Biography of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk 1484-1545

Paternal Family Tree: Brandon

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1511 Birth and Death of Prince Henry

1514 Marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII of France

1517 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1525 Battle of Pavia

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1532 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1532 Henry VIII and Francis I meet at Calais

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

1536 Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Neville Triple Wedding

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Funeral of Jane Seymour

1538 Execution of Friar John Forest

1540 Anne of Cleves Arrival at London

1545 Christening of Henry Wriothesley

Before 1465 Thomas Tyrrell (age 35) and [his mother] Elizabeth Bruyn (age 19) were married.

Around 1473 Thomas Fitzwilliam (age 24) and [his future sister-in-law] Lucy Neville (age 5) were married. She the daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe (age 32). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 04 Nov 1475 [his father] William Brandon (age 19) and [his mother] Elizabeth Bruyn (age 30) were married at Bishop's Lynn, Norfolk. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Before 1477 Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 18) and [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth Neville Baroness Scrope and Despencer were married. She the daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Around 1484 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk was born to William Brandon (age 28) and Elizabeth Bruyn (age 39).

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed Henry Tudor  (age 28) succeeded VII King England. Earl Richmond forfeit.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43).

Richard Guildford (age 35).

Walter Hungerford (age 21).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50).

John Wingfield.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 36).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 34).

William Stanley (age 50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 38).

[his father] William Brandon (age 29) was killed.

James Harrington (age 55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was killed and attainted. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke Norfolk, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

John Sacheverell (age 85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

William Norreys (age 44), Gilbert Talbot (age 33), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and John Savage (age 41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz (age 35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 47).

John Conyers (age 74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh (age 28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (age 29).

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23).

Humphrey Stafford (age 59).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 42) was wounded, captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for three years. He was attainted; Earl Surrey forfeit.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 26) was captured.

John Babington (age 62), William Alington (age 65), Robert Mortimer (age 43), Robert Brackenbury, Richard Ratclyffe (age 55) and Richard Bagot (age 73) were killed

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 53) was killed.

William Catesby (age 35) was executed at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map] after the battle.

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 25) held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.

Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 36) betrayed King Richard III of England (age 32) by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.

John Iwardby (age 35) was killed.

In or before 1492 William Smythe (age 12) and [his future sister-in-law] Isabel Neville (age 34) were married. The difference in their ages was 22 years; she, unusually, being older than him. She the daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

After 1492 Anthony Browne (age 48) and [his future sister-in-law] Lucy Neville (age 24) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. They were fourth cousins. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 07 Mar 1494 [his mother] Elizabeth Bruyn (age 49) died.

On 22 Oct 1494 Henry Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer (age 46) and [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth Neville Baroness Scrope and Despencer were married. She by marriage Baroness Despencer. She the daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1507 [his illegitimate daughter] Anne Brandon Baroness Grey Powis was born illegitimately to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 23) and [his future wife] Anne Browne.

Before 07 Feb 1507 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 23) and Margaret Neville (age 41) were married. She the daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. They were half fourth cousins. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

After 07 Feb 1507 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 23) and Margaret Neville (age 41) were divorced. The marriage was declared void, the reason is unknown, by the Archdeaconry Court of London, and later by papal bull dated 12 May 1528.

In 1508 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 24) and Anne Browne were married secretly at Stepney [Map]. She, Anne, being the step-daughter of his first wife's (age 42) sister Lucy Neville (age 40). They, Charles and Anne, had possibly been betrothed before his marriage to Margaret Neville (age 42).

After 1508 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 24) and [his wife] Anne Browne were married at St Michael's Church Cornhill.

In 1510 [his daughter] Mary Brandon Baroness Monteagle was born to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 26) and [his wife] Anne Browne.

In 1511 [his wife] Anne Browne died.

Birth and Death of Prince Henry

In Feb 1511 [his future brother-in-law] Henry VIII (age 19) celebrated the birth of his son by holding a magnificent tournament at Westminster [Map]. The challengers included Henry VIII (age 19) who fought as Cuere Loyall, Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 15) as Bon Vouloir, Edward Neville (age 40) as Joyeulx Penser, Thomas Knyvet (age 26) as Valiant Desyr and Thomas Tyrrell.

On Day 1 of the tournament the Answerers included: William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 28), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 16), Thomas Cheney (age 26), Richard Blount and Robert Morton.

On Day 2 of the tournament the Answerers included: Richard Tempest of Bracewell (age 31), Thomas Lucy, Henry Guildford (age 22), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 27), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 34), Richard Grey, Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane (age 32), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 38), Edmund Howard (age 33) and Henry Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 32).

In 1513 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 29) was appointed 273rd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 21).

In 1513 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 29) was betrothed to Elizabeth Grey Countess Devon (age 7). He was created 1st Viscount Lisle in recognition of the betrothal.

In or after 1513 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 29) sold the wardship of Elizabeth Grey Countess Devon (age 7) to Catherine York Countess Devon (age 33) for £4000 who thereafter married Elizabeth to her son Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 17).

Letters. 10 Jan 1513. Sir Gilbert Talbot. Appointment, by Sir Charles Brandon (age 29), of Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 61) as steward of Chaddesley Corbet and Rybbesford, Worc., 10 Jan. 4 Henry VIII.

In 1514 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 30) was created 1st Duke Suffolk by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 22). Elizabeth Grey Countess Devon (age 8) by marriage Duchess Suffolk.

Marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII of France

On 09 Oct 1514 Louis XII King France (age 52) and [his future wife] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 18) were married at Abbeville, Somme. She by marriage Queen Consort France. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 37), Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 57), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 44) and his son George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 17), Bishop Thomas Ruthall (age 42) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 27) attended. The difference in their ages was 33 years. She the daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. He the son of Charles Valois Duke Orléans and Mary La Marck Duchess Orléans. They were second cousin twice removed.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1510-1519. 01 Jan 1515. The French King (age 52) died,h and a new peace concluded with the Kinge (age 23) and Francis (age 20),a that tyme new made King of France. And the [his future wife] Ladie Marye (age 18), French Queene, was grawnted her dowrie to be brought into England, and was suffred to have all her goodes and riches. The Duke of Suffolke (age 31), with Sir Richard Wingfeilde (age 46) and Dr. West, and other, sent into France as ambassadors.b A conclusion was made that the saide Duke was weddid to the saide Lady Marie in France and thereupon cam over into Englande, and with them brought oyer all thinges after their mynde.d

Note h. Louis XII (age 52) died 1st January, 1515.

Note a. The Duke of Valois (age 20), who succeeded under the title of Francis I, renewed the alliance with Henry.

Note b. Charles Brandon (age 31), Duke of Suffolk, Sir Richard Wingfield (age 46), and Dr. West, "with a goodly bande of yeomen, all in black" (says Hall), had been sent in embassy to Paris to negociate a settlement of the ex-queen's dower.

Note c. It had been arranged that the Duke (age 31) should conduct the ex-queen (age 18) back to England, and there have married her, but (says Stow) "for doubt of change he married her secretly at Paris, as was said;" it is now ascertained that such was the fact, and that the Duke was reproved for it by Wolsey (age 41), a draught of whose letter is still extant; as is also a letter of Mary to her brother, Heniy Ym., taking the blame on herself.

Note d. The French Chroniclers assert that Mary brought over with her into England jewels, plate, and tapestry belonging to Louis XII. to the value of 200,000 crowns, besides a great diamond called "le miroir de Naples."

In May 1515 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 31) and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 19) were married. She by marriage Duchess Suffolk. She had married Louis XII King France in Oct 1514; he had died on 01 Jan 1515. Around this time he surrendered the title Viscount Lisle which he had been created in anticipation of this marrige to Elizabeth Grey Countess Devon (age 10) which never took place. Viscount Lisle forfeit. She the daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

In 1516 Edmund Knyvet (age 8) wardship was sold to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 32) for £400.

On 11 Mar 1516 [his son] Henry Brandon was born to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 32) and [his wife] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 19). He a grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 12 Oct 1516 [his former sister-in-law] Isabel Neville (age 59) died.

1517 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Annales of England by John Stow. 18 May 1517. The 18 of May, Margaret Queene of Scots departed trom London towards Scotland, richly appointed and prepared of all things necessary for her estate through the kings great liberality. She entered into Scotland the 13 of June and wwas received at Berwick by Archibald Douglas Earl of Angus her husband. In the moneth of June there were with the king divers Ambassadors from foreign parts. In honour of whom, and for their their solace, he prepared costly jousts, be himself and twelve other, taking upon them to joust with the Duke of Suffolke (age 33), and twelve of his partakers. There were broken between the parties on both sides five hundred and eight spears.

Aug 1517. About the feast of Lammas began the sweating sicknes, of the which many men died suddenly in the beginning thereof, and this plague continued till Michaelmas [29 September], many died thereof in the court, as the Lord Clinton (age 27), the Lord Grey of Wilton (age 20), and many other knights and gentlemen, by reason of which contagious sickness, Michaelmas terme was adjorned. After this, to wit, in the winter was a greate death of pestilence, almost over all Englande in every town more or less, wherefore the King kept himself with small company about him, willing to have no resort to the court for fear of infection.

On 17 Jul 1517 [his daughter] Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk was born to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 33) and [his wife] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 21). She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Letters and Papers 1517. 17 July [1517]. Egerton, 985. f. 63b. B. M. 3489. Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 33).

"The christening of the Lady [his daughter] Frances, first begotten daughter of Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 33) and Mary the French Queen (age 21)."

Born at Bishop's Hatfield, Thursday, 17 July 1517, 9 Henry VIII., between 2 and 3 in the morning. Christened on Saturday following. The road to the church was strewed with rushes; the church porch hung with rich cloth of gold and needlework; the church with arras of the history of Holofernes and Hercules; the chancel, with arras of silk and gold; and the altar with rich cloth of tissue, and covered with images, relics, and jewels. In the said chancel were, as deputies for the Queen and Princess, Lady Boleyn (age 37) and Lady Elizabeth Grey. The Abbot of St. Alban's was godfather. The font was hung with a canopy of crimson satin, powdered with roses, half red and half white, with the sun shining, and fleur de lis gold, and the French Queen's arms in four places, all of needlework. On the way to church were eighty torches borne by yeomen, and eight by gentlemen. The basin, covered, was borne by Mr. Sturton, the taper by Mr. Richard Long, the salt by Mr. Humphrey Barnes, the chrism by Lady Chelton. Mrs. Dorothy Verney bore the young lady, was assisted by the Lord Powes and Sir Roger Pelston, and accompanied by sixty ladies and gentlemen, and the prelates Sir Oliver Poole and Sir Christopher, and other of my Lord's chaplains. She was named Frances, being born on St. Francis's day.

Around Sep 1517 [his former sister-in-law] Elizabeth Neville Baroness Scrope and Despencer died.

In 1519 [his daughter] Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland was born to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 35) and [his wife] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 22). She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In 1522 [his son] Henry Brandon (age 5) died.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 02 Feb 1522. The second day of February, the [his brother-in-law] King (age 30) being at Greenwich, came thither the Cardinal with a Legation from Leo bishop of Rome, and also his ambassador, on who waited many a nobleman, the King met them at his chamber door welcoming them as though they had both come from Rome. Then said the Cardinal, high and victorious King it hath pleased our Lord God to indue your grace with a great multitude of manifold graces as a King elect in favour of the high heaven, and so appears presently by your noble person, so formed and figured in shape and stature with force and pulchritude, which signifies the present pleasure of our Lord God wrought in your noble grace. And further he praised his wisdom, prudence and learning, with many other goodly words in the praise of his most noble grace. And finally, the Cardinal declared how the said Bishop of Rome had sent his highness an Act in Bull under lead, declaring therein his grace to be the Defender of the Christian Faith, and his successors for evermore.

And when his grace had received the said Bull and caused it to be read and published, he went to his chapel to hear Mass accompanied with many nobles of his realm and also with Ambassadors of sundry princes, the Cardinal being requested to sing masse, the Erle of Essex brought the Bason with water, the Duke of Suffolk (age 38) gave the assay, the Duke of Norfolk (age 49) held the towel, and so preceded to Masse. And that done gave to all them that heard the masse clean remission and blessed the King and the Queen and all the people: then was the Bull eftsoons declared, and trumpets blew, the shalmes and saggebuttes played in honour of the King’s new style. Thus, his highness went to dinner in the midst whereof the King of Heralds and his company began the larges, crying Henricus dei gratia rex Anglie, and Francie, defensor fidei; and dominus Hibernie thus ended the dinner, with much abundance of vittels and wine, to all manner of people.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. Mar 1522. In the month of March, as you have heard before, came certain noble men from the Emperor (age 22) to the King, which the more to solace them enterprised at jousts, he himself was chief on the one side, his courser was barded in cloth of silver, of Denmark embroidered with. L. L. L. of gold, and under the letters a heart of a man wounded, and great roll of gold with black letters, in which was written, mon nauera, put together it is, ell mon ceur a nauera, she hath wounded my harte, and the same suite was his base.

Then followed Sir Nicolas Carew (age 26), his base and barde was white damask, on which was embroidered with cloth of gold a prison and a man looking out at a grate, and over the prison came from the prisoner a roll, in which was written in Frenche, in prison I am at liberty, and at liberty I am in prison, and all his apparel was garded with shackles of silver.

Then followed therle of Devonshire (age 26), the Lord Roos (age 30) in one suite, their apparel was white velvet, embroidered with cloth of gold, wrought in device an heart, traversed cross-wise with a chain, the which divided the bard in four quarters, in two quarters was a hand of gold holding a sphere of the world, on the other two quarters was two hands holding two plumes of feathers, and on the borders were written my heart is between joy and pain.

Then followed Anthony Kingston, and Anthony Knyvet, their apparel was a heart bound in a blue lace, embroidered on crimson satin: and written about with letters of gold, my heart is bound.

Nicholas Darrel had a bard and base of black satin, embroidered full of hearts, turned or broken of gold, and written in letters of silver, my heart is broken.

Last of that bend was [his former brother-in-law] Anthony Browne (age 22), which had a bard of silver full of spears of the world broken, set on hearts broken al of gold written about in letters of black sans remedy, without remedy.

Then entered the Duke of Suffolk (age 38) and his bend, all in bardes and bases of russet velvet and cloth of silver, embroidered with branches of paunces of gold, at these jousts were many spears broken, which the strangers highly commended.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 03 Jun 1522. The Wednesday, the more to do the Emperor pleasure, was prepared a Jousts Royal. On the one part was the King, the Earl of Devonshire (age 26) and ten more companions, all mounted on horseback, their apparel and bards, were of rich Cloth of gold, embroidered with silver letters, very rich, with great plumes on their heads. This company took the field, and rode about the tilt: then entered the Duke of Suffolk (age 38), and the Marquess of Dorset (age 44), and ten with them barded, and their apparel was russet velvet, embroidered with sundry knots, and culpins [?] of gold. The Emperor and the Queen (age 36), with all the nobles stood in the gallery, to behold the doing. The [his brother-in-law] King (age 30) ran at the Duke of Suffolk (age 38) eight courses, and at every course brake his spere. Then every man ran his courses and that done, all ran together violent, as fast as they could discharge, and when the spears appointed were broken, then they disarmed and went to supper. After supper, the Emperor beheld the ladies dances, and suddenly came to the chamber, six noble men, apparelled in crimson velvet and cloth of gold, and a mantel of taffeta, rolled about their bodies, and hoods and bonnets of cloth of gold, on their heads, and velvet buskins on their legs. These maskers entered and danced a great while with the ladies, and suddenly entered six other maskers with drumslades [drums], apparelled in long gowns, and hoods of cloth of gold, of which number was the King, the Duke of Suffolk (age 38), the Prince of Orange, the Count of Nassau, the Count of Naveray, and Monsieur Egmont. When these maskers were entered, the other avoided, and then they took ladies and danced, so that the strangers much praised them and when the time came, every person departed to their lodging.

Around 1523 [his son] Henry Brandon was born to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 39) and [his wife] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 26). He a grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In 1525 [his son-in-law] Edward Grey 3rd Baron Grey of Powis (age 22) and [his illegitimate daughter] Anne Brandon Baroness Grey Powis (age 18) were married. She by marriage Baroness Grey of Powis. She the illegitmate daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41) and Anne Browne. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry IV of England.

Battle of Pavia

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 09 Mar 1525. This yeare, the 9th day of Marche,c tidinges were brought to the Kinge (age 33) that Francis (age 30), the French King, was taken prisoner before the cittie Pavie, in Italie, by the Duke of Burbon (age 35), capteyn of the Emperoures (age 25) hoste,d and 14,000 French men slayne at the same feild.

And the Archbishop of Yorke (age 52), cardinall and legatt de latere, songe masse the same tyme in Paules churche [Map], in his "pontificalibus,"e and 11 bishopps and abbotts, with their miters, beinge present, the Duke of Northfolke (age 52) and the Duke of Suffolke (age 41), with all the nobles of the realme. And the saide Cardinall (age 52) grawnted the same to all manner of persons, beinge within the precinct of the churche in the tyme of the masse, plenary remission of their synnes, à pœná et culpá; and, after masse, Te Deum was sunge for the sayde victorie,a the Major,b Aldermen, with the head craftes of the cittie standinge in the bodie of the churche in theyr liveries; and that night great fiers were made in divers places of the cittie, with vessells of wyne at everie fier for the people to drincke.

Note c. Francis I was made prisoner on the 24th February.

Note d. Charles Duke of Bourbon (age 35), Constable of France, being persecuted by Francis I for refusing to marry Louisa of Savoy (age 48), the French King's (age 30) mother, sought the protection of the Emperor Charles V (age 25) by whom he was appointed his lieutenant in Italy.

Note e. After Wolsey (age 52) had been invested by Pope Leo X with the sole legatine power in England, he was wont to say mass on state occasions after the manner of the Pope himself.

Note a. The victory gained by the Imperialists over the French before Pavia so changed the aspect of affairs on the continent that Henry at first entertained a project forinvading France, and asserting his claim to that crown.

Note b. Sir John Allen.

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was taken by barge to Bridewell Palace [Map] where he was enobled by his father [his brother-in-law] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In the morning Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

In the afternoon Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More (age 47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 47),

Henry Courtenay (age 29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter. Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 30) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He was given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter sister of the previous Earl of Rutland. At the same time his arms Manners Arms were augmented with the Manners Augmented Arms

[his son] Henry Brandon (age 2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln.

Robert Radclyffe (age 42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) was created 1st Viscount Rochford. Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Viscountess Rochford.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 49) and John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 25) attended.

Around 18 Jun 1525 [his son-in-law] Henry Clifford 2nd Earl of Cumberland (age 8) and [his daughter] Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 6) were married at Bridewell Palace [Map]. [his brother-in-law] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) was present. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41) and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 29). He the son of Henry Clifford 1st Earl of Cumberland (age 32) and Margaret Percy Baroness Clifford (age 25). They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Before 1526 [his former brother-in-law] Anthony Browne (age 26) and Alice Gage (age 19) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 19 Oct 1526 William Willoughby 11th Baron Willoughby (age 44) died at Parham, Suffolk [Map]. He was buried at All Saints Church, Mettingham Bungay [Map]. His daughter [his future wife] Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 7) succeeded 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 7) became a ward of [his brother-in-law] Henry VIII (age 35).

Before 1527 [his son-in-law] Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 19) and [his daughter] Mary Brandon Baroness Monteagle (age 16) were married. She by marriage Baroness Monteagle. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 42) and Anne Browne. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 13 Jan 1528 [his former wife] Margaret Neville (age 62) died.

On 01 Mar 1528 [his brother-in-law] Henry VIII (age 36) sold the wardship of [his future wife] Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 8) to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 44) who subsequently married her.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. Oct 1529. And this yeare, in October 1529, Sir Thomas More (age 51), Chauncellor of the Dutchie, was made Chauncellor of Englande, and sworne in the Chauncerie the first day of Michaellmasse terme; the Duke of Northfolke (age 56) and the Duke of Suffolke (age 45) leadinge him thorowe Westminster Hall up into the Chauncerie.

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

On 17 Oct 1529 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 56) surrendered the Great Seal to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 56) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 45).

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the [his brother-in-law] King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Bradford, 256. 6026. Chapuys (age 39) to Charles V (age 29).

On the receipt of your letter on Thursday the 21st, dated Piacenza, I sent to Windsor to ask for an audience. As the administration has fallen principally into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56), and the communication is more agreeable to him than that of the marriage, I hastened to visit him. The Cardinal (age 56), who was dis-evangelised on the day of St. Luke the Evangelist (18 Oct.), has been deprived of his offices. I was received by the Duke with great distinction, and expressed to him the regard in which you had always held him for his goodwill. He seemed highly pleased, and said that he and his family had always been attached to the house of Burgundy; that no one more lamented the late disagreements than himself, but that all the evil and misunderstanding ought to be attributed to those who formerly directed the King's councils, acting by their own will and authority, with which the King himself was often dissatisfied.

In reply to his remark that he should like to serve your Majesty against the Turk, I praised his virtuous feelings, and told him that was the main object of my communication; but for the better security of peace, which the King had done so much to establish, one unhappy difference between himself and the Queen remained to be settled. I told him that, however strongly he might feel from family considerations, he could not but feel as a true knight, nor act otherwise than if it had been his own daughter, and as conscience directed; and that your Majesty was convinced that he had not been the promoter of this step. He replied that he would sooner have lost one of his hands than that such a question should have arisen; but it was entirely a matter of law and conscience, and he had never been appealed to; that it had been submitted to ecclesiastics and doctors, who had pronounced against the validity of the marriage; that if the dispensation you held was illegal, the King would consider himself the most abused prince in Christendom; and that if you had not declared yourself in it so openly, it might have sooner been brought to a satisfactory issue. I explained to him the constraint under which you acted; and that, as to the king of England not having declared himself a party in the matter, it was clear that he had done so from the proceedings of the English ambassadors at Rome. Finding he remained thoughtful, I changed the subject. Shortly after he turned to me with a laugh, and said, "How glad the Emperor will be to hear of this fall of the Cardinal (age 56), and his loss of office?" I answered, I thought you would, but not from any hatred you had to the Cardinal (age 56); and that he could have done neither good nor ill to you, and was not of such importance as that you would care to be avenged, or trouble yourself about his disgrace; but what you rejoiced at was, that the king of England would now learn who had been his evil counsellors, and leave the management of affairs to men who from birth and circumstances were more competent. I told him that I was the first who had broken through the chain of paying court to the Cardinal (age 56), and addressed myself to him. He thanked me for my good intentions, and said that the government was managed not by an individual but by the Council, where he usually assisted, and would promote Your Majesty's interests.

In order to please the Duke (age 56) I asked him what I should do, although I had already sent one of my secretaries to the King. He told me that the King had ordered that application should be made direct to himself, before any other person was acquainted with the communication. He followed me to the hall, using very courteous language.

On the 22nd my secretary returned from Windsor, stating that the King would be at Greenwich on Saturday, and I was to go the day after. On my reaching Greenwich [Map] I found a civil gentleman, named Poller (Bollen?), sent by the King to conduct me to the palace. There I found the bishop of London (age 55), who led me to the King's antechamber, where the Court was assembled, and was received by two dukes and the archbishop of Canterbury (age 79). I conversed with these lords, waiting for the King to go to mass; and we talked of the conference at Bologna. The King, on going to mass, came directly to me, and taking me by the sleeve said, with the utmost graciousness, "You have news from my brother the Emperor." On answering Yes, he asked the date, and then said your Majesty was very careful to give him information. I assured him that you were anxious to make him partaker of all affairs, and thus show your brotherly affection. I then presented your letters, and, as to the particulars of my credentials, he said that the ambassadors in your court were authorised to treat about them. Speaking of your going into Italy I bespoke his good offices.

On his return from mass, he came up to me again, and resumed the subject. When we talked of the necessity of resisting the Turk, and of the Pope's arrival at Bologna on the 5th, I said I thought it advisable that he should commission his ambassadors with the Pope to treat; and I combated his remark that he could do but little against the Turk, seeing he was wealthy, and as absolute in his dominions as the Pope. He urged that this affair was chiefly yours, and if you wished to accomplish it you must make peace with the princes of Italy. I assured him you had never ceased from efforts in this direction. The conversation then turned on the duke Francesco Sforza; and I urged, in opposition to his remark, that your proceedings were as favorable to the Duke as could be. He objected to the cession of Pavia and Alexandria, alleging the cruelties which had taken place at Sienna. I told him Pavia was out of dispute, as it was already given up. "Between ourselves," said he, "I think it is a great shame that whilst the Turk is in Austria, the patrimony of the Emperor, he should not rescue it, but make war upon Christians." On my urging the danger that might be expected from Sforza and the Venetians if your troops were withdrawn, he urged that neither could do anything. Shortly after, changing his tone, he said, with some emphasis, "My brother the king of France has made your Emperor a marvellous offer." This he repeated three times. I said, if it were so, he had now done a virtuous part, and kept his professions. After various other topics it grew late. Not a word was said of the Queen. After dinner he asked me if I had anything more to say.

All here are satisfied with the treaty of Cambray. As for the observance of it, the Queen, as I have already written, has expressed her doubt of its duration. It is supposed to have cost this King 800,000 ducats. He is not therefore likely to break it. People here are not very anxious to repeat the dose, as it is not to their taste. At present they seem on good terms with the French. The ambassador has been only once at court with his brother since my arrival. He has been commanded to deliver his message to the Council, and abstain from communication with the Cardinal; at which he was greatly vexed. Various ambassadors are here. The most in favour is the Milanese, on whom the King has spent money. Those who are now in most credit are the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45). There is not a single person about the King who is not saturated with French money; and though they profess great affection to you, their affection for money is much stronger. I have submitted the proposition to the King respecting the sea being kept free from pirates. He has ordered a good reception for Mons. Rosymbez.

The downfall of the Cardinal (age 56) is complete. He is dismissed from the Council, deprived of the Chancellorship, and constrained to make an inventory of his goods in his own hand, that nothing may be forgotten. It is said that he has acknowledged his faults, and presented all his effects to the King. Yesterday the King returned to Greenwich by water secretly, in order to see them, and found them much greater than he expected. He took with him "sa mye" (his darling-Ann Boleyn (age 28)), her mother (age 49), and a gentleman of his chamber (Norris?) The Cardinal, notwithstanding his troubles, has always shown a good face, especially towards the town, but since St. Luke's Day all has been changed to sighs and tears night and day. The King, either moved by pity, or for fear if he should die the whole extent of his effects would not be found, sent him a ring for his comfort. He has withdrawn with a small attendance to a place ten miles off. They have sent for his son from Paris. People say execrable things of him, all which will be known at this Parliament. But those who have raised the storm will not let it abate, not knowing, if he returned to power, what would become of them. The ambassador of France commiserates him most. It was feared the Cardinal (age 56) would get his goods out of the country, and therefore a strict watch was kept at the ports, and the watch insisted on opening the coffers of cardinal Campeggio (age 54), notwithstanding his passport, and, on his refusal, broke open the locks. He said they had done him great wrong to suppose that he could be corrupted by the Cardinal, since he had been proof against the innumerable presents offered him by the King.

The Chancellor's seal has remained in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56) till this morning, when it was transferred to Sir Thomas More (age 51). Every one is delighted at his promotion, because he is an upright and learned man, and a good servant of the Queen. He was Chancellor of Lancaster, an office now conferred on the Sieur Villeury (Fitzwilliam). Richard Pace, a faithful servant of your Majesty, whom the Cardinal had kept in prison for two years, as well in the Tower of London as in a monastery (Syon House), is set at liberty. Unless his mind should again become unsettled, it is thought he will rise in higher favour at Court than ever.

There is a young man here, sent by the duke of Saxony, who has much business with the King and the bishop of London (age 55).

Of the King's affair there is nothing new to communicate, except what the bishop of London (age 55) has told me, that Dr. Stokesley (age 54) had been sent to France to consult the doctors of Paris. The Queen begs your Majesty will send some respectable person there to do the same, for without some definitive sentence the King will remain obstinate in his opinions. She thinks that delay will be more dangerous than profitable, and therefore we have thought it desirable not to consent to the postponement demanded. To avoid creating suspicion in the mind of the King, she thinks I had better cease to visit her, but she will provide means for my speaking with her in private. London, 25 Oct. 1529.

P.S.-Two days after I had written the above, the Cardinal (age 56) was definitively condemned by the Council, declared a rebel, and guilty of high treason for having obtained a legatine bull, whereby he had conferred many benefices in the King's patronage. He has been deprived of his dignities, his goods confiscated, and himself sentenced to prison until the King shall decide. This sentence was not given in his presence, but to his two proctors. This he will not find easy of digestion, but worse remains behind (mais encoures ne serat il quicte pour le prix).

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 29 Oct 1530. This yeare, the morrowe after Simon and Jude,c which was the Majors feast, there dyned in the Guylde hall [Map] at the said feast the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (age 52), the Duke of Northfolke (age 57), the Duke of Suffolke (age 46), and 9 Earles and a Bishopp, sittinge all at one table, prepared in the Majors courte in the Guyld hall [Map], and two other side tables sittinge with lordes and knightes.

Note c. October 29.

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Hall's Chronicle 1533. On Midsomer day after, the lady [his wife] Mary (age 35) the Frenche Queen died in Suffolk at the lordship of .... who was the late wife to Louis the 12th, and after married to Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 47), and was buried at ....

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 01 Jun 1533. Memorandum, the first dale of June,d Queene Anne (age 32) was brought from Westminster Hall to the Abbey of Sainct Peeter's [Map] with procession, all the monkes of Westminster going in rytch copes of golde with 13 abbotts mitred; and after them all the Kinges Chappell in rych copes with fower bushopps and tow archbishopps mittred, and all the Lordes going in their Perliament roabes,e and the crowne borne afore her by the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and her tow scepters by tow Earles, and she herself going under a rytch canapie of cloath of golde, apparailed in a kirtell of crymson velvett powdred with ermyns, and a robe of purple velvett furred with powdred ermines over that, and a rich cronett with a calla of pearles and stones on her hedde, and the olde Dutches of Norfolke (age 56)b bearing upp her traine in a robe of scarlett with a cronett of golde on her bonett, and the Lorde Boroughe,c the Queenes Chamberlaine, staying the traine in the middes; and after her tenne ladies following in robes of scarlett furred with ermins and rounde cronettes of golde on their heades; and next after theim all the Queenes maides in gownes of scarlett edged with white lettushe furre; and so was shee brought to Sainct Peeters Church [Map] at Westminster, and their sett in her seate riall, which was made on a high scaffolde before the highe aulter; and their shee was anoynted and crowned Queene of Englande by the Archbishopp of Canterberied1 and the Archbishoppe of Yorke, and so sate crowned in her seate riall all the masse, and offred also at the said masse; and the masse donne, they departed everie man in their degrees to Westminster Hall [Map], she going still under the cannapie crowned with towe septers in hir handes, my Lorde of Wilshire, her father,e1 and the Lorde Talbottf leadinge her, and so theire dynned; wheras was made the most honorable feast that hath beene seene.

The great hall at Westminster was rytchlie hanged with rych cloath of Arras, and a table sett at the upper ende of the hall, going upp twelve greeses,a2 where the Queene dyned; and a rytch cloath of estate hanged over her heade; and also fower other tables alongest the hall; and it was rayled on everie side, from the highe deasse in Westminster Hall to the scaffold in the church in the Abbaj.

And when she went to church to her coronation their was a raye cloath,b2 blew, spreed from the highe dessesc of the Kinges Benche unto the high alter of Westminster, wheron she wente.

Note B. the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 23), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

And when the Queenes grace had washed her handes, then came the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), High Constable that daie and stewarde of the feast, ryding on horsebacke rytchlie apparailed and trapped, and with him, also ridinge on horsebacke, the Lorde William (age 23) Howarde as deputie for the Duke of Norfolke (age 60) in the romthd2 of the Marshall of Englande, and the Queenes servicee2 following them with the Archbishopps, a certaine space betwene which was bornef2 all by knightes, the Archbishopp sitting at the Queenes borde, at the ende, on her left hande.g2 The Earle of Sussex (age 50) was sewer, the Earle of Essex carver, the Earle of Darbie (age 24) cuppbearer, the Earle of Arrondell (age 57) butler, the Viscount Lisle (age 69) pantler, the Lord Gray almoner.

Att one of the fower tables sate all the noble ladies all on one side of the hall, at the second table the noble men, at the thirde table the Major of Londonh2 with the Aldermen, att the fowerth table the Barons of the Fortes with the Masters of the Chauncerie. The goodlie dishes with the delicate meates and the settles which were all gilt, with the noble service that daie done by great men of the realme, the goodlie sweete armonie of minstrells with other thinges were to long to expresse, which was a goodlie sight to see and beholde.

And when shee had dined and washed her handes she stoode a while under the canopie of estate, and behelde throwghe the hall, and then were spices brought with other delicates, which were borne all in great high plates of gold, wherof shee tooke a litle refection, and the residue geavinge among the lordes and ladies; and that donne she departed up to the White Hall, and their changed her apparell, and so departed secreetlie by water to Yorke Place [Map], which is called White Hall, and their laie all night.

Note d. Whitsanday. Compare this with the account of the receiving and coronation of Anne Boleyn in MS. Harleian. Cod. 41, arts. 2-5, and MS. Harleian. 543, fol. 119.

Note e. [his brother-in-law] Henry's (age 41) first wife, Katharine of Aragon (age 47), was crowned with him, and a magnificent ceremony was ordained for her successful rival Anne Boleyn, but none of the other wives of Henry were honoured with a coronation.

Note a. A caul was a kind of net in which women inclosed their hair.

Note b. Grandmother (age 56) of Anne Boleyn, being widow of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, whose daughter Elizabeth (age 53) married Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 56), afterwards Earl of Wiltshire, the father of Anne.

Note. b, immediately above, appears to be a mistake? The grandmother of Anne Boleyn was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey, first wife of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He, Thomas, married secondly his first wife's first cousin Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) who must be the old Duchess of Norfolk referred to since Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey died in Apr 1497.

Note c. Thomas, Lord Bnrgh of Gainsboroogh (age 45).

d1. In Sir Henry Ellis's Collection of Original Letters occurs a very interesting letter written by Cranmer to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, giving his own account of the pronouncing of sentence on Katharine and of the coronation of Anne Boleyn (age 32).

e1. Anne Boleyn's father (age 56) had been created Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond on the 8th December, 1529.

a2. Steps or stain, Latin gressus.

b2. Striped cloth.

Note c. Desks.

d2. Room.

e2. Suite.

f2. Occupied.

g2. Stow expressly states that Archbishop Cranmer sat on the right hand of the Queen at the table's end. Ed. 1631, p. 567.

h2. Sir Stephen Pecocke.

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 01 Jun 1533. Nowe than on Soundaye was the Coronacion, which allso was of such a maner.

In the mornynge ther assembled withe me at Westminster Churche the bysshop of Yorke, the Bishop of London (age 58), the Bishop of Wynchester (age 50), the Bishop of Lyncoln (age 60), the Bishop of Bathe, and the Bishop of Saint Asse (age 58), the Abbote of Westminstre with x or xij moo Abbottes, whiche all revestred ourselfs in our pontificalibus, and, soo furnysshed, withe our Crosses and Crossiers, procedid oute of th' Abbey in a procession unto Westminstre Hall, where we receyved the Queene (age 32) apareled in a Robe of purple velvet, and all the ladyes and gentillwomen in robes and gownes of scarlet accordyng to the maner vsed before tyme in such besynes: and so her Grace sustayned of eche syde with ij to bysshops, the Bysshope of London (age 58) ande the Bysshop of Wynchester (age 50), came furthe in processyon unto the Churche of Westminster, she in her here, my Lord of Suffolke (age 49) berying before herr the Crowne, and ij to other Lords beryng also before her a Ceptur and a white Rodde, and so entred up into the highe Alter, where diverse Ceremoneys used aboute her, I did sett the Crowne on her hedde, and then was songe Te Deum, &c. And after that was song a solempne Masse, all which while her grace sjatt crowned upon a scaffold whiche was made betwene the Highe Alter and the Qwyer in Westminstre Churche; which Masse and ceremonyes donne and fynysshed, all the Assemble of noble men broughte her into Westminstre Hall agayne, where was kepte a great solempne feaste all that daye; the good ordre therof were to longe to wrytte at this tyme to you. But nowe Sir you may nott ymagyn that this Coronacion was before her mariege, for she was maried muche about sainte Paules daye last, as the condicion therof dothe well appere by reason she ys nowe sumwhat bygg with chylde. Notwithstandyng yt hath byn reported thorowte a greate parte of the realme that I (age 43) maried her; whiche was playnly false, for I myself knewe not therof a fortenyght after yt was donne. And many other thyngs be also reported of me, whiche be mere lyes and tales.

Other newys have we none notable, but that one Fryth, whiche was in the Tower in pryson, was appoynted by the Kyngs grace to be examyned befor me, my Lorde of London, my lorde of Wynchestre, my Lorde of Suffolke, my Lorde Channcelour, and my Lorde of Wylteshere, whose opynion was so notably erroniouse, that we culde not dyspache hym but was fayne to leve hym to the determynacion of his Ordinarye, whiche ys the bishop of London. His said opynyon ys of suche nature that he thoughte it nat necessary to be beleved as an Article of our faythe, that ther ys the very corporall presence of Christe within the Oste and Sacramente of the Alter, and holdethe of this poynte muste after the Opynion of Oecolampadious. And suerly I myself sent for hym iij or iiij tymes to perswade hym to leve that his Imaginacion, but for all that we could do therin he woulde not applye to any counsaile, notwithstandyng nowe he ys at a fynall ende with all examinacions, for my Lorde of London hathe gyven sentance and delyuerd hym to the secular power, where he loketh every daye to goo unto the fyer. And ther ys also condempned with hym one Andrewe a taylour of London for the said self same opynion.

And thus farr you well, from my manor of Croydon the xvij. daye of June.

Note a. Hall, Chron. edit. 1809. p. 794. Holinsh. edit. 1808. vol. iii. p. 777.

Note b. Queen Elizabeth was born on September the 7th. 1533.

Note c. Stow, Ann. edit. 1631. p. 562.

Note d. Herb. Life of Hen. VIII. edit. 1649. p. 341. Bumet in his History of the Reformation has likewise fallen into this error.

Note e. Lingard's Hist Engl. 1st. edit. vol. iv. p. 190.

a1. re-journying.

a2. shaums.

b2. all day.

Calendars. April 23 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries, v. lvi. p. 167. 761. Carlo Capello to the Signory.

Received the Signory's letters of the 8th January and 11th March, with the advices from Constantinople. Went to the Court, and by the King's order conferred with the Duke of Norfolk, to whom communicated the advices, and justified the Signory for having exacted a loan from the clergy, about which the Duke appeared to know nothing, but was not sorry to hear it, because at the last session of Parliament the annats payable at Rome were abolished.

At the moment of his arrival at the Court, one of the chief gentlemen in the service of said Duke of Norfolk, with 20 followers, assaulted and killed in the sanctuary of Westminster Sir (D'no) William Peninthum (sic) chief gentleman and kinsman of the Duke of Suffolk (age 48). In consequence of this, the whole Court was in an uproar, and had the Duke of Suffolk (age 48) been there, it is supposed that a serious affray would have taken place. On hearing of what had happened, he (Suffolk) was on his way to remove the assailants by force from the sanctuary, when the King sent the Treasurer [Thomas Cromwell] to him, and made him return, and has adjusted the affair; and this turmoil displeased him. It is said to have been caused by a private quarrel, but I am assured it was owing to opprobrious language uttered against Madam Anne (age 31) by his Majesty's sister, the [his wife] Duchess of Suffolk (age 36), Queen Dowager of France.

The affair of the divorce becomes daily more difficult. The Bishops of France and of this island replied lately that they could not assent to it without the Pope's consent, because, when created, they swear not to oppose the Pope's wishes; and the King's desire increases; whilst by letters from Rome it is heard that in all the debates the Queen may be styled King of this island, by reason of the love the people bear her, for her goodness and wisdom.

Yesterday, Monseigneur Falconetto arrived here in 15 days from the Emperor, to demand assistance against the Turk. He went this morning to the Court with another Imperial ambassador resident here.

London, 23rd April. Registered by Sanuto 31st May.

[Italian.]

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 Anne Boleyn (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with [his brother-in-law] Henry VIII (age 41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle [Map]. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37), Jean Dinteville, Archbishop Edward Lee (age 50), Bishop John Stokesley (age 57) were present.

Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 49) read the Patent of Creation.

Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 13) carried Anne's (age 31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (age 31) and Mary (age 13) were cousins.

Charles Wriothesley (age 24) attended.

Henry VIII and Francis I meet at Calais

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 28 Oct 1532. And vpon sondaye both the kynges herde masse in theyr lodgynges. And at after-noone the kynge of Englande went to Staple hall to the frensshe kynge and there was bothe bere baytynge and bulbayting tyll nyght. And at nyght the frensshe kynge souped with our kynge and there was greate bankettynge. And after souper1 there came in a maske my lady marques of Penbroke (age 31) my lady Mary (age 33) my lady Darby (age 21) my lady Fitzwater (age 26) my lady Rocheford (age 27) my lady Lislie (age 38) and my lady Wallop gorgyously apparayled with visers on theyr faces and so came and toke the frensshe kynge by the hande and other lordes of Fraunce and daunced a daunce or two. And after that the kynge toke of theyr visers and than they daunced with gentylmen of Fraunce an houre after. And than they departed to theyr lodgynges. And as for the apparayle of the frensshe lordes my tongue can not expresse it and in especyal the frensshe kyng his apparayle passed1 my penne to wryte for he had a dublet ouer set all with stones and rychc diamondes whiche was valued by discrete men at a hondred thousand pounde they passed ferre our lordes and knyghtes in apparayle and rychesse. They had greate chere in Caleys and louynge also and all at our kynges costes and charges. Also the same daye that the kynges came from Bulleyn the frensshe kynge made the duke of Norffolke (age 59) and the duke of Suffolke (age 48) of the ordre of saynt Mighill2.

Note 1. The Second Edition reads "passeth" for "passed."

Note 2. Saint Michael.

In 1533 [his son-in-law] Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) and [his daughter] Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 15) were married. She by marriage Marchioness Dorset. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 36). He the son of Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46). They were half second cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. Around 08 Apr 1533. And the Wednesdaie before the good Queene Katherinf was deposed at Hanthill [Map]a by the Duke of Norfolke (age 60), the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and Lord Marques of Exceter (age 37), my Lorde of Oxforde (age 62), Lord Chamberlaine of the Kinges howse, Mr. Treasorer and Mr. Controwler of the Kinges howse. And from that dale after to be called Ladie Catherin, wife of Prince Arthur, dowarie of Englande,b she to have by yearelie pencion for her dowarie eight thousand poundes sterlinge.

Note f. The general opinion in England was distinctly adverse to the divorce. See Calendar of State Papers preserved in the Archives of Venice, vol. iv. 1532-3.

Note a. Ampthill [Map], in Bedfordshire, to which place Queen Katharine retired while the question of her dirorce was under discussion. This castle had been erected by Lord Fanhope, and reverted with the manor to the Crown in the reign of Edward IV, by whom it was conferred on Lord Grey of Ruthin, Earl of Kent, from whose descendants it passed again to the Crown about 1530, and became a palace of Henry VIII (age 41).

Note b. Princess Dowager of Wales, which designation was displeasing to the ex-queen, who refused to resign herself to the judgment passed. She went so far as to obliterate with her own pen the words "Princess Dowager" whererer they had been written by her Chamberlain, Mountjoy (age 55), in his report to the King (age 41).

On 23 Jun 1533, or 25 Jun 1533 for which the source is unclear, [his wife] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 37) died at Westhorpe, Suffolk [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 23 Jun 1533. This yeare, on Midsommer eaven, died the [his wife] French Queene (age 37),a sister to the Kinge (age 41), and wife to the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and was buried at Sainct Edmondesburie in Suffolke.

Note a. Mary (age 37), sister to Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Dowager of France, died at the manor of Westhorpe [Map], in Suffolk, on the 23rd June, and was buried (July 22) at the monastery of St. Edmondsbury, where her corpse was found in a perfect state on September 6th, 1784, being 251 years after her interment.

On 07 Sep 1533 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) and Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 14) were married. She by marriage Duchess Suffolk. The difference in their ages was 35 years.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map].

Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 30), Walter Blount, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) escorted the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk (age 56). [his son-in-law] Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) carried the Salt. Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 37) carried a taper of virgin wax.

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 24), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 38) and George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 30) supported the train of the mantle.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60), William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 23), Thomas Howard (age 22) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 68) carried the canopy.

Around 27 Mar 1534 [his former sister-in-law] Lucy Neville (age 66) died at Bagshot Manor, Surrey.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Feb 1535. 174. On the Monday following at 8 a.m. declared his charge to Cromwell; the Admiral's hope that he would help to bring matters to a good issue, and Francis' satisfaction on hearing that such a virtuous and wise person had the ear of the King. To this Cromwell replied with thanks and expressions of affection that I cannot write. He alone has more influence with his master than any other; the late Cardinal of York had not more. He spoke much of his master's prosperity and authority and the quiet of the kingdom. He has increased his revenue by 500,000 cr., for since the Admiral's departure Parliament has given him the ordinary tenths, besides which he will take this year the annates of bishopries, abbeys, and other benefices, of which the possessors are bound to take from the King new bulls and provisions, and give up those from the Pope as null, and to swear to hold their benefices of the King. He showed me a copy of the oath sworn by the bishops. He says that by a little writing, from himself alone, he can be obeyed and summon all princes and lords for his master's service.

Cromwell then took him to Westminster, where he presented his letters to Norfolk (age 62). He asked much about the Admiral, as did "Messieurs de Suffolck (age 51) et Fischer" (Fitzwilliam?). After dinner, was taken by Cromwell to the King in the matted gallery, where the Admiral (age 43) spoke with the King the first time. He asked a copy in writing of what Gontier had said to him, and put it in his sleeve without looking at it. He then began to walk about, and talked for three hours.

He complained of the practises on the side of Spain for the marriage of the Emperor's daughter with the Dauphin, and not long ago the Imperial ambassador had been for a long time shut up with the French queen; that three despatches had been made towards Spain since the Admiral's return, and he saw now that the delay in Gontier's coming was to wait for a reply. He said they wished to accomplish (joindre) the marriage of the Dauphin and also at the same time that of his daughter the Princess, so as to be supported on both sides. Unless these practises are broken he must be careful of speaking, showing that he has great suspicions, for this was not the language that Francis used both by mouth and in writing. He remembered also one day Francis saying to his children that they must never forget the inhuman treatment of the Emperor to him and to them, and if they did not avenge it after his death, if he could not himself, as he hoped, he gave them his curse. He accused the Emperor of deceit and breaches of faith, and of trying to disturb by false offers the friendship between them, repeating what he had said the previous evening, that he had made him offers, and he could be on good terms with him if he liked, but any reconciliation on this side would be too dangerous. He had kept his promise, and never been engaged in any practises, and he complained of what had been done at Marseilles, of which he had no knowledge nor participation till afterwards. He said the French Council governed as if their only object was to lose good friends, and he wished Francis would take the management of his affairs more into his own hands. In consequence of having supported France he had lost the Emperor's friendship, who called him son bon pere, and had often written and promised that he would do nothing contrary to what he ought as a son. France would find herself deceived, whatever promises he had made; even the surrender of Milan would not be accomplished when the time came. His only intention was to show to England and others that there was no reliance upon Francis' friendship. He would find himself cut out in Italy if he did not advance soon, for the Emperor would be there first, speaking also of the league agreed to by all the potentates and signories of Italy. As to the Pope, Francis ought to act quite differently, and get out of him what he had.

Letters and Papers 1535. 25 Feb 1535. 263. Today the Duke of Suffolk (age 51) leaves secretly for Suffolk, I know not for what purpose. Norfolk (age 62) withdrew to his house 15 days ago very ill-pleased. The day before he left he complained to lord Montague (age 43) that he was held in no esteem, "et par avant avoit nulle choses de la dame du Roy1." The Marquis has been [word omitted] and only regrets that he has no opportunity of shedding his blood in the service of the Queen and Princess; "sil estoit question de quelque chose il ne seroit des derniers, et unyroit petite suyte2." The young lady who was lately in the King's favor is so no longer. There has succeeded to her place a cousin german of the concubine (age 34), daughter [either Margaret "Madge" Shelton, Anne Shelton or Mary Shelton (age 25)] of the present gouvernante (age 59) of the Princess. The Queen has been informed on good authority that the Waywode's man was seeking the marriage of the Princess with his master; but there is no great probability that he will succeed either in this or in obtaining money. I will inform your Majesty hereafter of whatever I may hear about this and about a gentleman lately come from the Duke of Holstein. I am informed letters have come from Gregory de Casale, who says the Pope told him that if the King would replace matters of the Church as they were, other things could be arranged; but all that is lost labor. So great is the obstinacy and avarice of the King, that he would sooner take back the Queen than restore what is due to the Church, from which he has taken, within the last month, 50,000 ducats, "emolument d'eslus"3.

Note 1. "and before had nothing of the King's lady."

Note 2. if it were a question of something it would not be among the last, and straight small continuation?

Note 3. first-fruits.

On 25 Jun 1535 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] Roland de Velville (age 64) died. He was buried at Beaumaris.

On 18 Sep 1535 [his son] Henry Brandon 2nd Duke of Suffolk was born to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 51) and [his wife] Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 16).

Letters and Papers 1535. 30 Dec 1535. 1036. After I had taken leave of the King he recalled me by the Duke of Suffolk (age 51) to tell me news had just come that the Queen (age 50) was in extremis, and that I should hardly find her alive; moreover, that this would take away all the difficulties between your Majesty and him. I think the danger cannot be so great, because the physician did not represent the case to me as so urgent; nevertheless I took horse at once. I asked leave that the Princess (age 19) might see the Queen (age 50) her mother,—which he at first refused, and on my making some remonstrance he said he would take advice on the subject.

The Princess had advised me to make this request. London, 30 Dec. 1535.

Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 6.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. Vienna Archives. 141. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

Great preparation is made for the Queen's burial, which, as Cromwell sent to inform me, will be so magnificent that even those who see it all will hardly believe it. It is to take place on the 1st February. The chief mourner will be the [his daughter] King's niece (age 17), daughter of the Duke of Suffolk (age 52); the [his wife] Duchess of Suffolk (age 16) will be the second; the third will be the wife of the Duke of Norfolk's son. of others there will be a great multitude; I think they mean to dress in mourning about 600 persons. Nothing is said yet of the lords who are to be present. Cromwell again, since I wrote to your Majesty, has twice sent to press on my acceptance the mourning cloth which the King wished to give me, and would gladly by this means bind me to be present at the interment, which the King greatly desires, but following the advice of the Queen Regent in Flanders, of the Princess, and of several good personages, I will not go, since they do not mean to bury her as Queen. I have refused the said cloth, saying simply that I did not do it of any ill intention, but only because I was already provided. The King had intended, or those of his Council, that solemn exequies should be made at the Cathedral Church of this city, and a number of carpenters and others had already been set to work to make preparations, but, since then, the whole thing has been broken off; I do not know if it was ever sincerely intended, or if it was only a pretence for the satisfaction of the people, to remove sinister opinions.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

The good Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the [his former brother-in-law] King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the [his daughter] King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the [his former wife] Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.

The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

Letters 1536. 12 May. R. O. 848. Trial of Weston (age 25), Norris (age 54), and others.

Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex to Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Thomas Earl of Wiltshire (age 59), Rob. Earl of Sussex, William lord Sandys, Thomas Crumwell (age 51), chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Ant. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

ii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the grand jury at Westminster on Wednesday, 10 May next. Dated 9 May 28 Henry VIII.—Grand jury panel annexed, 16 sworn.

iii. Indictment found in Middlesex against Anne Boleyn (age 35), &c. as in No. 876, with marginal note stating that it was sent before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) as steward of England, hac vice, as regards all matters touching the Queen and Lord Rochford (age 33).

iv. The justices' precept to the constable of the Tower to bring up Sir Francis Weston (age 25), Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Mark Smeton (age 24), at Westminster, on Friday next after three weeks of Easter. Westm., 10 May 28 Henry VIII.—With reply of the Constable endorsed.

v. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the petty jury for the trial of Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Sir Francis Weston [here follows an erasure which evidently contained the name of Mark Smeaton (age 24)]. Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.—With panel annexed.

vi. Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Kent, to Sir Thomas Audeley (age 48), Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Rob. Earl of Sussex, Thomas Crumwell, chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lyster, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

vii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Kent for the return of the grand jury at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May. Endd. by Sir Edward Wotton, sheriff.—Panel of grand jury annexed.

viii. Indictment found in Kent, as in No. 876, with memorandum in margin, as in section iii.

ix. Record of the sessions holden Friday after three weeks of Easter 28 Henry VIII. before the above justices. Noreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24) were brought up in the custody of the constable of the Tower, when Smeton (age 24) pleaded guilty of violation and carnal knowledge of the Queen, and put himself in the King's mercy. Noreys, Bryerton, and Weston pleaded Not guilty. The jury return a verdict of Guilty, and that they have no lands, goods, or chattels.

Judgment against all four as in cases of treason; execution to be at Tyburn.

The above file of documents is endorsed: "Sessiones Comitatuum Middlesexiæ et Kanciæ primo tentæ apud villam Westmonasterii in comitatu Midd. coram Thoma Audeley, milite, Cancellario Angliæ, et aliis, &c., et secundo tentæ apud Depford in comitatu Kanciæ coram Johanne Baldewyn, milite et aliis, anno regni Regis Henrici VIII. vicesimo octavo."

Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. R. O. 876. Trial of Anne Boleyn (age 35) and Lord Rochford (age 33).

Record of pleas held at the Tower of London before Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), treasurer and Earl marshal, lord high steward, citing:—

1. Patent appointing the said Duke steward of England hac vice for the trial of queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.

2. Mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thos. Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex, to return all indictments found against queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

3. Similar mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners for Kent. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

4. Mandate to Sir William Kyngestone, constable of the Tower, to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) before the Lord High Steward when required. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

5. The Lord High Steward issued his precept, 13 May, to Sir John Baldewyn and his fellows in Middlesex, to return the indictments at the Tower before him on Monday, 15 May, and a similar precept to Sir J. Baldewyn, Luke, and his fellows in Kent; a third precept to the constable of the Tower to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) that day before him; and a fourth to Ralph Felmyngham, serjeant-at-arms, to summon such and so many lords of the kingdom, peers of the said queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33), by whom the truth may appear.

6. Pleas held before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), steward of England, at the Tower, on Monday, 15 May 28 Henry VIII.

The justices bring in the indictments for Middlesex and Kent, Sir William Kingston (age 60) produces the prisoners, and Ralph Felmyngham declares that he has summoned the peers. Proclamation being then made, the peers answer to their names; viz., Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter, William Earl of Arundel, John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 34), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Edward Earl of Derby (age 27), Henry Earl of Worcester, Thomas Earl of Rutland (age 44), Rob. Earl of Sussex, George Earl of Huntingdon, John lord Audeley, Thos. lord La Ware, Henry lord Mountague, Henry lord Morley, Thos. lord Dacre, George lord Cobham, Henry lord Maltravers, Edward lord Powes, Thos. lord Mount Egle, Edward lord Clynton, William lord Sandes, Andrew lord Wyndesore, Thos. lord Wentworth, Thos. lord Burgh, and John lord Mordaunt.

7. Indictment found at Westminster on Wednesday next after three weeks of Easter, 28 Henry VIII.1 before Sir John Baldwin, &c., by the oaths of Giles Heron, Roger More, Richard Awnsham, Thos. Byllyngton, Gregory Lovell, Jo. Worsop, William Goddard, William Blakwall, Jo. Wylford, William Berd, Henry Hubbylthorn, William Hunyng, Rob. Walys, John England, Henry Lodysman, and John Averey; who present that whereas queen Anne has been the wife of Henry VIII. for three years and more, she, despising her marriage, and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust, did falsely and traitorously procure by base conversations and kisses, touchings, gifts, and other infamous incitations, divers of the King's daily and familiar servants to be her adulterers and concubines, so that several of the King's servants yielded to her vile provocations; viz., on 6th Oct. 25 Henry VIII., at Westminster, and divers days before and after, she procured, by sweet words, kisses, touches, and otherwise, Henry Noreys, of Westminster, gentle man of the privy chamber, to violate her, by reason whereof he did so at Westminster on the 12th Oct. 25 Henry VIII.; and they had illicit intercourse at various other times, both before and after, sometimes by his procurement, and sometimes by that of the Queen. Also the Queen, 2 Nov. 27 Henry VIII. and several times before and after, at Westminster, procured and incited her own natural brother, George Boleyn (age 33), Lord Rochford, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, alluring him with her tongue in the said George's mouth, and the said George's tongue in hers, and also with kisses, presents, and jewels; whereby he, despising the commands of God, and all human laws, 5 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., violated and carnally knew the said Queen, his own sister, at Westminster; which he also did on divers other days before and after at the same place, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 3 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and after, at Westminster, procured one William Bryerton, late of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so on 8 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., at Hampton Court, in the parish of Lytel Hampton, and on several other days before and after, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 8 May 26 Henry VIII., and at other times before and since, procured Sir Fras. Weston, of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, &c., whereby he did so on the 20 May, &c. Also the Queen, 12 April 26 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, at Westminster, procured Mark Smeton (age 24), groom of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so at Westminster, 26 April 27 Henry VIII.

Moreover, the said Lord Rochford (age 33), Norreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24), being thus inflamed with carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, gave her secret gifts and pledges while carrying on this illicit intercourse; and the Queen, on her part, could not endure any of them to converse with any other woman, without showing great displeasure; and on the 27 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., and other days before and after, at Westminster, she gave them great gifts to encourage them in their crimes. And further the said Queen and these other traitors, 31 Oct. 27 Henry VIII., at Westminster, conspired the death and destruction of the King, the Queen often saying she would marry one of them as soon as the King died, and affirming that she would never love the King in her heart. And the King having a short time since become aware of the said abominable crimes and treasons against himself, took such inward displeasure and heaviness, especially from his said Queen's malice and adultery, that certain harms and perils have befallen his royal body.

And thus the said Queen and the other traitors aforesaid have committed their treasons in contempt of the Crown, and of the issue and heirs of the said King and Queen.

8. Record of indictment and process before Baldewyn, Luke, and others, in co. Kent.

The indictment found at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May 28 Henry VIII., is precisely similar in character to the Middlesex indictment, except as regards times and places; viz., that the Queen at Estgrenewyche, 12 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, allured one Henry Noreys, late of Est Grenewyche, to violate her, whereby he did so on the 19 Nov., &c.; that on 22 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers other days, at Eltham, she allured George Boleyn, Lord Rochford (age 33), &c., whereby he did so, 29 Dec., &c.; that on the 16 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers, &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured one William Bryerton, late of Est Grenewyche, &c., whereby he did so, 27 Nov., &c.; that on the 6 June 26 Henry VIII., &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Sir Fras. Weston, &c., whereby he did so, 20 June, &c.; that on the 13 May 26 Henry VIII. &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Mark Smeton (age 24), &c., whereby he did so, 19 May 26 Henry VIII.

And further that the said Boleyn, &c. grew jealous of each other; and the Queen, to encourage them, at Eltham, 31 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers times before and since, made them presents, &c.; that the Queen and the others, 8 Jan. 27 Henry VIII., conspired the King's death, &c., and that she promised to marry one of the traitors whenever the King was dead, affirming she would never love him, &c.

And afterwards, Monday, 15 May, queen Anne comes to the bar before the Lord High Steward in the Tower, in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), pleads not guilty, and puts herself on her peers; whereupon the said Duke of Suffolk (age 52), marquis of Exeter, and other peers, are charged by the High Steward to say the truth; and being examined from the lowest peer to the highest, each of them severally saith that she is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then, at the King's command, to the Green within the Tower, and there to be burned or beheaded as shall please the King.

The same day, Lord Rochford (age 33) is brought before the High Steward in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), and pleads not guilty. The peers are charged, with the exception of the Earl of Northumberland (age 34), who was suddenly taken ill, and each of them severally saith that he is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then drawn through the city of London, to the gallows at Tyburn, &c., as usual in high treason.

R. O. 2. Originals of the above indictments, commission to the Lord High Steward, mandates and precept, with the original panel of peers. Several of these documents are a good deal injured.

Note 1. See Report III. of Dep. Keeper of the Pub. Records, App. ii. 243. The whole of the proceedings are printed by Mr. Hamilton in the Appendix to Vol. I. of Wriothesley's Chronicle.

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London [Map].

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard (age 20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 44) was one of the judges. [his former sister-in-law] Elizabeth Browne Countess of Worcester (age 34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln (age 24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 55).

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 27).

[his son-in-law] Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 28).

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl of Worcester (age 40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl of Arundel (age 24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48).

Edward Powers Lord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman (age 56) signed the death warrant.

After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) was also tried and found guilty.

Letters 1536. 17 May [1536]. Wilkins, iii. 803. 896. Anne Boleyn (age 35).

Sentence pronounced by the archbishop of Canterbury of the nullity of the marriage between the King and Anne Boleyn (age 35), in the presence of Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), and others, at Lambeth, 17 May 1536.

Memorandum.—This was sealed on the 10th June, and subscribed by both Houses of Convocation on the 28th.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXXIII. Sir William Kingston (age 60) to Lord Cromwell (age 51), apparently May 18th 1536

[MS. COTTON. OTHO c. x. foL 223. Orig.]

Syr thys shalbe to advertyse you I have resayved your Lett' wherin yo ...aa have strangerys conveyed yowt of the Towre and so thay be by the ... of Richard Gressum, & Will-m Loke, & Wythepoll, bot the umbrb of stra ... not xxx. and not mony; Hothe and the inbassit'of the emperor had a ... ther and honestly put yowt. Sr yf we have not anowrec serten ... d be knowen in London, I thynke hee wilbe bot few and I thynk ...f humburg ware bes: for I suppose she wyll declare hyr self to b ... h woman for all men bot for the Kyng at the or of hyr dei ... mornyngk she sent for me that I myght be with hyr at ... asshe reysayved the gud lord to the in tent I shuld here hy ... towchyng hyr innosensy alway to be clere & in the writy ... she sent for me, and at my commyng she sayd M. Kyngston I he ... l not dy affore none, & I am very sory ther fore; for I thowth ... be dede ... d past my payne. I told hyr it shuld be now payne it w ... m hard say the executr was very gud and I have a lyt ... rn hand abowt it lawyng hartely.

I have sen also wemen executed and atp they have bene in gre ... ige. Thys Lady hasse meche joy and plesur in dethe ... newaly with hyr and hasse bene syns ij of the co ... the effect of hony thyng that ys here at t ... well.

Your ....

Willm Ky

To Mastr. Secretory.

Note a. f. you would have. b. number. c. an hour. d. as it may be. L. Herb. e. here. f. a reasonable. g. L. Herb. h. be a. L. Herb. i. death. k. for this morning. L. Herb. l. I heard say I shall not. L. Herb. m. was so sotell. Herb. n. a lyttel neck and put her hand. Herb. p. that,

The names of those who were called Anne Boleyn's accusers have occurred in the preceding Letters.

The close of her catastrophe shall be detailed in the words of Burnet :

"A little before noon, being the 19th. of May, she was brought to the Scaffold, where she made a short speech to a great company that came to look on the last scene of this fatal Tragedy : the chief of whom were the Dukes of Suffolk (age 52) and Richmond (age 16), the Lord Chancellor, and Secretary Cromwell (age 51), with the Lord Mayor, the Sheriffs, and Aldermen of London. She said she was come to die, as she was judged by the Law ; she would accuse none, nor say any thing of the ground upon which she was judged. She prayed heartily for the King ; and called him a most merciful and gentle Prince, and that he had been always to her a good, gentle, sovereign lord : and if any would meddle with her cause, she required them to judge the best. And so she took her leave of them and of the world ; and heartily desired they would pray for her. After she had been some time in her devotions, being her last words 'to Christ I commend my Soul,' her head was cut off by the hangman of Calais, who was brought over as more expert at beheading than any in England : her eyes and lips were observed to move after her head was cut off, as Spelman writes ; but her body was thrown into a common chest of elm tree, that was made to put arrows in, and was buried in the chapel within the Tower [Map] before twelve o'clock.

"Her brother (deceased) with the other four did also suffer. None of them were quartered, but they were all beheaded, except Smeton, who was hanged. It was generally said, that he was corrupted into that confession, and had his life promised him ; but it was not fit to let him live to tell tales. Norris had been much in the King's favour, and an offer was made him of his life, if he would confess his guilt, and accuse the Queen. But he generously rejected that unhandsome proposition, and said that in his consciiaice he thought her innocent of these things laid to her charge ; but whether she was or not, he would not accuse her of any thing, and he would die a thousand times rather than ruin an innocent person."a

On the day of the execution, Henry the Eighth put on white for mourning, as though he would have said, "I am innocent of this deed:" and the next day was married to Jane Seymour (age 27).

The good Melanchton, whose visit to England was prevented by the afflicting news of the Queen's execution, has elegantly expressed his opinion of her innocence, in a letter to Joachim Camerarius, dated on the fifth of the ides of June 1536:

"Anglicas profectionis cura prorsus liberatus sum. Postquam enim tarn tragic! casus in Anglia acciderunt, magna consiliorum mutatio secuta est. Posterior Regina, Magis Accusata quam Convicta Adulterii, ultimo supplicio affecta est. Quam mirabiles sunt rerum vices, mi Joachime, quantam Dei iram omnibus hominibus denunciant, in quantas calamitates etiam ex summo fastigio potentissimi homines hoc tempore decidunt Haec cum cogito, etiam nobis aerumnas nostras et nostra pericula asquiore animo ferenda esse dispute."b

To some it has been a cause of surprize, that Anne Boleyn should have passed an encomium upon Henry the Eighth at her death. Indeed it is remarkable that at almost every execution hi that sanguinary period, the praise of the Sovereign was pronounced by those who fell upon the scaffold. It seems to have been so directed by the Government. Tyndale, from whose "Practice of Prelates" we have already made an extract respecting the disclosure of Confessions, has another passage upon this point, too important not to be given here:

"When any Great Man is put to death, how his Confessore entreateth him ; and what penance is enjoyned him concerning what he shall say when he cometh unto the place of execution. I coude gesse at a practyse that might make mennes eares glowe."e

In Anne Boleyn's case, however, it may be in part ascribed to anxiety for the safety of her daughter.

Anne Boleyn's execution was a fatal precedent for succeeding times. Henry having beheaded one Queen, proceeded fearlessly to the beheading of another. Elizabeth familiarized the application of the axe to royalty one step farther ; for she beheaded a foreign Queen who had taken shelter in her dominions. Half a Century later, and the people beheaded their Sovereign.

Note a. Burnet, Hist. Reform, vol. i. p. 205.

Note b. Melancht. Epist. 8 Lips. 1569.

Note c. Pract. of Prelates, 12" Marborch, 1530.

On 19 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Catherine Carey (age 12) and Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16). Marquess Pembroke extinct.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. There is myth that her corpse was subsequently removed for burial at the Boleyn family church Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map] as described in Agnes Strickland’s 1852 Lives of the Queens of England Volume 4. Page 212.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. Having endeavoured first to ascertain from Cromwell the King's inclination upon the above subject, I delivered to him your Majesty's letters to himself, and communicated to him the substance of what you had written to me; at which he showed himself as pleased as could be, especially as I told him that, to simplify matters, after my letters were deciphered, I would show him everything in confidence. He said to me, as before, that I should find the King his master very well disposed to peace and amity with your Majesty. I would not then enter into particulars in case of revocation and establishment of amity until I saw how the King proceeded; and by what I have perceived hitherto of the King and Cromwell, they only reckon upon preserving neutrality and remaining friends with all the world; but they have since spoken "plus avant." Cromwell tells me (but I have only been able to extract it from him by divers means) that the bailly of Troyes had come to know how the King wished to be comprehended in the peace, and that the King had replied he wished only to be comprehended as a principal contrahent; and he wished to comprehend the others, not the others to comprehend him.

The same was declared to me by the King, to whom I said that the thing was in his hands to do so if he pleased. Cromwell also told me that the bailly had brought to show the answer which the King his master had made to your Majesty upon the very honorable proposals made by you in Consistory; and that in that answer the king of France, by way of reproach, had said that without his aid you would not have obtained the Imperial crown, nor even have gone into Spain before it. At these words this King had been sorry, for it was his part to boast of these things and not that of any other, and begged the bailiff to advise his master to put in his answers things more true or more probable. Cromwell also said that the rest of the answer was such that he should have been ashamed to make it. He also said that the said bailiff [and] the other ambassador had proposed the marriage of the eldest daughter of France with this King, but that it was labour lost, for this King would never marry out of his kingdom. On my asking why, he gave me a very slender reason; viz., that if a foreign Queen of great connections misconducted herself as to her person she could not be punished and got rid of like the last. And on my replying that this was a misfortune not to be expected in generous and well brought-up persons, as they might see by the example of the late Queen, I took the opportunity to suggest the marriage of the Infant Don Loys, saying everything that seemed to me suitable. As to the "Infanta" ("linfante") Cromwell passed this over altogether; but as to the Infant Don Loys, he gave ear to it readily, enquiring several times of his age and personal qualities, and how many children the king of Portugal, his brother, had. And on my saying that although there was no hope of Don Loys succeeding to the crown of Portugal, yet, besides being of so noble blood and so virtuous a prince, he had enough goods of his own to maintain honorably the estate of the said Princess, I would not say better than the Duke of Suffolk (age 52) and the Queen of Scots' present husband, but I came so near this, that he himself said so, and, moreover, that it was certain that, failing hope of the succession of this kingdom by a male child of the King, your Majesty would, it is to be hoped, in that event do something for the advancement of the said Infant.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. I have delivered the letters of credence to the three dukes, who thank you very humbly and promise to use their best offices for the matter in question and all other things, especially the Duke of Suffolk (age 52), who has again sent for leave to take a command of Englishmen for the service of your Majesty. The Duke of Norfolk (age 63) inclines more to the side of France; I know not whether owing to conformity of conditions, or because the pension assigned to him by your Majesty was never paid. The interview of the two kings is forgotten. The king of Scots, after the example of his "patrisant et matrisant," has also aken to wife "une sienne amoreuse," and laughs at the French who had failed in their promise to him.

Not being too well assured by the words of those here, I thought it my duty not merely to write simply how matters stood, but to add some of the circumstances, that your Majesty might judge more clearly the intentions of these men; for which reason I beg you to excuse my prolixity. London, 6 June 1536.Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 31.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. Vienna Archives. 1070. Chapuys (age 46) to [Granvelle].

Though he has perceived nothing, thinks that the English in making a new treaty would stipulate for the restitution of what France occupies of theirs, and perhaps would wish to be assured that the Emperor would not molest them for their disobedience to the Holy See. Wishes to know how to act if this be so. One of the King's chamber said to one of Chapuys' men that the day after the execution the ambassadors offered Madame Magdalene to the King. He replied that she was too young for him, and he had too much experience of French bringing up in the case of the concubine. The same person said also that the woman whom the king of Scots had now taken had formerly given him a bastard. Having married her to another person, who has long lived with her, he now wishes to marry her; at which this King is displeased.

The Emperor already had the hearts of all here, but this affection is much increased by what he said in Consistory. The Duke of Suffolk (age 52) said it would profit his Majesty more than gaining one or two great battles. Though Suffolk is a pensioner of France and a knight of the Order, he hates the French on account of their intelligence with the Turk. London, 6 June 1535 (sic).

Letters 1536. 30 Jun 1536. 1231. Cromwell's Administration. R. O. Things done by the King's highness sythyn I came to his service.

He purchased Hampton Court, the More, St. James in the Fields, and all the ground whereof the new park of Westminster is now made; all the old tenements in Westminster, where now is builded the new garden, the tennis plays, and cockfight; the manor of Pyssowe of lord Scrope; the manor of Weston Baldoc; the manor and park of Coppydhall; certain lands from Thos. Robertts, the auditor, lying beside Waltham: lands to a great value from the Earl of Northumberland (age 34); the manors of Llanamovery and Kendys in Wales from lord Audeleye; the manor and other lands in Chombham, whereof a park is made, of the abbot of Chertsey; the manor of Alderbroke in the forest of Waltham, of Gyles Heron, the manor of Chigwell Hall in the forest of Waltham, of Manoke; the manor of Edmonton, Middx. [of Edward North and William Brown]. He has repaired the tower of London; new made the Mary Rosse, the Peter Powngarnerd, the Lyon, the Katheryn Galye, the Barke, the Mynyon, the Swepestake. The manor of Coggeshall and Esterforde purchased of Mr. Sowthwell. He has purchased woods beside Portsmouth in Hampshire sufficient for the new making of the Henry Grace a Dew and the Gret Galye; lands in Lee beside Eltham Park, purchased of Barett; 1,000 new bows bought and made within the Tower. He, with a great and chargeable train, passed the seas in person to Calais and Boulogne. He has newly builded Hampton Court; the place at Westminster with the tennis plays and cockfight, and walled the park with a sumptuous wall; and St. James in the Fields, a magnificent and goodly house. He has purchased the manors of Donnyngton, Ewelme, Hoknorton, and other, of the Duke of Suffolk (age 52). He has made a great deal of new ordnance of brass here in England. He has newly edified a great part of the walls of Calais. He has newly made a quantity of new ordnance in Calais. He has most costly wars in Scotland, and has had great wars in Ireland. He has borne most costly charge at the coronation of queen Anne. He has maintained the great and sumptuous house of the lady Catharine Dowager. [He has also maintained a great and sumptuous house of the lady Mary ]1

In Cromwell's hand, pp. 4.

Note 1. This sentence is struck out.

1536 Neville Triple Wedding

On 02 Jul 1536 three weddings between the Neville, and Manners and Vere families, were celebrated at one mass at Holywell Priory [Map]:

Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 11) and Anne Manners Countess of Westmoreland (age 9) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41). He the son of Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) and Katherine Stafford Countess of Westmoreland (age 37). They were half fourth cousins. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 9) and Margaret Neville Countess Rutland were married. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) and Katherine Stafford Countess of Westmoreland (age 37). He the son of Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

John de Vere 16th Earl of Oxford (age 20) and Dorothy Neville Countess of Oxford were married. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) and Katherine Stafford Countess of Westmoreland (age 37). He the son of John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65) and Elizabeth Trussell Countess of Oxford.

Those present included Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), [his son-in-law] Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19), Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65) and Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

Hall's Chronicle 1536. Around Oct 1536. After that the King’s highness was credibly certified of this new insurged insurrection, he making no delay in so weighty a matter, caused with all speed the Dukes of Norffolke (age 63) and Suffolke (age 52), the Marques of Exeter (age 40), the Erle of Shrewsbury (age 68) with other, accompanied with his mighty and royal army, which was of great power and strength, forthwith to set upon the rebels: but when these noble captains and counsellors approached, the rebels and perceived their number and saw how they were bent to battle, they practised with great policy to have pacified all without bloodsheding, but the Northern men were so stiff necked that they would in no wise stoop, but stoutly stood and maintained their wicked enterprise, wherefore the nobles above said perceiving and seeing none other way to pacify these wretched rebels, agreed upon a battle, the battle was appointed, and the day was assigned: but, se the same night which was the night before the day of the battle appointed, fell a small rain nothing to speak of but yet as it were by a great miracle of god, the water which was but a very small ford, and that men in manner the day before might have gone dry-shod over, suddenly rose of such a height, deepness and breadth that the like no man that there did inhabit could tell that ever they saw it so afore, so that the day, even when the hour of battle should come it was impossible for the one army to come at the other.

After this appointment made between both the armies (disappointed as it is to be thought only by God, who extended his great mercy and had compassion on the great number of innocent persons, that in that deadly slaughter had like to have been murdered) could take no place: Then by the great wisdom and policy of the said captains, a communication was had, and a pardon of the King’s Majestic obtained, for all the captains and chief doers of this insurrection, and they promised that such things as they found themselves aggrieved withall they should gently be heard, and there reasonable petitions granted and that their articles should be presented to the King’s Majesty, that by his highness authority, and wisdom of his counsel, all things should be brought to good order and conclusion: and with this order every man quietly departed, and those which before were bent as hot as fire to fight, being letted thereof by God, went now peaceably to their houses, and were as cold as water. A domino factum est istud [This was done by the Lord].

In 1537 [his son] Charles Brandon 3rd Duke of Suffolk was born to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) and [his wife] Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 17).

Birth and Christening Edward VI

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 12 Oct 1537. In October on Saint Edward’s eve was borne at Hampton court [Map] the noble Impe Prince Edward, whose Godfathers at the Christening were the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 48), and the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and his Godmother the Lady Mary (age 21) the King’s daughter, and at the bishoping was Godfather the Duke of Suffolk (age 53). At the birth of this noble Prince was great fires made through the whole realm and great joy made with thanks giving to almighty God, which had sent so noble a prince to succeed in the crown of this realm.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 15 Oct 1537. This yeare, the 25thd daie of October, being Moundaie, the Prince was christened in the Kinges chappell at Hampton Court, the Archbishopp of Canterberie (age 48) and the Duke of Norfoike (age 64) godfathers at the font, and my Ladie Maries grace (age 21), the Kinges daughter by Queene Katherin, godmotherb, and the Duke of Suffolke, godfather at the confirmation, the Princes name being Edwarde, proclaymed after his christning by the King of Haroldesa, "Edward, sonne and heire to the King of Englande, Duke of Cornewall, and Earle of Chester." The goodlie solempnitie of the lordes and ladies done at the christning was a goodlie sight to behoulde, everie one after their office and degree; the Ladie Elizabeth (age 4), the Kinges daughter, bearing the chrisome on her breast, the Viscoumpt Beauchampe (age 37), brother to the Queeneb, bearing her in his armes, the Earle of Essex (age 52) bearing the salte, the Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 34) bearing the Prince to the church and home againe, the Duke of Norfolke (age 64) staying his head, as she bare him, and the Duke of Suffolke (age 53) at his feete.

Note d. Evidently a clerical error for the 15th, which was Monday, whereas the 25th would haye been Thursday.

Note e. It is cnrions to note the incongruity of the sponsors: these were Archbishop Cranmer (age 48), the head of the Protestant Reformers, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), leader of the lay Catholics, and the Princess Mary (age 21), a bigoted Catholic, who had been bastardised by her father.

Note a. Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux King-at-Arms.

Note b. Edward Seymour (age 37), elder brother of Queen Jane, and so brother-in-law of Henry VIII was created Viscount Beauchomp, of Hache, co. Somerset, 5th June, 1536. He was lineally descended from Sir Roger Seymour (temp. Edward III.) who married Cicely, sister and eldest coheir of John de Beauchamp, last Baron Beauchamp.

On 15 Oct 1537 the future Edward VI was christened by Bishop John Stokesley (age 62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 21) were Godparents.

King Edward VI of England and Ireland was created Duke Cornwall, 1st Earl Chester.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long (age 43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 52), Philip Boteler (age 45), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 66) and John Gage (age 57) attended. Mary Scrope (age 61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried the canopy.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton (age 48) attended.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) was created 1st Earl Hertford.

Nicholas Carew (age 41), Francis Bryan (age 47), [his former brother-in-law] Anthony Browne (age 37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 52) surrounded the font.

Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire (age 27), Edward Neville (age 66), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 29), Richard Long (age 43) and John Wallop (age 47) carried the canopy.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton and Bishop John Bell attended.

William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 47) was created 1st Earl of Southampton. Mabel Clifford Countess Southampton (age 55) by marriage Countess of Southampton.

Funeral of Jane Seymour

Letters and Papers 1537. 12 Nov 1537. Monday, 12 Nov [1537], the corpse was removed to a chair drawn by six chariot horses, and four banners were borne by four barons (not named). Banners (described) were also borne by Chester, Windsor, Richmond, and Lancaster heralds, by Sir Thomas Denys, Gregory Crumwell, Sir William Godolphyn, Sir John Sandes, Richard Crumwell and Richard Manners. Assistants about the corpse and chair:—Duke of Suffolk (age 53), Marquis Dorset, and earls of Surrey, Westmorland, Wiltshire and Sussex. To the chief mourner:—lords Montague and Clifford. Gentlemen-ushers:—Henry Webbe and Thomas Dauncy. Henchmen that sat upon the chariot horses:—Thomas Kempe, Robert Turwytt, Bennet Lee, and John Hastynges. Officers of arms in attendance:— Garter and Clarencieux, kings; York, Chester, Windsor, Richmond, Lancaster and Somerset, heralds; Portcullis, Bluemantle, Rougedragon, Guisnes, Hammes, Berwick and Blaunchlyon, pursuivants. Serjeants-at-arms:—William Rowte, John Gwillm, Walt. Chalcote, Thomas Dawtry, William Uxley, George Warrenne, Richard Raynshowe, William Clerke, John Stoner, Ralph Framyngham, John Greefelde, Ralph Saintjohn, John up Richards, Edward Slegge, Nicholas Jacsoune. Everything being in order the procession started, Gregory Lovell and Robert Hawkes leading the way, with black staves, followed by 200 poor men wearing the Queen's badges, who at Colbrooke, Exton (sic, Eton), and Windsor stood on each side of the street with their torches. Then came minstrels and trumpets, strangers and ambassadors' servants, the cross with priests, knights, chaplains, abbots, barons and bishops, councillors and head officers, Viscounts and earls. Lord Cromwell lord Privy Seal with the French ambassador Mons. de Schatelon. The lord Chancellor with the ambassador of the Emperor "last come." The cross of the archbishop of Canterbury borne before him by his chaplain; and he himself with the Emperor's ambassador "longest being here." Then Clarencieux and Garter, the Queen's almoner, the chamberlains to the King and Queen, the Earl of Oxford (age 66), High-Chamberlain, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), High-Marshal. Then the corpse surrounded by banners borne by Sir William Muschame, lord Hungerford, lord Mordaunt, lord Bray and lord Mountjoy; assisted by the earls of Sussex and Westmorland, marquis Dorset, the earls of Wiltshire and Surrey and Duke of Suffolk (age 53). Then my Lady Mary, chief mourner, her horse trapped in black velvet and assisted by lords Clifford and Montague. Noble ladies following, in the first chair:—Lady Fraunces, the Countesses of Oxford (age 19), Rutland (age 42), Sussex, Bath, and Southampton, and lady Margaret Howard. In the 2nd (described) the Countess of Derby (age 52), widow, and ladies Margaret Gray, Rochford (age 32), and Carowe, followed by ladies Morley, Dawbeney, Dudley, Owtred, Browne, Pawlet, Russell, and Baynton. The 3rd chair containing ladies Cobham, Bray, Kingston (age 61), and Coffyn; followed by ladies Knevet, Wollope, Henage, and Lyster, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Jernyngham, Mrs. Stoner, and Mrs. Francis Aylmer. The 4th chair containing Mrs. Souche, Mrs. Hollande, Mrs. Asheley, Mrs. Norres, and Mrs. Parre; and followed by Mrs. Darcy, Mrs. Pexsall, Mrs. Clarencieux, Mrs. Carowe, Mrs. Poyntes, Mrs. Cromwell, Mrs. Boynton, and Mrs. Tymeo. The 5th chair containing Mrs. Fitzherbart, Mrs. Bassett, Mrs. Rastall, Mrs. Uxbryge, and Mrs. Joscelyn. (All other gentlewomen rode on before to await the arrival at Windsor, and the start was to be made at 5 a.m.) After the 5th chariot came Sir William Kingston (age 61), the King's vice-chamberlain and captain of the Guard, followed by the Guard—three and three—and all other noblemen's servants. Two almoners were appointed to distribute alms by the way. At Colbroke the corpse was reverently received; and so forth at Eaton, where the Bishop of Lincoln, the Bishop of Carlisle "provost of the said college," and all the priests, clerks, and children received it with caps and tapers in their hands. At Windsor the mayor and brethren met it at the bridge-foot with lighted torches, and so passed to the College. Describes the hangings on the way from the bridge-foot to the west door and in the choir. The dean of Windsor and all the College met the corpse at the utter gate, and accompanied it to the west door, where the chair was taken out and borne by Sir Henry Savyll, Sir Marm. Constable, Sir Arthur Darcy, Sir John St. John, Sir Henry Parker, Sir Thomas Poyninges, and Sir Thomas Darcy, assisted by Sir Humph. Radclyff, Sir John Gage, Sir Richard Weston, and Sir Richard Sandys. A canopy (described) was borne over the corpse by Lord Hastyngs, son and heir to the Earl of Huntingdon, and lords Delaware, Morley, Dacres of the South, Cobham and Bray. In the choir was the archbishop of Canterbury, in pontificalibus, assisted by the bishops of London, Lincoln, Chichester, Worcester, Rochester, St. Taxe (St. Asaph), and Carlisle, and the abbots of Westminster, St. Albans, Reading, Waltham, Tower Hill, and Stratford. The chief mourner followed the corpse, having her train borne by the Viscountess Rochforde (age 32), and assisted by lady Fraunces, the Countesses of Oxford, Derby (age 52) (widow), Rutland (age 42), Bath, and Southampton, and lady Margaret Howard. The corpse being passed under the hearse, a Dirge began in which the lessons were read by the prelates in turn (named) and that finished, the nobility went to the Castle. Describes solemn watch that night and services next day, after which the "offering of the palles began" i.e., ladies Bray, Dawbeney, Morley and Cobham offered one each, ladies Margaret Howard, and Marg. Gray two each, the Countesses of Southampton, Bath, Sussex, Rutland (age 42), Oxford, and Derby (age 52) three each, lady Fraunces four, and the Lady Mary, who was lead between the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, seven. That done, the mourners went to the Castle where they were sumptuously provided for, and the corpse was solemnly buried and all finished by 12 o'clock that day.

ii. Liveries given to the officers of arms and payments for diets made to them by Mr. Gostwick.

Pp. 24 in an Elizabethan hand.

Execution of Friar John Forest

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1538. 22 May 1538. Also the 22th daie of Maie, being Wednesdaie this same yeare, the said Friar Forrest was drawen from Newgate to the place of execution in Smythfielde, where was a noble sermon made by the Bishopp of Worcestre (age 51), afore writton, to have drawen the said Friar Forrest from his opinions; but he, obstinatlie standing still and stiffe in his opininons, and beinge asked by the said bishopp in what state he would die, he openlie declaring their with a lowde voyce to the Bishopp as followeth: That if an angell should come downe from heaven and shew him any other thing then that he had beleeved all his liffe tyme past he would not beleeve him, and that if his bodie should be cutt joynt after joynt or membre after membre, brent, hanged, or what paine soever might de donne to his bodie, he wold neaver turne from his old sect of this Bishopp of Rome; and also seaven yeare agone hea durst not have made such a sermon for his lief. And then after this, being a false traitor to his Praynce, an hereticke, and a seditious person to the Kinges leighe people, was had to the place of executionb and their hanged about the middle in chains of iron on a paire of gallowes alive, a great fire made under him and about him, and so was burned for his said heresie and treason.

Also their was brent with him an idollc that was brought out of Gidarne was North Wales, which idoll was of woode like a man of armes in his armes in his harneies having a litle speare in his hande and a caskett of iron about his necke hanging with a ribond, the which people of North Walles honored as a sainct. The name of the idoll was called in Walch Darvell Gadarn.d Present at this execution were the Duke of Norfolke (age 65), the Duke of Suffolke (age 54), the Erle of Sussex (age 31), the Earle of Hartford (age 38) being Vicount Beawchampe, the Bishoppe of London, with other of the Kinges Counsell, the Major (age 53)e of London, with the most part of the aldermen and shrives, and, as I thinke, tenne thousand persons and more; also the place of execution where the gallowes and fire was made was railed round about; and their was a skaffold made to sett the pulpitt on where the preacher stoode, and an other against itt where the friar stoode all the sermon tyme, and a long skaffold next to Sainct Bartholomewes spittell gate, where the Lordes of the Privie Counsell sate with the major and aldermen and other gentlemen and commons of the cittie.

Note a. Bishop Latimer (age 51).

Note b. Compare this with the account of the burning of Friar Forest in Harleian MS. 530, f. 120.

Note c. The Welshmen had a prophesy that this image should set a whole forest a fire, which prophesie now toke effect, for it set this Frier Forest on fyre, and consumed him to nothing. Hall, p 826.

Note d. Usually written Darvell or David Gatheren.

Note e. Sir Richard Gresham (age 53).

In 1540 [his son-in-law] Edward Grey 3rd Baron Grey of Powis (age 37) petitioned the Privy Council to punish his wife [his illegitimate daughter] Anne (age 33) for adultery, and also accused Anne and Randal Haworth of conspiring to murder him. No action was taken against Anne, and she remained with Randal Haworth; however, this scandalous arrangement caused her to be excluded from Charles Brandon's (age 56) will.

Anne of Cleves Arrival at London

On 30 Jan 1540 Anne of Cleves (age 24) arrived at Blackheath, Greenwich [Map]. [his son-in-law] Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 23) carried the Sword of State. William Holles (age 69), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 56), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 57), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 69), John de Vere 16th Earl of Oxford (age 24), Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton and [his wife] Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 20) were present.

After 31 Mar 1540 [his former brother-in-law] Anthony Browne (age 40) and Elizabeth "The Fair Geraldine" Fitzgerald Countess Lincoln (age 13) were married. The difference in their ages was 27 years. She the daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald 9th Earl of Kildare and Elizabeth Grey Countess Kildare (age 43). They were second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1542 [his daughter] Mary Brandon Baroness Monteagle (age 32) died.

Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 59).

Before 26 Mar 1543 Thomas Clifford and [his former sister-in-law] Lucy Browne were married. They were half third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Christening of Henry Wriothesley

On 24 Apr 1545 Henry Wriothesley, the future 2nd Earl Southamption, was christened at St Andrew's Church, Holborn [Map]. His godparents were [his former brother-in-law] Henry VIII (age 53), Henry's daughter Mary Tudor (age 29) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk (age 61).

On 22 Aug 1545 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 61) died. His son [his son] Henry Brandon 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 9) succeeded 2nd Duke Suffolk.

After 1551 Richard Bertie Baron Willoughby (age 34) and [his former wife] Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 31) were married. He by marriage Baron Willoughby de Eresby.

On 19 Sep 1580 [his former wife] Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 61) died. Her son Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby (age 24) succeeded 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Mary Vere Baroness Willoughby of Eresby by marriage Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.

She was buried at St James' Church, Spilsby [Map] with her second husband Richard Bertie Baron Willoughby (age 63). Elizabethan Period. Sideboard Tomb. Cornice supported by three figures of a monk and two wildmen, each holding aloft a shield of arms. In the frieze are flowers, fruit and escutcheons.

Mary Vere Baroness Willoughby of Eresby: she was born to John de Vere 16th Earl of Oxford and Margery Golding Countess of Oxford. On 25 Dec 1577 Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby and she were married. She the daughter of John de Vere 16th Earl of Oxford and Margery Golding Countess of Oxford. He the son of Richard Bertie Baron Willoughby and Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk. Around 24 Jun 1624 Mary Vere Baroness Willoughby of Eresby died.

William Huddlestone and Isabel Neville were married. She the daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Extracts from The Life of Anne Boleyn. About this time, it is said that the knight, entertaining talk with her as she was earnest at work, in sporting wise caught from her a certain small jewel hanging by a lace out of her pocket, or otherwise loose, which he thrust into his bosom, neither with any earnest request could she obtain it of him again. He kept it, therefore, and wore it after about his neck, under his cassock, promising to himself either to have it with her favour or as an occasion to have talk with her, wherein he had singular delight, and she after seemed not to make much reckoning of it, either the thing not being much worth, or not worth much striving for. The noble prince having a watchful eye upon the knight, noted him more to hover about the lady, and she the more to keep aloof of him; was whetted the more to discover to her his affection, so as rather he liked first to try of what temper the regard of her honour was, which he finding not any way to be tainted with those things his kingly majesty and means could bring to the battery, he in the end fell to win her by treaty of marriage, and in this talk took from her a ring, and that wore upon his little finger; and yet all this with such secrecy was carried, and on her part so wisely, as none or very few esteemed this other than an ordinary course of dalliance. Within few days after, it happened that the king, sporting himself at bowls, had in his company (as it falls out) divers noblemen and other courtiers of account, amongst whom might be the Duke of Suffolk, Sir F. Brian, and Sir T. Wiat, himself being more than ordinarily pleasantly disposed, and in his game taking an occasion to affirm a cast to be his that plainly appeared to be otherwise; those on the other side said, with his grace's leave, they thought not, and yet, still he pointing with his finger whereon he wore her ring, replied often it was his, and specially to the knight he said, Wiat, I tell thee it is mine, smiling upon him withal. Sir Thomas, at the length, casting his eye upon the king's finger, perceived that the king meant the lady whose ring that was, which he well knew, and pausing a little, and finding the king bent to pleasure, after the words repeated again by the king, the knight replied, And if it may like your majesty to give me leave to measure it, I hope it will be mine; and withal took from his neck the lace whereat hung the tablet, and therewith stooped to measure the cast, which the king espying, knew, and had seen her wear, and therewithal spurned away the bowl, and said, It may be so, but then am I deceived; and so broke up the game. This thing thus carried was not perceived for all this of many, but of some few it was. Now the king, resorting to his chamber, showing some discontentment in his countenance, found means to break this matter to the lady, who, with good and evident proof how the knight came by the jewel, satisfied the king so effectually that this more confirmed the king's opinion of her truth than himself at the first could have expected. Shortly, upon the return of the cardinal, the matter of the dutchess cooling every day more and more, his credit also waned till it was utterly eclipsed; and that so busied the great personages that they marked the less the king's bent, the rather for that some way it seemed helpful to their working against the cardinal. The king also took here opportunity to proceed to discover his full and whole meaning unto the lady's father, to whom we may be sure the news was not a little joyful. All this notwithstanding, her virtue was not so dased with the glory of so forcible attractives, but that she stood still upon her guard, and was not, as we would suppose, so easily taken with all these appearances of happiness; whereof two things appeared to be the causes. One the love she bare ever to the queen whom she served, that was also a personage of great virtue: the other her conceit that there was not that freedom of conjunction with one that was her lord and king as with one more agreeable to her estate. These things being well perceived of, the queen shew she knew well to frame and work her advantage of, and therefore the oftener had her at cards with her, the rather also that the king might have the less her company, and the lady the more excuse to be from him; also she esteem herself the kindlier used, and yet withal the more to give the king occasion to see the nail upon her finger. And in this entertainment of time they had a certain game that I cannot name then frequented, wherein dealing, the king and queen meeting they stopped, and the young lady's hap was much to stop at a king; which the queen noting, said to her playfellow, My Lady Anne, you have good hap to stop at a king, but you are not like others, you will have all or none. So often earnest matters are delivered under game. Yet had the king his times, and she in the end yielded to give her consent of marriage to him, whom hardly ever any before was found able to keep their hold against. This was now so far to the pleasure of the king, that forthwith he with her and her father concluded to open the matter to the council, all other things being ripe thereunto, and specially for that it was not possible to keep it any longer from the talk of men near his person, and the more, the queen being found to take such knowledge thereof. It is thought then the table was diversely carried to give opinion upon this matter; some of the nobility wishing rather to have had so good hap lighted to some of their own houses; others that it had not been at all; some inclining to either of these as depending on them; but most liked better the king's own choice, both for the hope of issue, and that the greatness of great men should not grow too great to sway with in managing of matters of state. But howsoever, it appeared manifestly that presently there were practices discovered on all sides under sundry arts, on the parts of Spain, from Rome and that faction, and from the queen herself, and specially some with the king, some with the lady herself, plotted to break or stay at the least till something might fall between the cup and the lip, that might break all this purpose with one of them, if it might have been. And verily one of these may seem for this present occasion not unmeet to be recounted; which was this: There was conveyed to her a book pretending old prophecies, wherein was represented the figure of some personages, with the letter H upon one, A upon another, and K upon the third, which an expounder thereupon took upon him to interpret by the king and his wives, and to her pronouncing certain destruction if she married the king. This book coming into her chamber, she opened, and finding the contents, called to her maid of whom we have spoken before, who also bore her name: "Come hither, Nan," said she, "see here a book of prophecy: this he saith is the king, this the queen, mourning, weeping and wringing her hands, and this is myself with my head off." The maid answered, "If I thought it true, though he were an emperor, I would not myself marry him with that condition." "Yes, Nan, "replied the lady, "I think the book a bauble; yet for the hope I have that the realm may be happy by my issue, I am resolved to have him whatsoever might become of me."

Letters and Papers 1530. The bishop of Mayence has sent some one to speak to the King in favor of the Cardinal. Laurence Scavre (Stauber), the Nuremberg agent, returns with the servants of the duke of Saxony. Brian Turx (Tuke) told me that some of these Germans were sent by one who had written against Luther, but left me in great perplexity about it. He also said that the French desired an increase of confidence between you and the King; and that the King was resolved to manage his own affairs, and had nominated several councillors, that he might not be without assistance when Norfolk and the Chancellor are detained here. Suffolk has been appointed president of the Council for this purpose, with the same authority as the Chancellor, &c.

A lapidary has arrived here from Madame to examine the fleur de lys. More about the German. If you wish to know more about him, you must inquire of Laurence Scavre. London, 6 Feb. 1530.

Fr.

Letters 1536. Parl. Roll 27 Henry VIII. 243. Parliament. Holden by prorogation at Westminster, 4 Feb. 27 Henry VIII. Acts passed concerning—

1. Manor of Grenes Norton assured to the King.

2. Jointure of lady Elizabeth Vaux.

3. Lands late of Sir John Tuchet, lord Audeley, assured to the King.

4. Agreement between the Earl of Rutland and the city of York.

5. Exchange with the Duke of Norfolk and the prior and convent of Thetford.

6. Exchange with the archbishop of Canterbury.

7. Moiety of lands lately issued by Cornelys Vanderdelf assured to Rich. Hyll.

8. Lady Eleanor Clyfford's jointure.

9. Pardon to the Duke of Suffolk.

10. Exchange between the Duke of Suffolk and the Earl of Northumberland.

11. The Duke of Suffolk's place in Southwark assured to the King and Norwich Place to the Duke of Suffolk.

12. Agreement between the Duke of Suffolk and Sir. Chr. Wylloughby.

13. Manor of Hasyllegh assured to the Queen.

14. Exoneration of Oxford and Cambridge from First Fruits and Tenths.

15. "An Act between Sir Piers Dutton and others."

16. Partition of lands between the heirs of lord Broke.

17. Temporalities of Norwich assured to the King.

18. Dissolution of the lesser monasteries.

19. Partition of lands between lord Thomas Howard and Sir Thomas Ponynges.

20. The Earl of Northumberland's lands assured to the King.

21. Lands assured to Sir Thomas Audeley, the Lord Chancellor.

22. A void plot of ground in Chepe assured to the mayor and commonalty of London.

23. Manor of Halyng assured to the King.

24. Manor of Colly Weston assured to the Queen.

25. Exchange with Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

26. Exchange with the prior and convent of Marten.

27. Lands assured to Sir Arthur Darcy.

28. Jointure of Anne Fitzwilliam.

29. Lands assured to lord William Howard.

30. Lands assured to Thomas Pope.

31. Deed of feoffment by Sir Thomas More annulled.

32. Attainder of John Lewes.

33. A longer day to be given to collectors of the Tenths to bring in their certificate.

34. Manor of Bromhill assured to the King.

35. "An Act for reëdifying of divers towns."

36. "An Act concerning the forging of the King's Sign Manual," &c.

37. "An Act for avoiding of exactions taken at Kingston upon Hull.

38. Concerning pirates.

39. For making justices of the peace in Wales.

40. Concerning the breed of horses.

41. Against abuses in the forests of Wales.

42. "For discharge of payment of the Tenths in that year in which they pay their First Fruits."

43. "Licensing all butchers for a time to sell victual in gross."

44. "Concerning uses and wills."

45. Concerning clerks of the Signet and Privy Seal.

46. "For true making of woollen cloths."

47. That certain woollen cloths may be exported.

48. Concerning the custom of leather.

49. Touching the making of ecclesiastical laws.

50. Enrolments of contracts of lands.

51. Concerning servants who rob their masters.

52. For the preservation of the river Thames.

53. Limitation of an order for sanctuaries.

54. An order for tithes.

55. For tithes in London.

56. Decay of houses and enclosures.

57. Preservation of Havens in Devon and Cornwall.

58. Concerning general surveyors.

58.* For continuing certain liberties taken from the Crown.

59. For punishment of sturdy vagabonds.

60. For justice to be ministered in Wales as in England.

61. "An Act establishing the Court of Augmentations."

62. Ordinances for Calais.

Royal Ancestors of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk 1484-1545

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 12 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 17 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 13 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 6 Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 12 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis "Lion" VIII King France

Royal Descendants of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk 1484-1545

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 1

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 6

Ancestors of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk 1484-1545

Great x 1 Grandfather: Robert Brandon

GrandFather: William Brandon

Great x 1 Grandmother: Ada Calthorpe

Father: William Brandon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Wingfield

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Wingfield

Great x 2 Grandfather: Robert Wingfield 7 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Hugh Hastings 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Hastings 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Everingham

Great x 1 Grandfather: Robert Wingfield 8 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth Wingfield 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Robert Goushill

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Goushill 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bohun Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Ingram le Bruyn

Great x 1 Grandfather: Morice Bruyn

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Pole

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund de la Pole

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Norwich

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Pole

GrandFather: Henry Bruyn aka Darcy

Mother: Elizabeth Bruyn

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Darcy 1st Baron Darcy of Knayth

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Darcy

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Burgh Countess Kildare

Great x 2 Grandfather: Robert Darcy

Great x 1 Grandfather: Robert Dracy

GrandMother: Elizabeth Darcy