2 lbs. of tea to Charles II in 1660, and 23 lbs. in 1666. The first order for its importation by the company was in 1668, and the first consignment of it, amounting to 143 lbs., was received from Bantam in 1669 (see Sir George Birdwood's "Report on the Old Records at the India Office", 1890, p. 26). By act 12 Car. II., capp. 23, 24, a duty of 8d. per gallon was imposed upon the infusion of tea, as well as on chocolate and sherbet.

Note 3. "The Princess Royall came from Gravesend, Kent [Map] to Whitehall by water, attended by a noble retinue of about one hundred persons, gentry, and servants, and tradesmen, and tirewomen, and others, that took that opportunity to advance their fortunes, by coming in with so excellent a Princess as without question she is".-Rugge's Diurnal. A broadside, entitled "Ourania, the High and Mighty Lady the Princess Royal of Aurange, congratulated on her most happy arrival, September the 25th, 1660", was printed on the 29th.

Note 4. A shoal in the North Sea, off the Thames mouth, outside the Long Sand, fifteen miles N.N.E. of the North Foreland. It measures seven miles north-eastward, and about two miles in breadth. It is partly dry at low water. A revolving light was set up in 1840.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1660. Office Day. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Col. Slingsby (age 49) went with Col. Birch (age 45) and Sir Wm. Doyly to Chatham, Kent [Map] to pay off a ship there. So only Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I left here in town. All the afternoon among my workmen till 10 or 11 at night, and did give them drink and very merry with them, it being my luck to meet with a sort of drolling workmen on all occasions. To bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1660. With Sir Wm. Pen (age 39) by water to Whitehall, being this morning visited before I went out by my brother Tom (age 26), who told me that for his lying out of doors a day and a night my father had forbade him to come any more into his house, at which I was troubled, and did soundly chide him for doing so, and upon confessing his fault I told him I would speak to my father. At Whitehall I met with Captain Clerk, and took him to the Leg in King Street, and did give him a dish or two of meat, and his purser that was with him, for his old kindness to me on board. After dinner I to Whitehall, where I met with Mrs. Hunt, and was forced to wait upon Mr. Scawen at a committee to speak for her husband, which I did. After that met with Luellin, Mr. Fage, and took them both to the Dog, and did give them a glass of wine. After that at Will's I met with Mr. Spicer, and with him to the Abbey to see them at vespers. There I found but a thin congregation already. So I see that religion, be it what it will, is but a humour1, and so the esteem of it passeth as other things do.

Note 1. The four humours of the body described by the old physicians were supposed to exert their influence upon the mind, and in course of time the mind as well as the body was credited with its own particular humours. The modern restricted use of the word humour did not become general until the eighteenth century.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1660. With Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) by water to White Hall, where a meeting of the Dukes of York and Albemarle, my Lord Sandwich (age 35) and all the principal officers, about the Winter Guard, but we determined of nothing. To my Lord's, who sent a great iron chest to White Hall; and I saw it carried, into the King's (age 30) closet, where I saw most incomparable pictures. Among the rest a book open upon a desk, which I durst have sworn was a reall book, and back again to my Lord, and dined all alone with him, who do treat me with a great deal of respect; and after dinner did discourse an hour with me, and advise about some way to get himself some money to make up for all his great expenses, saying that he believed that he might have any thing that he would ask of the King. This day Mr. Sheply and all my Lord's goods came from sea, some of them laid of the Wardrobe and some brought to my Lord's house. From thence to our office, where we met and did business, and so home and spent the evening looking upon the painters that are at work in my house. This day I heard the Duke speak of a great design that he and my Lord of Pembroke have, and a great many others, of sending a venture to some parts of Africa to dig for gold ore there. They intend to admit as many as will venture their money, and so make themselves a company. £250 is the lowest share for every man. But I do not find that my Lord do much like it. At night Dr. Fairbrother (for so he is lately made of the Civil Law) brought home my wife by coach, it being rainy weather, she having been abroad today to buy more furniture for her house.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1660. I found Mr. Prin (age 60) a good, honest, plain man, but in his discourse not very free or pleasant. Among all the tales that passed among us to-day, he told us of one Damford, that, being a black man, did scald his beard with mince pie, and it came up again all white in that place, and continued to his dying day. Sir W. Pen (age 39) told us a good jest about some gentlemen blinding of the drawer, and who he catched was to pay the reckoning, and so they got away, and the master of the house coming up to see what his man did, his man got hold of him, thinking it to be one of the gentlemen, and told him that he was to pay the reckoning.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1660. To Whitehall again, where at Mr. Coventry's (age 32) chamber I met with Sir W. Pen (age 39) again, and so with him to Redriffe [Map] by water, and from thence walked over the fields to Deptford, Kent [Map] (the first pleasant walk I have had a great while), and in our way had a great deal of merry discourse, and find him to be a merry fellow and pretty good natured, and sings very bawdy songs. So we came and found our gentlemen and Mr. Prin (age 60) at the pay. About noon we dined together, and were very merry at table telling of tales. After dinner to the pay of another ship till 10 at night, and so home in our barge, a clear moonshine night, and it was 12 o'clock before we got home, where I found my wife in bed, and part of our chambers hung to-day by the upholster, but not being well done I was fretted, and so in a discontent to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1660. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 59) with Colonel Birch (age 45) to Deptford, to pay off two ships. Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I staid to do business, and afterwards together to White Hall, where I went to my Lord, and found him in bed not well, and saw in his chamber his picture1, very well done; and am with child2 till I get it copied out, which I hope to do when he is gone to sea.

Note 1. Peter Lely (age 42). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 35) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Note 2. A figurative expression for an eager longing desire, used by Udall and by Spenser. The latest authority given by Dr. Murray in the "New English Dictionary", is Bailey in 1725.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1660. I was forced to go to my Lord's to get him to meet the officers of the Navy this afternoon, and so could not go along with her, but I missed my Lord, who was this day upon the bench at the Sessions house. So I dined there, and went to White Hall, where I met with Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39), who with the Comptroller, Treasurer, and Mr. Coventry (age 32) (at his chamber) made up a list of such ships as are fit to be kept out for the winter guard, and the rest to be paid off by the Parliament when they can get money, which I doubt will not be a great while.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1660. Office day. Much troubled all this morning in my mind about the business of my walk on the leads. I spoke of it to the Comptroller and the rest of the principal officers, who are all unwilling to meddle in anything that may anger my Lady Davis. And so I am fain to give over for the time that she do continue therein. Dined at home, and after dinner to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Billing (age 37) the quaker at Mrs. Michell's shop, who is still of the former opinion he was of against the clergymen of all sorts, and a cunning fellow I find him to be. Home, and there I had news that Sir W. Pen (age 39) is resolved to ride to Sir W. Batten's (age 59) country house to-morrow, and would have me go with him, so I sat up late, getting together my things to ride in, and was fain to cut an old pair of boots to make leathers for those I was to wear. This month I conclude with my mind very heavy for the loss of the leads, as also for the greatness of my late expenses, insomuch that I do not think that I have above £150 clear money in the world, but I have, I believe, got a great deal of good household stuff: I hear to-day that the Queen (age 50) is landed at Dover, and will be here on Friday next, November 2nd. my wife has been so ill of late of her old pain that I have not known her this fortnight almost, which is a pain to me.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Nov 1660. This morning Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I were mounted early, and had very merry discourse all the way, he being very good company. We came to Sir W. Batten's (age 59), where he lives like a prince, and we were made very welcome. Among other things he showed us my Lady's closet, where was great store of rarities; as also a chair, which he calls King Harry's chair, where he that sits down is catched with two irons, that come round about him, which makes good sport. Here dined with us two or three more country gentle men; among the rest Mr. Christmas, my old school-fellow, with whom I had much talk. He did remember that I was a great Roundhead when I was a boy, and I was much afraid that he would have remembered the words that I said the day the King was beheaded (that, were I to preach upon him, my text should be "The memory of the wicked shall rot"); but I found afterwards that he did go away from school before that time1. He did make us good sport in imitating Mr. Case, Ash, and Nye, the ministers, which he did very well, but a deadly drinker he is, and grown exceeding fat. From his house to an ale-house near the church, where we sat and drank and were merry, and so we mounted for London again, Sir W. Batten (age 59) with us. We called at Bow and drank there, and took leave of Mr. Johnson of Blackwall, who dined with us and rode with us thus far. So home by moonlight, it being about 9 o'clock before we got home.

Note 1. Pepys might well be anxious on this point, for in October of this year Phineas Pett, assistant master shipwright at Chatham, Kent [Map], was dismissed from his post for having when a Child spoken disrespectfully of the King. See ante, August 23rd.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1660. In the morning with Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) by water to Westminster, where at my Lord's I met with Mr. Creed. With him to see my Lord's picture (now almost done), and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where we found the Parliament met to-day, and thence meeting with Mr. Chetwind, I took them to the Sun, and did give them a barrel of oysters, and had good discourse; among other things Mr. Chetwind told me how he did fear that this late business of the Duke of York's (age 27) would prove fatal to my Lord Chancellor (age 51). From thence Mr. Creed and I to Wilkinson's, and dined together, and in great haste thence to our office, where we met all, for the sale of two ships by an inch of candle1 (the first time that ever I saw any of this kind), where I observed how they do invite one another, and at last how they all do cry, [To cry was to bid.] and we have much to do to tell who did cry last. The ships were the Indian, sold for £1,300, and the Half-moon, sold for £830. Home, and fell a-reading of the tryalls of the late men that were hanged for the King's death, and found good satisfaction in reading thereof.

Note 1. The old-fashioned custom of sale by auction by inch of candle was continued in sales by the Admiralty to a somewhat late date. See September 3rd, 1662.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1660. Lord's Day. This morning I went to Sir W. Batten's (age 59) about going to Deptford, Kent [Map] to-morrow, and so eating some hog's pudding of my Lady's making, of the hog that I saw a fattening the other day at her house, he and I went to Church into our new gallery, the first time it was used, and it not being yet quite finished, there came after us Sir W. Pen (age 39), Mr. Davis, and his eldest son. There being no woman this day, we sat in the foremost pew, and behind us our servants, and I hope it will not always be so, it not being handsome for our servants to sit so equal with us. This day also did Mr. Mills begin to read all the Common Prayer, which I was glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1660. So home to dinner, and after that to the office till late at night, and so Sir W. Pen (age 39), the Comptroller, and I to the Dolphin, where we found Sir W. Batten (age 59), who is seldom a night from hence, and there we did drink a great quantity of sack and did tell many merry stories, and in good humours we were all. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1660. To Westminster, and it being very cold upon the water I went all alone to the Sun and drank a draft of mulled white wine, and so to Mr. De Cretz, whither I sent for J. Spicer (to appoint him to expect me this afternoon at the office, with the other £1000 from Whitehall), and here we staid and did see him give some finishing touches to my Lord's picture, so at last it is complete to my mind, and I leave mine with him to copy out another for himself, and took the original by a porter with me to my Lord's, where I found my Lord within, and staid hearing him and Mr. Child playing upon my Lord's new organ, the first time I ever heard it. My Lord did this day show me the King's (age 30) picture, which was done in Flanders, that the King did promise my Lord before he ever saw him, and that we did expect to have had at sea before the King came to us; but it came but to-day, and indeed it is the most pleasant and the most like him that ever I saw picture in my life. As dinner was coming on table, my wife came to my Lord's, and I got her carried in to my Lady, who took physic to-day, and was just now hiring of a French maid that was with her, and they could not understand one another till my wife came to interpret. Here I did leave my wife to dine with my Lord, the first time he ever did take notice of her as my wife, and did seem to have a just esteem for her. And did myself walk homewards (hearing that Sir W. Pen (age 39) was gone before in a coach) to overtake him and with much ado at last did in Fleet Street, and there I went in to him, and there was Sir Arnold Brames, and we all three to Sir W. Batten's (age 59) to dinner, he having a couple of Servants married to-day; and so there was a great number of merchants, and others of good quality on purpose after dinner to make an offering, which, when dinner was done, we did, and I did give ten shillings and no more, though I believe most of the rest did give more, and did believe that I did so too. From thence to Whitehall again by water to Mr. Fox (age 33) and by two porters carried away the other £1000. He was not within himself, but I had it of his kinsman, and did give him £4. and other servants something; but whereas I did intend to have given Mr. Fox (age 33) himself a piece of plate of £50 I was demanded £100, for the fee of the office at 6d. a pound, at which I was surprised, but, however, I did leave it there till I speak with my Lord. So I carried it to the Exchequer, where at Will's I found Mr. Spicer, and so lodged it at his office with the rest. From thence after a pot of ale at Will's I took boat in the dark and went for all that to the old Swan [Map], and so to Sir Wm. Batten's, and leaving some of the gallants at cards I went home, where I found my wife much satisfied with my Lord's discourse and respect to her, and so after prayers to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1660. From thence I to my Lord's, and dined with him and told him what we had done to-day. Sir Tho. Crew (age 36) dined with my Lord to-day, and we were very merry with Mrs. Borfett, who dined there still as she has always done lately. After dinner Sir Tho. (age 36) and my Lady to the Playhouse [Map] to see "The Silent Woman". I home by water, and with Mr. Hater in my chamber all alone he and I did put this morning's design into order, which being done I did carry it to Sir W. Batten (age 59), where I found some gentlemen with him (Sir W. Pen (age 39) among the rest pretty merry with drink) playing at cards, and there I staid looking upon them till one o'clock in the morning, and so Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I went away, and I to bed. This day the Parliament voted that the bodies of Oliver, Ireton, Bradshaw, &c., should be taken up out of their graves in the Abbey, and drawn to the gallows, and there hanged and buried under it: which (methinks) do trouble me that a man of so great courage as he was, should have that dishonour, though otherwise he might deserve it enough.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1660. To Whitehall to the Privy Seal, and thence to Mr. Pierces the Surgeon to tell them that I would call by and by to go to dinner. But I going into Westminster Hall [Map] met with Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) (who were in a great fear that we had committed a great error of £100,000 in our late account gone into the Parliament in making it too little), and so I was fain to send order to Mr. Pierces to come to my house; and also to leave the key of the chest with Mr. Spicer; wherein my Lord's money is, and went along with Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water to the office, and there with Mr. Huchinson we did find that we were in no mistake. And so I went to dinner with my wife and Mr. and Mrs. Pierce the Surgeon to Mr. Pierce, the Purser (the first time that ever I was at his house) who does live very plentifully and finely. We had a lovely chine of beef and other good things very complete and drank a great deal of wine, and her daughter played after dinner upon the virginals1, and at night by lanthorn home again, and Mr. Pierce and his wife being gone home I went to bed, having drunk so much wine that my head was troubled and was not very well all night, and the wind I observed was rose exceedingly before I went to bed.

Note 1. All instruments of the harpsichord and spinet kind were styled virginals.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Dec 1660. After dinner, my Lady being very fearfull she staid and kept my wife there, and I and another gentleman, a friend of Sir W. Pen's (age 39), went back in the barge, very merry by the way, as far as Whitehall in her. To the Privy Seal, where I signed many pardons and some few things else. From thence Mr. Moore and I into London to a tavern near my house, and there we drank and discoursed of ways how to put out a little money to the best advantage, and at present he has persuaded me to put out £250 for £50 per annum for eight years, and I think I shall do it. Thence home, where I found the wench washing, and I up to my study, and there did make up an even £100, and sealed it to lie by. After that to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1660. In the morning to Alderman Backwell's (age 42) for the candlesticks for Mr. Coventry (age 32), but they being not done I went away, and so by coach to Mr. Crew's (age 62), and there took some money of Mr. Moore's for my Lord, and so to my Lord's, where I found Sir Thomas Bond (whom I never saw before) with a message from the Queen (age 51) about vessells for the carrying over of her goods, and so with him to Mr. Coventry (age 32), and thence to the office (being soundly washed going through the bridge) to Sir Wm. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) (the last of whom took physic to-day), and so I went up to his chamber, and there having made an end of the business I returned to White Hall by water, and dined with my Lady Sandwich (age 35), who at table did tell me how much fault was laid upon Dr. Frazer and the rest of the Doctors, for the death of the Princess!

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1660. In the morning to Alderman Backwell's (age 42) again, where I found the candlesticks done, and went along with him in his coach to my Lord's and left the candlesticks with Mr. Shepley. I staid in the garden talking much with my Lord, who do show me much of his love and do communicate his mind in most things to me, which is my great content. Home and with my wife to Sir W. Batten's (age 59) to dinner, where much and good company. My wife not very well went home, I staid late there seeing them play at cards, and so home to bed. This afternoon there came in a strange lord to Sir William Batten's (age 59) by a mistake and enters discourse with him, so that we could not be rid of him till Sir Arn. Breames and Mr. Bens and Sir W. Pen (age 39) fell a-drinking to him till he was drunk, and so sent him away.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1660. Within all the morning. Several people to speak with me; Mr. Shepley for £100; Mr. Kennard and Warren, the merchant, about deals for my Lord. Captain Robert Blake lately come from the Straights about some Florence Wine for my Lord, and with him I went to Sir W. Pen (age 39), who offering me a barrel of oysters I took them both home to my house (having by chance a good piece of roast beef at the fire for dinner), and there they dined with me, and sat talking all the afternoon-good company. Thence to Alderman Backwell's (age 42) and took a brave state-plate and cupp in lieu of the candlesticks that I had the other day and carried them by coach to my Lord's and left them there. And so back to my father's (age 59) and saw my mother, and so to my uncle Fenner's, whither my father came to me, and there we talked and drank, and so away; I home with my father, he telling me what bad wives both my cozen Joyces make to their husbands, which I much wondered at. After talking of my sister's coming to me next week, I went home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1661. So we both went forth (calling first to see how Sir W. Pen (age 39) do, whom I found very ill), and at the Hoop by the bridge we drank two pints of wormwood and sack. Talking of his wooing afresh of Mrs. Lane, and of his going to serve the Bishop of London.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1661. Thence by coach to my Uncle Wight's with my wife, but they being out of doors we went home, where, after I had put some papers in order and entered some letters in my book which I have a mind to keep, I went with my wife to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), who we found ill still, but he do make very much of it. Here we sat a great while, at last comes in Mr. Davis and his lady (who takes it very ill that my wife never did go to see her), and so we fell to talk. Among other things Mr. Davis told us the particular examinations of these Fanatiques that are taken: and in short it is this, of all these Fanatiques that have done all this, viz., routed all the Trainbands that they met with, put the King's life-guards to the run, killed about twenty men, broke through the City gates twice; and all this in the day-time, when all the City was in arms; are not in all about 31.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1661. So after a cup of burnt wine1 at the tavern there, we took barge and went to Blackwall [Map] and viewed the dock and the new Wet dock, which is newly made there, and a brave new merchantman which is to be launched shortly, and they say to be called the Royal Oak. Hence we walked to Dick-Shore, and thence to the Towre and so home. Where I found my wife and Pall abroad, so I went to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), and there found Mr. Coventry (age 33) come to see him, and now had an opportunity to thank him, and he did express much kindness to me. I sat a great while with Sir Wm. after he was gone, and had much talk with him. I perceive none of our officers care much for one another, but I do keep in with them all as much as I can. Sir W. Pen (age 39) is still very ill as when I went.

Note 1. Burnt wine was somewhat similar to mulled wine, and a favourite drink.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1661. Lord's Day. To Church in the morning. Dined at home. My wife and I to Church in the afternoon, and that being done we went to see my uncle and aunt Wight. There I left my wife and came back, and sat with Sir W. Pen (age 39), who is not yet well again. Thence back again to my wife and supped there, and were very merry and so home, and after prayers to write down my journall for the last five days, and so to bed.

Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60), the Comptroller (age 50) and I to Westminster, to the Commissioners for paying off the Army and Navy, where the Duke of Albemarle (age 52) was; and we sat with our hats on, and did discourse about paying off the ships and do find that they do intend to undertake it without our help; and we are glad of it, for it is a work that will much displease the poor seamen, and so we are glad to have no hand in it. From thence to the Exchequer, and took £200 and carried it home, and so to the office till night, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), whither came my Lady Batten and her daughter, and then I sent for my wife, and so we sat talking till it was late. So home to supper and then to bed, having eat no dinner to-day. It is strange what weather we have had all this winter; no cold at all; but the ways are dusty, and the flyes fly up and down, and the rose-bushes are full of leaves, such a time of the year as was never known in this world before here. This day many more of the Fifth Monarchy men were hanged.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1661. From thence I to Mr. Bowyer's, and there sat a while, and so to Mr. Fox's (age 33), and sat with them a very little while, and then by coach home, and so to see Sir Win. Pen (age 39), where we found Mrs. Martha Batten and two handsome ladies more, and so we staid supper and were very merry, and so home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1661. At home all day. There dined with me Sir William Batten (age 60) and his lady and daughter, Sir W. Pen (age 39), Mr. Fox (age 33) (his lady being ill could not come), and Captain Cuttance; the first dinner I have made since I came hither. This cost me above £5, and merry we were-only my chimney smokes. In the afternoon Mr. Hater bringing me my last quarter's salary, which I received of him, and so I have now Mr. Barlow's money in my hands. The company all go away, and by and by Sir Wms. both and my Lady Batten and his daughter come again and supped with me and talked till late, and so to bed, being glad that the trouble is over.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1661. To church again, a good sermon of Mr. Mills, and after sermon Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I an hour in the garden talking, and he did answer me to many things, I asked Mr. Coventry's (age 33) opinion of me, and Sir W. Batten's (age 60) of my Lord Sandwich (age 35), which do both please me. Then to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), where very merry, and here I met the Comptroller (age 50) and his lady and daughter (the first time I ever saw them) and Mrs. Turner (age 38), who and her husband supped with us here (I having fetched my wife thither), and after supper we fell to oysters, and then Mr. Turner went and fetched some strong waters, and so being very merry we parted, and home to bed. This day the parson read a proclamation at church, for the keeping of Wednesday next, the 30th of January, a fast for the murther of the late King.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. Fast Day. The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon, upon "Lord forgive us our former iniquities;" speaking excellently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ancestors. Home, and John Goods comes, and after dinner I did pay him £30 for my Lady, and after that Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I into Moorfields [Map] and had a brave talk, it being a most pleasant day, and besides much discourse did please ourselves to see young Davis and Whitton, two of our clerks, going by us in the field, who we observe to take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1661. After dinner I was sent for to Sir G. Carteret's (age 51), where he was, and I found the Comptroller (age 50), who are upon writing a letter to the Commissioners of Parliament in some things a rougher stile than our last, because they seem to speak high to us. So the Comptroller (age 50) and I thence to a tavern hard by, and there did agree upon drawing up some letters to be sent to all the pursers and Clerks of the Cheques to make up their accounts. Then home; where I found the parson and his wife gone. And by and by the rest of the company, very well pleased, and I too; it being the last dinner I intend to make a great while, it having now cost me almost £15 in three dinners within this fortnight. In the evening comes Sir W. Pen (age 39), pretty merry, to sit with me and talk, which we did for an hour or two, and so good night, and I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1661. That being done, he and I back again home, where I met with my father and mother going to my cozen Snow's to Blackwall [Map], and had promised to bring me and my wife along with them, which we could not do because we are to go to the Dolphin to-day to a dinner of Capt. Tayler's. So at last I let my wife go with them, and I to the tavern, where Sir William Pen (age 39) and the Comptroller (age 50) and several others were, men and women; and we had a very great and merry dinner; and after dinner the Comptroller (age 50) begun some sports, among others the naming of people round and afterwards demanding questions of them that they are forced to answer their names to, which do make very good sport. And here I took pleasure to take the forfeits of the ladies who would not do their duty by kissing of them; among others a pretty lady, who I found afterwards to be wife to Sir W. Batten's (age 60) son.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1661. Early up to Court with Sir W. Pen (age 39), where, at Mr. Coventry's (age 33) chamber, we met with all our fellow officers, and there after a hot debate about the business of paying off the Fleet, and how far we should join with the Commissioners of Parliament, which is now the great business of this month more to determine, and about which there is a great deal of difference between us, and then how far we should be assistants to them therein.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1661. Called up by my Cozen Snow, who sat by me while I was trimmed, and then I drank with him, he desiring a courtesy for a friend, which I have done for him. Then to the office, and there sat long, then to dinner, Captain Murford with me. I had a dish of fish and a good hare, which was sent me the other day by Goodenough the plasterer. So to the office again, where Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I sat all alone, answering of petitions and nothing else, and so to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), where comes Mr. Jessop (one whom I could not formerly have looked upon, and now he comes cap in hand to us from the Commissioners of the Navy, though indeed he is a man of a great estate and of good report), about some business from them to us, which we answered by letter. Here I sat long with Sir W., who is not well, and then home and to my chamber, and some little, music, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1661. With Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Pen (age 39) to Whitehall to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) chamber, to debate upon the business we were upon the other day morning, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and poor Mr. Wood with me, who after dinner would have borrowed money of me, but I would lend none. Then to Whitehall by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 39), where we did very little business, and so back to Mr. Rawlinson's (age 47), where I took him and gave him a cup of wine, he having formerly known Mr. Rawlinson (age 47), and here I met my uncle Wight, and he drank with us, and with him to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), whither I sent for my wife, and we chose Valentines' against to-morrow1, my wife chose me, which did much please me; my Lady Batten Sir W. Pen (age 39), &c. Here we sat late, and so home to bed, having got my Lady Batten to give me a spoonful of honey for my cold.

Note 1. The observation of St. Valentine's day is very ancient in this country. Shakespeare makes Ophelia sing "To-morrow is Saint Valentine's day, All in the morning betime, And I a maid at your window To be your Valentine". Hamlet, act iv. sc. 5.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1661. About 10 o'clock we, with a great deal of company, went down by our barge to Deptford, and there only went to see how forward Mr. Pett's (age 50) yacht is; and so all into the barge again, and so to Woolwich, Kent [Map], on board the Rose-bush, Captain Brown's' ship, that is brother-in-law to Sir W. Batten (age 60), where we had a very fine dinner, dressed on shore, and great mirth and all things successfull; the first time I ever carried my wife a-ship-board, as also my boy Wayneman, who hath all this day been called young Pepys, as Sir W. Pen's (age 39) boy young Pen.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1661. And at night I got the whole company and Sir Wm. Pen (age 39) home to my house, and there I did give them Rhenish wine and sugar, and continued together till it was late, and so to bed. It is much talked that the King is already married to the niece of the Prince de Ligne1, and that he hath two sons already by her: which I am sorry to hear; but yet am gladder that it should be so, than that the Duke of York (age 27) and his family should come to the crown, he being a professed friend to the Catholiques.

Note 1. The Prince de Ligne had no niece, and probably Pepys has made some mistake in the name. Charles at one time made an offer of marriage to Mazarin's niece, Hortense Mancini.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1661. All the morning at the office, dined at home and my brother Tom (age 27) with me, who brought me a pair of fine slippers which he gave me. By and by comes little Luellin and friend to see me, and then my coz Stradwick, who was never here before. With them I drank a bottle of wine or two, and to the office again, and there staid about business late, and then all of us to Sir W. Pen's (age 39), where we had, and my Lady Batten, Mrs. Martha, and my wife, and other company, a good supper, and sat playing at cards and talking till 12 at night, and so all to our lodgings.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1661. To Westminster by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 39), and in our way saw the city begin to build scaffolds against the Coronacion. To my Lord, and there found him out of doors. So to the Hall and called for some caps that I have a making there, and here met with Mr. Hawley, and with him to Will's and drank, and then by coach with Mr. Langley our old friend into the city. I set him down by the way, and I home and there staid all day within, having found Mr. Moore, who staid with me till late at night talking and reading some good books. Then he went away, and I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1661. After dinner by water to the office, and there Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I met and did business all the afternoon, and then I got him to my house and eat a lobster together, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1661. Sir Wm. Pen (age 39) and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 35) by coach in the morning to see him, but he takes physic to-day and so we could not see him. So he went away, and I with Luellin to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cockpit [Map], where he did lie of old, and there we drank, and from thence to W. Symons where we found him abroad, but she, like a good lady, within, and there we did eat some nettle porrige, which was made on purpose to-day for some of their coming, and was very good. With her we sat a good while, merry in discourse, and so away, Luellin and I to my Lord's, and there dined. He told me one of the prettiest stories, how Mr. Blurton, his friend that was with him at my house three or four days ago, did go with him the same day from my house to the Fleet tavern by Guildhall [Map], and there (by some pretence) got the mistress of the house into their company, and by and by Luellin calling him Doctor she thought that he really was so, and did privately discover her disease to him, which was only some ordinary infirmity belonging to women, and he proffering her physic, she desired him to come some day and bring it, which he did.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1661. Capt. Cuttance and I walked from Redriffe [Map] to Deptford, where I found both Sir Williams and Sir G. Carteret (age 51) at Mr. Uthwayt's, and there we dined, and notwithstanding my resolution, yet for want of other victualls, I did eat flesh this Lent, but am resolved to eat as little as I can. After dinner we went to Captain Bodilaw's, and there made sale of many old stores by the candle, and good sport it was to see how from a small matter bid at first they would come to double and treble the price of things. After that Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I and my Lady Batten and her daughter by land to Redriffe [Map], staying a little at halfway house, and when we came to take boat, found Sir George, &c., to have staid with the barge a great while for us, which troubled us.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1661. With Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Pen (age 39) to Mr. Coventry's (age 33), and there had a dispute about my claim to the place of Purveyor of Petty-provisions, and at last to my content did conclude to have my hand to all the bills for these provisions and Mr. Turner to purvey them, because I would not have him to lose the place. Then to my Lord's, and so with Mr. Creed to an alehouse, where he told me a long story of his amours at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to one of Mrs. Boat's daughters, which was very pleasant. Dined with my Lord and Lady, and so with Mr. Creed to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "King and no King", well acted. Thence with him to the Cock alehouse at Temple Bar, where he did ask my advice about his amours, and I did give him it, which was to enquire into the condition of his competitor, who is a son of Mr. Gauden's, and that I promised to do for him, and he to make (what) use he can of it to his advantage. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1661. Early at Sir Wm. Pen's (age 39), and there before Mr. Turner did reconcile the business of the purveyance between us two. Then to Whitehall to my Lord's, and dined with him, and so to Whitefriars and saw "The Spanish Curate", in which I had no great content. So home, and was very much troubled that Will. staid out late, and went to bed early, intending not to let him come in, but by and by he comes and I did let him in, and he did tell me that he was at Guildhall [Map] helping to pay off the seamen, and cast the books late. Which since I found to be true. So to sleep, being in bed when he came.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1661. That done to White Hall to Mr. Coventry (age 33), where I did some business with him, and so with Sir W. Pen (age 39) (who I found with Mr. Coventry (age 33) teaching of him upon the map to understand Jamaica1). By water in the dark home, and so to my Lady Batten's where my wife was, and there we sat and eat and drank till very late, and so home to bed. The great talk of the town is the strange election that the City of London made yesterday for Parliament-men; viz. Fowke, Love, Jones, and... men that are so far from being episcopall that they are thought to be Anabaptists; and chosen with a great deal of zeal, in spite of the other party that thought themselves very strong, calling out in the Hall, "No Bishops! no Lord Bishops!" It do make people to fear it may come to worse, by being an example to the country to do the same. And indeed the Bishops are so high, that very few do love them.

Note 1. Sir William Pen (age 39) was well fitted to give this information, as it was he who took the island from the Spaniards in 1655.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1661. This day I saw the Florence Ambassador go to his audience, the weather very foul, and yet he and his company very gallant. After I was a-bed Sir W. Pen (age 39) sent to desire me to go with him to-morrow morning to meet Sir W. Batten (age 60) coming from Rochester, Kent [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1661. This morning I rose early, and my Lady Batten knocked at her door that comes into one of my chambers, and called me to know whether I and my wife were ready to go. So my wife got her ready, and about eight o'clock I got a horseback, and my Lady and her two daughters, and Sir W. Pen (age 39) into coach, and so over London Bridge, and thence to Dartford. The day very pleasant, though the way bad. Here we met with Sir W. Batten (age 60), and some company along with him, who had assisted him in his election at Rochester, Kent [Map]; and so we dined and were very merry.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1661. At last we made Mingo, Sir W. Batten's (age 60) black, and Jack, Sir W. Pen's (age 39), dance, and it was strange how the first did dance with a great deal of seeming skill. Home, where I found my wife all day in her chamber. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1661. Up among my workmen with great pleasure. Then to the office, where I found Sir W. Pen (age 39) sent down yesterday to Chatham, Kent [Map] to get two great ships in readiness presently to go to the East Indies upon some design against the Dutch, we think, at Goa but it is a great secret yet. Dined at home, came Mr. Shepley and Moore, and did business with both of them. After that to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), where great store of company at dinner. Among others my schoolfellow, Mr. Christmas, where very merry, and hither came letters from above for the fitting of two other ships for the East Indies in all haste, and so we got orders presently for the Hampshire and Nonsuch. Then home and there put some papers in order, and not knowing what to do, the house being so dirty, I went to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1661. Then to the Privy Seal, and signed some things, and so to White-fryars and saw "The Little Thiefe", which is a very merry and pretty play, and the little boy do very well. Then to my Father's, where I found my mother and my wife in a very good mood, and so left them and went home. Then to the Dolphin to Sir W. Batten (age 60), and Pen (age 39), and other company; among others Mr. Delabar; where strange how these men, who at other times are all wise men, do now, in their drink, betwitt and reproach one another with their former conditions, and their actions as in public concernments, till I was ashamed to see it. But parted all friends at 12 at night after drinking a great deal of wine. So home and alone to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Apr 1661. Up among my workmen, my head akeing all day from last night's debauch. To the office all the morning, and at noon dined with Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Pen (age 39), who would needs have me drink two drafts of sack to-day to cure me of last night's disease, which I thought strange but I think find it true1.

Note 1. The proverb, "A hair of the dog that bit you", which probably had originally a literal meaning, has long been used to inculcate the advice of the two Sir Williams.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1661. Up among my workmen and so to the office, and then to Sir W. Pen's (age 39) with the other Sir William and Sir John Lawson (age 46) to dinner, and after that, with them to Mr. Lucy's, a merchant, where much good company, and there drank a great deal of wine, and in discourse fell to talk of the weight of people, which did occasion some wagers, and where, among others, I won half a piece to be spent. Then home, and at night to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and there very merry with a good barrell of oysters, and this is the present life I lead. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1661. To Whitehall by water from Towre-wharf, where we could not pass the ordinary way, because they were mending of the great stone steps against the Coronacion. With Sir W. Pen (age 39), then to my Lord's, and thence with Capt. Cuttance and Capt. Clark to drink our morning draught together, and before we could get back again my Lord was gone out.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1661. That done to my Lord's and dined there, and so by water with parson Turner towards London, and upon my telling of him of Mr. Moore to be a fit man to do his business with Bishop Wren (age 75), about which he was going, he went back out of my boat into another to Whitehall, and so I forwards home and there by and by took coach with Sir W. Pen (age 39) and Captain Terne and went to the buriall of Captain Robert Blake, at Wapping, and there had each of us a ring, but it being dirty, we would not go to church with them, but with our coach we returned home, and there staid a little, and then he and I alone to the Dolphin (Sir W. Batten (age 60) being this day gone with his wife to Walthamstow [Map] to keep Easter), and there had a supper by ourselves, we both being very hungry, and staying there late drinking I became very sleepy, and so we went home and I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1661. Up with my workmen and then about 9 o'clock took horse with both the Sir Williams for Walthamstow [Map], and there we found my Lady and her daughters all; and a pleasant day it was, and all things else, but that my Lady was in a bad mood, which we were troubled at, and had she been noble she would not have been so with her servants, when we came thither, and this Sir W. Pen (age 39) took notice of, as well as I After dinner we all went to the Church stile, and there eat and drank, and I was as merry as I could counterfeit myself to be.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1661. Then, it raining hard, we left Sir W. Batten (age 60), and we two returned and called at Mr.--and drank some brave wine there, and then homewards again and in our way met with two country fellows upon one horse, which I did, without much ado, give the way to, but Sir W. Pen (age 39) would not, but struck them and they him, and so passed away, but they giving him some high words, he went back again and struck them off their horse, in a simple fury, and without much honour, in my mind, and so came away. Home, and I sat with him a good while talking, and then home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1661. The Duke (age 27) comes; and after he had told us that the fleet was designed for Algier (which was kept from us till now), we did advise about many things as to the fitting of the fleet, and so went away. And from thence to the Privy Seal, where little to do, and after that took Mr. Creed and Moore and gave them their morning draught, and after that to my Lord's, where Sir W. Pen (age 39) came to me, and dined with my Lord. After dinner he and others that dined there went away, and then my Lord looked upon his pages' and footmen's liverys, which are come home to-day, and will be handsome, though not gaudy.

Coronation of Charles II

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. KING'S GOING FROM YE TOWER TO WHITE HALL1. Up early and made myself as fine as I could, and put on my velvet coat, the first day that I put it on, though made half a year ago. And being ready, Sir W. Batten (age 60), my Lady, and his two daughters and his son and wife, and Sir W. Pen (age 39) and his son and I, went to Mr. Young's, the flag-maker, in Corne-hill2; and there we had a good room to ourselves, with wine and good cake, and saw the show very well.

Note 1. The king in the early morning of the 22nd went from Whitehall to the Tower by water, so that he might proceed from thence through the City to Westminster Abbey, there to be crowned.

Note 2. The members of the Navy Office appear to have chosen Mr. Young's house on account of its nearness to the second triumphal arch, situated near the Royal Exchange [Map], which was dedicated to the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1661. So I went out of the office to Whitehall presently, and there spoke with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Sir George Carteret (age 51) and had their advice as to my going, and so back again home, where I directed Mr. Hater what to do in order to our going to-morrow, and so back again by coach to Whitehall and there eat something in the buttery at my Lord's with John Goods and Ned Osgood.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1661. And so home again, and gave order to my workmen what to do in my absence. At night to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and by his and Sir W. Pen's (age 40) persuasion I sent for my wife from my father's, who came to us to Mrs. Turner's (age 38), where we were all at a collacion to-night till twelve o'clock, there being a gentlewoman there that did play well and sang well to the Harpsicon, and very merry we were. So home and to bed, where my wife had not lain a great while.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1661. Then to the office, where I found Sir Williams both, choosing of masters for the new fleet of ships that is ordered to be set forth, and Pen (age 40) seeming to be in an ugly humour, not willing to gratify one that I mentioned to be put in, did vex me. We sat late, and so home. Mr. Moore came to me when I was going to bed, and sat with me a good while talking about my Lord's business and our own and so good night.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1661. By water to the office, and there sat late, Sir George Carteret (age 51) coming in, who among other things did inquire into the naming of the maisters for this fleet, and was very angry that they were named as they are, and above all to see the maister of the Adventure (for whom there is some kind of difference between Sir W. Pen (age 40) and me) turned out, who has been in her list.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1661. Then to the Mitre [Map] with Mr. Shepley, and there dined with D. Rawlinson and some friends of his very well. So home, and then to Cheapside about buying a piece of plate to give away to-morrow to Mrs. Browne's child. So to the Star in Cheapside, where I left Mr. Moore telling £5 out for me, who I found in a great strait for my coming back again, and so he went his way at my coming. Then home, where Mr. Cook I met and he paid me 30s., an old debt of his to me. So to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), and there sat alone with him till ten at night in talk with great content, he telling me things and persons that I did not understand in the late times, and so I home to bed. My cozen John Holcroft (whom I have not seen many years) this morning came to see me.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1661. Back to dinner to Sir William Batten's (age 60); and then, after a walk in the fine gardens, we went to Mrs. Browne's, where Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I were godfathers, and Mrs. Jordan and Shipman godmothers to her boy. And there, before and after the christening; we were with the woman above in her chamber; but whether we carried ourselves well or ill, I know not; but I was directed by young Mrs. Batten. One passage of a lady that eat wafers with her dog did a little displease me. I did give the midwife 10s. and the nurse 5s. and the maid of the house 2s. But for as much I expected to give the name to the child, but did not (it being called John), I forbore then to give my plate till another time after a little more advice.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1661. All being done, we went to Mrs. Shipman's, who is a great butter-woman, and I did see there the most of milk and cream, and the cleanest that ever I saw in my life. After we had filled our bellies with cream, we took our leaves and away. In our way, we had great sport to try who should drive fastest, Sir W. Batten's (age 60) coach, or Sir W. Pen's (age 40) chariott, they having four, and we two horses, and we beat them. But it cost me the spoiling of my clothes and velvet coat with dirt. Being come home I to bed, and give my breeches to be dried by the fire against to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1661. King's Birthday. Rose early and having made myself fine, and put six spoons and a porringer of silver in my pocket to give away to-day, Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I took coach, and (the weather and ways being foul) went to Walthamstow [Map]; and being come there heard Mr. Radcliffe, my former school fellow at Paul's (who is yet a mere boy), preach upon "Nay, let him take all, since my Lord the King is returned", &c. He reads all, and his sermon very simple, but I looked for new matter.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1661. Having taken our leaves of Sir W. Batten (age 60) and my Lady, who are gone this morning to keep their Whitsuntide, Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I and Mr. Gauden by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there went from ship to ship to give order for and take notice of their forwardness to go forth, and then to Deptford, Kent [Map] and did the like, having dined at Woolwich, Kent [Map] with Captain Poole at the tavern there.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1661. So home Sir William and I, and it being very hot weather I took my flageolette and played upon the leads in the garden, where Sir W. Pen (age 40) came out in his shirt into his leads, and there we staid talking and singing, and drinking great drafts of claret, and eating botargo1 and bread and butter till 12 at night, it being moonshine; and so to bed, very near fuddled.

Note 1. "Botarga. The roe of the mullet pressed flat and dried; that of commerce, however, is from the tunny, a large fish of passage which is common in the Mediterranean. The best kind comes from Tunis". -Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book. Botargo was chiefly used to promote drinking by causing thirst, and Rabelais makes Gargantua eat it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1661. This morning did give my wife £4 to lay out upon lace and other things for herself. I to Wardrobe and so to Whitehall and Westminster, where I dined with my Lord and Ned Dickering alone at his lodgings. After dinner to the office, where we sat and did business, and Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I went home with Sir R. Slingsby (age 50) to bowls in his ally, and there had good sport, and afterwards went in and drank and talked.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1661. Visited this morning by my old friend Mr. Ch. Carter, who staid and went to Westminster with me, and there we parted, and I to the Wardrobe and dined with my Lady. So home to my painters, who are now about painting my stairs. So to the office, and at night we all went to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), and there sat and drank till 11 at night, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1661. Lord's Day. In the morning to church, and my wife not being well, I went with Sir W. Batten (age 60) home to dinner, my Lady being out of town, where there was Sir W. Pen (age 40), Captain Allen and his daughter Rebecca, and Mr. Hempson and his wife. After dinner to church all of us and had a very good sermon of a stranger, and so I and the young company to walk first to Graye's Inn Walks, where great store of gallants, but above all the ladies that I there saw, or ever did see, Mrs. Frances Butler (Monsieur L'Impertinent's sister) is the greatest beauty. Then we went to Islington [Map], where at the great house I entertained them as well as I could, and so home with them, and so to my own home and to bed. Pall, who went this day to a child's christening of Kate Joyce's, staid out all night at my father's, she not being well.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1661. So back and to the office, and there sat till 7 at night, and then Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I in his coach went to Moorefields, and there walked, and stood and saw the wrestling, which I never saw so much of before, between the north and west countrymen.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1661. Put on my mourning. Made visits to Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Batten. Then to Westminster, and at the Hall staid talking with Mrs. Michell a good while, and in the afternoon, finding myself unfit for business, I went to the Theatre [Map], and saw "Brenoralt", I never saw before. It seemed a good play, but ill acted; only I sat before Mrs. Palmer (age 20), the King's mistress, and filled my eyes with her, which much pleased me.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1661. Lord's Day. This morning as my wife and I were going to church, comes Mrs. Ramsay to see us, so we sent her to church, and we went too, and came back to dinner, and she dined with us and was wellcome. To church again in the afternoon, and then come home with us Sir W. Pen (age 40), and drank with us, and then went away, and my wife after him to see his [his daughter] daughter (age 10) that is lately come out of Ireland.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1661. So I went to my Lady's and dined with her, and found my Lord Hinchingbroke somewhat better. After dinner Captain Ferrers and I to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "The Alchymist" and there I saw Sir W. Pen (age 40), who took us when the play was done and carried the Captain to Paul's and set him down, and me home with him, and he and I to the Dolphin, but not finding Sir W. Batten (age 60) there, we went and carried a bottle of wine to his house, and there sat a while and talked, and so home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I, waited upon the Duke of York (age 27) in his chamber, to give him an account of the condition of the Navy for lack of money, and how our own very bills are offered upon the Exchange [Map], to be sold at 20 in the 100 loss. He is much troubled at it, and will speak to the King and Council of it this morning.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1661. Thence to the Opera, which begins again to-day with "The Witts", never acted yet with scenes; and the King and Duke (age 27) and Duchess (age 24) were there (who dined to-day with Sir H. Finch (age 39), reader at the Temple [Map], in great state); and indeed it is a most excellent play, and admirable scenes. So home and was overtaken by Sir W. Pen (age 40) in his coach, who has been this afternoon with my Lady Batten, &c., at the Theatre [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1661. To the Privy Seal and Whitehall, up and down, and at noon Sir W. Pen (age 40) carried me to Paul's, and so I walked to the Wardrobe and dined with my Lady, and there told her, of my Lord's sickness (of which though it hath been the town-talk this fortnight, she had heard nothing) and recovery, of which she was glad, though hardly persuaded of the latter. I found my Lord Hinchingbroke better and better, and the worst past.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1661. At home all the morning setting papers in order. At noon to the Exchange [Map], and there met with Dr. Williams by appointment, and with him went up and down to look for an attorney, a friend of his, to advise with about our bond of my aunt Pepys of £200, and he tells me absolutely that we shall not be forced to pay interest for the money yet. I do doubt it very much. I spent the whole afternoon drinking with him and so home. This day I counterfeited a letter to Sir W. Pen (age 40), as from the thief that stole his tankard lately, only to abuse and laugh at him.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1661. After dinner to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), where I found Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Captain Holmes. Here we were very merry with Sir W. Pen (age 40) about the loss of his tankard, though all be but a cheat, and he do not yet understand it; but the tankard was stole by Sir W. Batten (age 60), and the letter, as from the thief, wrote by me, which makes: very good sport. Here I staid all the afternoon, and then Captain Holmes and I by coach to White Hall; in our way, I found him by discourse, to be a great friend of my Lord's, and he told me there was many did seek to remove him; but they were old seamen, such as Sir J. Minnes (age 62) (but he would name no more, though I do believe Sir W. Batten (age 60) is one of them that do envy him), but he says he knows that the King do so love him, and the Duke of York (age 27) too, that there is no fear of him. He seems to be very well acquainted with the King's mind, and with all the several factions at Court, and spoke all with so much frankness, that I do take him to be my Lord's good friend, and one able to do him great service, being a cunning fellow, and one (by his own confession to me) that can put on two several faces, and look his enemies in the face with as much love as his friends.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1661. So to bed. This night I sent another letter to Sir W. Pen (age 40) to offer him the return of his tankard upon his leaving of 30s. at a place where it should be brought. The issue of which I am to expect.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1661. Then I home to dinner all alone, and thence my mind being for my wife's going abroad much troubled and unfit for business, I went to the Theatre [Map], and saw "Elder Brother" ill acted; that done, meeting here with Sir G. Askew, Sir Theophilus Jones, and another Knight, with Sir W. Pen (age 40), we to the Ship tavern, and there staid and were merry till late at night, and so got a coach, and Sir Wm. and I home, where my wife had been long come home, but I seemed very angry, as indeed I am, and did not all night show her any countenance, neither before nor in bed, and so slept and rose discontented.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1661. Thence home, and found Sir Williams both and much more company gone to the Dolphin to drink the 30s. that we got the other day of Sir W. Pen (age 40) about his tankard. Here was Sir R. Slingsby (age 50), Holmes, Captn. Allen, Mr. Turner, his wife and daughter, my Lady Batten, and Mrs. Martha, &c., and an excellent company of fiddlers; so we exceeding merry till late; and then we begun to tell Sir W. Pen (age 40) the business, but he had been drinking to-day, and so is almost gone, that we could not make him understand it, which caused us more sport. But so much the better, for I believe when he do come to understand it he will be angry, he has so talked of the business himself and the letter up and down that he will be ashamed to be found abused in it. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1661. From thence to Dr. Williams (at the little blind alehouse in Shoe Lane, Fleet Street, at the Gridiron, a place I am ashamed to be seen to go into), and there with some bland counsel of his we discuss our matters, but I find men of so different minds that by my troth I know not what to trust to. It being late I took leave, and by link home and called at Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and there hear that Sir W. Pen (age 40) do take our jest of the tankard very ill, which Pam sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1661. This morning I was busy at home to take in my part of our freight of Coles, which Sir G. Carteret (age 51), Sir R. Slingsby (age 50), and myself sent for, which is 10 Chaldron, 8 of which I took in, and with the other to repay Sir W. Pen (age 40) what I borrowed of him a little while ago. So that from this day I should see how long 10 chaldron of coals will serve my house, if it please the Lord to let me live to see them burned.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1661. By coach with Sir W. Pen (age 40) to Covent Garden [Map]. By the way, upon my desire, he told me that I need not fear any reflection upon my Lord for their ill success at Argier, for more could not be done than was done. I went to my cozen, Thos. Pepys, there, and talked with him a good while about our country business, who is troubled at my uncle Thomas his folly, and so we parted; and then meeting Sir R. Slingsby (age 50) in St. Martin's Lane, he and I in his coach through the Mewes, which is the way that now all coaches are forced to go, because of a stop at Charing Cross, by reason of a drain there to clear the streets. To Whitehall, and there to Mr. Coventry (age 33), and talked with him, and thence to my Lord Crew's and dined with him, where I was used with all imaginable kindness both from him and her. And I see that he is afraid that my Lord's reputacon will a little suffer in common talk by this late success; but there is no help for it now. The Queen (age 22) of England (as she is now owned and called) I hear doth keep open Court, and distinct at Lisbon. Hence, much against my nature and will, yet such is the power of the Devil over me I could not refuse it, to the Theatre [Map], and saw "The Merry Wives of Windsor", ill done. And that ended, with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Sir G. More to the tavern, and so home with him by coach, and after supper to prayers and to bed. In full quiet of mind as to thought, though full of business, blessed be God.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1661. At the office in the morning, dined at home, and then Sir W. Pen (age 40) and his daughter and I and my wife to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "Father's own Son", a very good play, and the first time I ever saw it, and so at night to my house, and there sat and talked and drank and merrily broke up, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Sep 1661. Lord's Day. To church in the morning, and so to dinner, and Sir W. Pen (age 40) and daughter, and Mrs. Poole, his kinswoman, Captain Poole's wife, came by appointment to dinner with us, and a good dinner we had for them, and were very merry, and so to church again, and then to Sir W. Pen's (age 40) and there supped, where his brother, a traveller, and one that speaks Spanish very well, and a merry man, supped with us, and what at dinner and supper I drink I know not how, of my own accord, so much wine, that I was even almost foxed, and my head aked all night; so home and to bed, without prayers, which I never did yet, since I came to the house, of a Sunday night: I being now so out of order that I durst not read prayers, for fear of being perceived by my servants in what case I was. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Oct 1661. By coach to White Hall with Sir W. Pen (age 40). So to Mr. Montagu, where his man, Mons. Eschar, makes a great com plaint against the English, that they did help the Spaniards against the French the other day; and that their Embassador do demand justice of our King, and that he do resolve to be gone for France the next week; which I, and all that I met with, are very glad of. Thence to Paternoster Row [Map], where my Will did receive the £50 I borrowed yesterday. I to the Wardrobe to dinner, and there staid most of the afternoon very merry with the ladies. Then Captain Ferrers and I to the Theatre [Map], and there came too late, so we staid and saw a bit of "Victoria", which pleased me worse than it did the other day. So we staid not to see it out, but went out and drank a bottle or two of China ale, and so home, where I found my wife vexed at her people for grumbling to eat Suffolk cheese, which I also am vexed at. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning, then dined at home, and so staid at home all the afternoon putting up my Lord's model of the Royal James, which I borrowed of him long ago to hang up in my room. And at night Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I alone to the Dolphin, and there eat some bloat-herrings1 and drank good sack. Then came in Sir W. Warren and another and staid a while with us, and then Sir Arnold Brames, with whom we staid late and till we had drank too much wine. So home and I to bed pleased at my afternoon's work in hanging up the shipp. So to bed.

Note 1. To bloat is to dry by smoke, a method chiefly used to cure herrings or bloaters. "I have more smoke in my mouth than would blote a hundred herrings".-Beaumont and Fletcher, Island Princess. "Why, you stink like so many bloat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney".-Ben Jonson, "Masque of Augurs"..

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1661. So home, and in the evening I went to my Valentine, her father and mother being out of town, to fetch her to supper to my house, and then came Sir W. Pen (age 40) and would have her to his, so with much sport I got them all to mine, and we were merry, and so broke up and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner Sir W. Pen (age 40) and my wife and I to the Theatre [Map] (she first going into Covent Garden [Map] to speak a word with a woman to enquire of her mother, and I in the meantime with Sir W. Pen's (age 40) coach staying at W. Joyce's), where the King came to-day, and there was "The Traytor" most admirably acted; and a most excellent play it is. So home, and intended to be merry, it being my sixth wedding night; but by a late bruise.... I am in so much pain that I eat my supper and in pain to bed, yet my wife and I pretty merry.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 33), who sat with us all the morning, and Sir G. Carteret (age 51), Sir W. Pen (age 40), and myself, by coach to Captain Marshe's, at Limehouse [Map], to a house that hath been their ancestors for this 250 years, close by the lime-house which gives the name to the place. Here they have a design to get the King to hire a dock for the herring busses, which is now the great design on foot, to lie up in. We had a very good and handsome dinner, and excellent wine. I not being neat in clothes, which I find a great fault in me, could not be so merry as otherwise, and at all times I am and can be, when I am in good habitt, which makes me remember my father Osborne's' rule for a gentleman to spare in all things rather than in that. So by coach home, and so to write letters by post, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1661. At Whitehall, at the Privy Seal, did with Sir W. Pen (age 40) take advice about passing of things of his there that concern his matters of Ireland. Thence to the Wardrobe and dined, and so against my judgment and conscience (which God forgive, for my very heart knows that I offend God in breaking my vows herein) to the Opera, which is now newly begun to act again, after some alteracion of their scene, which do make it very much worse; but the play, "Love and Honour", being the first time of their acting it, is a very good plot, and well done.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1661. To Whitehall, and there, to drink our morning, Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I to a friend's lodging of his (Col. Pr. Swell), and at noon he and I dined together alone at the Legg in King Street, and so by coach to Chelsy to my Lord Privy Seal's (age 55) about business of Sir William's, in which we had a fair admittance to talk with my Lord, and had his answer, and so back to the Opera, and there I saw again "Love and Honour", and a very good play it is.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1661. So at the office all the morning, and in the afternoon Sir W. Pen (age 40), my wife and I to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "The Country Captain", the first time it hath been acted this twenty-five years, a play of my Lord Newcastle's (age 68), but so silly a play as in all my life I never saw, and the first that ever I was weary of in my life.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1661. This morning Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I should have gone out of town with my Lady Batten, to have met Sir William coming back from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; at Kingston, but could not, by reason that my Lord of Peterborough (age 39) (who is to go Governor of Tangier) came this morning, with Sir G. Carteret (age 51), to advise with us about completing of the affairs and preparacions for that place.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Nov 1661. I went this morning with Sir W. Pen (age 40) by coach to Westminster, and having done my business at Mr. Montagu's, I went back to him at Whitehall, and from thence with him to the 3 Tun Tavern, at Charing Cross, and there sent for up the maister of the house's dinner, and dined very well upon it, and afterwards had him and his fayre sister (who is very great with Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Sir W. Pen (age 40) in mirth) up to us, and looked over some medals that they shewed us of theirs; and so went away to the Theatre [Map], to "The Joviall Crew", and from hence home, and at my house we were very merry till late, having sent for his son, [his son] Mr. William Pen (age 17)1, lately come from Oxford. And after supper parted, and to bed.

Note 1. The celebrated Quaker, and founder of Pennsylvania.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1661. At the office all the morning; where Sir John Minnes (age 62), our new Comptroller, was fetched by Sir Wm. Pen (age 40) and myself from Sir Wm. Batten's, and led to his place in the office. The first time that he had come hither, and he seems a good fair condition man, and one that I am glad hath the office. After the office done, I to the Wardrobe, and there dined, and in the afternoon had an hour or two's talk with my Lady with great pleasure. And so with the two young ladies by coach to my house, and gave them some entertainment, and so late at night sent them home with Captain Ferrers by coach.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1661. In the morning, being very rainy, by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and my wife to Whitehall, and sent her to Mrs. Bunt's, and he and I to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) about business, and so sent for her again, and all three home again, only I to the Mitre (Mr. Rawlinson's (age 47)), where Mr. Pierce, the Purser, had got us a most brave chine of beef, and a dish of marrowbones. Our company my uncle Wight, Captain Lambert, one Captain Davies, and purser Barter, Mr. Rawlinson (age 47), and ourselves; and very merry. After dinner I took coach, and called my wife at my brother's, where I left her, and to the Opera, where we saw "The Bondman", which of old we both did so doat on, and do still; though to both our thinking not so well acted here (having too great expectations), as formerly at Salisbury-court. But for Betterton (age 26) he is called by us both the best actor in the world. So home by coach, I lighting by the way at my uncle Wight's and staid there a little, and so home after my wife, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1661. At the office all the morning. At noon comes my brother Tom (age 27) and Mr. Armiger to dine with me, and did, and we were very merry. After dinner, I having drunk a great deal of wine, I went away, seeming to go about business with Sir W. Pen (age 40), to my Lady Batten's (Sir William being at Chatham, Kent [Map]), and there sat a good while, and then went away (before I went I called at home to see whether they were gone, and found them there, and Armiger inviting my wife to go to a play, and like a fool would be courting her, but he is an ass, and lays out money with Tom, otherwise I should not think him worth half this respect I shew him). To the Dolphin, where he and I and Captain Cocke sat late and drank much, seeing the boys in the streets flying their crackers, this day being kept all the day very strictly in the City. At last broke up, and called at my Lady Batten's again and would have gone to cards, but Sir W. Pen (age 40) was so fuddled that we could not try him to play, and therefore we parted, and I home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1661. At the office all the morning. Dined at home alone. So abroad with Sir W. Pen (age 40). My wife and I to "Bartholomew Fayre", with puppets which I had seen once before, and at play without puppets often, but though I love the play as much as ever I did, yet I do not like the puppets at all, but think it to be a lessening to it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1661. So home, and by and by comes my uncle Wight and my aunt and Mr. Norbury and his lady, and we drank hard and were very merry till supper time, and then we parted, my wife and I being invited to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), where we also were very merry, and so home to prayers and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1661. Lord's Day. To our own church, and at noon, by invitation, Sir W. Pen (age 40) dined with me, and I took Mrs. Hester, my Lady Batten's kinswoman, to dinner from church with me, and we were very merry. So to church again, and heard a simple fellow upon the praise of Church musique, and exclaiming against men's wearing their hats on in the church, but I slept part of the sermon, till latter prayer and blessing and all was done without waking which I never did in my life.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1661. By coach with Sir W. Pen (age 40); my wife and I toward Westminster, but seeing Mr. Moore in the street I light and he and I went to Mr. Battersby's the minister, in my way I putting in at St. Paul's, where I saw the quiristers in their surplices going to prayers, and a few idle poor people and boys to hear them, which is the first time I have seen them, and am sorry to see things done so out of order, and there I received £50 more, which make up £100 that I now have borrowed of him, and so I did burn the old bond for £50, and paying him the use of it did make a new bond for the whole £100.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1661. By and by Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Cock, after drinking a good deal of wine, went away, and Sir W. Pen (age 40) staid with my wife and I to supper, very pleasant, and so good night. This day I have a chine of beef sent home, which I bespoke to send, and did send it as a present to my uncle Wight.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1661. At noon, at the rising of the House, I met with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Major General Massy1, who I find by discourse to be a very ingenious man, and among other things a great master in the secresys of powder and fireworks, and another knight to dinner, at the Swan [Map], in the Palace yard, and our meat brought from the Legg; and after dinner Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "The Country Captain", a dull play, and that being done, I left him with his Torys2 and went to the Opera, and saw the last act of "The Bondman", and there found Mr. Sanchy and Mrs. Mary Archer, sister to the fair Betty, whom I did admire at Cambridge, and thence took them to the Fleece in Covent Garden [Map], there to bid good night to Sir W. Pen (age 40) who staid for me; but Mr. Sanchy could not by any argument get his lady to trust herself with him into the tavern, which he was much troubled at, and so we returned immediately into the city by coach, and at the Mitre in Cheapside there light and drank, and then yet her at her uncle's in the Old Jewry.

Note 1. Major-General Edward Massey (or Massie), son of John Massie, was captain of one of the foot companies of the Irish Expedition, and had Oliver Cromwell as his ensign (see Peacock's "Army Lists in 1642", p. 65). He was Governor of Gloucester in its obstinate defence against the royal forces, 1643; dismissed by the self- denying ordinance when he entered Charles II's service. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, September 3rd, 1651, but escaped abroad.

Note 2. This is a strange use of the word Tory, and an early one also. The word originally meant bogtrotters or wild Irish, and as Penn was Governor of Kildare these may have been some of his Irish followers. The term was not used politically until about 1679.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1661. So to a tavern at the end of Mark Lane [Map], and there we staid till with much ado we got a coach, and so to my Lord Treasurer's and lost our labours, then to the Chancellor's, and there met with Mr. Dugdale, and with him and one Mr. Simons, I think that belongs to my Lord Hatton, and Mr. Kipps and others, to the Fountain tavern, and there staid till twelve at night drinking and singing, Mr. Simons and one Mr. Agar singing very well. Then Mr. Gawdon being almost drunk had the wit to be gone, and so I took leave too, and it being a fine moonshine night he and I footed it all the way home, but though he was drunk he went such a pace as I did admire how he was able to go. When I came home I found our new maid Sarah1 come, who is a tall and a very well favoured wench, and one that I think will please us. So to bed.

Note 1. Sarah did not stay long with Mrs. Pepys, who was continually falling out with her. She left to enter Sir William Pen's (age 40) service.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1661. From thence Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I to the Theatre [Map], but it was so full that we could hardly get any room, so he went up to one of the boxes, and I into the 18d. places, and there saw "Love at First Sight", a play of Mr. Killigrew's (age 49), and the first time that it hath been acted since before the troubles, and great expectation there was, but I found the play to be a poor thing, and so I perceive every body else do.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1661. I am this day in very good health, only got a little cold. The Parliament has sat a pretty while. The old condemned judges of the late King have been brought before the Parliament, and like to be hanged. I am deep in Chancery against Tom Trice, God give a good issue; and myself under great trouble for my late great expending of money vainly, which God stop for the future. This is the last day for the old State's coyne1 to pass in common payments, but they say it is to pass in publique payments to the King (age 31) three months still.

Note 1. In a speech of Lord Lucas in the House of Lords, the 22nd February, 1670-1 (which speech was burnt by the common hangman), he thus adverted to that coin: "It is evident that there is scarcity of money; for all the parliament's money called breeches (a fit stamp for the coin of the Rump) is wholly vanished-the King's (age 31) proclamation and the Dutch have swept it all away, and of his now majesty's coin there appears but very little; so that in effect we have none left for common use, but a little old lean coined money of the late three former princes. And what supply is preparing for it, my lords? I hear of none, unless it be of copper farthings, and this is the metal that is to vindicate, according to the inscription on it, the dominion of the four seas".-Quoted in Penn's "Memorials of Sir Wm. Pen (age 40)n", ii. 264.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1661. To the Temple [Map], and thence to Mr. Phillips and got my copy of Sturtlow lands. So back to the 3 Tuns at Charing Cross, and there met the two Sir Williams and Col. Treswell and Mr. Falconer, and dined there at Sir W. Pen's (age 40) cost, and after dinner by water to Cheapside to the painter's (age 52), and there found my wife, and having sat a little she and I by coach to the Opera and Theatre, but coming too late to both, and myself being a little out of tune we returned, and I settled to read in "Mare Clausum" till bedtime, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1661. By and by came Sir W. Pen (age 40), and he and I staid while Sir W. Batten (age 60) went home to dinner, and then he came again, and Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I went and dined at my house, and had two mince pie sent thither by our order from the messenger Slater, that had dressed some victuals for us, and so we were very merry, and after dinner rode out in his coach, he to Whitehall, and my wife and I to the Opera, and saw "Hamlet" well performed. Thence to the Temple [Map] and Mrs. Turner's (age 38) (who continues still very ill), and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1661. So back to Sir G. Carteret's (age 51) and ended our business, and so away homewards, but Sir W. Batten (age 60) offering to go to the 3 Tuns at Charing Cross, where the pretty maid the daughter of the house is; I was saying that, that tickled Sir W. Pen (age 40), he seemed to take these words very captiously and angrily, which I saw, and seemed indifferent to go home in his coach with them, and so took leave to go to the Council Chamber to speak with my Lord Privy Seal, which I did, but they did stay for me, which I was pleased at, but no words passed between him and me in all our way home. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1661. Then came Mr. Moore, and he and I to Westminster and to Worcester House to see Mr. Montagu before he goes away (this night), but could not see him, nor do I think he has a mind to see us for fear of our demanding of money of him for anything. So back to Whitehall, and eat a bit of meat at Wilkinson's, and then to the Privy Seal, and sealed there the first time this month; and, among other things that passed, there was a patent for Roger Palmer (Madam Palmer's husband) to be Earl of Castlemaine and Baron of Limbricke in Ireland; but the honour is tied up to the males got of the body of this wife, the Lady Barbary: the reason whereof every body knows. That done, by water to the office, when I found Sir W. Pen (age 40) had been alone all the night and was just rose, and so I to him, and with him I found Captain Holmes, who had wrote his case, and gives me a copy, as he hath many among his friends, and presented the same to the King (age 31) and Council. Which I shall make use of in my attempt of writing something concerning the business of striking sail, which I am now about. But he do cry out against Sir John Minnes (age 62), as the veriest knave and rogue and coward in the world, which I was glad to hear, because he has given out bad words concerning my Lord, though I am sorry it is so. Here Captain Cox then came in, and he and I staid a good while and so good night. Home and wrote by the post to my father, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Dec 1661. So I went to see Sir W. Pen (age 40), who for this two or three days has not been well, and he and I after some talk took a coach and went to Moorfields [Map], and there walked, though it was very cold, an hour or two, and went into an alehouse, and there I drank some ale and eat some bread and cheese, but he would not eat a bit, and so being very merry we went home again. He to his lodgings and I by promise to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), where he and my lady have gone out of town, and so Mrs. Martha was at home alone, and Mrs. Moore and there I supped upon some good things left of yesterday's dinner there, where dined a great deal of company-Sir R. Browne and others-and by and by comes in Captain Cox who promised to be here with me, but he staid very late, and had been drinking somewhere and was very drunk, and so very capricious, which I was troubled to see in a man that I took for a very wise and wary man. So I home and left him there, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1661. From thence to Westminster to my Lord's house to meet my Lord Privy Seal (age 55), who appointed to seal there this afternoon, but by and by word is brought that he is come to Whitehall, and so we are fain to go thither to him, and there we staid to seal till it was so late that though I got leave to go away before he had done, yet the office was done before I could get thither, and so to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), and there sat and talked and drank with him, and so home.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1661. Lord's Day. To church in the morning, where our young Reader begun the first day to read. Sir W. Pen (age 40) dined with me and we were merry. Again to church and so home, and all alone read till bedtime, and so to prayers and to bed. I have been troubled this day about a difference between my wife and her maid Nell, who is a simple slut, and I am afeard we shall find her a cross-grained wench. I am now full of study about writing something about our making of strangers strike to us at sea; and so am altogether reading Selden and Grotius, and such other authors to that purpose.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1661. So back again to Westminster, and from thence by water to the Treasury Office, where I found Sir W. Pen (age 40) paying off the Sophia and Griffen, and there I staid with him till noon, and having sent for some collar of beef and a mince pie, we eat and drank, and so I left him there and to my brother's by appointment to meet Prior, but he came not, so I went and saw Mrs. Turner (age 38) who continues weak, and by and by word was brought me that Prior's man was come to Tom's, and so I went and told out £128 which I am to receive of him, but Prior not coming I went away and left the money by his desire with my brother all night, and they to come to me to-morrow morning.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Dec 1661. After dinner my wife comes up to me and all friends again, and she and I to walk upon the leads, and there Sir W. Pen (age 40) called us, and we went to his house and supped with him, but before supper Captain Cock came to us half drunk, and began to talk, but Sir W. Pen (age 40) knowing his humour and that there was no end of his talking, drinks four great glasses of wine to him, one after another, healths to the King (age 31), and by that means made him drunk, and so he went away, and so we sat down to supper, and were merry, and so after supper home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1661. This morning Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I to the Treasury office, and there we paid off the Amity (Captain Stokes's ship that was at Guinny) and another ship, and so home, and after dinner Sir William came to me, and he and his son and Aaugliter, and I and my wife, by coach to Moorfields [Map] to walk; but it was most foul weather, and so we went into an alehouse and there eat some cakes and ale, and a washeallbowle1 woman and girl came to us and sung to us. And after all was done I called my boy (Wayneman) to us to eat some cake that was left, and the woman of the house told us that he had called for two cakes and a pot of ale for himself, at which I was angry, and am resolved to correct him for it. So home, and Sir W. Pen (age 40) and his son and daughter to supper to me to a good turkey, and were merry at cards, and so to bed.

Note 1. "The wenches with their wassall bowls About the streets are singing". -Wither's Christmas Carol. The old custom of carrying the wassail bowl from door to door, with songs and merriment, in Christmas week, is still observed in some of our rural districts. B.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1661. Here I met with Mr. Crumlum (and told him of my endeavour to get Stephens's Thesaurus for the school), and so home, and after dinner comes Mr. Faulconberge to see me, and at his desire I sent over for his kinsman Mr. Knightly, the merchant, and so he came over and sat and drank with us, and at his request I went over with him, and there I sat till the evening, and till both Mr. Knightly and Mr. Faulconberge (for whom I sent my boy to get a coach to carry him to Westminster) were both drunk, and so home, but better wine I never drank in all my life. So home, and finding my wife gone to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), I went thither, and there I sat and played at cards and supped, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Dec 1661. At home all the morning; and in the afternoon all of us at the office, upon a letter from the Duke (age 28) for the making up of a speedy estimate of all the debts of the Navy, which is put into good forwardness. I home and Sir W. Pen (age 40) to my house, who with his children staid playing cards late, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1661. Lord's Day. Long in bed with my wife, and though I had determined to go to dine with my wife at my Lady's, (chiefly to put off dining with Sir W. Pen (age 40) to-day because Holmes dined there), yet I could not get a coach time enough to go thither, and so I dined at home, and my brother Tom (age 27) with me, and then a coach came and I carried my wife to Westminster, and she went to see Mrs. Hunt, and I to the Abbey, and there meeting with Mr. Hooper, he took me in among the quire, and there I sang with them their service, and so that being done, I walked up and down till night for that Mr. Coventry (age 33) was not come to Whitehall since dinner again.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1661. At the office about this estimate and so with my wife and Sir W. Pen (age 40) to see our pictures, which do not much displease us, and so back again, and I staid at the Mitre, whither I had invited all my old acquaintance of the Exchequer to a good chine of beef, which with three barrels of oysters and three pullets, and plenty of wine and mirth, was our dinner, and there was about twelve of us, among others Mr. Bowyer, the old man, and Mr. Faulconberge, Shadwell, Taylor, Spicer, Woodruffe (who by reason of some friend that dined with him came to us after dinner), Servington, &c., and here I made them a foolish promise to give them one this day twelvemonth, and so for ever while I live, but I do not intend it.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1661. Mere I staid as long as I could keep them, and so home to Sir W. Pen (age 40), who with his children and my wife has been at a play to-day and saw "D'Ambois", which I never saw. Here we staid late at supper and playing at cards, and so home and

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1662. That done, Mr. W. Pen (age 40) came to me and he and I walked out, and to the Stacioner's, and looked over some pictures and traps for my house, and so home again to dinner, and by and by came the two young Pens, and after we had eat a barrel of oysters we went by coach to the play, and there saw it well acted, and a good play it is, only Diego the Sexton did overdo his part too much.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1662. From thence home, and they sat with us till late at night at cards very merry, but the jest was Mr. W. Pen (age 40) had left his sword in the coach, and so my boy and he run out after the coach, and by very great chance did at the Exchange [Map] meet with the coach and got his sword again.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1662. Waking this morning out of my sleep on a sudden, I did with my elbow hit my wife a great blow over her face and nose, which waked her with pain, at which I was sorry, and to sleep again. Up and went forth with Sir W. Pen (age 40) by coach towards Westminster, and in my way seeing that "The Spanish Curate" was acted today, I light and let him go alone, and I home again and sent to young Mr. Pen and his sister to go anon with my wife and I to the Theatre [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1662. After dinner by coach my wife and I home, and I to the office, and there till late, and then I and my wife to Sir W. Pen's (age 40) to cards and supper, and were merry, and much correspondence there has been between our two families all this Christmas. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1662. After dinner they set in to drinking, so that I would stay no longer, but went away home, and Captain Cock, who was quite drunk, comes after me, and there sat awhile and so away, and anon I went again after the company was gone, and sat and played at cards with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and his children, and so after supper home, and there I hear that my man Gull was gone to bed, and upon enquiry I hear that he did vomit before he went to bed, and complained his head ached, and thereupon though he was asleep I sent for him out of his bed, and he rose and came up to me, and I appeared very angry and did tax him with being drunk, and he told me that he had been with Mr. Southerne and Homewood at the Dolphin, and drank a quart of sack, but that his head did ache before he went out. But I do believe he has drunk too much, and so I did threaten him to bid his uncle dispose of him some other way, and sent him down to bed and do resolve to continue to be angry with him. So to bed to my wife, and told her what had passed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1662. Thence to dinner to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), it being a solemn feast day with him, his wedding day, and we had, besides a good chine of beef and other good cheer, eighteen mince pies in a dish, the number of the years that he hath been married, where Sir W. Batten (age 61) and his Lady, and daughter was, and Colonel Treswell and Major Holmes, who I perceive would fain get to be free and friends with my wife, but I shall prevent it, and she herself hath also a defyance against him.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1662. Long in bed, and then rose and went along with Sir W. Pen (age 40) on foot to Stepny to Mrs. Chappell's (who has the pretty boy to her son), and there met my wife and Sir W. Pen's (age 40) children all, and Mrs. Poole and her boy, and there dined and were very merry, and home again by coach and so to the office. In the afternoon and at night to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), there supped and played at cards with them and were merry, the children being to go all away to school again to-morrow. Thence home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1662. I rose and went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked up and down upon several businesses, and among others I met with Sir W. Pen (age 40), who told me that he had this morning heard Sir G. Carteret (age 52) extremely angry against my man Will that he is every other day with the Commissioners of Parliament at Westminster, and that his uncle was a rogue, and that he did tell his uncle every thing that passes at the office, and Sir William, though he loves the lad, did advise me to part with him, which did with this surprise mightily trouble me, though I was already angry with him, and so to the Wardrobe by water, and all the way did examine Will about the business, but did not tell him upon what score, but I find that the poor lad do suspect something.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1662. Then to dinner, and my wife to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), and so to the office again and sat till late; and so home, where I found Mr. Armiger below talking with my wife, but being offended with him for his leaving of my brother Tom (age 28) I shewed him no countenance, but did take notice of it to him plainly, and I perceive he was troubled at it, but I am glad I told him of it.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1662. At the office all the morning private with Sir G. Carteret (age 52) (who I expected something from about yesterday's business, but he said nothing), Sir W. Batten (age 61), and Sir W. Pen (age 40), about drawing; up an answer to several demands of my Lord Treasurer, and late at it till 2 o'clock.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1662. After dinner the Dean, my wife and I by Sir W. Pen's (age 40) coach left us, he to Whitehall, and my wife and I to visit Mrs. Pierce and thence Mrs. Turner (age 39), who continues very ill still, and The. is also fallen sick, which do trouble me for the poor mother. So home and to read, I being troubled to hear my wife rate though not without cause at her mayd Nell, who is a lazy slut. So to prayers and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1662. Lord's Day. To church, where a stranger made a very good sermon. At noon Sir W. Pen (age 40) and my good friend Dean Fuller (age 54), by appointment, and my wife's brother by chance, dined with me very merry and handsomely.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1662. This morning Sir Win. Batten (age 61) and Pen (age 40) and I did begin the examining the Treasurer's accounts, the first time ever he had passed in the office, which is very long, and we were all at it till noon, and then to dinner, he providing a fine dinner for us, and we eat it at Sir W. Batten's (age 61), where we were very merry, there being at table the Treasurer and we three, Mr. Wayth, Ferrer, Smith, Turner, and Mr. Morrice, the wine cooper, who this day did divide the two butts, which we four did send for, of sherry from Cales, and mine was put into a hogshead, and the vessel filled up with four gallons of Malaga wine, but what it will stand us in I know not: but it is the first great quantity of wine that I ever bought.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1662. Thence to supper with my wife to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), his daughter being come home to-day, not being very well, and so while we were at supper comes Mr. Moore with letters from my Lord Sandwich (age 36), speaking of his lying still at Tangier, looking for the fleet; which, we hope, is now in a good way thither.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1662. At home and the office all the morning. Walking in the garden to give the gardener directions what to do this year (for I intend to have the garden handsome), Sir W. Pen (age 40) came to me, and did break a business to me about removing his son from Oxford to Cambridge to some private college. I proposed Magdalene, but cannot name a tutor at present; but I shall think and write about it.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1662. So home to write letters by the post to-night, and then again to Sir W. Pen's (age 40) to cards, where very merry, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1662. Thence with Mr. Pett (age 51) to the Paynter's (age 53); and he likes our pictures very well, and so do I. Thence he and I to the Countess of Sandwich, to lead him to her to kiss her hands: and dined with her, and told her the news (which Sir W. Pen (age 40) told me to-day) that express is come from my Lord with letters, that by a great storm and tempest the mole of Argier is broken down, and many of their ships sunk into the mole. So that God Almighty hath now ended that unlucky business for us; which is very good news.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1662. This morning within till 11 o'clock, and then with Commissioner Pett (age 51) to the office; and he staid there writing, while I and Sir W. Pen (age 40) walked in the garden talking about his business of putting his son to Cambridge; and to that end I intend to write to-night to Dr. Fairebrother, to give me an account of Mr. Burton of Magdalene.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1662. Home and supped with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and played at cards with him, and so home and to bed, putting some cataplasm to my.... which begins to swell again.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1662. At noon Sir W. Pen (age 40) dined with me, and after dinner he and I and my wife to the Theatre [Map], and went in, but being very early we went out again to the next door, and drank some Rhenish wine and sugar, and so to the House again, and there saw "Rule a wife and have a wife" very well done. And here also I did look long upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), who, notwithstanding her late sickness, continues a great beauty.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1662. By and by, hearing that Mr. Turner was much troubled at what I do in the office, and do give ill words to Sir W. Pen (age 40) and others of me, I am much troubled in my mind, and so went to bed; not that I fear him at all, but the natural aptness I have to be troubled at any thing that crosses me.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1662. About 3 o'clock the colliers having done I went up to dinner (my wife having often urged me to come, but my mind is so set upon these things that I cannot but be with the workmen to see things done to my mind, which if I am not there is seldom done), and so to the office, and thence to talk with Sir W. Pen (age 40), walking in the dark in the garden some turns, he telling me of the ill management of our office, and how Wood the timber merchant and others were very knaves, which I am apt to believe.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1662. Then to dinner, and then came Mr. Kennard, and he and I and Sir W. Pen (age 40) went up and down his house to view what may be the contrivance and alterations there to the best advantage.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1662. Lay long in bed, then up to the office (we having changed our days to Tuesday and Saturday in the morning and Thursday at night), and by and by with Sir W. Pen (age 40), Mr. Kennard, and others to survey his house again, and to contrive for the alterations there, which will be handsome I think.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1662. Having agreed with Sir Wm. Pen (age 40) and my wife to meet them at the Opera, and finding by my walking in the streets, which were every where full of brick-battes and tyles flung down by the extraordinary wind the last night (such as hath not been in memory before, unless at the death of the late Protector), that it was dangerous to go out of doors; and hearing how several persons had been killed to-day by the fall of things in the streets, and that the pageant in Fleetstreet is most of it blown down, and hath broke down part of several houses, among others Dick Brigden's; and that one Lady Sanderson, a person of quality in Covent Garden [Map], was killed by the fall of the house, in her bed, last night; I sent my boy home to forbid them to go forth. But he bringing me word that they are gone, I went thither and there saw "The Law against Lovers", a good play and well performed, especially the little girl's (whom I never saw act before) dancing and singing; and were it not for her, the loss of Roxalana (age 19) would spoil the house.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1662. Lord's Day. My cold being increased, I staid at home all day, pleasing myself with my dining-room, now graced with pictures, and reading of Dr. Fuller's (age 54) "Worthys". So I spent the day, and at night comes Sir W. Pen (age 40) and supped and talked with me. This day by God's mercy I am 29 years of age, and in very good health, and like to live and get an estate; and if I have a heart to be contented, I think I may reckon myself as happy a man as any is in the world, for which God be praised. So to prayers and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1662. The boy failing to call us up as I commanded, I was angry, and resolved to whip him for that and many other faults, to-day. Early with Sir W. Pen (age 40) by coach to Whitehall, to the Duke of York's (age 28) chamber, and there I presented him from my Lord a fine map of Tangier, done by one Captain Beckman, a Swede, that is with my Lord. We staid looking it over a great while with the Duke after he was ready.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1662. So home to dinner, and after dinner came Sir William and talked with me till church time, and then to church, where at our going out I was at a loss by Sir W. Pen's (age 40) putting me upon it whether to take my wife or Mrs. Martha (who alone was there), and I began to take my wife, but he jogged me, and so I took Martha, and led her down before him and my wife. So set her at home, and Sir William and my wife and I to walk in the garden, and anon hearing that Sir G. Carteret (age 52) had sent to see whether we were at home or no, Sir William and I went to his house, where we waited a good while, they being at prayers, and by and by we went up to him; there the business was about hastening the East India ships, about which we are to meet to-morrow in the afternoon. So home to my house, and Sir William supped with me, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1662. Dined at home, and then up to my chamber again about business, and so to the office about despatching of the East India ships, where we staid till 8 at night, and then after I had been at Sir W. Pen's (age 40) awhile discoursing with him and Mr. Kenard the joiner about the new building in his house, I went home, where I found a vessel of oysters sent me from Chatham, Kent [Map], so I fell to eat some and then to supper, and so after the barber had done to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1662. By and by Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I and my wife in his coach to Moore Fields [Map], where we walked a great while, though it was no fair weather and cold; and after our walk we went to the Pope's Head, and eat cakes and other fine things, and so home, and I up to my chamber to read and write, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1662. Lord's Day. Church in the morning: dined at home, then to Church again and heard Mr. Naylor, whom I knew formerly of Keye's College, make a most eloquent sermon. Thence to Sir W. Batten's (age 61) to see how he did, then to walk an hour with Sir W. Pen (age 40) in the garden: then he in to supper with me at my house, and so to prayers and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1662. At the office doing business all the morning, and my wife being gone to buy some things in the city I dined with Sir W. Batten (age 61), and in the afternoon met Sir W. Pen (age 40) at the Treasury Office, and there paid off the Guift, where late at night, and so called in and eat a bit at Sir W. Batten's (age 61) again, and so home and to bed, to-morrow being washing day.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1662. Dined at home, and there came Mrs. Goldsborough about her old business, but I did give her a short answer and sent away. This morning we had news from Mr. Coventry (age 34), that Sir G. Downing (age 37) (like a perfidious rogue, though the action is good and of service to the King (age 31)1, yet he cannot with any good conscience do it) hath taken Okey, Corbet, and Barkestead at Delfe, in Holland, and sent them home in the Blackmore. Sir W. Pen (age 40), talking to me this afternoon of what a strange thing it is for Downing to do this, he told me of a speech he made to the Lords States of Holland, telling them to their faces that he observed that he was not received with the respect and observance now, that he was when he came from the traitor and rebell Cromwell: by whom, I am sure, he hath got all he hath in the world,-and they know it too2.

Note 1. "And hail the treason though we hate the traitor". On the 21st Charles returned his formal thanks to the States for their assistance in the matter. B.

Note 2. Charles, when residing at Brussels, went to the Hague at night to pay a secret visit to his sister, the Princess of Orange. After his arrival, "an old reverend-like man, with a long grey beard and ordinary grey clothes", entered the inn and begged for a private interview. He then fell on his knees, and pulling off his disguise, discovered himself to be Mr Downing (age 37), then ambassador from Cromwell to the States-General. He informed Charles that the Dutch had guaranteed to the English Commonwealth to deliver him into their hands should he ever set foot in their territory. This warning probably saved Charles's liberty.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1662. At the office all the morning. At noon Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I making a bargain with the workmen about his house, at which I did see things not so well contracted for as I would have, and I was vexed and made him so too to see me so critical in the agreement.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1662. So walked home, calling at Tom's, giving him my resolution about my boy's livery. Here I spent an hour walking in the garden with Sir W. Pen (age 40), and then my wife and I thither to supper, where his son William is at home not well. But all things, I fear, do not go well with them; they look discontentedly, but I know not what ails them. Drinking of cold small beer here I fell ill, and was forced to go out and vomit, and so was well again and went home by and by to bed. Fearing that Sarah would continue ill, wife and I removed this night to our matted chamber and lay there.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Mar 1662. After dinner to the office again, where Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and we staid awhile, and then Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I on board some of the ships now fitting for East Indys and Portugall, to see in what forwardness they are, and so back home again, and I write to my father by the post about Brampton Court, which is now coming on. But that which troubles me is that my Father has now got an ague that I fear may endanger his life. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Mar 1662. All the morning at the office with Sir W. Pen (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1662. Early Sir G. Carteret (age 52), both Sir Williams and I on board The Experiment, to dispatch her away, she being to carry things to the Madeiras with the East Indy fleet. Here (Sir W. Pen (age 40) going to Deptford, Kent [Map] to send more hands) we staid till noon talking, and eating and drinking a good ham of English bacon, and having put things in very good order home, where I found Jane, my old maid, come out of the country, and I have a mind to have her again.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1662. Thence to the play, where coming late, and meeting with Sir W. Pen (age 40), who had got room for my wife and his daughter in the pit, he and I into one of the boxes, and there we sat and heard "The Little Thiefe", a pretty play and well done.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1662. By barge Sir George, Sir Williams both and I to Deptford, and there fell to pay off the Drake and Hampshire, then to dinner, Sir George to his lady at his house, and Sir Wm. Pen (age 40) to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and Sir W. Batten (age 61) and I to the tavern, where much company came to us and our dinner, and somewhat short by reason of their taking part away with them.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1662. After I was tired I went and took boat to Milford stairs, and so to Graye's Inn walks, the first time I have been there this year, and it is very pleasant and full of good company. When tired I walked to the Wardrobe, and there staid a little with my Lady, and so by water from Paul's Wharf (where my boat staid for me), home and supped with my wife with Sir W. Pen (age 40), and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Apr 1662. Up early to my lute and a song, then about six o'clock with Sir W. Pen (age 40) by water to Deptford; and among the ships now going to Portugall with men and horse, to see them dispatched.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1662. So home, and no sooner come but Sir W. Warren comes to me to bring me a paper of Field's (with whom we have lately had a great deal of trouble at the office), being a bitter petition to the King (age 31) against our office for not doing justice upon his complaint to us of embezzlement of the King's stores by one Turpin. I took Sir William to Sir W. Pen's (age 40) (who was newly come from Walthamstow [Map]), and there we read it and discoursed, but we do not much fear it, the King (age 31) referring it to the Duke of York (age 28).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1662. After taking leave of my wife, which we could hardly do kindly, because of her mind to go along with me, Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I took coach and so over the bridge to Lambeth, W. Bodham and Tom Hewet going as clerks to Sir W. Pen (age 40), and my Will for me. Here we got a dish of buttered eggs, and there staid till Sir G. Carteret (age 52) came to us from White Hall, who brought Dr. Clerke with him, at which I was very glad, and so we set out, and I was very much pleased with his company, and were very merry all the way .... We came to Gilford [Map] and there passed our time in the garden, cutting of sparagus for supper, the best that ever I eat in my life but in the house last year. Supped well, and the Doctor and I to bed together, calling cozens from his name and my office.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1662. Home by night and wrote letters to London, and so with Sir W. Pen (age 41) to the Dock to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1662. Sunday. Sir W. Pen (age 41) got trimmed before me, and so took the coach to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to wait on my Lord Steward to church, and sent the coach for me back again. So I rode to church, and met my Lord Chamberlain (age 60) upon the walls of the garrison, who owned and spoke to me. I followed him in the crowd of gallants through the Queen's (age 23) lodgings to chappell; the rooms being all rarely furnished, and escaped hardly being set on fire yesterday. At chappell we had a most excellent and eloquent sermon. And here I spoke and saluted Mrs. Pierce, but being in haste could not learn of her where her lodgings are, which vexes me.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1662. In the evening Sir George (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I walked round the walls, and thence we two with the Doctor to the yard, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1662. The Doctor and I begun philosophy discourse exceeding pleasant. He offers to bring me into the college of virtuosoes [The Royal Society.] and my Lord Brouncker's acquaintance, and to show me some anatomy, which makes me very glad; and I shall endeavour it when I come to London. Sir W. Pen (age 41) much troubled upon letters came last night. Showed me one of Dr. Owen's1 to his son, [[his son] William Penn (age 17), the celebrated Quaker.] whereby it appears his son is much perverted in his opinion by him; which I now perceive is one thing that hath put Sir William so long off the hooks. By coach to the Pay-house, and so to work again, and then to dinner, and to it again, and so in the evening to the yard, and supper and bed.

Note 1. John Owen, D.D., a learned Nonconformist divine, and a voluminous theological writer, born 1616, made Dean of Christ Church in 1653 by the Parliament, and ejected in 1659-60. He died at Ealing in 1683.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1662. At the pay all the morning, and so to dinner; and then to it again in the afternoon, and after our work was done, Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I walked forth, and I spied Mrs. Pierce and another lady passing by. So I left them and went to the ladies, and walked with them up and down, and took them to Mrs. Stephens, and there gave them wine and sweetmeats, and were very merry; and then comes the Doctor, and we carried them by coach to their lodging, which was very poor, but the best they could get, and such as made much mirth among us. So I appointed one to watch when the gates of the town were ready to be shut, and to give us notice; and so the Doctor and I staid with them playing and laughing, and at last were forced to bid good night for fear of being locked into the town all night. So we walked to the yard, designing how to prevent our going to London tomorrow, that we might be merry with these ladies, which I did. So to supper and merrily to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1662. This morning Sir G. Carteret (age 52) came down to the yard, and there we mustered over all the men and determined of some regulations in the yard, and then to dinner, all the officers of the yard with us, and after dinner walk to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], there to pay off the Success, which we did pretty early, and so I took leave of Sir W. Pen (age 41), he desiring to know whither I went, but I would not tell him. I went to the ladies, and there took them and walked to the Mayor's to show them the present, and then to the Dock, where Mr. Tippets made much of them, and thence back again, the Doctor being come to us to their lodgings, whither came our supper by my appointment, and we very merry, playing at cards and laughing very merry till 12 o'clock at night, and so having staid so long (which we had resolved to stay till they bade us be gone), which yet they did not do but by consent, we bade them good night, and so past the guards, and went to the Doctor's lodgings, and there lay with him, our discourse being much about the quality of the lady with Mrs. Pierce, she being somewhat old and handsome, and painted and fine, and had a very handsome maid with her, which we take to be the marks of a bawd. But Mrs. Pierce says she is a stranger to her and met by chance in the coach, and pretends to be a dresser. Her name is Eastwood. So to sleep in a bad bed about one o'clock in the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1662. Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and myself, with our clerks, set out this morning from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] very early, and got by noon to Petersfield, Hampshire; several officers of the Yard accompanying us so far. Here we dined and were merry. At dinner comes my Lord Carlingford (age 59) from London, going to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]: tells us that the Duchess of York (age 25) is brought to bed of a girl, [Mary, afterwards Queen of England.] at which I find nobody pleased; and that Prince Rupert (age 42) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 34) are sworn of the Privy Councell. He himself made a dish with eggs of the butter of the sparagus, which is very fine meat, which I will practise hereafter.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1662. To horse again after dinner, and got to Gilford [Map], where after supper I to bed, having this day been offended by Sir W. Pen's (age 41) foolish talk, and I offending him with my answers. Among others he in discourse complaining of want of confidence, did ask me to lend him a grain or two, which I told him I thought he was better stored with than myself, before Sir George (age 52). So that I see I must keep a greater distance than I have done, and I hope I may do it because of the interest which I am making with Sir George (age 52).

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1662. Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I by coach to St. James's, and there to the Duke's Chamber, who had been a-hunting this morning and is come back again.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1662. Lord's Day. Lay long talking with my wife, then Mr. Holliard (age 53) came to me and let me blood, about sixteen ounces, I being exceedingly full of blood and very good. I begun to be sick; but lying upon my back I was presently well again, and did give him 5s. for his pains, and so we parted, and I, to my chamber to write down my journall from the beginning of my late journey to this house. Dined well, and after dinner, my arm tied up with a black ribbon, I walked with my wife to my brother Tom's (age 28); our boy waiting on us with his sword, which this day he begins to wear, to outdo Sir W. Pen's (age 41) boy, who this day, and Six W. Batten's too, begin to wear new livery; but I do take mine to be the neatest of them all. I led my wife to Mrs. Turner's (age 39) pew, and the church being full, it being to hear a Doctor who is to preach a probacon sermon, I went out to the Temple [Map] and there walked, and so when church was done went to Mrs. Turner's (age 39), and after a stay there, my wife and I walked to Grays Inn, to observe fashions of the ladies, because of my wife's making some clothes.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1662. Thence homewards, and called in at Antony Joyce's, where we found his wife brought home sick from church, and was in a convulsion fit. So home and to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) and there supped, and so to prayers at home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. And looking upon his lodgings, which are now enlarging, he in passion cried, "Guarda mi spada; for, by God, I may chance to keep him in Ireland, when he is there:" for Sir W. Pen (age 41) is going thither with my Lord Lieutenant (age 51). But it is my design to keep much in with Sir George (age 52); and I think I have begun very well towards it. So to the office, and was there late doing business, and so with my head full of business I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. So home and to dinner, and by and by to the office, and after the rest gone (my Lady Albemarle (age 43) being this day at dinner at Sir W. Batten's (age 61)) Sir G. Carteret (age 52) comes, and he and I walked in the garden, and, among other discourse, tells me that it is Mr. Coventry (age 34) that is to come to us as a Commissioner of the Navy; at which he is much vexed, and cries out upon Sir W. Pen (age 41), and threatens him highly.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1662. After dinner Sir W. Pen (age 41) and his daughter, and I and my wife by coach to the Theatre [Map], and there in a box saw "The Little Thiefe" well done.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1662. Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I did a little business at the office, and so home again. Then comes Dean Fuller (age 54) after we had dined, but I got something for him, and very merry we were for an hour or two, and I am most pleased with his company and goodness. At last parted, and my wife and I by coach to the Opera, and there saw the 2nd part of "The Siege of Rhodes", but it is not so well done as when Roxalana (age 20) was there, who, it is said, is now owned by my Lord of Oxford (age 35)1.

Note 1. For note on Mrs. Davenport, who was deceived by a pretended marriage with the Earl of Oxford (age 35), see ante. Lord Oxford's first wife died in 1659. He married, in 1672, his second wife, Diana Kirke, of whom nothing more need be said than that she bore an inappropriate Christian name.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1662. This morning comes an order from the Secretary of State, Nicholas (age 69), for me to let one Mr. Lee, a Councellor, to view what papers I have relating to passages of the late times, wherein Sir H. Vane's (age 49) hand is employed, in order to the drawing up his charge; which I did, and at noon he, with Sir W. Pen (age 41) and his daughter, dined with me, and he to his work again, and we by coach to the Theatre [Map] and saw "Love in a Maze". The play hath little in it but Lacy's part of a country fellow, which he did to admiration.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1662. So home, and supped with Sir W. Pen (age 41), where Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Captn. Cocke came to us, to whom I have lately been a great stranger. This night we had each of us a letter from Teddiman from the Streights, of a peace made upon good terms, by Sir J. Lawson (age 47), with the Argier men, which is most excellent news? He hath also sent each of us some anchovies, olives, and muscatt; but I know not yet what that is, and am ashamed to ask. After supper home, and to bed, resolving to make up this week in seeing plays and pleasure, and so fall to business next week again for a great while.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1662. So by water home, and supped with Sir William Pen (age 41) very merry, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1662. And so I to the office, and that being done, Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I to Deptford, Kent [Map] by water to Captain Rooth's to see him, he being very sick, and by land home, calling at Halfway house, where we eat and drank. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock and to my business in my chamber, to even accounts with my Lord and myself, and very fain I would become master of £1000, but I have not above £530 toward it yet. At the office all the morning, and Mr. Coventry (age 34) brought his patent and took his place with us this morning. Upon our making a contract, I went, as I use to do, to draw the heads thereof, but Sir W. Pen (age 41) most basely told me that the Comptroller (age 63) is to do it, and so begun to employ Mr. Turner about it, at which I was much vexed, and begun to dispute; and what with the letter of the Duke's orders, and Mr. Barlow's letter, and the practice of our predecessors, which Sir G. Carteret (age 52) knew best when he was Comptroller (age 63), it was ruled for me. What Sir J. Minnes (age 63) will do when he comes I know not, but Sir W. Pen (age 41) did it like a base raskall, and so I shall remember him while I live.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1662. Home and to the office, where about 8 at night comes Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Sir W. Batten (age 61), and so we did some business, and then home and to bed, my mind troubled about Sir W. Pen (age 41), his playing the rogue with me to-day, as also about the charge of money that is in my house, which I had forgot; but I made the maids to rise and light a candle, and set it in the dining-room, to scare away thieves, and so to sleep.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jun 1662. At the office all the morning, Sir W. Batten (age 61), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and I about the Victualler's accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1662. This morning I tried on my riding cloth suit with close knees, the first that ever I had; and I think they will be very convenient, if not too hot to wear any other open knees after them. At the office all the morning, where we had a full Board, viz., Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir John Mennes, Sir W. Batten (age 61), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir W. Pen (age 41), Mr. Pett (age 51), and myself. Among many other businesses, I did get a vote signed by all, concerning my issuing of warrants, which they did not smell the use I intend to make of it; but it is to plead for my clerks to have their right of giving out all warrants, at which I am not a little pleased. But a great difference happened between Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34), about passing the Victualler's account, and whether Sir George (age 52) is to pay the Victualler his money, or the Exchequer; Sir George (age 52) claiming it to be his place to save his threepences. It ended in anger, and I believe will come to be a question before the King (age 32) and Council. I did what I could to keep myself unconcerned in it, having some things of my own to do before I would appear high in anything.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1662. So walked home again as far as over against the Towre, and so over and home, where I found Sir W. Pen (age 41) and Sir John Minnes (age 63) discoursing about Sir John Minnes's (age 63) house and his coming to live with us, and I think he intends to have Mr. Turner's house and he to come to his lodgings, which I shall be very glad of. We three did go to Mr. Turner's to view his house, which I think was to the end that Sir John Minnes (age 63) might see it.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jun 1662. By and by we met, and at noon Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map]; where was a feast made by the Wardens, when great good cheer, and much, but ordinary company. The Lieutenant of the Tower (age 47), upon my demanding how Sir H. Vane (deceased) died, told me that he died in a passion; but all confess with so much courage as never man died.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1662. So my wife and I to walk in the garden, where all our talk was against Sir W. Pen (age 41), against whom I have lately had cause to be much prejudiced. By and by he and his daughter came out to walk, so we took no notice of them a great while, at last in going home spoke a word or two, and so good night, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jun 1662. At last we concluded upon dispatching all his accounts as soon as possible, and so I parted, and to my office, where I met Sir W. Pen (age 41), and he desired a turn with me in the garden, where he told me the day now was fixed for his going into Ireland; [Penn was Governor of Kinsale.-B.] and that whereas I had mentioned some service he could do a friend of mine there, Saml. Pepys1, he told me he would most readily do what I would command him, and then told me we must needs eat a dish of meat together before he went, and so invited me and my wife on Sunday next. To all which I did give a cold consent, for my heart cannot love or have a good opinion of him since his last playing the knave with me, but he took no notice of our difference at all, nor I to him, and so parted, and I by water to Deptford, where I found Sir W. Batten (age 61) alone paying off the yard three quarters pay.

Note 1. Mentioned elsewhere as "My cousin in Ireland". He was son of Lord Chief Justice Richard Pepys.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1662. Home with Sir W. Pen (age 41) to dinner by appointment, and to church again in the afternoon, and then home, Mr. Shepley coming to me about my Lord's accounts, and in the evening parted, and we to supper again to Sir W. Pen (age 41). Whatever the matter is, he do much fawn upon me, and I perceive would not fall out with me, and his daughter mighty officious to my wife, but I shall never be deceived again by him, but do hate him and his traitorous tricks with all my heart. It was an invitation in order to his taking leave of us to-day, he being to go for Ireland in a few days. So home and prayers, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1662. To the office, and there we sat till past noon, and then Captain Cuttance and I by water to Deptford, where The Royal James (in which my Lord went out the last voyage, though (he) came back in the Charles) was paying off by Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Sir W. Pen (age 41).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1662. To my office all the morning, to get things ready against our sitting, and by and by we sat and did business all the morning, and at noon had Sir W. Pen (age 41), who I hate with all my heart for his base treacherous tricks, but yet I think it not policy to declare it yet, and his son William, to my house to dinner, where was also Mr. Creed and my cozen Harry Alcocke. I having some venison given me a day or two ago, and so I had a shoulder roasted, another baked, and the umbles1 baked in a pie, and all very well done. We were merry as I could be in that company, and the more because I would not seem otherwise to Sir W. Pen (age 41), he being within a day or two to go for Ireland.

Note 1. The umbles are the liver, kidneys, and other portions of the inside of the deer. They were usually made into pies, and old cookery books contain directions for the making of 'umble pies.'.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jul 1662. Up by four o'clock, and at my multiplicacion-table hard, which is all the trouble I meet withal in my arithmetique. So made me ready and to the office, where all the morning busy, and Sir W. Pen (age 41) came to my office to take his leave of me, and desiring a turn in the garden, did commit the care of his building to me, and offered all his services to me in all matters of mine. I did, God forgive me! promise him all my service and love, though the rogue knows he deserves none from me, nor do I intend to show him any; but as he dissembles with me, so must I with him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jul 1662. Home, and Cooper coming (after I had dispatched several letters) to my mathematiques, and so at night to bed to a chamber at Sir W. Pen's (age 41), my own house being so foul that I cannot lie there any longer, and there the chamber lies so as that I come into it over my leads without going about, but yet I am not fully content with it, for there will be much trouble to have servants running over the leads to and fro.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1662. And so to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) to my chamber again, being all in dirt and foul, and in fear of having catched cold today with dabbling in the water. But what has vexed me to-day was that by carrying the key to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) last night, it could not in the midst of all my hurry to carry away my books and things, be found, and at last they found it in the fire that we made last night. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1662. At last to dinner, we had a calf's head and bacon at my chamber at Sir W. Pen's (age 41), and there I and my wife concluded to have her go and her two maids and the boy, and so there shall be none but Will and I left at home, and so the house will be freer, for it is impossible to have anybody come into my house while it is in this condition, and with this resolution all the afternoon we were putting up things in the further cellar against next week for them to be gone, and my wife and I into the office and there measured a soiled flag that I had found there, and hope to get it to myself, for it has not been demanded since I came to the office. But my wife is not hasty to have it, but rather to stay a while longer and see the event whether it will be missed or no.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1662. At night home, and late packing up things in order to their going to Brampton to-morrow, and so to bed, quite out of sorts in my mind by reason that the weather is so bad, and my house all full of wet, and the trouble of going from one house to another to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) upon every occasion. Besides much disturbed by reason of the talk up and down the town, that my Lord Sandwich (age 36) is lost; but I trust in God the contrary.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1662. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 61) came in to the office and desired to speak with me; he began by telling me that he observed a strangeness between him and me of late, and would know the reason of it, telling me he heard that I was offended with merchants coming to his house and making contracts there. I did tell him that as a friend I had spoke of it to Sir W. Pen (age 41) and desired him to take a time to tell him of it, and not as a backbiter, with which he was satisfied, but I find that Sir W. Pen (age 41) has played the knave with me, and not told it from me as a friend, but in a bad sense.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1662. Then took leave of him, and found my wife at my Lord's lodging, and so took her home by water, and to supper in Sir W. Pen's (age 41) balcony, and Mrs. Keene with us, and then came my wife's brother, and then broke up, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1662. So home late, and it being the last day of the month, I did make up my accounts before I went to bed, and found myself worth about £650, for which the Lord God be praised, and so to bed. I drank but two glasses of wine this day, and yet it makes my head ake all night, and indisposed me all the next day, of which I am glad. I am now in town only with my man Will and Jane, and because my house is in building, I do lie at Sir W. Pen's (age 41) house, he being gone to Ireland. My wife, her maid and boy gone to Brampton. I am very well entered into the business and esteem of the office, and do ply it close, and find benefit by it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1662. Up, my head aching, and to my office, where Cooper read me another lecture upon my modell very pleasant. So to my business all the morning, which increases by people coming now to me to the office. At noon to the Exchange [Map], where meeting Mr. Creed and Moore we three to a house hard by (which I was not pleased with) to dinner, and after dinner and some discourse ordinary by coach home, it raining hard, and so at the office all the afternoon till evening to my chamber, where, God forgive me, I was sorry to hear that Sir W. Pen's (age 41) maid Betty was gone away yesterday, for I was in hopes to have had a bout with her before she had gone, she being very pretty. I had also a mind to my own wench, but I dare not for fear she should prove honest and refuse and then tell my wife.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1662. This afternoon Mr. Waith was with me, and did tell me much concerning the Chest, which I am resolved to look into; and I perceive he is sensible of Sir W. Batten's (age 61) carriage; and is pleased to see any thing work against him. Who, poor man, is, I perceive, much troubled, and did yesterday morning walk in the garden with me, did tell me he did see there was a design of bringing another man in his room, and took notice of my sorting myself with others, and that we did business by ourselves without him. Part of which is true, but I denied, and truly, any design of doing him any such wrong as that. He told me he did not say it particularly of me, but he was confident there was somebody intended to be brought in, nay, that the trayne was laid before Sir W. Pen (age 41) went, which I was glad to hear him say. Upon the whole I see he perceives himself tottering, and that he is suspected, and would be kind to me, but I do my business in the office and neglect him. At night writing in my study a mouse ran over my table, which I shut up fast under my shelf's upon my table till to-morrow, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1662. So at the office all the afternoon and the evening till past to at night expecting Sir W. Pen's (age 41) coming, but he not coming to-night I went thither and there lay very well, and like my lodging well enough. My man Will after he had got me to bed did go home and lay there, and my maid Jane lay among my goods at Sir W. Pen's (age 41).

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1662. Up betimes among my workmen, and so to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon rose and had news that Sir W. Pen (age 41) would be in town from Ireland, which I much wonder at, he giving so little notice of it, and it troubled me exceedingly what to do for a lodging, and more what to do with my goods, that are all in his house; but at last I resolved to let them lie there till Monday, and so got Griffin to get a lodging as near as he could, which is without a door of our back door upon Tower Hill [Map], a chamber where John Pavis, one of our clerks, do lie in, but he do provide himself elsewhere, and I am to have his chamber.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1662. So home, and after going to welcome home Sir W. Pen (age 41), who was unready, going to bed, I staid with him a little while, and so to my lodging and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1662. News is brought me that Sir W. Pen (age 41) is come. But I would take no notice thereof till after dinner, and then sent him word that I would wait on him, but he is gone to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1662. Up betimes at my lodging and to my office and among my workmen, and then with Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Sir W. Pen (age 41) by coach to St. James's, this being the first day of our meeting there by the Duke's (age 28) order; but when we come, we found him going out by coach with his Duchess (age 25), and he told us he was to go abroad with the Queen (age 23) to-day (to Durdans, it seems, to dine with my Lord Barkeley (age 34), where I have been very merry when I was a little boy); so we went and staid a little at Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who is gone to wait upon the King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) today.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1662. By and by by water home, and there dined alone, and after dinner with my brother Tom's (age 28) two men I removed all my goods out of Sir W. Pen's (age 41) house into one room that I have with much ado got ready at my house, and so I am to be quit of any further obligation to him.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1662. Up betimes and got myself ready alone, and so to my office, my mind much troubled for my key that I lost yesterday, and so to my workmen and put them in order, and so to my office, and we met all the morning, and then dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 61) with Sir W. Pen (age 41), and so to my office again all the afternoon, and in the evening wrote a letter to Mr. Cooke, in the country, in behalf of my brother Tom (age 28), to his mistress, it being the first of my appearing in it, and if she be as Tom sets her out, it may be very well for him. So home and eat a bit, and so to my lodging to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1662. Up betimes, but now the days begin to shorten, and so whereas I used to rise by four o'clock, it is not broad daylight now till after five o'clock, so that it is after five before I do rise. To my office, and about 8 o'clock I went over to Redriffe [Map], and walked to Deptford, where I found Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir W. Pen (age 41) beginning the pay, it being my desire to be there to-day because it is the first pay that Mr. Coventry (age 34) has been at, and I would be thought to be as much with Mr. Coventry (age 34) as I can. Here we staid till noon, and by that time paid off the Breda, and then to dinner at the tavern, where I have obtained that our commons is not so large as they used to be, which I am glad to see.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1662. We took boat again at the Falcon, and there parted, and I to the Old Swan [Map], and so to the Change [Map], and there meeting Sir W. Warren did step to a tavern, and there sat and talked about price of masts and other things, and so broke up and to my office to see what business, and so we took water again, and at the Tower I over to Redriffe [Map], and there left him in the boat and walked to Deptford, and there up and down the yard speaking with people, and so Sir W. Pen (age 41) coming out of the payhouse did single me out to tell me Sir J. Minnes' (age 63) dislike of my blinding his lights over his stairs (which indeed is very bad) and blocking up the house of office on the leads.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1662. At my office betimes, and by and by we sat, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Mr. Pett (age 52), and myself by water to Deptford, where we met Sir G. C. (age 52), Sir W. B. (age 61), and Sir W. P. (age 41) at the pay of a ship, and we dined together on a haunch of good venison boiled, and after dinner returned again to the office, and there met several tradesmen by our appointment to know of them their lowest rates that they will take for their several provisions that they sell to us, for I do resolve to know that, and to buy no dearer, that so when we know the lowest rate, it shall be the Treasurer's fault, and not ours, that we pay dearer.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1662. So we sat at the office all the morning, some of us at Deptford, Kent [Map] paying the ordinary there; at noon Sir W. Pen (age 41) took me to his lodgings to dinner, and after dinner I to my office again, and now and then to see how my work goes on, and so to my office late, and so to my lodgings, and after staying up till past 12 at night, at my musique upon my lute, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1662. So home again by water and to church, and from church Sir Williams both and Sir John Minnes (age 63) into the garden, and anon Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I did discourse about my lodgings and Sir J. Minnes (age 63), and I did open all my mind to him, and he told me what he had heard, and I do see that I shall hardly keep my best lodging chamber, which troubles me, but I did send for Goodenough the plasterer, who tells me that it did ever belong to my lodgings, but lent by Mr. Payles to Mr. Smith, and so I will strive hard for it before I lose it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1662. So to my office to prepare notes to read to the Duke to-morrow morning, and so to my lodgings and to bed, my mind a little eased because I am resolved to know the worst concerning my lodgings tomorrow. Among other things Sir W. Pen (age 41) did tell me of one of my servants looking into Sir J. Minnes' (age 63) window when my Lady Batten lay there, which do much trouble them, and me also, and I fear will wholly occasion my loosing the leads. One thing more he told me of my Jane's cutting off a carpenter's long mustacho, and how the fellow cried, and his wife would not come near him a great while, believing that he had been among some of his wenches. At which I was merry, though I perceive they discourse of it as a crime of hers, which I understand not.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Sep 1662. So to Deptford, and took my Lady Batten and her daughter and Mrs. Turner (age 39) along with me, they being going through the garden thither, they to Mr. Unthwayte's and I to the Pay, and then about 3 o'clock went to dinner (Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I), and after dinner to the Pay again, and at night by barge home all together, and so to my lodgings and to bed, my mind full of trouble about my house.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Sep 1662. So by water with Sir Wm. Pen (age 41) to White Hall; and, with much ado, was fain to walk over the piles through the bridge, while Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Sir J. Minnes (age 63) were aground against the bridge, and could not in a great while get through.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Sep 1662. Twelfth Day. This day my oaths for drinking of wine and going to plays are out, and so I do resolve to take a liberty to-day, and then to fall to them again. Up and by coach to White Hall, in my way taking up Mr. Moore, and walked with him, talking a good while about business, in St. James's Park, and there left him, and to Mr. Coventry's (age 34), and so with him and Sir W. Pen (age 41) up to the Duke, where the King (age 32) came also and staid till the Duke was ready. It being Collarday, we had no time to talk with him about any business. They went out together.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1662. So to my office, where we sat till noon, and then I to dinner with Sir W. Pen (age 41), and while we were at it coming my wife to the office, and so I sent for her up, and after dinner we took coach and to the Duke's playhouse, where we saw "The Duchess of Malfy" well performed, but Betterton (age 27) and Ianthe to admiration.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1662. At Woolwich, Kent [Map] we mustered the yard, and then to the Hart to dinner, and then to the Rope-yard [Map], where I did vex Sir W. Pen (age 41) I know to appear so well acquainted, I thought better than he, in the business of hemp; thence to Deptford, and there looked over several businesses, and wakened the officers there; so walked to Redriffe [Map], and thence, landing Sir W. Pen (age 41) at the Tower, I to White Hall with Mr. Coventry (age 34), and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, but my Lord was not within, being at a ball this night with the King (age 32) at my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) at next door.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1662. Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I early to St. James's by water, where Mr. Coventry (age 34), finding the Duke in bed, and not very well, we did not stay to speak with him, but to White Hall, and there took boat and down to Woolwich, Kent [Map] we went. In our way Mr. Coventry (age 34) telling us how of late upon enquiry into the miscarriages of the Duke's family, Mr. Biggs, his steward, is found very faulty, and is turned out of his employment.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1662. This day Sir W. Pen (age 41) did speak to me from Sir J. Minnes (age 63) to desire my best chamber of me, and my great joy is that I perceive he do not stand upon his right, which I was much afraid of, and so I hope I shall do well enough with him for it, for I will not part with it by fair means, though I contrive to let him have another room for it.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1662. Up early about my business to get me ready for my journey. But first to the office; where we sat all the morning till noon, and then broke up; and I bid them adieu for a week, having the Duke's leave got me by Mr. Coventry (age 34). To whom I did give thanks for my newes yesterday of the Duke's words to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) concerning me, which he took well; and do tell me so freely his love and value of me, that my mind is now in as great a state of quiett as to my interest in the office, as I could ever wish to be. I should this day have dined at Sir W. Pen's (age 41) at a venison pasty with the rest of our fellows, but I could not get time, but sent for a bit home, and so between one and two o'clock got on horseback at our back gate, with my man Will with me, both well-mounted on two grey horses. We rode and got to Ware, Hertfordshire [Map] before night; and so resolved to ride on to Puckeridge, which we did, though the way was bad, and the evening dark before we got thither, by help of company riding before us; and among others, a gentleman that took up at the same inn, the Falcon, with me, his name Mr. Brian, with whom I supped, and was very good company, and a scholar. He tells me, that it is believed the Queen (age 23) is with child, for that the coaches are ordered to ride very easily through the streets.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1662. At my office, I hearing Sir W. Pen (age 41) was not well, I went to him to see, and sat with him, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Oct 1662. At night to my office to dispatch business, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who continues in great pain, and so home and alone to bed, but my head being full of my own and my brother Tom's (age 28) business I could hardly sleep, though not in much trouble, but only multitude of thoughts.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1662. So by coach home, and after a little business at my office, and seeing Sir W. Pen (age 41), who continues ill, I went to bed. Dunkirk, I am confirmed, is absolutely sold; for which I am very sorry.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1662. So home and to my office, and there settled many businesses, and so home and to supper, and so to bed, Sir W. Pen (age 41) being still in great pain.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1662. Up and among my workmen, and so to the office, and there sitting all the morning we stept all out to visit Sir W. Batten (age 61), who it seems has not been well all yesterday, but being let blood is now pretty well, and Sir W. Pen (age 41) after office I went to see, but he continues in great pain of the gout and in bed, cannot stir hand nor foot but with great pain.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1662. So home and dined there with my wife upon a most excellent dish of tripes of my own directing, covered with, mustard, as I have heretofore seen them done at my Lord Crew's, of which I made a very great meal, and sent for a glass of wine for myself, and so to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who continues bed-rid in great pain, and hence to the Treasury to Sir J. Minnes (age 63) paying off of tickets, and at night home, and in my study (after seeing Sir W. Batten (age 61), who also continues ill) I fell to draw out my conceptions about books for the clerk that cheques in the yard to keep according to the distinct works there, which pleases me very well, and I am confident it will be of great use.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. Up, and after giving order to the plasterer now to set upon the finishing of my house, then by water to wait upon the Duke, and walking in the matted Gallery, by and by comes Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir John Minnes (age 63), and then to the Duke, and after he was ready, to his closet, where I did give him my usual account of matters, and afterwards, upon Sir J. Minnes' (age 63) desire to have one to assist him in his employment, Sir W. Pen (age 41) is appointed to be his, and Mr. Pett (age 52) to be the Surveyor's assistant. Mr. Coventry (age 34) did desire to be excused, and so I hope (at least it is my present opinion) to have none joined with me, but only Mr. Coventry (age 34) do desire that I would find work for one of his clerks, which I did not deny, but however I will think of it, whether without prejudice to mine I can do it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Nov 1662. Thence to my office, sent for to meet Mr. Leigh again; from Sir H. Bennet (age 44). And he and I, with Wade and his intelligencer and labourers, to the Tower cellars, to make one tryall more; where we staid two or three hours digging, and dug a great deal all under the arches, as it was now most confidently directed, and so seriously, and upon pretended good grounds, that I myself did truly expect to speed; but we missed of all: and so we went away the second time like fools. And to our office, whither, a coach being come, Mr. Leigh goes home to Whitehall; and I by appointment to the Dolphin Tavern, to meet Wade and the other, Captn. Evett, who now do tell me plainly, that he that do put him upon this is one that had it from Barkestead's own mouth, and was advised with by him, just before the King's coming in, how to get it out, and had all the signs told him how and where it lay, and had always been the great confident of Barkestead even to the trusting him with his life and all he had. So that he did much convince me that there is good ground for what we go about. But I fear it may be that he did find some conveyance of it away, without the help of this man, before he died. But he is resolved to go to the party once more, and then to determine what we shall do further. So we parted, and I to my office, where after sending away my letters to the post I do hear that Sir J. Minnes (age 63) is resolved to turn part of our entry into a room and to divide the back yard between Sir W. Pen (age 41) and him, which though I do not see how it will annoy me much particularly, yet it do trouble me a little for fear it should, but I do not see how it can well unless in his desiring my coming to my back stairs, but for that I shall do as well as himself or Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is most concerned to look after it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1662. Dined at home with my wife, and all the afternoon among my workmen, and at night to my office to do business there, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is still sick, but his pain less than it was. He took occasion to talk with me about Sir J. Minnes's (age 63) intention to divide the entry and the yard, and so to keep him out of the yard, and forcing him to go through the garden to his house. Which he is vexed at, and I am glad to see that Sir J. Minnes (age 63) do use him just as he do me, and so I perceive it is not anything extraordinary his carriage to me in the matter of our houses, for this is worse than anything he has done to me, that he should give order for the stopping up of his way to his house without so much as advising with him or letting of him know it, and I confess that it is very highly and basely done of him.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1662. So home, and by and by Sir W. Pen (age 41) did send for me to his bedside; and tell me how really Sir J. Minnes (age 63) did resolve to have one of my rooms, and that he was very angry and hot, and said he would speak to the Duke. To which, knowing that all this was but to scare me, and to get him to put off his resolution of making up the entry, I did tell him plainly how I did not value his anger more, than he did mine, and that I should be willing to do what the Duke commanded, and I was sure to have justice of him, and that was all I did say to him about it, though I was much vexed, and after a little stay went home; and there telling my wife she did put me into heart, and resolve to offer him to change lodgings, and believe that that will one way or other bring us to some end in this dispute. At night I called up my maids, and schooled Jane, who did answer me so humbly and drolly about it, that though I seemed angry, I was much pleased with her and [my] wife also. So at night to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1662. So broke up, and I to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is now pretty well, but lies in bed still; he cannot rise to stand. Then to my office late, and this afternoon my wife in her discontent sent me a letter, which I am in a quandary what to do, whether to read it or not, but I purpose not, but to burn it before her face, that I may put a stop to more of this nature. But I must think of some way, either to find her some body to keep her company, or to set her to work, and by employment to take up her thoughts and time. After doing what I had to do I went home to supper, and there was very sullen to my wife, and so went to bed and to sleep (though with much ado, my mind being troubled) without speaking one word to her.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1662. Home and to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who gets strength, but still keeps his bed. Then home and to my office to do some business there, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1662. Lord's Day. Up, after some talk with my wife, soberly, upon yesterday's difference, and made good friends, and to church to hear Mr. Mills, and so home, and Mr. Moore and my brother Tom (age 28) dined with me. My wife not being well to-day did not rise. In the afternoon to church again, and heard drowsy Mr. Graves, and so to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who continues ill in bed, but grows better and better every day.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1662. Thence home, and to visit Sir W. Pen (age 41), who continues still bed-rid. Here was Sir W. Batten (age 61) and his Lady, and Mrs. Turner (age 39), and I very merry, talking of the confidence of Sir R. Ford's (age 48) new-married daughter, though she married so strangely lately, yet appears at church as brisk as can be, and takes place of her elder sister, a maid.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1662. So home, and we dined above in our dining room, the first time since it was new done, and in the afternoon I thought to go to the French church; but finding the Dutch congregation there, and then finding the French congregation's sermon begun in the Dutch, I returned home, and up to our gallery, where I found my wife and Gosnell, and after a drowsy sermon, we all three to my aunt Wight's, where great store of her usuall company, and here we staid a pretty while talking, I differing from my aunt, as I commonly do, in our opinion of the handsomeness of the Queen (age 24), which I oppose mightily, saying that if my nose be handsome, then is her's, and such like. After much discourse, seeing the room full, and being unwilling to stay all three, I took leave, and so with my wife only to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is now got out of his bed, and sits by the fireside. And after some talk, home and to supper, and after prayers to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1662. By and by we sat, Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I (Sir G. Carteret (age 52) being gone), and among other things, Field and Stint did come, and received the £41 given him by the judgement against me and Harry Kem1; and we did also sign bonds in £500 to stand to the award of Mr. Porter (age 31) and Smith for the rest: which, however, I did not sign to till I got Mr. Coventry (age 34) to go up with me to Sir W. Pen (age 41); and he did promise me before him to bear his share in what should be awarded, and both concluded that Sir W. Batten (age 61) would do no less.

Note 1. Fine for the imprisonment of Field (see February 4th, 1661-62, and October 21st, 1662).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1662. Thence to Sir W. Pen (age 41) and sat long with him in discourse, I making myself appear one of greater action and resolution as to publique business than I have hitherto done, at which he listens, but I know is a rogue in his heart and likes not, but I perceive I may hold up my head, and the more the better, I minding of my business as I have done, in which God do and will bless me.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Dec 1662. This afternoon came my wife's brother and his wife, and Mrs. Lodum his landlady (my old friend Mr. Ashwell's sister), Balty's (age 22) wife is a most little and yet, I believe, pretty old girl, not handsome, nor has anything in the world pleasing, but, they say, she plays mighty well on the Base Violl. They dined at her father's today, but for ought I hear he is a wise man, and will not give any thing to his daughter till he sees what her husband do put himself to, so that I doubt he has made but a bad matter of it, but I am resolved not to meddle with it. They gone I to the office, and to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), with my wife, and thence I to Mr. Cade the stationer, to direct him what to do with my two copies of Mr. Holland's books which he is to bind, and after supplying myself with several things of him, I returned to my office, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Dec 1662. After dinner sat talking a good while with her, her [pain] being become less, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 41) a little, and so to my office, practising arithmetique alone and making an end of last night's book with great content till eleven at night, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1662. Thence home, and found my wife busy among her pies, but angry for some saucy words that her mayde Jane has given her, which I will not allow of, and therefore will give her warning to be gone. As also we are both displeased for some slight words that Sarah, now at Sir W. Pen's (age 41), hath spoke of us, but it is no matter. We shall endeavour to joyne the lion's skin to the fox's tail.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, whither Sir W. Pen (age 41) came, the first time that he has come downstairs since his late great sickness of the gout. We with Mr. Coventry (age 34) sat till noon, then I to the Change [Map] ward, to see what play was there, but I liked none of them, and so homeward, and calling in at Mr. Rawlinson's (age 48), where he stopped me to dine with him and two East India officers of ships and Hovell our turner. With the officers I had good discourse, particularly of the people at the Cape of Good Hope, of whom they of their own knowledge do tell me these one or two things: viz .... that they never sleep lying, but always sitting upon the ground, that their speech is not so articulate as ours, but yet [they] understand one another well, that they paint themselves all over with the grease the Dutch sell them (who have a fort there) and soot.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. Thus ends this year with great mirth to me and my wife: Our condition being thus:-we are at present spending a night or two at my Lord's lodgings at White Hall. Our home at the Navy-office, which is and hath a pretty while been in good condition, finished and made very convenient. My purse is worth about £650, besides my goods of all sorts, which yet might have been more but for my late layings out upon my house and public assessment, and yet would not have been so much if I had not lived a very orderly life all this year by virtue of the oaths that God put into my heart to take against wine, plays, and other expenses, and to observe for these last twelve months, and which I am now going to renew, I under God owing my present content thereunto. My family is myself and wife, William, my clerk; Jane, my wife's upper mayde, but, I think, growing proud and negligent upon it: we must part, which troubles me; Susan, our cook-mayde, a pretty willing wench, but no good cook; and Wayneman, my boy, who I am now turning away for his naughty tricks. We have had from the beginning our healths to this day very well, blessed be God! Our late mayde Sarah going from us (though put away by us) to live with Sir W. Pen (age 41) do trouble me, though I love the wench, so that we do make ourselves a little strange to him and his family for it, and resolve to do so. The same we are for other reasons to my Lady Batten and hers. We have lately had it in our thoughts, and I can hardly bring myself off of it, since Mrs. Gosnell cannot be with us, to find out another to be in the quality of a woman to my wife that can sing or dance, and yet finding it hard to save anything at the year's end as I now live, I think I shall not be such a fool till I am more warm in my purse, besides my oath of entering into no such expenses till I am worth £1000.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1663. After dinner I did reckon with Mrs. Sarah for what we have eat and drank here, and gave her a crown, and so took coach, and to the Duke's house, where we saw "The Villaine" again; and the more I see it, the more I am offended at my first undervaluing the play, it being very good and pleasant, and yet a true and allowable tragedy. The house was full of citizens, and so the less pleasant, but that I was willing to make an end of my gaddings, and to set to my business for all the year again tomorrow. Here we saw the old Roxalana (age 20) in the chief box, in a velvet gown, as the fashion is, and very handsome, at which I was glad. Hence by coach home, where I find all well, only Sir W. Pen (age 41) they say ill again.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1663. Lay long in bed, and so up and to the office, where all the morning alone doing something or another. So dined at home with my wife, and in the afternoon to the Treasury office, where Sir W. Batten (age 62) was paying off tickets, but so simply and arbitrarily, upon a dull pretence of doing right to the King (age 32), though to the wrong of poor people (when I know there is no man that means the King (age 32) less right than he, or would trouble himself less about it, but only that he sees me stir, and so he would appear doing something, though to little purpose), that I was weary of it. At last we broke up, and walk home together, and I to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is fallen sick again. I staid a while talking with him, and so to my office, practising some arithmetique, and so home to supper and bed, having sat up late talking to my poor wife with great content.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jan 1663. Up and to the office all the morning, and dined alone with my wife at noon, and then to my office all the afternoon till night, putting business in order with great content in my mind. Having nothing now in my mind of trouble in the world, but quite the contrary, much joy, except only the ending of our difference with my uncle Thomas, and the getting of the bills well over for my building of my house here, which however are as small and less than any of the others. Sir W. Pen (age 41) it seems is fallen very ill again. So to my arithmetique again to-night, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1663. Up pretty early, that is by seven o'clock, it being not yet light before or then. So to my office all the morning, signing the Treasurer's ledger, part of it where I have not put my hand, and then eat a mouthful of pye at home to stay my stomach, and so with Mr. Waith by water to Deptford, and there among other things viewed old pay-books, and found that the Commanders did never heretofore receive any pay for the rigging time, but only for seatime, contrary to what Sir J. Minnes (age 63) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) told the Duke the other day. I also searched all the ships in the Wett Dock for fire, and found all in good order, it being very dangerous for the King that so many of his ships lie together there. I was among the canvass in stores also, with Mr. Harris, the saylemaker, and learnt the difference between one sort and another, to my great content, and so by water home again, where my wife tells me stories how she hears that by Sarah's going to live at Sir W. Pen's (age 41), all our affairs of my family are made known and discoursed of there and theirs by my people, which do trouble me much, and I shall take a time to let Sir W. Pen (age 41) know how he has dealt in taking her without our full consent. So to my office, and by and by home to supper, and so to prayers and bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1663. Up and to the office. From thence, before we sat, Sir W. Pen (age 41) sent for me to his bedside to talk (indeed to reproach me with my not owning to Sir J. Minnes (age 63) that he had my advice in the blocking up of the garden door the other day, which is now by him out of fear to Sir J. Minnes (age 63) opened again), to which I answered him so indifferently that I think he and I shall be at a distance, at least to one another, better than ever we did and love one another less, which for my part I think I need not care for.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1663. In the evening to Sir W. Pen's (age 41), where Sir J. Minnes (age 63) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), and afterwards came Sir G. Carteret (age 53). There talked about business, and afterwards to Sir W. Batten's (age 62), where we staid talking and drinking Syder, and so I went away to my office a little, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. Up, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) to bid him and Sir J. Minnes (age 63) adieu, they going this day towards Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and then to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) to see Sir J. Lawson (age 48), who I heard was there, where I found him the same plain man that he was, after all his success in the Straights, with which he is come loaded home.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1663. Lord's Day. Up, and after the barber had done, and I had spoke with Mr. Smith (whom I sent for on purpose to speak of Field's business, who stands upon £250 before he will release us, which do trouble me highly), and also Major Allen of the Victualling Office about his ship to be hired for Tangier, I went to church, and thence home to dinner alone with my wife, very pleasant, and after dinner to church again, and heard a dull, drowsy sermon, and so home and to my office, perfecting my vows again for the next year, which I have now done, and sworn to in the presence of Almighty God to observe upon the respective penalties thereto annexed, and then to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) (though much against my will, for I cannot bear him, but only to keep him from complaint to others that I do not see him) to see how he do, and find him pretty well, and ready to go abroad again.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1663. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and so home with him by coach, and I to see how my wife do, who is pretty well again, and so to dinner to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) to a cod's head, and so to my office, and after stopping to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), where was Sir J. Lawson (age 48) and his lady and daughter, which is pretty enough, I came back to my office, and there set to business pretty late, finishing the margenting my Navy-Manuscript. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1663. So to visit Sir W. Pen (age 41), and then to the office, and there late upon business by myself, my wife being sick to-day. So home and to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1663. Thence with Mr. Creed to see Mr. Moore, who continues sick still, within doors, and here I staid a good while after him talking of all the things either business or no that came into my mind, and so home and to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), and sat and played at cards with him, his daughter, and Mrs. Rooth, and so to my office a while, and then home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1663. Lord's Day. Lay long in bed and went not out all day; but after dinner to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) and Sir W. Pen's (age 41), where discoursing much of yesterday's trouble and scandal; but that which troubled me most was Sir J. Minnes (age 63) coming from Court at night, and instead of bringing great comfort from thence (but I expected no better from him), he tells me that the Duke and Mr. Coventry (age 35) make no great matter of it. So at night discontented to prayers, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1663. Thence with great satisfaction to me back to the Company, where I heard good discourse, and so to the afternoon Lecture upon the heart and lungs, &c., and that being done we broke up, took leave, and back to the office, we two, Sir W. Batten (age 62), who dined here also, being gone before. Here late, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) to speak upon some business, where I found Sir J. Minnes (age 63) pretty well fuddled I thought: he took me aside to tell me how being at my Chancellor's (age 54) to-day, my Lord told him that there was a Great Seal passing for Sir W. Pen (age 41), through the impossibility of the Comptroller's duty to be performed by one man; to be as it were joynt-comptroller with him, at which he is stark mad; and swears he will give up his place, and do rail at Sir W. Pen (age 41) the cruellest; he I made shift to encourage as much as I could, but it pleased me heartily to hear him rail against him, so that I do see thoroughly that they are not like to be great friends, for he cries out against him for his house and yard and God knows what. For my part, I do hope, when all is done, that my following my business will keep me secure against all their envys. But to see how the old man do strut, and swear that he understands all his duty as easily as crack a nut, and easier, he told my Chancellor (age 54), for his teeth are gone; and that he understands it as well as any man in England; and that he will never leave to record that he should be said to be unable to do his duty alone; though, God knows, he cannot do it more than a child. All this I am glad to see fall out between them and myself safe, and yet I hope the King's service well done for all this, for I would not that should be hindered by any of our private differences. So to my office, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1663. So home and to bed. Coming by, I put in at White Hall, and at the Privy Seal I did see the docquet by which Sir W. Pen (age 41) is made the Comptroller's assistant, as Sir J. Minnes (age 63) told me last night, which I must endeavour to prevent.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1663. Thence I to the Privy Seal Office, and there got a copy of Sir W. Pen's (age 41) grant to be assistant to Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Comptroller, which, though there be not much in it, yet I intend to stir up Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to oppose, only to vex Sir W. Pen (age 41).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1663. Thence I went to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who I found very ill, and by his cold being several nights hindered from sleep, he is hardly able to open his eyes, and is very weak and sad upon it, which troubled me much. So after talking with Mr. Cooke, whom I found there, about his folly for looking and troubling me and other friends in getting him a place (that is, storekeeper of the Navy at Tangier) before there is any such thing, I returned to the Hall, and thence back with the two knights home again by coach, where I found Mr. Moore got abroad, and dined with me, which I was glad to see, he having not been able to go abroad a great while. Then came in Mr. Hawley and dined with us, and after dinner I left them, and to the office, where we sat late, and I do find that I shall meet with nothing to oppose my growing great in the office but Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is now well again, and comes into the office very brisk, and, I think, to get up his time that he has been out of the way by being mighty diligent at the office, which, I pray God, he may be, but I hope by mine to weary him out, for I am resolved to fall to business as hard as I can drive, God giving me health. At my office late, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1663. Rose this morning early, only to try with intention to begin my last summer's course in rising betimes. So to my office a little, and then to Westminster by coach with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), in our way talking of Sir W. Pen's (age 41) business of his patent, which I think I have put a stop to wholly, for Sir J. Minnes (age 64) swears he will never consent to it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1663. Thence after dinner back to Deptford, where we did as before, and so home, good discourse in our way, Sir J. Minnes (age 64) being good company, though a simple man enough as to the business of his office, but we did discourse at large again about Sir W. Pen's (age 41) patent to be his assistant, and I perceive he is resolved never to let it pass.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1663. Up betimes, and to the office, where some of us sat all the morning. At noon Sir W. Pen (age 41) began to talk with me like a counterfeit rogue very kindly about his house and getting bills signed for all our works, but he is a cheating fellow, and so I let him talk and answered nothing. So we parted. I to dinner, and there met The. Turner (age 11), who is come on foot in a frolique to beg me to get a place at sea for John, their man, which is a rogue; but, however, it may be, the sea may do him good in reclaiming him, and therefore I will see what I can do. She dined with me; and after dinner I took coach, and carried her home; in our way, in Cheapside, lighting and giving her a dozen pair of white gloves as my Valentine.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1663. Up betimes, to my office, where all the morning. About noon Sir J. Robinson (age 48), Lord Mayor, desiring way through the garden from the Tower, called in at the office and there invited me (and Sir W. Pen (age 41), who happened to be in the way) to dinner, which we did; and there had a great Lent dinner of fish, little flesh. And thence he and I in his coach, against my will (for I am resolved to shun too great fellowship with him) to White Hall, but came too late, the Duke having been with our fellow officers before we came, for which I was sorry.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1663. Up and to my office all the morning, and great pleasure it is to be doing my business betimes. About noon Sir J. Minnes (age 64) came to me and staid half an hour with me in my office talking about his business with Sir W. Pen (age 41), and (though with me an old doter) yet he told me freely how sensible he is of Sir W. Pen's (age 41) treachery in this business, and what poor ways he has taken all along to ingratiate himself by making Mr. Turner write out things for him and then he gives them to the Duke, and how he directed him to give Mr. Coventry (age 35) £100 for his place, but that Mr. Coventry (age 35) did give him £20 back again. All this I am pleased to hear that his knavery is found out. Dined upon a poor Lenten dinner at home, my wife being vexed at a fray this morning with my Lady Batten about my boy's going thither to turn the watercock with their maydes' leave, but my Lady was mighty high upon it and she would teach his mistress better manners, which my wife answered aloud that she might hear, that she could learn little manners of her.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1663. Up betimes, and to my office, walked a little in the garden with Sir W. Batten (age 62), talking about the difference between his Lady and my wife yesterday, and I doubt my wife is to blame. About noon had news by Mr. Wood that Butler, our chief witness against Field, was sent by him to New England contrary to our desire, which made me mad almost; and so Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and I dined together at Trinity House, Deptford [Map], and thither sent for him to us and told him our minds, which he seemed not to value much, but went away. I wrote and sent an express to Walthamstow [Map] to Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is gone thither this morning, to tell him of it. However, in the afternoon Wood sends us word that he has appointed another to go, who shall overtake the ship in the Downes. So I was late at the office, among other things writing to the Downes, to the Commander-in-Chief, and putting things into the surest course I could to help the business. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1663. Up very betimes and to my office, where, with several Masters of the King's ships, Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I advising upon the business of Slopps, wherein the seaman is so much abused by the Pursers, and that being done, then I home to dinner, and so carried my wife to her mother's, set her down and Ashwell to my Lord's lodging, there left her, and I to the Duke (age 29), where we met of course, and talked of our Navy matters. Then to the Commission of Tangier, and there, among other things, had my Lord Peterborough's (age 41) Commission read over; and Mr. Secretary Bennet (age 45) did make his querys upon it, in order to the drawing one for my Lord Rutherford more regularly, that being a very extravagant thing. Here long discoursing upon my Lord Rutherford's despatch, and so broke up, and so going out of the Court I met with Mr. Coventry (age 35), and so he and I walked half an hour in the long Stone Gallery, where we discoursed of many things, among others how the Treasurer doth intend to come to pay in course, which is the thing of the world that will do the King (age 32) the greatest service in the Navy, and which joys my heart to hear of. He tells me of the business of Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 41), which I knew before, but took no notice or little that I did know it. But he told me it was chiefly to make Mr. Pett's (age 52) being joyned with Sir W. Batten (age 62) to go down the better, and do tell me how he well sees that neither one nor the other can do their duties without help. But however will let it fall at present without doing more in it to see whether they will do their duties themselves, which he will see, and saith they do not. We discoursed of many other things to my great content and so parted, and I to my wife at my Lord's lodgings, where I heard Ashwell play first upon the harpsicon, and I find she do play pretty well, which pleaseth me very well.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1663. This discourse done, and things put in a way of doing, they went away, and Captain Holmes (age 41) being called in he began his high complaint against his Master Cooper, and would have him forthwith discharged. Which I opposed, not in his defence but for the justice of proceeding not to condemn a man unheard, upon [which] we fell from one word to another that we came to very high terms, such as troubled me, though all and the worst that I ever said was that that was insolently or ill mannerdly spoken. When he told me that it was well it was here that I said it. But all the officers, Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Batten (age 62), and Sir W. Pen (age 41) cried shame of it.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1663. So to my office where all the morning and at the Glass-house, and after dinner by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 41) I carried my wife and her woman to Westminster, they to visit Mrs. Ferrers and Clerke, we to the Duke, where we did our usual business, and afterwards to the Tangier Committee, where among other things we all of us sealed and signed the Contract for building the Mole with my Lord Tiviott, Sir J. Lawson (age 48), and Mr. Cholmley. A thing I did with a very ill will, because a thing which I did not at all understand, nor any or few of the whole board. We did also read over the propositions for the Civill government and Law Merchant of the town, as they were agreed on this morning at the Glasshouse by Sir R. Ford (age 49) and Sir W. Rider, who drew them, Mr. Povy (age 49) and myself as a Committee appointed to prepare them, which were in substance but not in the manner of executing them independent wholly upon the Governor consenting to.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1663. So to my office all the afternoon till night, and then home, calling at Sir W. Batten's (age 62), where was Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 41), I telling them how by my letter this day from Commissioner Pett (age 52) I hear that his Stempeese1 he undertook for the new ship at Woolwich, Kent [Map], which we have been so long, to our shame, in looking for, do prove knotty and not fit for service. Lord! how Sir J. Minnes (age 64), like a mad coxcomb, did swear and stamp, swearing that Commissioner Pett (age 52) hath still the old heart against the King (age 32) that ever he had, and that this was his envy against his brother that was to build the ship, and all the damnable reproaches in the world, at which I was ashamed, but said little; but, upon the whole, I find him still a fool, led by the nose with stories told by Sir W. Batten (age 62), whether with or without reason. So, vexed in my mind to see things ordered so unlike gentlemen, or men of reason, I went home and to bed.

Note 1. Stemples, cross pieces which are put into a frame of woodwork to cure and strengthen a shaft.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1663. By and by the House rises and I home again with Sir W. Pen (age 41), and all the way talking of the same business, to whom I did on purpose tell him my mind freely, and let him see that it must be a wiser man than Holmes (in these very words) that shall do me any hurt while I do my duty. I to remember him of Holmes's words against Sir J. Minnes (age 64), that he was a knave, rogue, coward, and that he will kick him and pull him by the ears, which he remembered all of them and may have occasion to do it hereafter to his owne shame to suffer them to be spoke in his presence without any reply but what I did give him, which, has caused all this feud. But I am glad of it, for I would now and then take occasion to let the world know that I will not be made a novice. Sir W. Pen (age 41) took occasion to speak about my wife's strangeness to him and his daughter, and that believing at last that it was from his taking of Sarah to be his maid, he hath now put her away, at which I am glad. He told me, that this day the King (age 32) hath sent to the House his concurrence wholly with them against the Popish priests, Jesuits, &c., which gives great content, and I am glad of it.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1663. Up by very betimes and to my office, where all the morning till towards noon, and then by coach to Westminster Hall [Map] with Sir W. Pen (age 41), and while he went up to the House I walked in the Hall with Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, that I met there, talking about my business the other day with Holmes, whom I told my mind, and did freely tell how I do depend upon my care and diligence in my employment to bear me out against the pride of Holmes or any man else in things that are honest, and much to that purpose which I know he will make good use of. But he did advise me to take as few occasions as I can of disobliging Commanders, though this is one that every body is glad to hear that he do receive a check.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1663. By and by, much against my will, being twice sent for, to Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) to pass his accounts there, upon which Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and myself all the morning, and again after dinner to it, being vexed at my heart to see a thing of that importance done so slightly and with that neglect for which God pardon us, and I would I could mend it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1663. Up betimes to my office, where busy till 8 o'clock that Sir W. Batten (age 62), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I down by barge to Woolwich, Kent [Map], to see "The Royal James" launched, where she has been under repair a great while. We staid in the yard till almost noon, and then to Mr. Falconer's to a dinner of fish of our own sending, and when it was just ready to come upon the table, word is brought that the King (age 32) and Duke (age 29) are come, so they all went away to shew themselves, while I staid and had a little dish or two by myself, resolving to go home, and by the time I had dined they came again, having gone to little purpose, the King (age 32), I believe, taking little notice of them. So they to dinner, and I staid a little with them, and so good bye. I walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], studying the Slide Rule for measuring of timber, which is very fine.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my vyall and song book a pretty while, and so to my office, and there we sat all the morning. Among other things Sir W. Batten (age 62) had a mind to cause Butler (our chief witness in the business of Field, whom we did force back from an employment going to sea to come back to attend our law sute) to be borne as a mate on the Rainbow in the Downes in compensation for his loss for our sakes. This he orders an order to be drawn by Mr. Turner for, and after Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Batten (age 62), and Sir W. Pen (age 42) had signed it, it came to me and I was going to put it up into my book, thinking to consider of it and give them my opinion upon it before I parted with it, but Sir W. Pen (age 42) told me I must sign it or give it him again, for it should not go without my hand. I told him what I meant to do, whereupon Sir W. Batten (age 62) was very angry, and in a great heat (which will bring out any thing which he has in his mind, and I am glad of it, though it is base in him to have a thing so long in his mind without speaking of it, though I am glad this is the worst, for if he had worse it would out as well as this some time or other) told me that I should not think as I have heretofore done, make them sign orders and not sign them myself. Which what ignorance or worse it implies is easy to judge, when he shall sign to things (and the rest of the board too as appears in this business) for company and not out of their judgment for. After some discourse I did convince them that it was not fit to have it go, and Sir W. Batten (age 62) first, and then the rest, did willingly cancel all their hands and tear the order, for I told them, Butler being such a rogue as I know him, and we have all signed him to be to the Duke, it will be in his power to publish this to our great reproach, that we should take such a course as this to serve ourselves in wronging the King (age 32) by putting him into a place he is no wise capable of, and that in an Admiral ship.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, where doing business alone a good while till people came about business to me. Will Griffin tells me this morning that Captain Browne, Sir W. Batten's (age 62) brother-in-law, is dead of a blow given him two days ago by a seaman, a servant of his, being drunk, with a stone striking him on the forehead, for which I am sorry, he having a good woman and several small children. At the office all the morning, at noon dined at home with my wife, merry, and after dinner by water to White Hall; but found the Duke of York (age 29) gone to St. James's for this summer; and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 35), to whose chamber I went, and Sir W. Pen (age 42) up to the Duke's closett. And a good while with him about our Navy business; and so I to White Hall, and there alone a while with my Lord Sandwich (age 37) discoursing about his debt to the Navy, wherein he hath given me some things to resolve him in.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1663. So to the Exchange [Map] and then home to dinner, and very merry and well pleased with my wife, and so to the office again, where we met extraordinary upon drawing up the debts of the Navy to my Lord Treasurer (age 56). So rose and up to Sir W. Pen (age 42) to drink a glass of bad syder in his new far low dining room, which is very noble, and so home, where Captain Ferrers and his lady are come to see my wife, he being to go the beginning of next week to France to sea and I think to fetch over my young Lord Hinchinbroke. They being gone I to my office to write letters by the post, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1663. Lord's Day. Up before 5 o'clock and alone at setting my Brampton papers to rights according to my father's and my computation and resolution the other day to my good content, I finding that there will be clear saved to us £50 per annum, only a debt of it may be £100. So made myself ready and to church, where Sir W. Pen (age 42) showed me the young lady which young Dawes (age 19), that sits in the new corner-pew in the church, hath stole away from Sir Andrew Rickard (age 59), her guardian, worth £1000 per annum present, good land, and some money, and a very well-bred and handsome lady: he, I doubt, but a simple fellow. However, he got this good luck to get her, which methinks I could envy him with all my heart.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1663. By and by took boat intending to have gone down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], but seeing I could not get back time enough to dinner, I returned and home. Whither by and by the dancing-master came, whom standing by, seeing him instructing my wife, when he had done with her, he would needs have me try the steps of a coranto, and what with his desire and my wife's importunity, I did begin, and then was obliged to give him entry-money 10s., and am become his scholler. The truth is, I think it a thing very useful for a gentleman, and sometimes I may have occasion of using it, and though it cost me what I am heartily sorry it should, besides that I must by my oath give half as much more to the poor, yet I am resolved to get it up some other way, and then it will not be above a month or two in a year. So though it be against my stomach yet I will try it a little while; if I see it comes to any great inconvenience or charge I will fling it off. After I had begun with the steps of half a coranto, which I think I shall learn well enough, he went away, and we to dinner, and by and by out by coach, and set my wife down at my Lord Crew's, going to see my Lady Jem. Montagu, who is lately come to town, and I to St. James's; where Mr. Coventry (age 35), Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I staid a good while for the Duke's coming in, but not coming, we walked to White Hall; and meeting the King (age 32), we followed him into the Park, where Mr. Coventry (age 35) and he talked of building a new yacht, which the King (age 32) is resolved to have built out of his privy purse, he having some contrivance of his own.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1663. So to the yard a little, and thence on foot to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where going I was set upon by a great dogg, who got hold of my garters, and might have done me hurt; but, Lord, to see in what a maze I was, that, having a sword about me, I never thought of it, or had the heart to make use of it, but might, for want of that courage, have been worried. Took water there and home, and both coming and going did con my lesson on my Ruler to measure timber, which I think I can well undertake now to do. At home there being Pembleton I danced, and I think shall come on to do something in a little time, and after dinner by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 42) (setting down his daughter at Clerkenwell), to St. James's, where we attended the Duke of York (age 29): and, among other things, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and I had a great dispute about the different value of the pieces of eight rated by Mr. Creed at 4s. and 5d., and by Pitts at 4s. and 9d., which was the greatest husbandry to the King (age 32)? he persisting that the greatest sum was; which is as ridiculous a piece of ignorance as could be imagined. However, it is to be argued at the Board, and reported to the Duke next week; which I shall do with advantage, I hope.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1663. So to Woolwich, Kent [Map] yard, and after doing many things there, among others preparing myself for a dispute against Sir W. Pen (age 42) in the business of Bowyer's, wherein he is guilty of some corruption to the King's wrong, we walked back again without drinking, which I never do because I would not make my coming troublesome to any, nor would become obliged too much to any. In our going back we were overtook by Mr. Steventon, a purser, and uncle to my clerk Will, who told me how he was abused in the passing of his accounts by Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to the degree that I am ashamed to hear it, and resolve to retrieve the matter if I can though the poor man has given it over. And however am pleased enough to see that others do see his folly and dotage as well as myself, though I believe in my mind the man in general means well.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1663. Thence to Greatorex's (age 38), and there seeing Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 42) go by coach I went in to them and to White Hall; where, in the Matted Gallery, Mr. Coventry (age 35) was, who told us how the Parliament have required of Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and him an account what money shall be necessary to be settled upon the Navy for the ordinary charge, which they intend to report £200,000 per annum. And how to allott this we met this afternoon, and took their papers for our perusal, and so we parted. Only there was walking in the gallery some of the Barbary company, and there we saw a draught of the arms of the company, which the King (age 32) is of, and so is called the Royall Company, which is, in a field argent an elephant proper, with a canton on which England and France is quartered, supported by two Moors. The crest an anchor winged, I think it is, and the motto too tedious: "Regio floret, patrocinio commercium, commercioque Regnum1".

Note 1. TT. By royal patronage commerce flourishes, by commerce the realm".

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1663. After sermon to Sir W. Pen's (age 42), with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to do a little business to answer Mr. Coventry (age 35) to-night. And so home and with my wife and Ashwell into the garden walking a great while, discoursing what this pretty wench should be by her garb and deportment; with respect to Mrs. Pen she may be her woman, but only that she sat in the pew with her, which I believe he would not let her do.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1663. To church again after dinner (my wife finding herself ill.... did not go), and there the Scot preaching I slept most of the sermon. This day Sir W. Batten's (age 62) son's child is christened in the country, whither Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and Sir W, Batten, and Sir W. Pen (age 42) are all gone. I wonder, and take it highly ill that I am not invited by the father, though I know his father and mother, with whom I am never likely to have much kindness, but rather I study the contrary, are the cause of it, and in that respect I am glad of it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1663. So, well pleased for once with this sight, I walked home, doing several businesses by the way. In my way calling to see Commissioner Pett (age 52), who lies sick at his daughter, a pretty woman, in Gracious Street [Map], but is likely to be abroad again in a day or two. At home I found my wife in bed all this day .... I went to see Sir Wm. Pen (age 42), who has a little pain of his gout again, but will do well.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1663. After dinner to the office, where all the afternoon till late, and so to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), and so home to supper and to bed. To-night I took occasion with the vintner's man, who came by my direction to taste again my tierce of claret, to go down to the cellar with him to consult about the drawing of it; and there, to my great vexation, I find that the cellar door hath long been kept unlocked, and above half the wine drunk. I was deadly mad at it, and examined my people round, but nobody would confess it; but I did examine the boy, and afterwards Will, and told him of his sitting up after we were in bed with the maids, but as to that business he denies it, which I can [not] remedy, but I shall endeavour to know how it went. My wife did also this evening tell me a story of Ashwell stealing some new ribbon from her, a yard or two, which I am sorry to hear, and I fear my wife do take a displeasure against her, that they will hardly stay together, which I should be sorry for, because I know not where to pick such another out anywhere.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1663. Thence to Sir W. Pen (age 42), who I found ill again of the gout, he tells me that now Mr. Castle (age 34) and Mrs. Martha Batten (age 26) do own themselves to be married, and have been this fortnight. Much good may it do him, for I do not envy him his wife.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1663. So home, and there my wife and I had an angry word or two upon discourse of our boy, compared with Sir W. Pen's (age 42) boy that he has now, whom I say is much prettier than ours and she the contrary. It troubles me to see that every small thing is enough now-a-days to bring a difference between us.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1663. Thence, Creed happening to be with us, we four to the Half Moon Tavern [Map], I buying some sugar and carrying it with me, which we drank with wine and thence to the whay-house, and drank a great deal of whay, and so by water home, and thence to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), who is not in much pain, but his legs swell and so immoveable that he cannot stir them, but as they are lifted by other people and I doubt will have another fit of his late pain. Played a little at cards with him and his daughter, who is grown every day a finer and finer lady, and so home to supper and to bed. When my wife and I came first home we took Ashwell and all the rest below in the cellar with the vintner drawing out my wine, which I blamed Ashwell much for and told her my mind that I would not endure it, nor was it fit for her to make herself equal with the ordinary servants of the house.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1663. So to the Exchange [Map], to buy things with my wife; among others, a vizard for herself. And so by water home and to my office to do a little business, and so to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), but being going to bed and not well I could not see him.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1663. So to Sir W. Pen's (age 42) to visit him, and finding him alone, sent for my wife, who is in her riding-suit, to see him, which she hath not done these many months I think.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1663. By and by in comes Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), and so we sat talking. Among other things, Sir J. Minnes (age 64) brought many fine expressions of Chaucer, which he doats on mightily, and without doubt he is a very fine poet1. Sir W. Pen (age 42) continues lame of the gout, that he cannot rise from his chair. So after staying an hour with him, we went home and to supper, and so to prayers and bed.

Note 1. Pepys continued through life an admirer of Chaucer, and we have the authority of Dryden (age 31) himself for saying that we owe his character of the Good Parson to Pepys's recommendation.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1663. So to the office, where we sat all the afternoon till night, and then to Sir W. Pen (age 42), who continues ill, and so to bed about 10 o'clock.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jun 1663. Thence to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), who continues ill of the gout still. Here we staid a good while, and then I to my office, and read my vows seriously and with content, and so home to supper, to prayers, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1663. Thence by water home and to dinner, and afterwards to the office, and there sat till evening, and then I by water to Deptford, Kent [Map] to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), who lies ill at Captain Rooth's, but in a way to be well again this weather, this day being the only fair day we have had these two or three months. Among other discourse I did tell him plainly some of my thoughts concerning Sir W. Batten (age 62). and the office in general, upon design for him to understand that I do mind things and will not balk to take notice of them, that when he comes to be well again he may know how to look upon me.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1663. So home to dinner and then to the office, and entered in my manuscript book the Victualler's contract, and then over the water and walked to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), and sat with him a while, and so home late, and to my viall. So up comes Creed again to me and stays all night, to-morrow morning being a hearing before the Duke. So to bed full of discourse of his business.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jul 1663. Dined at home, and Mr. Moore in the afternoon comes to me and concluded not to go. Sir W. Batten (age 62) and I sat a little this afternoon at the office, and thence I by water to Deptford, and there mustered the Yard, purposely, God forgive me, to find out Bagwell (age 26), a carpenter, whose wife is a pretty woman, that I might have some occasion of knowing him and forcing her to come to the office again, which I did so luckily that going thence he and his wife did of themselves meet me in the way to thank me for my old kindness, but I spoke little to her, but shall give occasion for her coming to me. Her husband went along with me to show me Sir W. Pen's (age 42) lodging, which I knew before, but only to have a time of speaking to him and sounding him. So left and I went in to Sir W. Pen (age 42), who continues ill, and worse, I think, than before. He tells me my Baroness Castlemaine (age 22) was at Court, for all this talk this week, which I am glad to hear; but it seems the King (age 33) is stranger than ordinary to her.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1663. Thence to the Change [Map], and so home, Creed and I to dinner, and after dinner Sir W. Warren came to me, and he and I in my closet about his last night's contract, and from thence to discourse of measuring of timber, wherein I made him see that I could understand the matter well, and did both learn of and teach him something. Creed being gone through my staying talking to him so long, I went alone by water down to Redriffe [Map], and so to sit and talk with Sir W. Pen (age 42), where I did speak very plainly concerning my thoughts of Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64). So as it may cost me some trouble if he should tell them again, but he said as much or more to me concerning them both, which I may remember if ever it should come forth, and nothing but what is true and my real opinion of them, that they neither do understand to this day Creed's accounts, nor do deserve to be employed in their places without better care, but that the King (age 33) had better give them greater salaries to stand still and do nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1663. Thence to my bookseller's, and found my Waggoners done. The very binding cost me 14s., but they are well done, and so with a porter home with them, and so by water to Ratcliffe, and there went to speak with Cumberford the platt-maker, and there saw his manner of working, which is very fine and laborious. So down to Deptford, reading Ben Jonson's "Devil is an asse", and so to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), who I find walking out of doors a little, but could not stand long; but in doors and I with him, and staid a great while talking, I taking a liberty to tell him my thoughts in things of the office; that when he comes abroad again, he may know what to think of me, and to value me as he ought. Walked home as I used to do, and being weary, and after some discourse with Mr. Barrow, who came to see and take his leave of me, he being to-morrow to set out toward the Isle of Man, I went to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1663. Thence by and by walked to see Sir W. Pen (age 42) at Deptford, reading by the way a most ridiculous play, a new one, called "The Politician Cheated".

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1663. So to the office, where Sir Wm. Pen (age 42) (the first time that he has been with us a great while, he having been long sick) met us, and there we sat all the morning. My brother John (age 22) I find come to town to my house, as I sent for him, on Saturday last; so at noon home and dined with him, and after dinner and the barber been with me I walked out with him to my viall maker's and other places and then left him, and I by water to Blackbury's, and there talked with him about some masts (and by the way he tells me that Paul's is now going to be repaired in good earnest), and so with him to his garden close by his house, where I eat some peaches and apricots; a very pretty place.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1663. So to my office, whither Mr. Coventry (age 35) came and Sir William Pen (age 42), and we sat all the morning. This day Mr. Coventry (age 35) borrowed of me my manuscript of the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Aug 1663. Thence home and to study my new rule till my head aked cruelly. So by and by to dinner and the Doctor and Mr. Creed came to me. The Doctor's discourse, which (though he be a very good-natured man) is but simple, was some sport to me and Creed, though my head akeing I took no great pleasure in it. We parted after dinner, and I walked to Deptford, Kent [Map] and there found Sir W. Pen (age 42), and I fell to measuring of some planks that was serving into the yard, which the people took notice of, and the measurer himself was amused at, for I did it much more ready than he, and I believe Sir W. Pen (age 42) would be glad I could have done less or he more.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1663. Thence walked home, doing several errands by the way, and at home took my wife to visit Sir W. Pen (age 42), who is still lame, and after an hour with him went home and supped, and with great content to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1663. So home and with my wife to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), and thence to my uncle Wight, and took him at supper and sat down, where methinks my uncle is more kind than he used to be both to me now, and my father tell me to him also, which I am glad at.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1663. After supper to prayers and to bed, having been, by a sudden letter coming to me from Mr. Coventry (age 35), been with Sir W. Pen (age 42), to discourse with him about sending 500 soldiers into Ireland. I doubt matters do not go very right there.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1663. Up, and after doing something in order to the putting of my house in order now the joynery is done, I went by water to White Hall, where the Court full of waggons and horses, the King (age 33) and Court going this day out towards the Bath, Somerset [Map], and I to St. James's, where I spent an hour or more talking of many things to my great content with Mr. Coventry (age 35) in his chamber, he being ready to set forth too with the Duke (age 29) to-day, and so left him, and I meeting Mr. Gauden, with him to our offices and in Sir W. Pen's (age 42) chamber did discourse by a meeting on purpose with Mr. Waith about the victualling business and came to some issue in it.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1663. Home again, and after seeing Sir W. Pen (age 42), to my office, and there till late doing of business, being mightily encouraged by every body that I meet withal upon the 'Change [Map] and every where else, that I am taken notice of for a man that do the King's business wholly and well. For which the Lord be praised, for I know no honour I desire more.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1663. Up very betimes by break of day, and got my wife up, whom the thought of this day's long journey do discourage; and after eating something, and changing of a piece of gold to pay the reckoning, we mounted, and through Baldwicke, where a fayre is kept to-day, and a great one for cheese and other such commodities, and so to Hatfield, Hertfordshire, it being most curious weather from the time we set out to our getting home, and here we dined, and my wife being very weary, and believing that it would be hard to get her home to-night, and a great charge to keep her longer abroad, I took the opportunity of an empty coach that was to go to London, and left her to come in it to London, for half-a-crown, and so I and the boy home as fast as we could drive, and it was even night before we got home. So that I account it very good fortune that we took this course, being myself very weary, much more would my wife have been. At home found all very well and my house in good order. To see Sir W. Pen (age 42), who is pretty well, and Sir J. Minnes (age 64), who is a little lame on one foot, and the rest gone to Chatham, Kent [Map], viz.: Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), who has in my absence inveighed against my contract the other day for Warren's masts, in which he is a knave, and I shall find matter of tryumph, but it vexes me a little.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1663. I up, well refreshed after my journey, and to my office and there set some things in order, and then Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I met and held an office, and at noon to dinner, and so by water with my wife to Westminster, she to see her father and mother, and we met again at my Lord's lodgings, and thence by water home again, where at the door we met Sir W. Pen (age 42) and his daughter coming to visit us, and after their visit I to my office, and after some discourse to my great satisfaction with Sir W. Warren about our bargain of masts, I wrote my letters by the post, and so home to supper and to bed. This day my wife showed me bills printed, wherein her father, with Sir John Collidon and Edward Ford (age 58), have got a patent for curing of smoky chimneys1. I wish they may do good thereof, but fear it will prove but a poor project.

Note 1. The Patent numbered 138 is printed in the appendix to Wheatley's "Samuel Pepys and the World he lived in" (p. 241). It is drawn in favour of John Colladon, Doctor in Physicke, and of Alexander Marchant, of St. Michall, and describes "a way to prevent and cure the smoakeing of Chimneys, either by stopping the tunnell towards the top, and altering the former course of the smoake, or by setting tunnells with checke within the chimneyes". Edward Ford's (age 58) name does not appear in the patent.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1663. Then home again by water, and after a little at my office, and visit Sir W. Pen (age 42), who is not very well again, with his late pain, home to supper, being hungry, and my ear and cold not so bad I think as it was.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Oct 1663. Up and betimes to my office, and then to sit, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Sir W. Pen (age 42), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Mr. Coventry (age 35) and myself, a fuller board than by the King's progresse and the late pays and my absence has been a great while. Sat late, and then home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1663. So I to the office till night, about several businesses, and then went and sat an hour or two with Sir W. Pen (age 42), talking very largely of Sir J. Minnes's (age 64) simplicity and unsteadiness, and of Sir W. Batten's (age 62) suspicious dealings, wherein I was open, and he sufficiently, so that I do not care for his telling of tales, for he said as much, but whether that were so or no I said nothing but what is my certain knowledge and belief concerning him. Thence home to bed in great pain.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1663. Thence home by water in great pain, and at my office a while, and thence a little to Sir W. Pen (age 42), and so home to bed, and finding myself beginning to be troubled with wind as I used to be, and in pain in making water, I took a couple of pills that I had by me of Mr. Hollyard's (age 54).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1663. Thence home and after dinner my wife and I, by Mr. Rawlinson's (age 49) conduct, to the Jewish Synagogue: where the men and boys in their vayles, and the women behind a lattice out of sight; and some things stand up, which I believe is their Law, in a press to which all coming in do bow; and at the putting on their vayles do say something, to which others that hear him do cry Amen, and the party do kiss his vayle. Their service all in a singing way, and in Hebrew. And anon their Laws that they take out of the press are carried by several men, four or five several burthens in all, and they do relieve one another; and whether it is that every one desires to have the carrying of it, I cannot tell, thus they carried it round about the room while such a service is singing. And in the end they had a prayer for the King (age 33), which they pronounced his name in Portugall; but the prayer, like the rest, in Hebrew. But, Lord! to see the disorder, laughing, sporting, and no attention, but confusion in all their service, more like brutes than people knowing the true God, would make a man forswear ever seeing them more and indeed I never did see so much, or could have imagined there had been any religion in the whole world so absurdly performed as this. Away thence with my mind strongly disturbed with them, by coach and set down my wife in Westminster Hall [Map], and I to White Hall, and there the Tangier Committee met, but the Duke and the Africa Committee meeting in our room, Sir G. Carteret (age 53); Sir Wm. Compton (age 38), Mr. Coventry (age 35), Sir W. Rider, Cuttance and myself met in another room, with chairs set in form but no table, and there we had very fine discourses of the business of the fitness to keep Sally, and also of the terms of our King's paying the Portugees that deserted their house at Tangier, which did much please me, and so to fetch my wife, and so to the New Exchange about her things, and called at Thomas Pepys the turner's and bought something there, an so home to supper and to bed, after I had been a good while with Sir W. Pen (age 42), railing and speaking freely our minds against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64), but no more than the folly of one and the knavery of the other do deserve.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Oct 1663. So home to dinner, and Tom came and dined with me, and so, anon, to church again, and there a simple coxcomb preached worse than the Scot, and no Pembleton nor his wife there, which pleased me not a little, and then home and spent most of the evening at Sir W. Pen's (age 42) in complaisance, seeing him though he deserves no respect from me. This evening came my uncle Wight to speak with me about my uncle Thomas's business, and Mr. Moore came, 4 or 5 days out of the country and not come to see me before, though I desired by two or three messengers that he would come to me as soon as he came to town. Which do trouble me to think he should so soon forget my kindness to him, which I am afraid he do. After walking a good while in the garden with these, I went up again to Sir W. Pen (age 42), and took my wife home, and after supper to prayers, and read very seriously my vowes, which I am fearful of forgetting by my late great expenses, but I hope in God I do not, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Nov 1663. Lord's Day. This morning my brother's man brought me a new black baize waistecoate, faced with silke, which I put on from this day, laying by half-shirts for this winter. He brought me also my new gowne of purple shagg, trimmed with gold, very handsome; he also brought me as a gift from my brother, a velvet hat, very fine to ride in, and the fashion, which pleases me very well, to which end, I believe, he sent it me, for he knows I had lately been angry with him. Up and to church with my wife, and at noon dined at home alone, a good calves head boiled and dumplings, an excellent dinner methought it was. Then to church again, whither Sir W. Pen (age 42) came, the first time he has been at church these several months, he having been sicke all the while.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1663. Thence, meeting with Creed, walked with him to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence by coach took up Mrs. Hunt, and carried her towards my house, and we light at the 'Change [Map], and sent her to my house, Creed and I to the Coffeehouse, and then to the 'Change [Map], and so home, and carried a barrel of oysters with us, and so to dinner, and after a good dinner left Mrs. Hunt and my wife making marmalett of quinces, and Creed and I to the perriwigg makers, but it being dark concluded of nothing, and so Creed went away, and I with Sir W. Pen (age 42), who spied me in the street, in his coach home.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1663. By and by comes Chapman, the periwigg-maker, and upon my liking it, without more ado I went up, and there he cut off my haire, which went a little to my heart at present to part with it; but, it being over, and my periwigg on, I paid him £3 for it; and away went he with my owne haire to make up another of, and I by and by, after I had caused all my mayds to look upon it; and they conclude it do become me; though Jane was mightily troubled for my parting of my own haire, and so was Besse, I went abroad to the Coffeehouse, and coming back went to Sir W. Pen (age 42) and there sat with him and Captain Cocke (age 46) till late at night, Cocke talking of some of the Roman history very well, he having a good memory. Sir W. Pen (age 42) observed mightily, and discoursed much upon my cutting off my haire, as he do of every thing that concerns me, but it is over, and so I perceive after a day or two it will be no great matter.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1663. Lay long in bed, then up, called by Captain Cocke (age 46) about business of a contract of his for some Tarre, and so to the office, and then to Sir W. Pen (age 42) and there talked, and he being gone came Sir W. Warren and discoursed about our business with Field, and at noon by agreement to the Miter [Map] to dinner upon T. Trice's 40s., to be spent upon our late agreement. Here was a very poor dinner and great company. All our lawyers on both sides, and several friends of his and some of mine brought by him, viz., Mr. Moore, uncle Wight, Dr. Williams, and my cozen Angier, that lives here in town, who the Captain John Shales after dinner carried me aside and showed me a letter from his poor brother at Cambridge to me of the same contents with that yesterday to me desiring help from me. Here I was among a sorry company without any content or pleasure, and at the last the reckoning coming to above 40s. by 15s., he would have me pay the 10s. and he would pay the 5s., which was so poor that I was ashamed of it, and did it only to save contending with him. There, after agreeing a day for him and I to meet and seal our agreement, I parted and home, and at the office by agreement came Mr. Shales, and there he and I discourse till late the business of his helping me in the discovery of some arrears of provisions and stores due to the stores at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], out of which I may chance to get some money, and save the King (age 33) some too, and therefore I shall endeavour to do the fellow some right in other things here to his advantage between Mr. Gauden and him. He gone my wife and I to her arithmetique, in which she pleases me well, and so to the office, there set down my Journall, and so home to supper and to bed. A little troubled to see how my family is out of order by Will's being there, and also to hear that Jane do not please my wife as I expected and would have wished.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I had a word or two, where by opposing him in not being willing to excuse a mulct put upon the purser of the James, absent from duty, he says, by his business and order, he was mighty angry, and went out of the office like an asse discontented: At which I am never a whit sorry; I would not have (him) think that I dare not oppose him, where I see reason and cause for it.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. He tells me that the King (age 33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the King (age 33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the King (age 33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the King (age 33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the King (age 33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (age 42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (age 54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the King (age 33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the King (age 33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (age 14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1663. To the office and there all the morning, where Sir W. Pen (age 42), like a coxcomb, was so ready to cross me in a motion I made unawares for the entering a man at Chatham, Kent [Map] into the works, wherein I was vexed to see his spleene, but glad to understand it, and that it was in no greater a matter, I being not at all concerned here.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. From him and Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I back again and 'light at the 'Change [Map], and to the Coffee-house, where I heard the best story of a cheate intended by a Master of a ship, who had borrowed twice his money upon the bottomary, and as much more insured upon his ship and goods as they were worth, and then would have cast her away upon the coast of France, and there left her, refusing any pilott which was offered him; and so the Governor of the place took her and sent her over hither to find an owner, and so the ship is come safe, and goods and all; they all worth £500, and he had one way or other taken £3000. The cause is to be tried to-morrow at Guildhall [Map], where I intend to be.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. Was called up by a messenger from Sir W. Pen (age 42) to go with him by coach to White Hall. So I got up and went with him, and by the way he began to observe to me some unkind dealing of mine to him a weeke or two since at the table, like a coxcomb, when I answered him pretty freely that I would not think myself to owe any man the service to do this or that because they would have it so (it was about taking of a mulct upon a purser for not keeping guard at Chatham, Kent [Map] when I was there), so he talked and I talked and let fall the discourse without giving or receiving any great satisfaction, and so to other discourse, but I shall know him still for a false knave.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1663. Up betimes and my wife; and being in as mourning a dress as we could, at present, without cost, put ourselves into, we by Sir W. Pen's (age 42) coach to Mrs. Turner's (age 40), at Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, where I find my Lord's coach and six horses. We staid till almost eleven o'clock, and much company came, and anon, the corps being put into the hearse, and the scutcheons set upon it, we all took coach, and I and my wife and Auditor Beale in my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) coach, and went next to Mrs. Turner's (age 40) mourning coach, and so through all the City and Shoreditch, I believe about twenty coaches, and four or five with six and four horses. Being come thither, I made up to the mourners, and bidding them a good journey, I took leave and back again, and setting my wife into a hackney out of Bishopsgate Street, I sent her home, and I to the 'Change [Map] and Auditor Beale about his business.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Dec 1663. Up and to church, where Mr. Mills made an ordinary sermon, and so home and dined with great pleasure with my wife, and all the afternoon first looking out at window and seeing the boys playing at many several sports in our back yard by Sir W. Pen's (age 42), which reminded me of my own former times, and then I began to read to my wife upon the globes with great pleasure and to good purpose, for it will be pleasant to her and to me to have her understand these things.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1663. Up and to church alone and so home to dinner with my wife very pleasant and pleased with one another's company, and in our general enjoyment one of another, better we think than most other couples do. So after dinner to the French church, but came too late, and so back to our owne church, where I slept all the sermon the Scott preaching, and so home, and in the evening Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I met at Sir W. Pen's (age 42) about ordering some business of the Navy, and so I home to supper, discourse, prayers, and bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1663. So we parted and left them three at home with my wife going to cards, and I to my office and there staid late. Sir W. Pen (age 42) came like a cunning rogue to sit and talk with me about office business and freely about the Comptroller's business of the office, to which I did give him free answers and let him make the best of them. But I know him to be a knave, and do say nothing that I fear to have said again.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and among other things Sir W. Warren came about some contract, and there did at the open table, Sir W. Batten (age 62) not being there; openly defy him, and insisted how Sir W. Batten (age 62) did endeavour to oppose him in everything that he offered. Sir W. Pen (age 42) took him up for it, like a counterfeit rogue, though I know he was as much pleased to hear him talk so as any man there. But upon his speaking no more was said but to the business.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1663. At the office I am well, though envied to the devil by Sir William Batten (age 62), who hates me to death, but cannot hurt me. The rest either love me, or at least do not show otherwise, though I know Sir W. Pen (age 42) to be a false knave touching me, though he seems fair. My father and mother well in the country; and at this time the young ladies of Hinchingbroke [Map] with them, their house having the small-pox in it. The Queene (age 54) after a long and sore sicknesse is become well again; and the King (age 33) minds his mistresse a little too much, if it pleased God! but I hope all things will go well, and in the Navy particularly, wherein I shall do my duty whatever comes of it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jan 1664. This evening Sir W. Pen (age 42) came to invite me against next Wednesday, being Twelfth day, to his usual feast, his wedding day.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1664. At noon, all of us to dinner to Sir W. Pen's (age 42), where a very handsome dinner, Sir J. Lawson (age 49) among others, and his lady and his daughter, a very pretty lady and of good deportment, with looking upon whom I was greatly pleased, the rest of the company of the women were all of our own house, of no satisfaction or pleasure at all. My wife was not there, being not well enough, nor had any great mind. But to see how Sir W. Pen (age 42) imitates me in everything, even in his having his chimney piece in his dining room the same with that in my wife's closett, and in every thing else I perceive wherein he can. But to see again how he was out in one compliment: he lets alone drinking any of the ladies' healths that were there, my Lady Batten and Lawson, till he had begun with my Baroness Carteret (age 62), who was absent, and that was well enough, and then Mr. Coventry's (age 36) mistresse, at which he was ashamed, and would not have had him have drunk it, at least before the ladies present, but his policy, as he thought, was such that he would do it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1664. So home and to my office, did business, and then up to Sir W. Pen (age 42) and did express my trouble about this day's business, he not being there, and plainly told him what I thought of it, and though I know him a false fellow yet I adventured, as I have done often, to tell him clearly my opinion of Sir W. Batten (age 63) and his design in this business, which is very bad.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1664. She being gone, my wife and I to see Sir W. Pen (age 42) and there supped with him much against my stomach, for the dishes were so deadly foule that I could not endure to look upon them. So after supper home to prayers and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1664. Up and to the office, where, though Candlemas day, Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I all the morning, the others being at a survey at Deptford, Kent [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1664. Up, and down by water, a brave morning, to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there spent an houre or two to good purpose, and so walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map] and thence to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I found (with Sir W. Batten (age 63) upon a survey) Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Pen (age 42), and my Lady Batten come down and going to dinner. I dined with them, and so after dinner by water home, all the way going and coming reading "Faber Fortunae", which I can never read too often.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1664. Church being done, I back to Sir John's (age 49) house and there left him and home, and by and by to Sir W. Pen (age 42), and staid a while talking with him about Sir J. Minnes (age 64) his folly in his office, of which I am sicke and weary to speak of it, and how the King (age 33) is abused in it, though Pen (age 42), I know, offers the discourse only like a rogue to get it out of me, but I am very free to tell my mind to him, in that case being not unwilling he should tell him again if he will or any body else.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. Thence to White Hall (where my Lord Sandwich (age 38) was, and gave me a good countenance, I thought), and before the Duke (age 30) did our usual business, and so I about several businesses in the house, and then out to the Mewes with Sir W. Pen (age 42). But in my way first did meet with W. Howe, who did of himself advise me to appear more free with my Lord and to come to him, for my own strangeness he tells me he thinks do make my Lord the worse.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. Up and by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 42) to Charing Cross, and there I 'light, and to Sir Phillip Warwick (age 54) to visit him and discourse with him about navy business, which I did at large and he most largely with me, not only about the navy but about the general Revenue of England, above two hours, I think, many staying all the while without, but he seemed to take pains to let me either understand the affairs of the Revenue or else to be a witness of his pains and care in stating it. He showed me indeed many excellent collections of the State of the Revenue in former Kings and the late times, and the present. He showed me how the very Assessments between 1643 and 1659, which were taxes (besides Excise, Customes, Sequestrations, Decimations, King and Queene's (age 54) and Church Lands, or any thing else but just the Assessments), come to above fifteen millions. He showed me a discourse of his concerning the Revenues of this and foreign States. How that of Spayne was great, but divided with his kingdoms, and so came to little. How that of France did, and do much exceed ours before for quantity; and that it is at the will of the Prince to tax what he will upon his people; which is not here. That the Hollanders have the best manner of tax, which is only upon the expence of provisions, by an excise; and do conclude that no other tax is proper for England but a pound-rate, or excise upon the expence of provisions. He showed me every particular sort of payment away of money, since the King's coming in, to this day; and told me, from one to one, how little he hath received of profit from most of them; and I believe him truly. That the £1,200,000 which the Parliament with so much ado did first vote to give the King (age 33), and since hath been reexamined by several committees of the present Parliament, is yet above £300,000 short of making up really to the King (age 33) the £1,200,000, as by particulars he showed me1.

Note 1. A committee was appointed in September, 1660, to consider the subject of the King's revenue, and they "reported to the Commons that the average revenue of Charles I, from 1637 to 1641 inclusive, had been £895,819, and the average expenditure about £1,110,000. At that time prices were lower and the country less burthened with navy and garrisons, among which latter Dunkirk alone now cost more than £100,000 a year. It appeared, therefore, that the least sum to which the King (age 33) could be expected to 'conform his expense' was £1,200,000". Burnet writes, "It was believed that if two millions had been asked he could have carried it. But he (Clarendon) had no mind to put the King (age 33) out of the necessity of having recourse to his Parliament".-Lister's Life of Clarendon, vol. ii., pp. 22, 23.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. At the Mewes Sir W. Pen (age 42) and Mr. Baxter did shew me several good horses, but Pen, which Sir W. Pen (age 42) did give the Duke of York (age 30), was given away by the Duke the other day to a Frenchman, which Baxter is cruelly vexed at, saying that he was the best horse that he expects a great while to have to do with.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1664. At noon home to dinner, and then after some discourse with my wife, to the office again, and by and by Sir W. Pen (age 42) came to me after sermon and walked with me in the garden and then one comes to tell me that Anthony and Will Joyce were come to see me, so I in to them and made mighty much of them, and very pleasant we were, and most of their business I find to be to advise about getting some woman to attend my brother Tom (age 30), whom they say is very ill and seems much to want one. To which I agreed, and desired them to get their wives to enquire out one.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1664. So to the office, where very busy all the morning, and so to the 'Change [Map], and off hence with Sir W. Rider to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], and there dined very well: and good discourse among the old men of Islands now and then rising and falling again in the Sea, and that there is many dangers of grounds and rocks that come just up to the edge almost of the sea, that is never discovered and ships perish without the world's knowing the reason of it. Among other things, they observed, that there are but two seamen in the Parliament house, viz., Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 42), and not above twenty or thirty merchants; which is a strange thing in an island, and no wonder that things of trade go no better nor are better understood.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1664. At last, at past 4 o'clock I heard that the Parliament was not up yet, and so walked to Westminster Hall [Map], and there found it so, and meeting with Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and being very hungry, went over with him to the Leg, and before we had cut a bit, the House rises, however we eat a bit and away to St. James's and there eat a second part of our dinner with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and his brother Harry (age 45), Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 42). The great matter today in the House hath been, that Mr. Vaughan (age 60), the great speaker, is this day come to towne, and hath declared himself in a speech of an houre and a half, with great reason and eloquence, against the repealing of the Bill for Triennial Parliaments; but with no successe: but the House have carried it that there shall be such Parliaments, but without any coercive power upon the King (age 33), if he will bring this Act. But, Lord! to see how the best things are not done without some design; for I perceive all these gentlemen that I was with to-day were against it (though there was reason enough on their side); yet purely, I could perceive, because it was the King's mind to have it; and should he demand any thing else, I believe they would give it him. But this the discontented Presbyters, and the faction of the House will be highly displeased with; but it was carried clearly against them in the House. We had excellent good table-talke, some of which I have entered in my book of stories.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1664. In the evening a little to visit Sir W. Pen (age 42), who hath a feeling this day or two of his old pain.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1664. So in the evening to see Sir W. Pen (age 42), and then home to my father to keep him company, he being to go out of town, and up late with him and my brother John (age 23) till past 12 at night to make up papers of Tom's accounts fit to leave with my cozen Scott. At last we did make an end of them, and so after supper all to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1664. Home to dinner, and in the afternoon, after long consulting whether to go to Woolwich, Kent [Map] or no to see Mr. Falconer, but indeed to prevent my wife going to church, I did however go to church with her, where a young simple fellow did preach: I slept soundly all the sermon, and thence to Sir W. Pen's (age 42), my wife and I, there she talking with him and his daughter, and thence with my wife walked to my uncle Wight's (age 62) and there supped, where very merry, but I vexed to see what charges the vanity of my aunt puts her husband to among her friends and nothing at all among ours.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1664. Thence by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 42) home, calling at the Temple [Map] for Lawes's Psalms, which I did not so much (by being against my oath) buy as only lay down money till others be bound better for me, and by that time I hope to get money of the Treasurer of the Navy by bills, which, according to my oath, shall make me able to do it.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1664. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 43) by coach to St. James's and there up to the Duke (age 30), and after he was ready to his closet, where most of our talke about a Dutch warr, and discoursing of things indeed now for it. The Duke (age 30), which gives me great good hopes, do talk of setting up a good discipline in the fleete. In the Duke's chamber there is a bird, given him by Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, comes from the East Indys, black the greatest part, with the finest collar of white about the neck; but talks many things and neyes like the horse, and other things, the best almost that ever I heard bird in my life.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1664. After dinner he went away, and my wife and I to church, and after church to Sir W. Pen (age 43), and there sat and talked with him, and the perfidious rogue seems, as he do always, mightily civil to us, though I know he hates and envies us.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1664. Up and to my office all the morning, and there saw several things done in my work to my great content, and at noon home to dinner, and after dinner in Sir W. Pen's (age 43) coach he set my wife and I down at the New Exchange, and after buying some things we walked to my Lady Sandwich's (age 39), who, good lady, is now, thanks be to God! so well as to sit up, and sent to us, if we were not afeard, to come up to her. So we did; but she was mightily against my wife's coming so near her; though, poor wretch! she is as well as ever she was, as to the meazles, and nothing can I see upon her face. There we sat talking with her above three hours, till six o'clock, of several things with great pleasure and so away, and home by coach, buying several things for my wife in our way, and so after looking what had been done in my office to-day, with good content home to supper and to bed. But, strange, how I cannot get any thing to take place in my mind while my work lasts at my office.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1664. At noon over to the Leg, where Sir G. Ascue (age 48), Sir Robt. Parkhurst (age 61) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) dined. A good dinner and merry.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1664. So home again and to Sir W. Pen (age 43), who, among other things of haste in this new order for ships, is ordered to be gone presently to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to look after the work there. I staid to discourse with him, and so home to supper, where upon a fine couple of pigeons, a good supper; and here I met a pretty cabinet sent me by Mr. Shales, which I give my wife, the first of that sort of goods I ever had yet, and very conveniently it comes for her closett. I staid up late finding out the private boxes, but could not do some of them, and so to bed, afraid that I have been too bold to-day in venturing in the cold. This day I begun to drink butter-milke and whey, and I hope to find great good by it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1664. Up, and it being very rayny weather, which makes it cooler than it was, by coach to Charing Cross with Sir W. Pen (age 43), who is going to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] this day, and left him going to St. James's to take leave of the Duke (age 30), and I to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier; where God forgive how our Report of my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts was read over and agreed to by the Lords, without one of them understanding it! And had it been what it would, it had gone: and, besides, not one thing touching the King's profit in it minded or hit upon.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1664. Home at noon, and my little girl got me my dinner, and I presently out by water and landed at Somerset stairs, and thence through Covent Garden [Map], where I met with Mr. Southwell (Sir W. Pen's (age 43) friend), who tells me the very sad newes of my Lord Tiviott's and nineteen more commission officers being killed at Tangier by the Moores, by an ambush of the enemy upon them, while they were surveying their lines; which is very sad, and, he says, afflicts the King (age 34) much.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1664. So home to supper and to bed. Strange to see how pert Sir W. Pen (age 43) is to-day newly come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] with his head full of great reports of his service and the state of the ships there. When that is over he will be just as another man again or worse. But I wonder whence Mr. Coventry (age 36) should take all this care for him, to send for him up only to look after his Irish business with my Lord Ormond (age 53) and to get the Duke's leave for him to come with so much officiousness, when I am sure he knows him as well as I do as to his little service he do.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1664. He being gone, I went home, a little troubled to see he minds me no more, and with Creed called at several churches, which, God knows, are supplied with very young men, and the churches very empty; so home and at our owne church looked in, and there heard one preach whom Sir W. Pen (age 43) brought, which he desired us yesterday to hear, that had been his chaplin in Ireland, a very silly fellow.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. Up, my mind very light from my last night's accounts, and so up and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65), Sir W. Batten (age 63), and Sir W. Pen (age 43) to St. James's, where among other things having prepared with some industry every man a part this morning and no sooner (for fear they should either consider of it or discourse of it one to another) Mr. Coventry (age 36) did move the Duke (age 30) and obtain it that one of the clerkes of the Clerke of the Acts should have an addition of £30 a year, as Mr. Turner hath, which I am glad of, that I may give T. Hater £20 and keep £10 towards a boy's keeping.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. So home, and there talked long with Will about the young woman of his family which he spoke of for to live with my wife, but though she hath very many good qualitys, yet being a neighbour's child and young and not very staid, I dare not venture of having her, because of her being able to spread any report of our family upon any discontent among the heart of our neighbours. So that my dependance is upon Mr. Blagrave, and so home to supper and to bed. Last night, at 12 o'clock, I was waked with knocking at Sir W. Pen's (age 43) door; and what was it but people's running up and down to bring him word that his [his brother] brother (deceased)1, who hath been a good while, it seems, sicke, is dead.

Note 1. George Penn (deceased), the elder brother of Sir W. Penn (age 43), was a wealthy merchant at San Lucar, the port of Seville. He was seized as a heretic by the Holy Office, and cast into a dungeon eight feet square and dark as the grave. There he remained three years, every month being scourged to make him confess his crimes. At last, after being twice put to the rack, he offered to confess whatever they would suggest. His property, £12,000, was then confiscated, his wife, a Catholic, taken from him, and he was banished from Spain for ever.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Aug 1664. Thence homeward called upon my Lord Marlborough (age 46), and so home and to my office, and then to Sir W. Pen (age 43), and with him and our fellow officers and servants of the house and none else to Church to lay his brother in the ground, wherein nothing handsome at all, but that he lays him under the Communion table in the chancel, about nine at night? So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, and down by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to the rope yard, and there visited Mrs. Falconer, who tells me odd stories of how Sir W. Pen (age 43) was rewarded by her husband with a gold watch (but seems not certain of what Sir W. Batten (age 63) told me, of his daughter having a life given her in £80 per ann.) for his helping him to his place, and yet cost him £150 to Mr. Coventry (age 36) besides. He did much advise it seems Mr. Falconer not to marry again, expressing that he would have him make his daughter his heire, or words to that purpose, and that that makes him, she thinks, so cold in giving her any satisfaction, and that W. Boddam hath publickly said, since he came down thither to be Clerk of the Ropeyard of Woolwich that it hath this week cost him £100, and would be glad that it would cost him but half as much more for the place, and that he was better before than now, and that if he had been to have bought it, he would not have given so much for it. Now I am sure that Mr. Coventry (age 36) hath again and again said that he would take nothing, but would give all his part in it freely to him, that so the widow might have something. What the meaning of this is I know not, but that Sir W. Pen (age 43) do get something by it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1664. At noon dined with Sir W. Pen (age 43), a piece of beef only, and I counterfeited a friendship and mirth which I cannot have with him, yet out with him by his coach, and he did carry me to a play and pay for me at the King's house, which is "The Rivall Ladys", a very innocent and most pretty witty play. I was much pleased with it, and it being given me, I look upon it as no breach to my oathe. Here we hear that Clun, one of their best actors, was, the last night, going out of towne (after he had acted the Alchymist, wherein was one of his best parts that he acts) to his country-house, set upon and murdered; one of the rogues taken, an Irish fellow. It seems most cruelly butchered and bound. The house will have a great miss of him.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1664. Up and abroad with Sir W. Batten (age 63), by coach to St. James's, where by the way he did tell me how Sir J. Minnes (age 65) would many times arrogate to himself the doing of that that all the Board have equal share in, and more that to himself which he hath had nothing to do in, and particularly the late paper given in by him to the Duke (age 30), the translation of a Dutch print concerning the quarrel between us and them, which he did give as his own when it was Sir Richard Ford's (age 50) wholly. Also he told me how Sir W. Pen (age 43) (it falling in our discourse touching Mrs. Falconer) was at first very great for Mr. Coventry (age 36) to bring him in guests, and that at high rates for places, and very open was he to me therein.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1664. Up, and through pain, to my great grief forced to wear my gowne to keep my legs warm. At the office all the morning, and there a high dispute against Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) about the breadth of canvas again, they being for the making of it narrower, I and Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65) for the keeping it broader.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Aug 1664. Mightly pleased with this I to the office, where all the morning. There offered by Sir W. Pen (age 43) his coach to go to Epsum and carry my wife, I stept out and bade my wife make her ready, but being not very well and other things advising me to the contrary, I did forbear going, and so Mr. Creed dining with me I got him to give my wife and me a play this afternoon, lending him money to do it, which is a fallacy that I have found now once, to avoyde my vowe with, but never to be more practised I swear, and to the new play, at the Duke's house, of "Henry the Fifth"; a most noble play, writ by my Lord Orrery (age 43); wherein Betterton (age 29), Harris (age 30), and Ianthe's (age 27) parts are most incomparably wrote and done, and the whole play the most full of height and raptures of wit and sense, that ever I heard; having but one incongruity, or what did, not please me in it, that is, that King Harry promises to plead for Tudor to their Mistresse, Princesse Katherine of France, more than when it comes to it he seems to do; and Tudor refused by her with some kind of indignity, not with a difficulty and honour that it ought to have been done in to him.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Aug 1664. Thence home and to the office late, and so to supper and to bed. My [his wife] Lady Pen (age 40) came hither first to-night to Sir W. Pen's (age 43) lodgings.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1664. Up and to the office, where Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) and I sat all the morning hiring of ships to go to Guinny, where we believe the warr with Holland will first break out.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1664. At noon dined at home, and after dinner my wife and I to Sir W. Pen's (age 43), to see his [his wife] Lady (age 40), the first time, who is a well-looked, fat, short, old Dutchwoman, but one that hath been heretofore pretty handsome, and is now very discreet, and, I believe, hath more wit than her husband. Here we staid talking a good while, and very well pleased I was with the old woman at first visit.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1664. By and by came Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so we met at the office, to hire ships for Guinny, and that done broke up. I to Sir W. Batten's (age 63), there to discourse with Mrs. Falconer, who hath been with Sir W. Pen (age 43) this evening, after Mr. Coventry (age 36) had promised her half what W. Bodham had given him for his place, but Sir W. Pen (age 43), though he knows that, and that Mr. Bodham hath said that his place hath cost him £100 and would £100 more, yet is he so high against the poor woman that he will not hear to give her a farthing, but it seems do listen after a lease where he expects Mr. Falconer hath put in his daughter's life, and he is afraid that that is not done, and did tell Mrs. Falconer that he would see it and know what is done therein in spite of her, when, poor wretch, she neither do nor can hinder him the knowing it. Mr. Coventry (age 36) knows of this business of the lease, and I believe do think of it as well as I But the poor woman is gone home without any hope, but only Mr. Coventry's (age 36) own nobleness. So I to my office and wrote many letters, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1664. Thence to the Ropeyard [Map], and there among other things discoursed with Mrs. Falconer, who tells me that she has found the writing, and Sir W. Pen's (age 43) daughter is not put into the lease for her life as he expected, and I am glad of it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Sep 1664. Up, my wife and I having a little anger about her woman already, she thinking that I take too much care of her at table to mind her (my wife) of cutting for her, but it soon over, and so up and with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) to St. James's, and there did our business with the Duke (age 30), and thence homeward straight, calling at the Coffee-house, and there had very good discourse with Sir--Blunt and Dr. Whistler about Egypt and other things.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1664. So to dinner, and after dinner by coach to White Hall, thinking to have met at a Committee of Tangier, but nobody being there but my Lord Rutherford, he would needs carry me and another Scotch Lord to a play, and so we saw, coming late, part of "The Generall", my Lord Orrery's (age 43) (Broghill) second play; but, Lord! to see how no more either in words, sense, or design, it is to his "Harry the 5th" is not imaginable, and so poorly acted, though in finer clothes, is strange. And here I must confess breach of a vowe in appearance, but I not desiring it, but against my will, and my oathe being to go neither at my own charge nor at another's, as I had done by becoming liable to give them another, as I am to Sir W. Pen (age 43) and Mr. Creed; but here I neither know which of them paid for me, nor, if I did, am I obliged ever to return the like, or did it by desire or with any willingness. So that with a safe conscience I do think my oathe is not broke and judge God Almighty will not think it other wise.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1664. Up with Sir J. Minnes (age 65), by coach, to St. James's; and there all the newes now of very hot preparations for the Dutch: and being with the Duke (age 30), he told us he was resolved to make a tripp himself, and that Sir W. Pen (age 43) should go in the same ship with him. Which honour, God forgive me! I could grudge him, for his knavery and dissimulation, though I do not envy much the having the same place myself. Talke also of great haste in the getting out another fleete, and building some ships; and now it is likely we have put one another by each other's dalliance past a retreate.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Oct 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and this morning Sir W. Pen (age 43) went to Chatham, Kent [Map] to look: after the ships now going out thence, and particularly that wherein the Duke and himself go. He took Sir G. Ascue (age 48) with: him, whom, I believe, he hath brought into play.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1664. Up and, it being rainy, in Sir W. Pen's (age 43) coach to St. James's, and there did our usual business with the Duke (age 30), and more and more preparations every day appear against the Dutch, and (which I must confess do a little move my envy) Sir W. Pen (age 43) do grow every day more and more regarded by the Duke (age 30)1, because of his service heretofore in the Dutch warr which I am confident is by some strong obligations he hath laid upon Mr. Coventry (age 36); for Mr. Coventry (age 36) must needs know that he is a man of very mean parts, but only a bred seaman.

Note 1. "The duke (age 30) had decided that the English fleet should consist of three squadrons to be commanded by himself, Prince Rupert (age 44), and Lord Sandwich (age 39), from which arrangement the two last, who were land admirals; had concluded that Penn would have no concern in this fleet. Neither the duke (age 30), Rupert (age 44), nor Sandwich had ever been engaged in an encounter of fleets.... Penn alone of the four was familiar with all these things. By the duke's unexpected announcement that he should take Penn with him into his own ship, Rupert and Sandwich at once discovered that they would be really and practically under Penn's command in everything"..

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1664. At noon, Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Sir J. Minnes (age 65), Sir W. Batten (age 63), Sir W. Pen (age 43), and myself, were treated at the Dolphin by Mr. Foly, the ironmonger, where a good plain dinner, but I expected musique, the missing of which spoiled my dinner, only very good merry discourse at dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1664. Thence back to the town, and we parted and I home, and then at the office late, where Sir W. Pen (age 43) came to take his leave of me, being to-morrow, which is very sudden to us, to go on board to lie on board, but I think will come ashore again before the ship, the Charles1, can go away.

Note 1. "The Royal Charles" was the Duke of York's (age 31) ship, and Sir William Pen (age 43), who hoisted his flag in "The Royal James" on November 8th, shifted to the "Royal Charles" on November 30th. The duke gave Penn (age 43) the command of the fleet immediately under himself. On Penn's monument he is styled "Great Captain Commander under His Royal Highness" (Penn's "Memorials of Sir William Pen (age 43)", vol. ii., p. 296).

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1664. Up and to the office, where strange to see how Sir W. Pen (age 43) is flocked to by people of all sorts against his going to sea.

Calendars. 14 Nov 1664. 104. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet. (age 46)] Believes nothing short of hanging will secure the pressed men. Lord St. John's news can hardly be believed, but the report will do no harm, for if the Dutch begin so roughly, seamen will be unwilling to go on merchantmen, and so cannot live without going on men-of-war. Hears that Taylor was objected to by the Committee [for Maritime Affairs] as a [Navy] Commissioner; he was chosen without contradiction by Sir John Mennes (age 65), Sir John Lawson (age 49), and Sir William Penn (age 43), and the warrants sent for him and others to the Attorney-General, as was usual in Lord Northumberland's time. Thinks the King will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham [Map], on the Duchess of Albemarle's (age 45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them. The weather is bad; wonders the Scotchmen have not got to the Hope. The new ship is nearly ready, but has no guns; some spare ones should be sent in some man-of-war. [Two pages.]

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1664. Yesterday come home, and this night I visited Sir W. Pen (age 43), who dissembles great respect and love to me, but I understand him very well. Major Holmes (age 42) is come from Guinny, and is now at Plymouth, Devon [Map] with great wealth, they say.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1664. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 43) to White Hall, and there with the rest did our usual business before the Duke (age 31), and then with Sir W. Batten (age 63) back and to his house, where I by sicknesse excused my wife's coming to them to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Dec 1664. I waked in the morning about 6 o'clock and my wife not come to bed; I lacked a pot, but there was none, and bitter cold, so was forced to rise and piss in the chimney, and to bed again. Slept a little longer, and then hear my people coming up, and so I rose, and my wife to bed at eight o'clock in the morning, which vexed me a little, but I believe there was no hurt in it all, but only mirthe, therefore took no notice. I abroad with Sir W. Batten (age 63) to the Council Chamber, where all of us to discourse about the way of measuring ships and the freight fit to give for them by the tun, where it was strange methought to hear so poor discourses among the Lords themselves, and most of all to see how a little empty matter delivered gravely by Sir W. Pen (age 43) was taken mighty well, though nothing in the earth to the purpose. But clothes, I perceive more and more every day, is a great matter.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning. Then whereas I should have gone and dined with Sir W. Pen (age 43) (and the rest of the officers at his house), I pretended to dine with my Lady Sandwich (age 39) and so home, where I dined well, and began to wipe and clean my books in my chamber in order to the settling of my papers and things there thoroughly, and then to the office, where all the afternoon sitting, and in the evening home to supper, and then to my work again.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1665. Then to the Hall, and there agreed with Mrs. Martin, and to her lodgings which she has now taken to lie in, in Bow Streete, pitiful poor things, yet she thinks them pretty, and so they are for her condition I believe good enough. Here I did 'ce que je voudrais avec' her most freely, and it having cost 2s. in wine and cake upon her, I away sick of her impudence, and by coach to my Lord Bruncker's (age 45), by appointment, in the Piazza, in Covent-Guarding; where I occasioned much mirth with a ballet I brought with me, made from the seamen at sea to their ladies in town; saying Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and Sir J. Lawson (age 50) made them. Here a most noble French dinner and banquet, the best I have seen this many a day and good discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1665. Up, and it being a most fine, hard frost I walked a good way toward White Hall, and then being overtaken with Sir W. Pen's (age 43) coach, went into it, and with him thither, and there did our usual business with the Duke (age 31).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1665. Thence home to dinner and so abroad and alone to the King's house, to a play, "The Traytor", where, unfortunately, I met with Sir W. Pen (age 43), so that I must be forced to confess it to my wife, which troubles me. Thence walked home, being ill-satisfied with the present actings of the House, and prefer the other House before this infinitely.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1665. Home to dinner, thence with my wife to the King's house, there to see "Vulpone", a most excellent play; the best I think I ever saw, and well, acted. So with Sir W. Pen (age 43) home in his coach, and then to the office.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1665. So by and by with Sir W. Pen (age 43) home again, and after supper to the office to finish my vows, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1665. At four o'clock with Sir W. Pen (age 43) in his coach to my Chancellor's (age 55), where by and by Mr. Coventry (age 37), Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir J. Lawson (age 50), Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and myself were called in to the King (age 34), there being several of the Privy Council, and my Chancellor (age 55) lying at length upon a couch (of the goute I suppose); and there Sir W. Pen (age 43) begun, and he had prepared heads in a paper, and spoke pretty well to purpose, but with so much leisure and gravity as was tiresome; besides, the things he said were but very poor to a man in his trade after a great consideration, but it was to purpose, indeed to dissuade the King (age 34) from letting these Turkey ships to go out: saying (in short) the King (age 34) having resolved to have 130 ships out by the spring, he must have above 20 of them merchantmen. Towards which, he in the whole River could find but 12 or 14, and of them the five ships taken up by these merchants were a part, and so could not be spared. That we should need 30,000 [sailors] to man these 130 ships, and of them in service we have not above 16,000; so we shall need 14,000 more. That these ships will with their convoys carry above 2,000 men, and those the best men that could be got; it being the men used to the Southward that are the best men for warr, though those bred in the North among the colliers are good for labour. That it will not be safe for the merchants, nor honourable for the King (age 34), to expose these rich ships with his convoy of six ships to go, it not being enough to secure them against the Dutch, who, without doubt, will have a great fleete in the Straights. This, Sir J. Lawson (age 50) enlarged upon. Sir G. Ascue (age 49) he chiefly spoke that the warr and trade could not be supported together, and, therefore, that trade must stand still to give way to them. This Mr. Coventry (age 37) seconded, and showed how the medium of the men the King (age 34) hath one year with another employed in his Navy since his coming, hath not been above 3,000 men, or at most 4,000 men; and now having occasion of 30,000, the remaining 26,000 must be found out of the trade of the nation. He showed how the cloaths, sending by these merchants to Turkey, are already bought and paid for to the workmen, and are as many as they would send these twelve months or more; so the poor do not suffer by their not going, but only the merchant, upon whose hands they lit dead; and so the inconvenience is the less. And yet for them he propounded, either the King (age 34) should, if his Treasure would suffer it, buy them, and showed the losse would not be so great to him: or, dispense with the Act of Navigation, and let them be carried out by strangers; and ending that he doubted not but when the merchants saw there was no remedy, they would and could find ways of sending them abroad to their profit. All ended with a conviction (unless future discourse with the merchants should alter it) that it was not fit for them to go out, though the ships be loaded. The King (age 34) in discourse did ask me two or three questions about my newes of Allen's loss in the Streights, but I said nothing as to the business, nor am not much sorry for it, unless the King (age 34) had spoke to me as he did to them, and then I could have said something to the purpose I think. So we withdrew, and the merchants were called in.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1665. Up and with Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) to White Hall, where we did our business with the Duke (age 31).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1665. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) to White Hall; but there finding the Duke (age 31) gone to his lodgings at St. James's for all together, his Duchesse (age 27) being ready to lie in, we to him, and there did our usual business. And here I met the great newes confirmed by the Duke's own relation, by a letter from Captain Allen (age 53). First, of our own loss of two ships, the Phoenix and Nonesuch, in the Bay of Gibraltar: then of his, and his seven ships with him, in the Bay of Cales, or thereabouts, fighting with the 34 Dutch Smyrna fleete; sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a £150,000 or more, some say £200,000, and another; and taking of three merchant-ships. Two of our ships were disabled, by the Dutch unfortunately falling against their will against them; the Advice, Captain W. Poole, and Antelope, Captain Clerke: The Dutch men-of-war did little service. Captain Allen (age 53) did receive many shots at distance before he would fire one gun, which he did not do till he come within pistol-shot of his enemy. The Spaniards on shore at Cales did stand laughing at the Dutch, to see them run away and flee to the shore, 34 or thereabouts, against eight Englishmen at most. I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen (age 53) himself. In our loss of the two ships in the Bay of Gibraltar, it is observable how the world do comment upon the misfortune of Captain Moone of the Nonesuch (who did lose, in the same manner, the Satisfaction), as a person that hath ill-luck attending him; without considering that the whole fleete was ashore. Captain Allen (age 53) led the way, and Captain Allen (age 53) himself writes that all the masters of the fleete, old and young, were mistaken, and did carry their ships aground. But I think I heard the Duke (age 31) say that Moone, being put into the Oxford, had in this conflict regained his credit, by sinking one and taking another. Captain Seale of the Milford hath done his part very well, in boarding the King Salamon, which held out half an hour after she was boarded; and his men kept her an hour after they did master her, and then she sunk, and drowned about 17 of her men.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1665. After supper I to Sir W. Batten's (age 64), where I found him, Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir J. Robinson (age 50), Sir R. Ford (age 51) and Captain Cocke (age 48) and Mr. Pen, junior. Here a great deal of sorry disordered talk about the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] men, their being exempted from land service. But, Lord! to see how void of method and sense their discourse was, and in what heat, insomuch as Sir R. Ford (age 51) (who we judged, some of us, to be a little foxed) fell into very high terms with Sir W. Batten (age 64), and then with Captain Cocke (age 48). So that I see that no man is wise at all times.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1665. Up and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) to St. James's, but the Duke is gone abroad.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1665. So to my office, where till 12 at night, being only a little while at noon at Sir W. Batten's (age 64) to see him, and had some high words with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) about Sir W. Warren, he calling him cheating knave, but I cooled him, and at night at Sir W. Pen's (age 43), he being to go to Chatham, Kent [Map] to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1665. All the afternoon at the office. William Howe come to see me, being come up with my Lord from sea: he is grown a discreet, but very conceited fellow. He tells me how little respectfully Sir W. Pen (age 43) did carry it to my Lord onboard the Duke's ship at sea; and that Captain Minnes, a favourite of Prince Rupert's (age 45), do shew my Lord little respect; but that every body else esteems my Lord as they ought. I am sorry for the folly of the latter, and vexed at the dissimulation of the former.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1665. So, very late, by coach home with W. Pen (age 43), who was there. To supper and to bed, with my heart at rest, and my head very busy thinking of my several matters now on foot, the new comfort of my old navy business, and the new one of my employment on Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1665. At noon dined alone with Sir W. Batten (age 64), where great discourse of Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir W. Batten (age 64) being, I perceive, quite out of love with him, thinking him too great and too high, and began to talk that the world do question his courage, upon which I told him plainly I have been told that he was articled against for it, and that Sir H. Vane was his great friend therein. This he was, I perceive, glad to hear.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1665. Thence to the office, and there very late, very busy, to my great content. This afternoon of a sudden is come home Sir W. Pen (age 43) from the fleete, but upon what score I know not. Late home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1665. Up betimes and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and I did most of the business there, God wot. Then to the 'Change [Map], and thence to the Coffee-house with Sir W. Warren, where much good discourse for us both till 9 o'clock with great pleasure and content, and then parted and I home to dinner, having eat nothing, and so to my office. At night supped with my wife at Sir W. Pen's (age 43), who is to go back for good and all to the fleete to-morrow. Took leave and to my office, where till 12 at night, and then home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1665. At the office all the morning, and the like after dinner, at home all the afternoon till very late, and then to bed, being very hoarse with a cold I did lately get with leaving off my periwigg. This afternoon W. Pen (age 44), lately come from his father in the fleete, did give me an account how the fleete did sayle, about 103 in all, besides small catches, they being in sight of six or seven Dutch scouts, and sent ships in chase of them.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1665. So to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and thence down by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], it being Trinity Monday, and so the day of choosing the Master of Trinity House, Deptford [Map] for the next yeare, where, to my great content, I find that, contrary to the practice and design of Sir W. Batten (age 64), to breake the rule and custom of the Company in choosing their Masters by succession, he would have brought in Sir W. Rider or Sir W. Pen (age 44), over the head of Hurleston (who is a knave too besides, I believe), the younger brothers did all oppose it against the elder, and with great heat did carry it for Hurleston, which I know will vex him to the heart.

Battle of Lowestoft

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1665. Thence home to dinner, after 'Change [Map], where great talke of the Dutch being fled and we in pursuit of them, and that our ship Charity1 is lost upon our Captain's, Wilkinson, and Lieutenant's yielding, but of this there is no certainty, save the report of some of the sicke men of the Charity, turned adrift in a boat out of the Charity and taken up and brought on shore yesterday to Sole Bay [Map], and the newes hereof brought by Sir Henry Felton.

Note 1. Sir William Coventry (age 37) and Sir William Pen (age 44) to the Navy Commissioners, June 4th: "Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m. Chased them all the rest of the day and night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (deceased), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Captain Kirby are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 50) wounded" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 406).

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1666. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 45) home, calling at Lilly's (age 47), to have a time appointed when to be drawn among the other Commanders of Flags the last year's fight. And so full of work Lilly (age 47) is, that he was faro to take his table-book out to see how his time is appointed, and appointed six days hence for him to come between seven and eight in the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Thence, with my heart full of joy; home, and to my office a little; then to my [his wife] Lady Pen's (age 41), where they are all joyed and not a little puffed up at the good successe of their father (age 44)1 and good service indeed is said to have been done by him. Had a great bonefire at the gate; and I with my Lady Pen's (age 41) people and others to Mrs. Turner's (age 42) great room, and then down into the streete. I did give the boys 4s. among them, and mighty merry.

Note 1. In the royal charter granted by Charles II in 1680 to William Penn for the government of his American province, to be styled Pennsylvania, special reference is made to "the memory and merits of Sir William Pen (age 44) in divers services, and particularly his conduct, courage, and discretion under our dearest brother, James, Duke of York (age 31), in that signal battle and victory fought and obtained against the Dutch fleet commanded by Heer van Opdam in 1665" ("Penn's Memorials of Sir W. Penn (age 44)", vol. ii., p. 359).

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1665. My wife come to bed about one in the morning. I up and abroad about Tangier business, then back to the office, where we sat, and at noon home to dinner, and then abroad to Mr. Povy's (age 51), after I and Mr. Andrews had been with Mr. Ball and one Major Strange, who looks after the getting of money for tallys and is helping Mr. Andrews. I had much discourse with Ball, and it may be he may prove a necessary man for our turns. With Mr. Povy (age 51) I spoke very freely my indifference as to my place of Treasurer, being so much troubled in it, which he took with much seeming trouble, that I should think of letting go so lightly the place, but if the place can't be held I will. So hearing that my Lord Treasurer (age 58) was gone out of town with his family because of the sicknesse, I returned home without staying there, and at the office find Sir W. Pen (age 44) come home, who looks very well; and I am gladder to see him than otherwise I should be because of my hearing so well of him for his serviceablenesse in this late great action.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1665. Thus ends this year, to my great joy, in this manner. I have raised my estate from £1300 in this year to £4400. I have got myself greater interest, I think, by my diligence, and my employments encreased by that of Treasurer for Tangier, and Surveyour of the Victualls. It is true we have gone through great melancholy because of the great plague, and I put to great charges by it, by keeping my family long at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and myself and another part of my family, my clerks, at my charge at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and a mayde at London; but I hope the King (age 35) will give us some satisfaction for that. But now the plague is abated almost to nothing, and I intending to get to London as fast as I can. My family, that is my wife and maids, having been there these two or three weeks. The Dutch war goes on very ill, by reason of lack of money; having none to hope for, all being put into disorder by a new Act that is made as an experiment to bring credit to the Exchequer, for goods and money to be advanced upon the credit of that Act. I have never lived so merrily (besides that I never got so much) as I have done this plague time, by my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) and Captain Cocke's (age 48) good company, and the acquaintance of Mrs. Knipp, Coleman and her husband, and Mr. Laneare, and great store of dancings we have had at my cost (which I was willing to indulge myself and wife) at my lodgings. The great evil of this year, and the only one indeed, is the fall of my Lord of Sandwich (age 40), whose mistake about the prizes hath undone him, I believe, as to interest at Court; though sent (for a little palliating it) Embassador into Spayne, which he is now fitting himself for. But the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) goes with the Prince to sea this next year, and my Lord very meanly spoken of; and, indeed, his miscarriage about the prize goods is not to be excused, to suffer a company of rogues to go away with ten times as much as himself, and the blame of all to be deservedly laid upon him1. My whole family hath been well all this while, and all my friends I know of, saving my aunt Bell, who is dead, and some children of my cozen Sarah's, of the plague. But many of such as I know very well, dead; yet, to our great joy, the town fills apace, and shops begin to be open again. Pray God continue the plague's decrease! for that keeps the Court away from the place of business, and so all goes to rack as to publick matters, they at this distance not thinking of it.

Note 1. According to Granville Penn ("Memorials of Sir W. Penn (age 44)", ii. 488 n.) £2000 went to Lord Sandwich (age 40) and £8000 among eight others.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1666. Up, and to the office and there all the morning sitting and at noon to dinner with my Lord Bruncker (age 46), Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 44) at the White Horse in Lombard Street [Map], where, God forgive us! good sport with Captain Cocke's (age 49) having his mayde sicke of the plague a day or two ago and sent to the pest house, where she now is, but he will not say anything but that she is well.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, where Sir W. Pen (age 44) was the first time [since he] come from sea, after the battle. Mr. Mills made a sorry sermon to prove that there was a world to come after this.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1665. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 44) from the office down to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to see Sir J. Lawson (age 50), who is better, but continues ill; his hickupp not being yet gone, could have little discourse with him. So thence home and to supper, a while to the office, my head and mind mightily vexed to see the multitude of papers and business before [me] and so little time to do it in. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. Thence I to Sir G. Carteret (age 55) at his chamber, and in the best manner I could, and most obligingly, moved the business: he received it with great respect and content, and thanks to me, and promised that he would do what he could possibly for his son, to render him fit for my Lord's daughter, and shewed great kindness to me, and sense of my kindness to him herein. Sir William Pen (age 44) told me this day that Mr. Coventry (age 37) is to be sworn a Privy Counsellor, at which my soul is glad.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. So to the office, where all the morning till noon, and so to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner. In the afternoon I abroad to St. James's, and there with Mr. Coventry (age 37) a good while, and understand how matters are ordered in the fleete: that is, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) goes Admiral; under him Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and Sir T. Teddiman; Vice-Admiral, Sir W. Pen (age 44); and under him Sir W. Barkeley (age 26), and Sir Jos. Jordan: Reere-Admiral, Sir Thomas Allen (age 32); and under him Sir Christopher Mings (age 39)1, and Captain Harman (age 40). We talked in general of business of the Navy, among others how he had lately spoken to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and professed great resolution of friendship with him and reconciliation, and resolves to make it good as well as he can, though it troubles him, he tells me, that something will come before him wherein he must give him offence, but I do find upon the whole that Mr. Coventry (age 37) do not listen to these complaints of money with the readiness and resolvedness to remedy that he used to do, and I think if he begins to draw in it is high time for me to do so too.

Note 1. The son of a shoemaker, bred to the sea-service; he rose to the rank of an admiral, and was killed in the fight with the Dutch, June, 1666. B. See post June 10th, 1666.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. Thence to newes, wherein I find that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do now take all my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) business to heart, and makes it the same with his owne. He tells me how at Chatham, Kent [Map] it was proposed to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) to be joined with the Prince (age 45) in the command of the fleete, which he was most willing to; but when it come to the Prince (age 45), he was quite against it; saying, there could be no government, but that it would be better to have two fleetes, and neither under the command of the other, which he would not agree to. So the King (age 35) was not pleased; but, without any unkindnesse, did order the fleete to be ordered as above, as to the Admirals and commands: so the Prince (age 45) is come up; and Sir G. Carteret (age 55), I remember, had this word thence, that, says he, by this means, though the King (age 35) told him that it would be but for this expedition, yet I believe we shall keepe him out for altogether. He tells me how my Lord was much troubled at Sir W. Pen's (age 44) being ordered forth (as it seems he is, to go to Solebay [Map], and with the best fleete he can, to go forth), and no notice taken of my Lord Sandwich (age 39) going after him, and having the command over him. But after some discourse Mr. Coventry (age 37) did satisfy, as he says, my Lord, so as they parted friends both in that point and upon the other wherein I know my Lord was troubled, and which Mr. Coventry (age 37) did speak to him of first thinking that my Lord might justly take offence at, his not being mentioned in the relation of the fight in the news book, and did clear all to my Lord how little he was concerned in it, and therewith my Lord also satisfied, which I am mightily glad of, because I should take it a very great misfortune to me to have them two to differ above all the persons in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1665. Thence, weary of this discourse, as the act of the greatest rashness that ever I heard of in all my little conversation, we parted, and I home to bed. Sir W. Pen (age 44), it seems, sailed last night from Solebay, Southwold [Map] with, about sixty sail of ship, and my Lord Sandwich (age 39) in "The Prince" and some others, it seems, going after them to overtake them, for I am sure my Lord Sandwich (age 39) will do all possible to overtake them, and will be troubled to the heart if he do it not.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1665. Slept till 8 o'clock, and then up and met with letters from the King (age 35) and Lord Arlington (age 47), for the removal of our office to Greenwich, Kent [Map]. I also wrote letters, and made myself ready to go to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), at Windsor; and having borrowed a horse of Mr. Blackbrough, sent him to wait for me at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) door: when, on a sudden, a letter comes to us from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to tell us that the fleete is all come back to Solebay [Map], and are presently to be dispatched back again. Whereupon I presently by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to know what news; and there I saw a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and also from Sir W. Coventry (age 37) and Teddiman; how my Lord having commanded Teddiman with twenty-two ships1.

Note 1. A news letter of August 19th (Salisbury), gives the following account of this affair:-"The Earl of Sandwich being on the Norway coast, ordered Sir Thomas Teddeman with 20 ships to attack 50 Dutch merchant ships in Bergen harbour; six convoyers had so placed themselves that only four or five of the ships could be reached at once. The Governor of Bergen fired on our ships, and placed 100 pieces of ordnance and two regiments of foot on the rocks to attack them, but they got clear without the loss of a ship, only 500 men killed or wounded, five or six captains among them. The fleet has gone to Sole Bay to repair losses and be ready to encounter the Dutch fleet, which is gone northward" (Calendar of State Papers, 1664-65, pp. 526, 527). Medals were struck in Holland, the inscription in Dutch on one of these is thus translated: "Thus we arrest the pride of the English, who extend their piracy even against their friends, and who insulting the forts of Norway, violate the rights of the harbours of King Frederick; but, for the reward of their audacity, see their vessels destroyed by the balls of the Dutch" (Hawkins's "Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland", ed. Franks and Grueber, 1885, vol. i., p. 508). Sir Gilbert Talbot's "True Narrative of the Earl of Sandwich's Attempt upon Bergen with the English Fleet on the 3rd of August, 1665, and the Cause of his Miscarriage thereupon", is in the British Museum (Harl. MS., No. 6859). It is printed in "Archaeologia", vol. xxii., p. 33. The Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map] also gave an account of the action in a letter to his mother (Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth edition, vol. iv., p. 611). Sir John Denham (age 50), in his "Advice to a Painter", gives a long satirical account of the affair. A coloured drawing of the attack upon Bergen, on vellum, showing the range of the ships engaged, is in the British Museum. Shortly after the Bergen affair forty of the Dutch merchant vessels, on their way to Holland, fell into the hands of the English, and in Penn's "Memorials of Sir William Pen (age 44)", vol. ii., p. 364, is a list of the prizes taken on the 3rd and 4th September. The troubles connected with these prizes and the disgrace into which Lord Sandwich (age 40) fell are fully set forth in subsequent pages of the Diary. Evelyn writes in his Diary (November 27th, 1665): "There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders who were at ye taking of ye East India prizes to break bulk and take to themselves jewels, silkes, &c., tho' I believe some whom I could name fill'd their pockets, my Lo. Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossess'd ye Lo. Generall (Duke of Albemarle (age 56)), for he spake to me of it with much zeale and concerne, and I believe laid load enough on Lo. Sandwich at Oxford". (of which but fifteen could get thither, and of those fifteen but eight or nine could come up to play) to go to Bergen; where, after several messages to and fro from the Governor of the Castle, urging that Teddiman ought not to come thither with more than five ships, and desiring time to think of it, all the while he suffering the Dutch ships to land their guns to their best advantage; Teddiman on the second pretence, began to play at the Dutch ships, (wherof ten East India-men,) and in three hours' time (the town and castle, without any provocation, playing on our ships,) they did cut all our cables, so as the wind being off the land, did force us to go out, and rendered our fire-ships useless; without doing any thing, but what hurt of course our guns must have done them: we having lost five commanders, besides Mr. Edward Montagu, and Mr. Windham. This Mr. Windham had entered into a formal engagement with the Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map], "not without ceremonies of religion, that if either of them died, he should appear, and give the other notice of the future state, if there was any". He was probably one of the brothers of Sir William Wyndham, Bart. See Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth. edition, vol. iv., p. 615. B.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Sep 1665. After dinner comes Colonell Blunt in his new chariot made with springs; as that was of wicker, wherein a while since we rode at his house. And he hath rode, he says, now this journey, many miles in it with one horse, and out-drives any coach, and out-goes any horse, and so easy, he says. So for curiosity I went into it to try it, and up the hill to the heath, and over the cart-rutts and found it pretty well, but not so easy as he pretends, and so back again, and took leave of my Lord and drove myself in the chariot to the office, and there ended my letters and home pretty betimes and there found W. Pen (age 44), and he staid supper with us and mighty merry talking of his travells and the French humours, etc., and so parted and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1665. By and by my Lord took me aside to discourse of his private matters, who was very free with me touching the ill condition of the fleete that it hath been in, and the good fortune that he hath had, and nothing else that these prizes are to be imputed to. He also talked with me about Mr. Coventry's (age 37) dealing with him in sending Sir W. Pen (age 44) away before him, which was not fair nor kind; but that he hath mastered and cajoled Sir W. Pen (age 44), that he hath been able to do, nothing in the fleete, but been obedient to him; but withal tells me he is a man that is but of very mean parts, and a fellow not to be lived with, so false and base he is; which I know well enough to be very true, and did, as I had formerly done, give my Lord my knowledge of him.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1665. The council being up they most of them went away, only Sir W. Pen (age 44) who staid to dine there and did so, but the wind being high the ship (though the motion of it was hardly discernible to the eye) did make me sick, so as I could not eat any thing almost.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1665. By and by was called a Council of Warr on board, when come Sir W. Pen (age 44) there, and Sir Christopher Mings (age 39), Sir Edward Spragg (age 45), Sir Jos. Jordan, Sir Thomas Teddiman, and Sir Roger Cuttance, and so the necessity of the fleete for victuals, clothes, and money was discoursed, but by the discourse there of all but my Lord, that is to say, the counterfeit grave nonsense of Sir W. Pen (age 44) and the poor mean discourse of the rest, methinks I saw how the government and management of the greatest business of the three nations is committed to very ordinary heads, saving my Lord, and in effect is only upon him, who is able to do what he pleases with them, they not having the meanest degree of reason to be able to oppose anything that he says, and so I fear it is ordered but like all the rest of the King's publique affayres.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1665. Found ourselves come to the fleete, and so aboard the Prince; and there, after a good while in discourse, we did agree a bargain of £5,000 with Sir Roger Cuttance for my Lord Sandwich (age 40) for silk, cinnamon, nutmeggs, and indigo. And I was near signing to an undertaking for the payment of the whole sum; but I did by chance escape it; having since, upon second thoughts, great cause to be glad of it, reflecting upon the craft and not good condition, it may be, of Captain Cocke (age 48). I could get no trifles for my wife. Anon to dinner and thence in great haste to make a short visit to Sir W. Pen (age 44), where I found them and his [his wife] lady (age 41) and [his daughter] daughter (age 14) and many commanders at dinner. Among others Sir G. Askue (age 49), of whom whatever the matter is, the world is silent altogether. But a very pretty dinner there was, and after dinner Sir W. Pen (age 44) made a bargain with Cocke (age 48) for ten bales of silke, at 16s. per lb., which, as Cocke (age 48) says, will be a good pennyworth, and so away to the Prince and presently comes my Lord on board from Greenwich, Kent [Map], with whom, after a little discourse about his trusting of Cocke (age 48), we parted and to our yacht; but it being calme, we to make haste, took our wherry toward Chatham, Kent [Map]; but, it growing darke, we were put to great difficultys, our simple, yet confident waterman, not knowing a step of the way; and we found ourselves to go backward and forward, which, in the darke night and a wild place, did vex us mightily. At last we got a fisher boy by chance, and took him into the boat, and being an odde kind of boy, did vex us too; for he would not answer us aloud when we spoke to him, but did carry us safe thither, though with a mistake or two; but I wonder they were not more. In our way I was [surprised] and so were we all, at the strange nature of the sea-water in a darke night, that it seemed like fire upon every stroke of the oare, and, they say, is a sign of winde. We went to the Crowne Inne, at Rochester, Kent [Map], and there to supper, and made ourselves merry with our poor fisher-boy, who told us he had not been in a bed in the whole seven years since he came to 'prentice, and hath two or three more years to serve. After eating something, we in our clothes to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1665. We walked, he and I and Cocke (age 48), to the Hill-house, where we find Sir W. Pen (age 44) in bed and there much talke and much dissembling of kindnesse from him, but he is a false rogue, and I shall not trust him, but my being there did procure his consent to have his silk carried away before the money received, which he would not have done for Cocke (age 48) I am sure.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1665. Up, and having sent for Mr. Gawden he come to me, and he and I largely discoursed the business of his Victualling, in order to the adding of partners to him or other ways of altering it, wherein I find him ready to do anything the King (age 35) would have him do. So he and I took his coach and to Lambeth and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about it, and so back again, where he left me. In our way discoursing of the business and contracting a great friendship with him, and I find he is a man most worthy to be made a friend, being very honest and gratefull, and in the freedom of our discourse he did tell me his opinion and knowledge of Sir W. Pen (age 44) to be, what I know him to be, as false a man as ever was born, for so, it seems, he hath been to him. He did also tell me, discoursing how things are governed as to the King's treasure, that, having occasion for money in the country, he did offer Alderman Maynell to pay him down money here, to be paid by the Receiver in some county in the country, upon whom Maynell had assignments, in whose hands the money also lay ready. But Maynell refused it, saying that he could have his money when he would, and had rather it should lie where it do than receive it here in towne this sickly time, where he hath no occasion for it. But now the evil is that he hath lent this money upon tallys which are become payable, but he finds that nobody looks after it, how long the money is unpaid, and whether it lies dead in the Receiver's hands or no, so the King (age 35) he pays Maynell 10 per cent. while the money lies in his Receiver's hands to no purpose but the benefit of the Receiver.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1665. So to the office, there to write my letters, and Cocke (age 48) comes to tell me that Fisher is come to him, and that he doubts not to cajole Fisher and his companion and make them friends with drink and a bribe. This night comes Sir Christopher Mings (age 39) to towne, and I went to see him, and by and by he being then out of the town comes to see me. He is newly come from Court, and carries direction for the making a show of getting out the fleete again to go fight the Dutch, but that it will end in a fleete of 20 good sayling frigates to go to the Northward or Southward, and that will be all. I enquired, but he would not be to know that he had heard any thing at Oxford about the business of the prize goods, which I did suspect, but he being gone, anon comes Cocke (age 48) and tells me that he hath been with him a great while, and that he finds him sullen and speaking very high what disrespect he had received of my Lord, saying that he hath walked 3 or 4 hours together at that Earle's cabbin door for audience and could not be received, which, if true, I am sorry for. He tells me that Sir G. Ascue (age 49) says, that he did from the beginning declare against these [prize] goods, and would not receive his dividend; and that he and Sir W. Pen (age 44) are at odds about it, and that he fears Mings (age 39) hath been doing ill offices to my Lord. I did to-night give my Lord an account of all this, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1665. Lay long, and this morning comes Sir Jer. Smith1 to see me in his way to Court, and a good man he is, and one that I must keep fair with, and will, it being I perceive my interest to have kindnesse with the Commanders.

Note 1. Captain Jeremiah Smith (or Smyth), knighted June, 1665; Admiral of the Blue in 1666. He succeeded Sir William Pen (age 44) as Comptroller of the Victualling Accounts in 1669, and held the office until 1675.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and after ready and going to Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find we are a little further safe in some part of our goods, I to Church, in my way was meeting with some letters, which made me resolve to go after church to my Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) so, after sermon, I took Cocke's (age 48) chariott, and to Lambeth, Surrey [Map]; but, in going and getting over the water, and through White Hall, I spent so much time, the Duke had almost dined. However, fresh meat was brought for me to his table, and there I dined, and full of discourse and very kind. Here they are again talking of the prizes, and my Lord Duke did speake very broad that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) and Pen (age 44) should do what they would, and answer for themselves. For his part, he would lay all before the King (age 35). Here he tells me the Dutch Embassador at Oxford is clapped up, but since I hear it is not true.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. Then they broke up, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) come out, and thence through the garden to the water side and by water I with him in his boat down with Captain Cocke (age 48) to his house at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and while supper was getting ready Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and I did walk an houre in the garden before the house, talking of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) business; what enemies he hath, and how they have endeavoured to bespatter him: and particularly about his leaving of 30 ships of the enemy, when Pen (age 44) would have gone, and my Lord called him back again: which is most false.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. The Prince (age 45), in appearance, kind; the Duke of Yorke (age 32) silent, says no hurt; but admits others to say it in his hearing. Sir W. Pen (age 44), the falsest rascal that ever was in the world; and that this afternoon the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) did tell him that Pen (age 44) was a very cowardly rogue, and one that hath brought all these rogueish fanatick Captains into the fleete, and swears he should never go out with the fleete again. That Sir W. Coventry (age 37) is most kind to Pen (age 44) still; and says nothing nor do any thing openly to the prejudice of my Lord. He agrees with me, that it is impossible for the King (age 35) [to] set out a fleete again the next year; and that he fears all will come to ruine, there being no money in prospect but these prizes, which will bring, it may be, £20,000, but that will signify nothing in the world for it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1665. Sailed all night, and got down to Quinbrough [Map] water, where all the great ships are now come, and there on board my Lord, and was soon received with great content. And after some little discourse, he and I on board Sir W. Pen (age 44); and there held a council of Warr about many wants of the fleete, but chiefly how to get slopps and victuals for the fleete now going out to convoy our Hambro' ships, that have been so long detained for four or five months for want of convoy, which we did accommodate one way or other, and so, after much chatt, Sir W. Pen (age 44) did give us a very good and neat dinner, and better, I think, than ever I did see at his owne house at home in my life, and so was the other I eat with him.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1666. Up and to the office. By and by to the Custome House to the Farmers, there with a letter of Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) for £3000, which they ordered to be paid me. So away back again to the office, and at noon to dinner all of us by invitation to Sir W. Pen's (age 44), and much other company. Among others, Lieutenant of the Tower (age 51), and Broome, his poet, and Dr. Whistler, and his (Sir W. Pen's (age 44)) son-in-law [his future son-in-law] Lowder (age 25), servant [lover] to Mrs. Margaret Pen, and Sir Edward Spragg (age 46), a merry man, that sang a pleasant song pleasantly. Rose from table before half dined, and with Mr. Mountney of the Custome House to the East India House, and there delivered to him tallys for £3000 and received a note for the money on Sir R. Viner (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1666. Thence to the 'Change [Map] and there met Mr. Moore, newly come to towne, and took him home to dinner with me and after dinner to talke, and he and I do conclude my Lord's case to be very bad and may be worse, if he do not get a pardon for his doings about the prizes and his business at Bergen, and other things done by him at sea, before he goes for Spayne. I do use all the art I can to get him to get my Lord to pay my cozen Pepys, for it is a great burden to my mind my being bound for my Lord in £1000 to him. Having done discourse with him and directed him to go with my advice to my Lord expresse to-morrow to get his pardon perfected before his going, because of what I read the other night in Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) letter, I to the office, and there had an extraordinary meeting of Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Sir W. Batten (age 65), and Sir W. Pen (age 44), and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I to hear my paper read about pursers, which they did all of them with great good will and great approbation of my method and pains in all, only Sir W. Pen (age 44), who must except against every thing and remedy nothing, did except against my proposal for some reasons, which I could not understand, I confess, nor my Lord Bruncker (age 46) neither, but he did detect indeed a failure or two of mine in my report about the ill condition of the present pursers, which I did magnify in one or two little things, to which, I think, he did with reason except, but at last with all respect did declare the best thing he ever heard of this kind, but when Sir W. Batten (age 65) did say, "Let us that do know the practical part of the Victualling meet Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 44) and I and see what we can do to mend all", he was so far from offering or furthering it, that he declined it and said, he must be out of towne. So as I ever knew him never did in his life ever attempt to mend any thing, but suffer all things to go on in the way they are, though never so bad, rather than improve his experience to the King's advantage.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. As we were going further, in comes my Lord Mandeville (age 31), so we were forced to breake off and I away, and to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, where he not come in but I find Sir W. Pen (age 44), and he and I to discourse. I find him very much out of humour, so that I do not think matters go very well with him, and I am glad of it. He and I staying till late, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) not coming in (being shut up close all the afternoon with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57)), we took boat, and by water to Kingston [Map], and so to our lodgings, where a good supper and merry, only I sleepy, and therefore after supper I slunk away from the rest to bed, and lay very well and slept soundly, my mind being in a great delirium between joy for what the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) have said to me and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and trouble for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) concernments, and how hard it will be for me to preserve myself from feeling thereof.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. Up, and to Court by coach, where to Council before the Duke of Yorke (age 32), the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) with us, and after Sir W. Coventry (age 38) had gone over his notes that he had provided with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), I went over all mine with good successe, only I fear I did once offend the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), but I was much joyed to find the Duke of Yorke (age 32) so much contending for my discourse about the pursers against Sir W. Pen (age 44), who opposes it like a foole; my Lord Sandwich (age 40) come in in the middle of the business, and, poor man, very melancholy, methought, and said little at all, or to the business, and sat at the lower end, just as he come, no roome being made for him, only I did give him my stoole, and another was reached me.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1666. All the morning at the office, at noon to the Old James, being sent for, and there dined with Sir William Rider, Mr. Cutler, and others, to make an end with two Scots Maisters about the freight of two ships of my Lord Rutherford's. After a small dinner and a little discourse I away to the Crowne behind the Exchange [Map] to Sir W. Pen (age 44), Captain Cocke (age 49) and Fen, about getting a bill of Cocke's (age 49) paid to Pen, in part for the East India goods he sold us. Here Sir W. Pen (age 44) did give me the reason in my eare of his importunity for money, for that he is now to marry his [his daughter] daughter (age 15). God send her better fortune than her father deserves I should wish him for a false rogue.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1666. Up betimes and to the office, where all the morning sitting and did discover three or four fresh instances of Sir W. Pen's (age 44) old cheating dissembling tricks, he being as false a fellow as ever was born.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1666. Up betimes, and to the office, where busy sitting all the morning, and I begin to find a little convenience by holding up my head to Sir W. Pen (age 44), for he is come to be more supple.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1666. Thence to the office, where Sir W. Pen (age 44) and I made an end of the Victualler's business, and thence abroad about several businesses, and so in the evening back again, and anon called on by Mr. Povy (age 52), and he and I staid together in my chamber till 12 at night ending our reckonings and giving him tallys for all I was to pay him and so parted, and I to make good my Journall for two or three days, and begun it till I come to the other side, where I have scratched so much, for, for want of sleep, I begun to write idle and from the purpose. So forced to breake off, and to bed1.

Note 1. There are several erasures in the original MS.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1666. Thence home and to the office, and so home having a great cold, and so my wife and Mrs. Barbary have very great ones, we are at a loss how we all come by it together, so to bed, drinking butter-ale. This day my W. Hewer (age 24) comes from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and gives me an instance of another piece of knavery of Sir W. Pen (age 44), who wrote to Commissioner Middleton, that it was my negligence the other day he was not acquainted, as the board directed, with our clerks coming down to the pay. But I need no new arguments to teach me that he is a false rogue to me and all the world besides.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1666. Up betimes and upon a meeting extraordinary at the office most of the morning with Lord Bruncker (age 46), Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and Sir W. Pen (age 44), upon the business of the accounts. Where now we have got almost as much as we would have we begin to lay all on the Controller, and I fear he will be run down with it, for he is every day less and less capable of doing business.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 44) in his coach to White Hall, in his way talking simply and fondly as he used to do, but I find myself to slight him and his simple talke, I thank God, and that my condition will enable me to do it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1666. To the office, where the falsenesse and impertinencies of Sir W. Pen (age 44) would make a man mad to think of.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1666. [Up] and by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir Thos. Allen (age 54) to White Hall, and there after attending the Duke (age 32) as usual and there concluding of many things preparatory to the Prince (age 46) and Generall's going to sea on Monday next, Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir T. Allen (age 54) and I to Mr. Lilly's (age 47), the painter's; and there saw the heads, some finished, and all begun, of the Flaggmen in the late great fight with the Duke of Yorke (age 32) against the Dutch. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) hath them done to hang in his chamber, and very finely they are done indeed. Here is the Prince's (age 46), Sir G. Askue's (age 50), Sir Thomas Teddiman's, Sir Christopher Mings (age 40), Sir Joseph Jordan, Sir William Barkeley (age 27), Sir Thomas Allen (age 33), and Captain Harman's (age 41), as also the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57); and will be my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), Sir W. Pen's (age 44), and Sir Jeremy Smith's. Being very well satisfied with this sight, and other good pictures hanging in the house, we parted, and I left them, and [to] pass away a little time went to the printed picture seller's in the way thence to the Exchange [Map], and there did see great plenty of fine prints; but did not buy any, only a print of an old pillar in Rome made for a Navall Triumph1, which for the antiquity of the shape of ships, I buy and keepe.

Note 1. The columna rostrata erected in the Forum to C. Duilius, who obtained a triumph for the first naval victory over the Carthaginians, B.C. 261. Part of the column was discovered in the ruins of the Forum near the Arch of Septimius, and transferred to the Capitol. B.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1666. Lay long in bed, so to the office, where all the morning. At noon dined with Sir W. Warren at the Pope's Head. So back to the office, and there met with the Commissioners of the Ordnance, where Sir W. Pen (age 44) being almost drunk vexed me, and the more because Mr. Chichly (age 52) observed it with me, and it was a disparagement to the office.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and put on my new black coate, long down to my knees, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) to White Hall, where all in deep mourning for the Queene's (age 27) mother. There had great discourse, before the Duke (age 32) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) begun the discourse of the day about the purser's business, which I seconded, and with great liking to the Duke (age 32), whom however afterward my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Sir W. Pen (age 44) did stop by some thing they said, though not much to the purpose, yet because our proposition had some appearance of certain charge to the King (age 35) it was ruled that for this year we should try another the same in every respect with ours, leaving out one circumstance of allowing the pursers the victuals of all men short of the complement. I was very well satisfied with it and am contented to try it, wishing it may prove effectual.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1666. By and by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Rider met with us, and we did something to purpose about the Chest, and hope we shall go on to do so. They up, I to present Balty (age 26) to Sir W. Pen (age 45), who at my entreaty did write a most obliging letter to Harman (age 41) to use him civilly, but the dissembling of the rogue is such, that it do not oblige me at all.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1666. In the evening with my [wife] and Mercer by coach to take the ayre as far as Bow, and eat and drank in the coach by the way and with much pleasure and pleased with my company. At night home and up to the leads, but were contrary to expectation driven down again with a stinke by Sir W. Pen's (age 45) shying of a shitten pot in their house of office close by, which do trouble me for fear it do hereafter annoy me. So down to sing a little and then to bed. So ends this month with great layings-out. Good health and gettings, and advanced well in the whole of my estate, for which God make me thankful.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1666. After church time, standing in the Church yarde, she spied me, so I went to her, her father and mother and husband being with her. They desired and I agreed to go home with Mr. Michell, and there had the opportunity to have saluted two or three times Betty and make an acquaintance which they are pleased with, though not so much as I am or they think I am. I staid here an houre or more chatting with them in a little sorry garden of theirs by the Bowling Alley, and so left them and I by water home, and there was in great pain in mind lest Sir W. Pen (age 45), who is going down to the Fleete, should come to me or send for me to be informed in the state of things, and particularly the Victualling, that by my pains he might seem wise. So after spending an houre with my wife pleasantly in her closett, I to bed even by daylight.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1666. Comes betimes a letter from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) are ordered presently down to the Fleete. I up and saw Sir W. Pen (age 45) gone also after them, and so I finding it a leisure day fell to making cleane my closett in my office, which I did to my content and set up my Platts again, being much taken also with Griffin's mayde, that did cleane it, being a pretty mayde.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1666. King's Birth-day and Restauration Day. Waked with the ringing of the bells all over the towne; so up before five o'clock, and to the office, where we met, and I all the morning with great trouble upon my spirit to think how I should come off in the afternoon when Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did go to the Victualling Office to see the state of matters there, and methinks by his doing of it without speaking to me, and only with Sir W. Pen (age 45), it must be of design to find my negligence. However, at noon I did, upon a small invitation of Sir W. Pen's (age 45), go and dine with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) at his office, where great good cheer and many pleasant stories of Sir W. Coventry (age 38); but I had no pleasure in them. However, I had last night and this morning made myself a little able to report how matters were, and did readily go with them after dinner to the Victualling Office; and there, beyond belief, did acquit myself very well to full content; so that, beyond expectation, I got over this second rub in this business; and if ever I fall on it again, I deserve to be undone.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1666. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall in the latter's coach, where, when we come, we find the Duke (age 32) at St. James's, whither he is lately gone to lodge. So walking through the Parke we saw hundreds of people listening at the Gravel-pits, [Kensington] and to and again in the Parke to hear the guns, and I saw a letter, dated last night, from Strowd (age 38), Governor of Dover Castle, which says that the Prince (age 46) come thither the night before with his fleete, but that for the guns which we writ that we heard, it is only a mistake for thunder1 and so far as to yesterday it is a miraculous thing that we all Friday, and Saturday and yesterday, did hear every where most plainly the guns go off, and yet at Deale [Map] and Dover, Kent [Map] to last night they did not hear one word of a fight, nor think they heard one gun. This, added to what I have set down before the other day about the Katharine, makes room for a great dispute in philosophy, how we should hear it and they not, the same wind that brought it to us being the same that should bring it to them: but so it is. Major Halsey, however (he was sent down on purpose to hear newes), did bring newes this morning that he did see the Prince (age 46) and his fleete at nine of the clock yesterday morning, four or five leagues to sea behind the Goodwin [Map], so that by the hearing of the guns this morning we conclude he is come to the fleete.

Note 1. Evelyn (age 45) was in his garden when he heard the guns, and be at once set off to Rochester, Kent [Map] and the coast, but he found that nothing had been heard at Deal (see his "Diary", June 1st, 1666).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1666. After wayting upon the Duke (age 32), Sir W. Pen (age 45) (who was commanded to go to-night by water down to Harwich [Map], to dispatch away all the ships he can) and I home, drinking two bottles of Cocke (age 49) ale in the streete in his new fine coach, where no sooner come, but newes is brought me of a couple of men come to speak with me from the fleete; so I down, and who should it be but Mr. Daniel, all muffled up, and his face as black as the chimney, and covered with dirt, pitch, and tarr, and powder, and muffled with dirty clouts, and his right eye stopped with okum. He is come last night at five o'clock from the fleete, with a comrade of his that hath endangered another eye. They were set on shore at Harwich [Map] this morning, and at two o'clock, in a catch with about twenty more wounded men from the Royall Charles. They being able to ride, took post about three this morning, and were here between eleven and twelve. I went presently into the coach with them, and carried them to Somerset-House-stairs, and there took water (all the world gazing upon us, and concluding it to be newes from the fleete, and every body's face appeared expecting of newes) to the Privy-stairs, and left them at Mr. Coventry's (age 38) lodging (he, though, not being there); and so I into the Parke to the King (age 36), and told him my Lord Generall was well the last night at five o'clock, and the Prince (age 46) come with his fleete and joyned with his about seven. The King (age 36) was mightily pleased with this newes, and so took me by the hand and talked a little of it. Giving him the best account I could; and then he bid me to fetch the two seamen to him, he walking into the house. So I went and fetched the seamen into the Vane room to him, and there he heard the whole account.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1666. By and by comes Mr. Wayth to me; and discoursing of our ill successe, he tells me plainly from Captain Page's own mouth (who hath lost his arm in the fight), that the Dutch did pursue us two hours before they left us, and then they suffered us to go on homewards, and they retreated towards their coast: which is very sad newes. Then to my office and anon to White Hall, late, to the Duke of York (age 32) to see what commands he hath and to pray a meeting to-morrow for Tangier in behalf of Mr. Yeabsly, which I did do and do find the Duke (age 32) much damped in his discourse, touching the late fight, and all the Court talk sadly of it. The Duke (age 32) did give me several letters he had received from the fleete, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and Sir W. Pen (age 45), who are gone down thither, for me to pick out some works to be done for the setting out the fleete again; and so I took them home with me, and was drawing out an abstract of them till midnight. And as to newes, I do find great reason to think that we are beaten in every respect, and that we are the losers. The Prince upon the Galloper, where both the Royall Charles and Royall Katharine had come twice aground, but got off. The Essex carried into Holland; the Swiftsure missing (Sir William Barkeley (deceased)) ever since the beginning of the fight. Captains Bacon, Tearne, Wood, Mootham, Whitty, and Coppin, slayne. The Duke of Albemarle (age 57) writes, that he never fought with worse officers in his life, not above twenty of them behaving themselves like men. Sir William Clerke (deceased) lost his leg; and in two days died. The Loyall George, Seven Oakes, and Swiftsure, are still missing, having never, as the Generall writes himself, engaged with them. It was as great an alteration to find myself required to write a sad letter instead of a triumphant one to my Lady Sandwich (age 41) this night, as ever on any occasion I had in my life. So late home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1666. Sunday. Up betimes, and to the office receiving letters, two or three one after another from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and sent as many to him, being full of variety of business and hurry, but among the chiefest is the getting of these pressed men out of the City down the river to the fleete. While I was hard at it comes Sir W. Pen (age 45) to towne, which I little expected, having invited my [his wife] Lady (age 42) and her daughter [his daughter] Pegg (age 15) to dine with me to-day; which at noon they did, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) with them: and pretty merry we were. And though I do not love him, yet I find it necessary to keep in with him; his good service at Shearnesse [Map] in getting out the fleete being much taken notice of, and reported to the King (age 36) and Duke (age 32) [of York], even from the Prince (age 46) and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) themselves, and made the most of to me and them by Sir W. Coventry (age 38): therefore I think it discretion, great and necessary discretion, to keep in with him.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1666. Thence home and to the Tower to see the men from Bridewell [Map] shipped. Being rid of him I home to dinner, and thence to the Excise office by appointment to meet my Lord Bellasses (age 52) and the Commissioners, which we did and soon dispatched, and so I home, and there was called by [his daughter] Pegg Pen (age 15) to her house, where her father (age 45) and [his wife] mother (age 42), and Mrs. Norton, the second Roxalana (age 24), a fine woman, indifferent handsome, good body and hand, and good mine, and pretends to sing, but do it not excellently. However I took pleasure there, and my wife was sent for, and Creed come in to us, and so there we spent the most of the afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1666. So with my heart full of content to bed. Newes come yesterday from Harwich [Map], that the Dutch had appeared upon our coast with their fleete, and we believe did go to the Gun-fleete, and they are supposed to be there now; but I have heard nothing of them to-day. Yesterday Dr. Whistler, at Sir W. Pen's (age 45), told me that Alexander Broome, a the great song-maker, is lately dead.

Four Days' Battle

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. Thence home and dined, and then to the office, where busy all day, and in the evening Sir W. Pen (age 45) come to me, and we walked together, and talked of the late fight. I find him very plain, that the whole conduct of the late fight was ill, and that that of truth's all, and he tells me that it is not he, but two-thirds of the commanders of the whole fleete have told him so: they all saying, that they durst not oppose it at the Council of War, for fear of being called cowards, though it was wholly against their judgement to fight that day with the disproportion of force, and then we not being able to use one gun of our lower tier, which was a greater disproportion than the other. Besides, we might very well have staid in the Downs without fighting, or any where else, till the Prince (age 46) could have come up to them; or at least till the weather was fair, that we might have the benefit of our whole force in the ships that we had. He says three things must [be] remedied, or else we shall be undone by this fleete.

Note 1. That we must fight in a line, whereas we fight promiscuously, to our utter and demonstrable ruine; the Dutch fighting otherwise; and we, whenever we beat them.

Note 2. We must not desert ships of our own in distress, as we did, for that makes a captain desperate, and he will fling away his ship, when there is no hopes left him of succour.

Note 3. That ships, when they are a little shattered, must not take the liberty to come in of themselves, but refit themselves the best they can, and stay out-many of our ships coming in with very small disablenesses.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jul 1666. Up betimes, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) in his coach to Westminster to Sir G. Downing's (age 41), but missed of him, and so we parted, I by water home, where busy all the morning, at noon dined at home, and after dinner to my office, where busy till come to by Lovett and his wife, who have brought me some sheets of paper varnished on one side, which lies very white and smooth and, I think, will do our business most exactly, and will come up to the use that I intended them for, and I am apt to believe will be an invention that will take in the world. I have made up a little book of it to give Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to-morrow, and am very well pleased with it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1666. Thence home and walked in the garden with Sir W. Pen (age 45) a while, and saying how the riding in the coach do me good (though I do not yet much find it), he ordered his to be got ready while I did some little business at the office, and so abroad he and I after 8 o'clock at night, as far almost as Bow, and so back again, and so home to supper and to bed. This day I did bid Balty (age 26) to agree with the Dutch paynter, which he once led me to, to see landskipps, for a winter piece of snow, which indeed is a good piece, and costs me but 40s., which I would not take the money again for, it being, I think, very good. After a little supper to bed, being in less pain still, and had very good rest.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1666. Thence with him home; and there by appointment I find Dr. Fuller (age 58), now Bishop of Limericke, in Ireland; whom I knew in his low condition at Twittenham. I had also by his desire Sir W. Pen (age 45), and with him his [his wife] lady (age 42) and [his daughter] daughter (age 15), and had a good dinner, and find the Bishop the same good man as ever; and in a word, kind to us, and, methinks, one of the comeliest and most becoming prelates in all respects that ever I saw in my life. During dinner comes an acquaintance of his, Sir Thomas Littleton (age 45); whom I knew not while he was in my house, but liked his discourse; and afterwards, by Sir W. Pen (age 45), do come to know that he is one of the greatest speakers in the House of Commons, and the usual second to the great Vaughan (age 62). So was sorry I did observe him no more, and gain more of his acquaintance.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1666. Up, and finding by a letter late last night that the fleete is gone, and that Sir W. Pen (age 45) is ordered to go down to Sheernesse [Map], and finding him ready to go to St. James's this morning, I was willing to go with him to see how things go1, and so with him thither (but no discourse with the Duke), but to White Hall, and there the Duke of York (age 32) did bid Sir W. Pen (age 45) to stay to discourse with him and the King (age 36) about business of the fleete, which troubled me a little, but it was only out of envy, for which I blame myself, having no reason to expect to be called to advise in a matter I understand not. So I away to Lovett's, there to see how my picture goes on to be varnished (a fine Crucifix)2, which will be very fine; and here I saw some fine prints, brought from France by Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), who is lately returned.

Note 1. Sir William Pen's (age 45) instructions from the Duke of York (age 32) directing him to embark on his Majesty's yacht "Henrietta", and to see to the manning of such ships has had been left behind by the fleet, dated on this day, 20th July, is printed in Penn's "Memorials of Sir W. Penn (age 45)", vol. ii., p. 406.

Note 2. This picture occasioned Pepys trouble long afterwards, having been brought as evidence that he was a Papist (see "Life", vol. i., p. xxxiii).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1666. Thence I to the office, where busy all the afternoon, and in the evening with Sir W. Pen (age 45), walking with whom in the garden I am of late mighty great, and it is wisdom to continue myself so, for he is of all the men of the office at present most manifestly usefull and best thought of. He and I supped together upon the seat in the garden, and thence, he gone, my wife and Mercer come and walked and sang late, and then home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jul 1666. At night walked in the garden with my wife, and so I home to supper and to bed. Sir W. Pen (age 45) is gone down to Sheernesse [Map] to-day to see things made ready against the fleete shall come in again, which makes Pett mad, and calls him dissembling knave, and that himself takes all the pains and is blamed, while he do nothing but hinder business and takes all the honour of it to himself, and tells me plainly he will fling, up his commission rather than bear it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1666. Up betimes to the settling of my last month's accounts, and I bless God I find them very clear, and that I am worth £5700, the most that ever my book did yet make out. So prepared to attend the Duke of Yorke (age 32) as usual, but Sir W. Pen (age 45), just as I was going out, comes home from Sheernesse [Map], and held me in discourse about publique business, till I come by coach too late to St. James's, and there find that every thing stood still, and nothing done for want of me.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1666. So home, and busy till night, and then to Sir W. Pen (age 45), with my wife, to sit and chat, and a small supper, and home to bed.

St James' Day Battle

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1666. The death of Everson, and the report of our success, beyond expectation, in the killing of so great a number of men, hath raised the estimation of the late victory considerably; but it is only among fools: for all that was but accidental. But this morning, getting Sir.W. Pen (age 45) to read over the Narrative with me, he did sparingly, yet plainly, say that we might have intercepted their Zealand squadron coming home, if we had done our parts; and more, that we might have spooned before the wind as well as they, and have overtaken their ships in the pursuite, in all the while1.

Note 1. To spoom, or spoon, is to go right before the wind, without any sail. Sea Dictionary. Dryden (age 34) uses the word "When virtue spooms before a prosperous gale, My heaving wishes help to fill the sail". Hind and Panther, iii. 96.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1666. This evening, Sir W. Pen (age 45) come into the garden, and walked with me, and told me that he had certain notice that at Flushing [Map] they are in great distraction. De Ruyter (age 59) dares not come on shore for fear of the people; nor any body open their houses or shops for fear of the tumult: which is a every good hearing.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1666. So home, and had a good dinner, and after dinner with my wife, and Mercer, and Jane by water, all the afternoon up as high as Morclaeke with great pleasure, and a fine day, reading over the second part of "The Siege of Rhodes", with great delight. We landed and walked at Barne-elmes, and then at the Neat Houses I landed and bought a millon, [melon] and we did also land and eat and drink at Wandsworth, Surrey, and so to the Old Swan [Map], and thence walked home. It being a mighty fine cool evening, and there being come, my wife and I spent an houre in the garden, talking of our living in the country, when I shall be turned out of the office, as I fear the Parliament may find faults enough with the office to remove us all, and I am joyed to think in how good a condition I am to retire thither, and have wherewith very well to subsist. Nan, at Sir W. Pen's (age 45), lately married to one Markeham, a kinsman of Sir W. Pen's (age 45), a pretty wench she is.

Holme's Bonfire

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1666. Up and by coach with £100 to the Exchequer to pay fees there. There left it, and I to St. James's, and there with; the Duke of Yorke (age 32). I had opportunity of much talk with Sir. W. Pen (age 45) to-day (he being newly come from the fleete); and he, do much undervalue the honour that is given to the conduct of the late business of Holmes (age 44) in burning the ships and town1 saying it was a great thing indeed, and of great profit to us in being of great losse to the enemy, but that it was wholly a business of chance, and no conduct employed in it. I find Sir W. Pen (age 45) do hold up his head at this time higher than ever he did in his life. I perceive he do look after Sir J. Minnes's (age 67) place if he dies, and though I love him not nor do desire to have him in, yet I do think (he) is the first man in England for it.

Note 1. The town burned (see August 15th, ante) was Brandaris, a place of 1000 houses, on the isle of Schelling; the ships lay between that island and the Fly (i.e. Vlieland), the adjoining island. This attack probably provoked that by the Dutch on Chatham, Kent [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1666. At the office all the morning, whither Sir W. Coventry (age 38) sent me word that the Dutch fleete is certainly abroad; and so we are to hasten all we have to send to our fleete with all speed. But, Lord! to see how my Lord Bruncker (age 46) undertakes the despatch of the fire-ships, when he is no more fit for it than a porter; and all the while Sir W. Pen (age 45), who is the most fit, is unwilling to displease him, and do not look after it; and so the King's work is like to be well done.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. Thence Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I to Islington and there drank at the Katherine Wheele, and so down the nearest way home, where there was no kind of pleasure at all. Being come home, hear that Sir J. Minnes (age 67) has had a very bad fit all this day, and a hickup do take him, which is a very bad sign, which troubles me truly.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. After dinner we parted, and I to my office, whither I sent for Mr. Lewes and instructed myself fully in the business of the Victualling, to enable me to answer in the matter; and then Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I by coach to White Hall, and there staid till the King (age 36) and Cabinet were met in the Green Chamber, and then we were called in; and there the King (age 36) begun with me, to hear how the victualls of the fleete stood. I did in a long discourse tell him and the rest (the Duke of Yorke (age 32), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), both the Secretarys, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and Sir W. Coventry (age 38),) how it stood, wherein they seemed satisfied, but press mightily for more supplies; and the letter of the Generalls, which was read, did lay their not going or too soon returning from the Dutch coast, this next bout, to the want of victuals. They then proceeded to the enquiry after the fireships; and did all very superficially, and without any severity at all.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. Lord's Day. Up betimes, and to the finishing the setting things in order in my new closett out of my old, which I did thoroughly by the time sermon was done at church, to my exceeding joy, only I was a little disturbed with newes my Lord Bruncker (age 46) brought me, that we are to attend the King (age 36) at White Hall this afternoon, and that it is about a complaint from the Generalls against us. Sir W. Pen (age 45) dined by invitation with me, his Lady and daughter being gone into the country. We very merry.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1666. After dinner the young women went to dance; among others Mr. Christopher Pett (age 46) his daughter, who is a very pretty, modest girle, I am mightily taken with her; and that being done about five o'clock, home, very well pleased with the afternoon's work. And so we broke up mightily civilly, the bride and bridegroom going to Greenwich, Kent [Map] (they keeping their dinner here only for my sake) to lie, and we home, where I to the office, and anon am on a sudden called to meet Sir W. Pen (age 45) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) at the Victualling Office, which did put me out of order to be so surprised. But I went, and there Sir William Coventry did read me a letter from the Generalls to the King (age 36)1, a most scurvy letter, reflecting most upon Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and then upon me for my accounts (not that they are not true, but that we do not consider the expence of the fleete), and then of the whole office, in neglecting them and the King's service, and this in very plain and sharp and menacing terms. I did give a good account of matters according to our computation of the expence of the fleete. I find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) willing enough to accept of any thing to confront the Generalls. But a great supply must be made, and shall be in grace of God! But, however, our accounts here will be found the true ones. Having done here, and much work set me, I with greater content home than I thought I should have done, and so to the office a while, and then home, and a while in my new closet, which delights me every day more and more, and so late to bed.

Note 1. The letter from Prince Rupert (age 46) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) to the King (age 36) (dated August 27th, from the "Royal Charles", Sole Bay [Map]) is among the State Papers. The generals complain of the want of supplies, in spite of repeated importunities. The demands are answered by accounts from Mr. Pepys of what has been sent to the fleet, which will not satisfy the ships, unless the provisions could be found "... Have not a month's provision of beer, yet Sir Wm. Coventry assures the ministers that they are supplied till Oct. 3; unless this is quickened they will have to return home too soon.... Want provisions according to their own computation, not Sir Wm. Coventry's, to last to the end of October" ("Calendar", 1666-67, p. 71).

Pepy's Diary. 29 Aug 1666. Up betimes, and there to fit some Tangier accounts, and then, by appointment, to my Lord Bellasses (age 52), but about Paul's thought of the chant paper I should carry with me, and so fain to come back again, and did, and then met with Sir W. Pen (age 45), and with him to my Lord Bellasses (age 52), he sitting in the coach the while, while I up to my Lord and there offered him my account of the bills of exchange I had received and paid for him, wherein we agree all but one £200 bill of Vernaty's drawing, wherein I doubt he hath endeavoured to cheate my Lord; but that will soon appear.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Aug 1666. To St. James's, and there Sir W. Coventry (age 38) took Sir W. Pen (age 45) and me apart, and read to us his answer to the Generalls' letter to the King (age 36) that he read last night; wherein he is very plain, and states the matter in full defence of himself and of me with him, which he could not avoid; which is a good comfort to me, that I happen to be involved with him in the same cause. And then, speaking of the supplies which have been made to this fleete, more than ever in all kinds to any, even that wherein the Duke of Yorke (age 32) himself was, "Well", says he, "if this will not do, I will say, as Sir J. Falstaffe did to the Prince, 'Tell your father, that if he do not like this let him kill the next Piercy himself,'"1 and so we broke up, and to the Duke (age 32), and there did our usual business. So I to the Parke and there met Creed, and he and I walked to Westminster to the Exchequer, and thence to White Hall talking of Tangier matters and Vernaty's knavery, and so parted, and then I homeward and met Mr. Povy (age 52) in Cheapside, and stopped and talked a good while upon the profits of the place which my Lord Bellasses (age 52) hath made this last year, and what share we are to have of it, but of this all imperfect, and so parted, and I home, and there find Mrs. Mary Batelier, and she dined with us; and thence I took them to Islington [Map], and there eat a custard; and so back to Moorfields [Map], and shewed Batelier, with my wife, "Polichinello", which I like the more I see it; and so home with great content, she being a mighty good-natured, pretty woman, and thence I to the Victualling Office, and there with Mr. Lewes and Willson upon our Victualling matters till ten at night, and so I home and there late writing a letter to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and so home to supper and to bed. No newes where the Dutch are. We begin to think they will steale through the Channel to meet Beaufort. We think our fleete sayled yesterday, but we have no newes of it.

Note 1. "King Henry IV"., Part I, act v., sc. 4.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Aug 1666. Thence took leave, and found Sir W. Pen (age 45) talking to Orange Moll, of the King's house, who, to our great comfort, told us that they begun to act on the 18th of this month. So on to St. James's, in the way Sir W. Pen (age 45) telling me that Mr. Norton, that married Sir J. Lawson's daughter, is dead. She left £800 a year jointure, a son to inherit the whole estate. She freed from her father-in-law's (age 50) tyranny, and is in condition to helpe her mother, who needs it; of which I am glad, the young lady being very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1666. Up and at the office all the morning, and then dined at home. Got my new closet made mighty clean against to-morrow. Sir W. Pen (age 45) and my wife and Mercer and I to "Polichinelly", but were there horribly frighted to see Young Killigrew (age 29) come in with a great many more young sparks; but we hid ourselves, so as we think they did not see us.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. About four o'clock in the morning, my Lady Batten sent me a cart to carry away all my money, and plate, and best things, to Sir W. Rider's at Bednall-greene. Which I did riding myself in my night-gowne in the cart; and, Lord! to see how the streets and the highways are crowded with people running and riding, and getting of carts at any rate to fetch away things. I find Sir W. Rider tired with being called up all night, and receiving things from several friends. His house full of goods, and much of Sir W. Batten's (age 65) and Sir W. Pen's (age 45) I am eased at my heart to have my treasure so well secured. Then home, with much ado to find a way, nor any sleep all this night to me nor my poor wife. But then and all this day she and I, and all my people labouring to get away the rest of our things, and did get Mr. Tooker to get me a lighter to take them in, and we did carry them (myself some) over Tower Hill [Map], which was by this time full of people's goods, bringing their goods thither; and down to the lighter, which lay at next quay, above the Tower Docke. And here was my neighbour's wife, Mrs.----,with her pretty child, and some few of her things, which I did willingly give way to be saved with mine; but there was no passing with any thing through the postern, the crowd was so great. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) of this day by the office, and spoke to us, and did ride with his guard up and down the City, to keep all quiet (he being now Generall, and having the care of all). This day, Mercer being not at home, but against her mistress's order gone to her mother's, and my wife going thither to speak with W. Hewer (age 24), met her there, and was angry; and her mother saying that she was not a 'prentice girl, to ask leave every time she goes abroad, my wife with good reason was angry, and, when she came home, bid her be gone again. And so she went away, which troubled me, but yet less than it would, because of the condition we are in, fear of coming into in a little time of being less able to keepe one in her quality. At night lay down a little upon a quilt of W. Hewer's (age 24) in the office, all my owne things being packed up or gone; and after me my poor wife did the like, we having fed upon the remains of yesterday's dinner, having no fire nor dishes, nor any opportunity of dressing any thing.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. This afternoon, sitting melancholy with Sir W. Pen (age 45) in our garden, and thinking of the certain burning of this office, without extraordinary means, I did propose for the sending up of all our workmen from Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, Kent [Map] yards (none whereof yet appeared), and to write to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to have the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) permission to pull down houses, rather than lose this office, which would, much hinder, the King's business. So Sir W. Pen (age 45) he went down this night, in order to the sending them up to-morrow morning; and I wrote to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about the business, but received no answer. This night Mrs. Turner (age 43) (who, poor woman, was removing her goods all this day, good goods into the garden, and knows not how to dispose of them), and her husband supped with my wife and I at night, in the office; upon a shoulder of mutton from the cook's, without any napkin or any thing, in a sad manner, but were merry. Only now and then walking into the garden, and saw how horridly the sky looks, all on a fire in the night, was enough to put us out of our wits; and, indeed, it was extremely dreadful, for it looks just as if it was at us; and the whole heaven on fire. I after supper walked in the darke down to Tower-streete, and there saw it all on fire, at the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] on that side, and the Dolphin Taverne on this side, which was very near us; and the fire with extraordinary vehemence.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. And in the evening Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I did dig another, and put our wine in it; and I my Parmazan cheese, as well as my wine and some other things. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) was at the office this day, at Sir W. Pen's (age 45); but I happened not to be within.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Up by break of day to get away the remainder of my things; which I did by a lighter at the Iron gate and my hands so few, that it was the afternoon before we could get them all away. Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I to Tower-streete [Map], and there met the fire burning three or four doors beyond Mr. Hovell's, whose goods, poor man, his trayes, and dishes, shovells, &c., were flung all along Tower-street in the kennels, and people working therewith from one end to the other; the fire coming on in that narrow streete, on both sides, with infinite fury. Sir W. Batten (age 65) not knowing how to remove his wine, did dig a pit in the garden, and laid it in there; and I took the opportunity of laying all the papers of my office that I could not otherwise dispose of.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Home; and whereas I expected to have seen our house on fire, it being now about seven o'clock, it was not. But to the fyre, and there find greater hopes than I expected; for my confidence of finding our Office on fire was such, that I durst not ask any body how it was with us, till I come and saw it not burned. But going to the fire, I find by the blowing up of houses, and the great helpe given by the workmen out of the King's yards, sent up by Sir W. Pen (age 45), there is a good stop given to it, as well as at Marke-lane [Map] end as ours; it having only burned the dyall of Barking Church [Map], and part of the porch, and was there quenched. I up to the top of Barking steeple, and there saw the saddest sight of desolation that I ever saw; every where great fires, oyle-cellars, and brimstone, and other things burning. I became afeard to stay there long, and therefore down again as fast as I could, the fire being spread as far as I could see it; and to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), and there eat a piece of cold meat, having eaten nothing since Sunday, but the remains of Sunday's dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Now begins the practice of blowing up of houses in Tower-streete [Map], those next the Tower, which at first did frighten people more than anything, but it stopped the fire where it was done, it bringing down the1 houses to the ground in the same places they stood, and then it was easy to quench what little fire was in it, though it kindled nothing almost. W. Newer this day went to see how his mother did, and comes late home, telling us how he hath been forced to remove her to Islington [Map], her house in Pye-corner being burned; so that the fire is got so far that way, and all the Old Bayly, and was running down to Fleete-streete [Map]; and Paul's [Map] is burned, and all Cheapside [Map]. I wrote to my father this night, but the post-house being burned, the letter could not go2. 5th. I lay down in the office again upon W. Hewer's (age 24), quilt, being mighty weary, and sore in my feet with going till I was hardly able to stand. About two in the morning my wife calls me up and tells me of new cRye [Map]s of fire, it being come to Barkeing Church, which is the bottom of our lane. I up, and finding it so, resolved presently to take her away, and did, and took my gold, which was about £2350, W. Newer, and Jane, down by Proundy's boat to Woolwich, Kent [Map]; but, Lord! what sad sight it was by moone-light to see, the whole City almost on fire, that you might see it plain at Woolwich, Kent [Map], as if you were by it. There, when I come, I find the gates shut, but no guard kept at all, which troubled me, because of discourse now begun, that there is plot in it, and that the French had done it. I got the gates open, and to Mr. Shelden's, where I locked up my gold, and charged, my wife and W. Newer never to leave the room without one of them in it, night, or day. So back again, by the way seeing my goods well in the lighters at Deptford, Kent [Map], and watched well by people.

Note 1. A copy of this letter, preserved among the Pepys MSS. in the author's own handwriting, is subjoined: "SIR, The fire is now very neere us as well on Tower Streete as Fanchurch Street side, and we little hope of our escape but by this remedy, to ye want whereof we doe certainly owe ye loss of ye City namely, ye pulling down of houses, in ye way of ye fire. This way Sir W. Pen (age 45) and myself have so far concluded upon ye practising, that he is gone to Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, Kent [Map] to supply himself with men and necessarys in order to the doeing thereof, in case at his returne our condition be not bettered and that he meets with his R. Hs. approbation, which I had thus undertaken to learn of you. Pray please to let me have this night (at whatever hour it is) what his R. Hs. directions are in this particular; Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and Sir W. Batten (age 65) having left us, we cannot add, though we are well assured of their, as well as all ye neighbourhood's concurrence. "Yr. obedient servnt. "S. P. "Sir W. Coventry (age 38), "Septr. 4, 1666"..

Note 2. J. Hickes wrote to Williamson on September 3rd from the "Golden Lyon", Red Cross Street Posthouse. Sir Philip (Frowde) and his lady fled from the (letter) office at midnight for: safety; stayed himself till 1 am. till his wife and childrens' patience could stay, no longer, fearing lest they should be quite stopped up; the passage was so tedious they had much ado to get where they are. The Chester and Irish, mails have come-in; sends him his letters, knows not how to dispose of the business (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 95).

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. So home, and did give orders for my house to be made clean; and then down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there find all well: Dined, and Mrs. Markham come to see my wife. So I up again, and calling at Deptford, Kent [Map] for some things of W. Hewer's (age 24), he being with me, and then home and spent the evening with Sir R. Ford (age 52), Mr. Knightly, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) at Sir W. Batten's (age 65): This day our Merchants first met at Gresham College, which, by proclamation, is to be their Exchange [Map]. Strange to hear what is bid for houses all up and down here; a friend of Sir W. Rider's: having £150 for what he used to let for £40 per annum. Much dispute where the Custome-house shall be thereby the growth of the City again to be foreseen. My Lord Treasurer (age 59), they say, and others; would have it at the other end of the towne. I home late to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), who did give me a bed; but without curtains or hangings, all being down. So here I went the first time into a naked bed, only my drawers on; and did sleep pretty well: but still hath sleeping and waking had a fear of fire in my heart, that I took little rest. People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity of my Lord Mayor in generall; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon' him. A proclamation1 is come out for markets to be kept at Leadenhall [Map] and Mileendgreene [Map], and several other places about the towne; and Tower-hill [Map], and all churches to be set open to receive poor people.

Note 1. On September 5th proclamation was made "ordering that for supply of the distressed people left destitute by the late dreadful and dismal fire.... great proportions of bread be brought daily, not only to the former markets, but to those lately ordained; that all churches, chapels, schools, and public buildings are to be open to receive the goods of those who know not how to dispose of them". On September 6th, proclamation ordered "that as the markets are burned down, markets be held in Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill [Map], Smithfield [Map], and Leadenhall Street [Map]" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 100, 104).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1666. To the office and late writing letters, and then to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), my brother lying with me, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) gone down to rest himself at Woolwich, Kent [Map]. But I was much frighted and kept awake in my bed, by some noise I heard a great while below stairs; and the boys not coming up to me when I knocked. It was by their discovery of people stealing of some neighbours' wine that lay in vessels in the streets.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1666. Up and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) by water to White Hall and they to St. James's. I stopped with Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to desire him to go with us, and to enquire after money. But the first he cannot do, and the other as little, or says, "when we can get any, or what shall we do for it?" He, it seems, is employed in the correspondence between the City and the King (age 36) every day, in settling of things. I find him full of trouble, to think how things will go. I left him, and to St. James's, where we met first at Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, and there did what business we can, without any books. Our discourse, as every thing else, was confused. The fleete is at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], there staying a wind to carry them to the Downes, or towards Bullen [Map], where they say the Dutch fleete is gone, and stays. We concluded upon private meetings for a while, not having any money to satisfy any people that may come to us. I bought two eeles upon the Thames, cost me six shillings.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1666. So to my office, there to write down my journall, and take leave of my brother, whom I sent back this afternoon, though rainy; which it hath not done a good while before. But I had no room or convenience for him here till my house is fitted; but I was very kind to him, and do take very well of him his journey. I did give him 40s. for his pocket, and so, he being gone, and, it presently rayning, I was troubled for him, though it is good for the fyre. Anon to Sir W. Pen's (age 45) to bed, and made my boy Tom to read me asleep.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1666. In the evening at Sir W. Pen's (age 45); with my wife, at supper, he in a mad, ridiculous, drunken humour; and it seems there have been some late distances between his [his wife] lady (age 42) and him, as my [wife] tells me. After supper, I home, and with Mr. Hater, Gibson, and Tom alone, got all my chests and money into the further cellar with much pains, but great content to me when done. So very late and weary, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1666. After dinner I took him down with me to Deptford, Kent [Map], and there by the Bezan loaded above half my goods and sent them away. So we back home, and then I found occasion to return in the dark and to Bagwell, and there... did do all that I desired, but though I did intend 'pour avoir demeurais con elle' [Note. ] to-day last night, yet when I had done 'ce que je voudrais I did hate both elle and la cose' [Note. that which I wanted I did hate her and the thing], and taking occasion from the occasion of 'su marido's return... did me lever' [Note. her husbands return ... did leave], and so away home late to Sir W. Pen's (age 45) (Batty and his wife lying at my house), and there in the same simple humour I found Sir W. Pen (age 45), and so late to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to St. James's by water, and there did our usual business with the Duke of Yorke (age 32).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1666. At noon, with my wife, against her will, all undressed and dirty, dined at Sir W. Pen's (age 45), where was all the company of our families in towne; but, Lord! so sorry a dinner: venison baked in pans, that the dinner I have had for his lady alone hath been worth four of it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Sep 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) by coach to St. James's, and there did our usual business before the Duke of Yorke (age 32); which signified little, our business being only complaints of lack of money. Here I saw a bastard (age 19) of the late King of Sweden's come to kiss his hands; a mighty modish French-like gentleman.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Sep 1666. Thence to White Hall, with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45), to Wilkes's; and there did hear the many profane stories of Sir Henry Wood (age 68) damning the parsons for so much spending the wine at the sacrament, cursing that ever they took the cup to themselves, and then another story that he valued not all the world's curses, for two pence he shall get at any time the prayers of some poor body that is worth a 1000 of all their curses; Lord Norwich drawing a tooth at a health. Another time, he and Pinchbacke and Dr. Goffe, now a religious man, Pinchbacke did begin a frolick to drink out of a glass with a toad in it that he had taken up going out to shit, he did it without harm. Goffe, who knew sacke would kill the toad, called for sacke; and when he saw it dead, says he, "I will have a quick toad, and will not drink from a dead toad".1 By that means, no other being to be found, he escaped the health.

Note 1. "They swallow their own contradictions as easily as a hector can drink a frog in a glass of wine".-Benlivoglio and Urania, book v., p. 92, 3rd edit. B.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1666. Up, and mightily pleased with the setting of my books the last night in order, and that which did please me most of all is that W. Hewer (age 24) tells me that upon enquiry he do find that Sir W. Pen (age 45) hath a hamper more than his own, which he took for a hamper of bottles of wine, and are books in it. I was impatient to see it, but they were carried into a wine-cellar, and the boy is abroad with him at the House, where the Parliament met to-day, and the King (age 36) to be with them.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to St. James's, and there with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) read and all approved of my letter, and then home, and after dinner, Mr. Hater and Gibson dining with me, to the office, and there very late new moulding my accounts and writing fair my letter, which I did against the evening, and then by coach left my wife at her brother's, and I to St. James's, and up and down to look [for] Sir W. Coventry (age 38); and at last found him and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) with the Lord Treasurer (age 59) at White Hall, consulting how to make up my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) general account, as well as that of the Navy particularly. Here brought the letter, but found that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) had altered his account since he did give me the abstract of it: so all my letter must be writ over again, to put in his last abstract.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1666. Thence took my wife home to dinner, and then to the office, where Mr. Hater all the day putting in order and entering in a book all the measures that this account of the Navy hath been made up by, and late at night to Mrs. Turner's (age 43), where she had got my wife and [his wife] Lady Pen (age 42) and [his daughter] Pegg (age 15), and supped, and after, supper and the rest of the company by design gone, Mrs. Turner (age 43) and her husband did lay their case to me about their lodgings, Sir J. Minnes (age 67) being now gone wholly to his owne, and now, they being empty, they doubt Sir T. Harvy or Lord Bruncker may look after the lodgings. I did give them the best advice, poor people, that I could, and would do them any kindnesse, though it is strange that now they should have ne'er a friend of Sir W. Batten (age 65) or Sir W. Pen (age 45) to trust to but me, that they have disobliged.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1666. Being come home, I to Sir W. Batten (age 65), and there hear our business was tendered to the House to-day, and a Committee of the whole House chosen to examine our accounts, and a great many Hotspurs enquiring into it, and likely to give us much trouble and blame, and perhaps (which I am afeard of) will find faults enow to demand better officers. This I truly fear. Away with Sir W. Pen (age 45), who was there, and he and I walked in the garden by moonlight, and he proposes his and my looking out into Scotland about timber, and to use Pett (age 56) there; for timber will be a good commodity this time of building the City; and I like the motion, and doubt not that we may do good in it. We did also discourse about our Privateer, and hope well of that also, without much hazard, as, if God blesses us, I hope we shall do pretty well toward getting a penny. I was mightily pleased with our discourse, and so parted, and to the office to finish my journall for three or four days, and so home to supper, and to bed. Our fleete abroad, and the Dutch too, for all we know; the weather very bad; and under the command of an unlucky man, I fear. God bless him, and the fleete under him!

Pepy's Diary. 27 Sep 1666. Thence I by coach home to the office, and there intending a meeting, but nobody being there but myself and Sir J. Minnes (age 67), who is worse than nothing, I did not answer any body, but kept to my business in the office till night, and then Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to me, and thence to Sir W. Batten's (age 65), and eat a barrel of oysters I did give them, and so home, and to bed. I have this evening discoursed with W. Hewer (age 24) about Mercer, I having a mind to have her again; and I am vexed to hear him say that she hath no mind to come again, though her mother hath. No newes of the fleete yet, but that they went by Dover on the 25th towards the Gunfleete, but whether the Dutch be yet abroad, or no, we hear not. De Ruyter (age 59) is not dead, but like to do well. Most think that the gross of the French fleete are gone home again.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1666. At night comes Sir W. Pen (age 45), and he and I a turn in the garden, and he broke to me a proposition of his and my joining in a design of fetching timber and deals from Scotland, by the help of Mr. Pett (age 56) upon the place; which, while London is building, will yield good money. I approve it. We judged a third man, that is knowing, is necessary, and concluded on Sir W. Warren, and sent for him to come to us to-morrow morning. I full of this all night, and the project of our man of war; but he and, I both dissatisfied with Sir W. Batten's (age 65) proposing his son to be Lieutenant, which we, neither of us, like. He gone, I discoursed with W. Hewer (age 24) about Mercer, having a great mind she should come to us again, and instructed him what to say to her mother about it. And so home, to supper, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Sep 1666. A little meeting at the office by Sir W. Batten (age 65), Sir W. Pen (age 45), and myself, being the first since the fire. We rose soon, and comes Sir W. Warren, by our desire, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I talked of our Scotch motion, which Sir W. Warren did seem to be stumbled at, and did give no ready answer, but proposed some thing previous to it, which he knows would find us work, or writing to Mr. Pett (age 56) to be informed how matters go there as to cost and ways of providing sawyers or saw-mills. We were parted without coming to any good resolution in it, I discerning plainly that Sir W. Warren had no mind to it, but that he was surprised at our motion.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, where I have not been a good while: and there the church infinitely thronged with strangers since the fire come into our parish; but not one handsome face in all of them, as if, indeed, there was a curse, as Bishop Fuller (age 58) heretofore said, upon our parish. Here I saw Mercer come into the church, which I had a mind to, but she avoided looking up, which vexed me. A pretty good sermon, and then home, and comes Balty (age 26) and dined with us. A good dinner; and then to have my haire cut against winter close to my head, and then to church again. A sorry sermon, and away home. Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I to walk to talk about several businesses, and then home; and my wife and I to read in Fuller's Church History, and so to supper and to bed. This month ends with my mind full of business and concernment how this office will speed with the Parliament, which begins to be mighty severe in the examining our accounts, and the expence of the Navy this war.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Oct 1666. At noon with it to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, and there dined with him and Sir W. Batten (age 65), and Sir W. Pen (age 45), and after dinner examined it and find it will do us much right in the number of men rising to near the expense we delivered to the Parliament. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and I (the others going before the Committee) to Lord Bruncker's (age 46) for his hand, and find him simply mighty busy in a council of the Queen's (age 27). He come out and took in the papers to sign, and sent them mighty wisely out again. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) away to the Committee, and I to the Mercer's, and there took a bill of what I owe of late, which comes to about £17.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Oct 1666. Thence to White Hall, and there did hear Betty Michell was at this end of the towne, and so without breach of vowe did stay to endeavour to meet with her and carry her home; but she did not come, so I lost my whole afternoon. But pretty! how I took another pretty woman for her, taking her a clap on the breech, thinking verily it had been her. Staid till Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) come out, and so away home by water with them, and to the office to do some business, and then home, and my wife do tell me that W. Hewer (age 24) tells her that Mercer hath no mind to come. So I was angry at it, and resolved with her to have Falconbridge's girle, and I think it will be better for us, and will please me better with singing. With this resolution, to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1666. So away home, and eat a short dinner, and then with Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall, and do give his boy my book of papers to hold while he went into the Committee Chamber in the Inner Court of Wards, and I walked without with Mr. Slingsby (age 45), of the Tower, who was there, and who did in walking inform me mightily in several things; among others, that the heightening or lowering of money is only a cheat, and do good to some particular men, which, if I can but remember how, I am now by him fully convinced of. Anon Sir W. Pen (age 45) went away, telling me that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) that was within had told him that the fleete is all come into the buoy of the Nore, and that he must hasten down to them, and so went away, and I into the Committee Chamber before the Committee sat, and there heard Birch (age 51) discourse highly and understandingly about the Navy business and a proposal made heretofore to farm the Navy; but Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did abundantly answer him, and is a most excellent person.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1666. When come home I to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), to his boy, for my book, and there find he hath it not, but delivered it to the doorekeeper of the Committee for me. This, added to my former disquiet, made me stark mad, considering all the nakedness of the office lay open in papers within those covers. I could not tell in the world what to do, but was mad on all sides, and that which made me worse Captain Cocke (age 49) was there, and he did so swear and curse at the boy that told me. So Cocke (age 49), Griffin, and the boy with me, they to find the housekeeper of the Parliament, Hughes, while I to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), but could hear nothing of it there. But coming to our rendezvous at the Swan Taverne, in King Streete, I find they have found the housekeeper, and the book simply locked up in the Court. So I staid and drank, and rewarded the doore-keeper, and away home, my heart lighter by all this, but to bed very sad notwithstanding, in fear of what will happen to-morrow upon their coming.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1666. Away, not finding Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and so home, and there find my father and my brother come to towne-my father without my expectation; but glad I am to see him. And so to supper with him, and to work again at the office; then home, to set up all my folio books, which are come home gilt on the backs, very handsome to the eye, and then at midnight to bed. This night Sir W. Pen (age 45) told me Sir W. Batten (age 65) swears he will have nothing to do with the Privateer if his son do not go Lieutenant, which angers me and him; but we will be even with him, one way or other.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1666. Waked betimes, mightily troubled in mind, and in the most true trouble that I ever was in my life, saving in the business last year of the East India prizes. So up, and with Mr. Hater and W. Hewer (age 24) and Griffin to consider of our business, and books and papers necessary for this examination; and by and by, by eight o'clock, comes Birch (age 51), the first, with the lists and books of accounts delivered in. He calls me to work, and there he and I begun, when, by and by, comes Garraway (age 49)1, the first time I ever saw him, and Sir W. Thompson (age 37) and Mr. Boscawen (age 38). They to it, and I did make shift to answer them better than I expected. Sir W. Batten (age 65), Lord Bruncker (age 46), Sir W. Pen (age 45), come in, but presently went out; and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) come in, and said two or three words from the purpose, but to do hurt; and so away he went also, and left me all the morning with them alone to stand or fall.

Note 1. William Garway (age 49), elected M.P. for Chichester, March 26th, 1661, and in 1674 he was appointed by the House to confer with Lord Shaftesbury respecting the charge against Pepys being popishly affected. See note to the Life, vol. i., p, xxxii, and for his character, October 6th, 1666.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and after visiting my father in his chamber, to church, and then home to dinner. Little Michell and his wife come to dine with us, which they did, and then presently after dinner I with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) to White Hall, where met by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Lord Bruncker (age 46), to attend the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) at the Cabinet; but nobody had determined what to speak of, but only in general to ask for money. So I was forced immediately to prepare in my mind a method of discoursing. And anon we were called in to the Green Room, where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 32), Prince Rupert (age 46), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), Duke of Albemarle (age 57), [Sirs] G. Carteret (age 56), W. Coventry (age 38), Morrice (age 63). Nobody beginning, I did, and made a current, and I thought a good speech, laying open the ill state of the Navy: by the greatness of the debt; greatness of work to do against next yeare; the time and materials it would take; and our incapacity, through a total want of money. I had no sooner done, but Prince Rupert (age 46) rose up and told the King (age 36) in a heat, that whatever the gentleman had said, he had brought home his fleete in as good a condition as ever any fleete was brought home; that twenty boats would be as many as the fleete would want: and all the anchors and cables left in the storm might be taken up again. This arose from my saying, among other things we had to do, that the fleete was come in-the greatest fleete that ever his Majesty had yet together, and that in as bad condition as the enemy or weather could put it; and to use Sir W. Pen's (age 45) words, who is upon the place taking a survey, he dreads the reports he is to receive from the Surveyors of its defects. I therefore did only answer, that I was sorry for his Highness's offence, but that what I said was but the report we received from those entrusted in the fleete to inform us. He muttered and repeated what he had said; and so, after a long silence on all hands, nobody, not so much as the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), seconding the Prince, nor taking notice of what he said, we withdrew. I was not a little troubled at this passage, and the more when speaking with Jacke Fenn about it, he told me that the Prince (age 46) will be asking now who this Pepys is, and find him to be a creature of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41), and therefore this was done only to disparage him.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Anon they broke, up, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come out; so I asked his advice. He told me he had said something to salve it, which was, that his Highnesse had, he believed, rightly informed the King (age 36) that the fleete is come in good condition to have staid out yet longer, and have fought the enemy, but yet that Mr. Pepys his meaning might be, that, though in so good condition, if they should come in and lie all the winter, we shall be very loth to send them to sea for another year's service with[out] great repairs. He said it would be no hurt if I went to him, and showed him the report himself brought up from the fleete, where every ship, by the Commander's report, do need more or less, and not to mention more of Sir W. Pen (age 45) for doing him a mischief. So I said I would, but do not think that all this will redound to my hurt, because the truth of what I said will soon appear.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. By and by took coach again and carried him home, and my wife to her tailor's, while I to White Hall to have found out Povy (age 52), but miss him and so call in my wife and home again, where at Sir W. Batten's (age 65) I met Sir W. Pen (age 45), lately come from the fleete at the Nore; and here were many good fellows, among others Sir R. Holmes (age 44), who is exceeding kind to me, more than usual, which makes me afeard of him, though I do much wish his friendship.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1666. All the afternoon at the office, and at night with Sir W. Batten (age 65), Sir W. Pen (age 45), [and Sir] J. Minnes (age 67), at Sir W. Pen's lodgings, advising about business and orders fit presently to make about discharging of ships come into the river, and which to pay first, and many things in order thereto. But it vexed me that, it being now past seven o'clock, and the businesses of great weight, and I had done them by eight o'clock, and sending them to be signed, they were all gone to bed, and Sir W. Pen (age 45), though awake, would not, being in bed, have them brought to him to sign; this made me quite angry. Late at work at the office, and then home to supper and to bed. Not come to any resolution at the Parliament to-day about the manner of raising this £1,800,000.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1666. Thence to St. James's by coach, and spoke, at four o'clock or five, with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), newly come from the House, where they have sat all this day and not come to an end of the debate how the money shall be raised. He tells me that what I proposed to him the other day was what he had himself thought on and determined, and that he believes it will speedily be done-the making Sir J. Minnes (age 67) a Commissioner, and bringing somebody else to be Comptroller, and that (which do not please me, I confess, for my own particulars, so well as Sir J. Minnes (age 67)) will, I fear, be Sir W. Pen (age 45), for he is the only fit man for it. Away from him and took up my wife, and left her at Temple Bar to buy some lace for a petticoat, and I took coach and away to Sir R. Viner's (age 35) about a little business, and then home, and by and by to my chamber, and there late upon making up an account for the Board to pass to-morrow, if I can get them, for the clearing all my imprest bills, which if I can do, will be to my very good satisfaction. Having done this, then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. So to the office, where much business all the morning, and the more by my brethren being all out of the way; Sir W. Pen (age 45) this night taken so ill cannot stir; Sir W. Batten (age 65) ill at Walthamstow [Map]; Sir J. Minnes (age 67) the like at Chatham, Kent [Map], and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) there also upon business. Horrible trouble with the backwardness of the merchants to let us have their ships, and seamen's running away, and not to be got or kept without money. It is worth turning to our letters this day to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about these matters.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1666. Up, and before I went to the office I spoke with Mr. Martin for his advice about my proceeding in the business of the private man-of-war, he having heretofore served in one of them, and now I have it in my thoughts to send him purser in ours. After this discourse I to the office, where I sat all the morning, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) with us, where he hath not been a great while, Sir W. Pen (age 45) also, newly come from the Nore, where he hath been some time fitting of the ships out.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1666. So to White Hall to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and there would fain have carried Captain Cocke's (age 49) business for his bargain of hemp, but am defeated and disappointed, and know hardly how to carry myself in it between my interest and desire not to offend Sir W. Coventry (age 38). Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did this night tell me how the business is about Sir J. Minnes (age 67); that he is to be a Commissioner, and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) are to be Controller joyntly, which I am very glad of, and better than if they were either of them alone; and do hope truly that the King's business will be better done thereby, and infinitely better than now it is.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1666. Back home in my Lord Bruncker's (age 46) coach, and there W. Hewer (age 24) and I to write it over fair; dined at noon, and Mercer with us, and mighty merry, and then to finish my letter; and it being three o'clock ere we had done, when I come to Sir W. Batten (age 65); he was in a huffe, which I made light of, but he signed the letter, though he would not go, and liked the letter well. Sir W. Pen (age 45), it seems, he would not stay for it: so, making slight of Sir W. Pen's (age 45) putting so much weight upon his hand to Sir W. Batten (age 65), I down to the Tower Wharfe [Map], and there got a sculler, and to White Hall, and there met Lord Bruncker (age 46), and he signed it, and so I delivered it to Mr. Cheving (age 64)1, and he to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), in the cabinet, the King (age 36) and councill being sitting, where I leave it to its fortune, and I by water home again, and to my chamber, to even my Journall; and then comes Captain Cocke (age 49) to me, and he and I a great deal of melancholy discourse of the times, giving all over for gone, though now the Parliament will soon finish the Bill for money. But we fear, if we had it, as matters are now managed, we shall never make the best of it, but consume it all to no purpose or a bad one. He being gone, I again to my Journall and finished it, and so to supper and to bed.

Note 1. William Chiffinch (age 64), pimp to Charles II and receiver of the secret pensions paid by the French Court. He succeeded his brother, Thomas Chiffinch (who died in April, 1666), as Keeper of the King's Private Closet (see note, vol. v., p. 265). He is introduced by Scott into his "Peveril of the Peak"..

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1666. Thence with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to Westminster Hall [Map], and there parted, he having told me how Sir J. Minnes (age 67) do disagree from the proposition of resigning his place, and that so the whole matter is again at a stand, at which I am sorry for the King's sake, but glad that Sir W. Pen (age 45) is again defeated, for I would not have him come to be Comptroller if I could help it, he will be so cruel proud.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall (setting his [his wife] lady (age 42) and [his daughter] daughter (age 15) down by the way at a mercer's in the Strand, where they are going to lay out some money), where, though it blows hard and rains hard, yet the Duke of York (age 33) is gone a-hunting. We therefore lost our labour, and so back again, and by hackney coach to secure places to get things ready against dinner, and then home, and did the like there, and to my great satisfaction: and at noon comes my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), Mr. John Crew (age 38), Mr. Carteret (age 25), and Brisband. I had six noble dishes for them, dressed by a man-cook, and commended, as indeed they deserved, for exceeding well done. We eat with great pleasure, and I enjoyed myself in it with reflections upon the pleasures which I at best can expect, yet not to exceed this; eating in silver plates, and all things mighty rich and handsome about me. A great deal of fine discourse, sitting almost till dark at dinner, and then broke up with great pleasure, especially to myself; and they away, only Mr. Carteret and I to Gresham College, where they meet now weekly again, and here they had good discourse how this late experiment of the dog, which is in perfect good health, may be improved for good uses to men, and other pretty things, and then broke up.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Dec 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, and after church home to dinner, where I met Betty Michell and her husband, very merry at dinner, and after dinner, having borrowed Sir W. Pen's (age 45) coach, we to Westminster, they two and my wife and I to Mr. Martin's, where find the company almost all come to the christening of Mrs. Martin's child, a girl. A great deal of good plain company. After sitting long, till the church was done, the Parson comes, and then we to christen the child. I was Godfather, and Mrs. Holder (her husband, a good man, I know well), and a pretty lady, that waits, it seems, on my Lady Bath (age 53), at White Hall, her name, Mrs. Noble, were Godmothers. After the christening comes in the wine and the sweetmeats, and then to prate and tattle, and then very good company they were, and I among them. Here was old Mrs. Michell and Howlett, and several married women of the Hall, whom I knew mayds. Here was also Mrs. Burroughs and Mrs. Bales, the young widow, whom I led home, and having staid till the moon was up, I took my pretty gossip to White Hall with us, and I saw her in her lodging, and then my owne company again took coach, and no sooner in the coach but something broke, that we were fain there to stay till a smith could be fetched, which was above an hour, and then it costing me 6s. to mend.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. Thence in the evening round by coach home, where I find Foundes his present, of a fair pair of candlesticks, and half a dozen of plates come, which cost him full £50, and is a very good present; and here I met with, sealed up, from Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), the lampoone, or the Mocke-Advice to a Paynter1, abusing the Duke of York (age 33) and my Lord Sandwich (age 41), Pen (age 45), and every body, and the King (age 36) himself, in all the matters of the navy and warr. I am sorry for my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) having so great a part in it. Then to supper and musique, and to bed.

Note 1. In a broadside (1680), quoted by Mr. G. T. Drury in his edition of Waller's Poems, 1893, satirical reference is made to the fashionable form of advice to the painter. "Each puny brother of the rhyming trade At every turn implores the Painter's aid, And fondly enamoured of own foul brat Cries in an ecstacy, Paint this, draw that". The series was continued, for we find "Advice to a Painter upon the Defeat of the Rebels in the West and the Execution of the late Duke of Monmouth (age 17)" ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 148); "Advice to a Painter, being a Satire on the French King", &c., 1692, and "Advice to a Painter", 1697 ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 428).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1666. Anon to chapel, by the King's closet, and heard a very good anthemne. Then with Lord Bruncker (age 46) to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber; and there we sat with him and talked. He is weary of anything to do, he says, in the Navy. He tells us this Committee of Accounts will enquire sharply into our office. And, speaking of Sir J. Minnes (age 67), he says he will not bear any body's faults but his own. He discoursed as bad of Sir W. Batten (age 65) almost, and cries out upon the discipline of the fleete, which is lost, and that there is not in any of the fourth rates and under scarce left one Sea Commander, but all young gentlemen; and what troubles him, he hears that the gentlemen give out that in two or three years a Tarpaulin shall not dare to look after being better than a Boatswain. Which he is troubled at, and with good reason, and at this day Sir Robert Holmes (age 44) is mighty troubled that his brother do not command in chief, but is commanded by Captain Hannum, who, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) says, he believes to be at least of as good blood, is a longer bred seaman, an elder officer, and an elder commander, but such is Sir R. Holmes's (age 44) pride as never to be stopt, he being greatly troubled at my Lord Bruncker's (age 46) late discharging all his men and officers but the standing officers at Chatham, Kent [Map], and so are all other Commanders, and a very great cry hath been to the King (age 36) from them all in my Lord's absence. But Sir W. Coventry (age 38) do undertake to defend it, and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) got ground I believe by it, who is angry at Sir W. Batten's (age 65) and Sir W. Pen's (age 45) bad words concerning it, and I have made it worse by telling him that they refuse to sign to a paper which he and I signed on Saturday to declare the reason of his actions, which Sir W. Coventry (age 38) likes and would have it sent him and he will sign it, which pleases me well.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1666. At noon home to dinner, and then Sir W. Pen (age 45), Sir R. Ford (age 52), and I met at Sir W. Batten's (age 65) to examine our papers, and have great hopes to prove her prize, and Sir R. Ford (age 52) I find a mighty yare1 man in this business, making exceeding good observations from the papers on our behalf. Hereupon concluded what to write to Hogg and Middleton, which I did, and also with Mr. Oviatt (Sir R. Ford's (age 52) son, who is to be our solicitor), to fee some counsel in the Admiralty, but none in town.

Note 1. Quick or ready, a naval term frequently used by Shakespeare.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where Lord Bruncker (age 46), Sir J. Mennes (age 67), Sir W. Penn (age 45), and myself met, and there I did use my notes I took on Saturday night about tickets, and did come to a good settlement in the business of that office, if it be kept to, this morning being a meeting on purpose.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1667. Thence to the Hall again, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) by coach to the Temple [Map], and there 'light and eat a bit at an ordinary by, and then alone to the King's house, and there saw "The Custome of the Country", the second time of its being acted, wherein Knipp does the Widow well; but, of all the plays that ever I did see, the worst-having neither plot, language, nor anything in the earth that is acceptable; only Knipp sings a little song admirably. But fully the worst play that ever I saw or I believe shall see. So away home, much displeased for the loss of so much time, and disobliging my wife by being there without her. So, by link, walked home, it being mighty cold but dry, yet bad walking because very slippery with the frost and treading.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jan 1667. At noon by invitation to dinner to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), where my Lord Bruncker (age 47), Sir W. Batten (age 66), and his lady, myself, and wife, Sir J. Minnes (age 67), and Mr. Turner and his wife. Indifferent merry, to which I contributed the most, but a mean dinner, and in a mean manner.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1667. Up, and seeing things put in order for a dinner at my house to-day, I to the office awhile, and about noon home, and there saw all things in good order. Anon comes our company; my Lord Bruncker (age 47), Sir W. Pen (age 45), his [his wife] lady (age 43), and [his daughter] Pegg (age 16), and her servant, [his f