Biography of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674

Paternal Family Tree: Hyde

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1664 Transit of Mercury

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1668 Bawdy House Riots

On 03 Apr 1597 [his father] Henry Hyde (age 34) and [his mother] Mary Langford were married.

On 03 Nov 1600 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon was created 1st Baron Hyde of Hindon in Wiltshire.

On 18 Feb 1609 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon was born to Henry Hyde (age 46) and Mary Langford.

Around 1621 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 11) educated at Gillingham School, Dorset.

In 1626 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 16) graduated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford University.

Around 1628 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 18) educated at Middle Temple.

In 1629 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 19) and Anne Ayloffe were married. She died six months later.

In 1629 [his wife] Anne Ayloffe died.

In 1634 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 24) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 16) were married.

On 29 Sep 1634 [his father] Henry Hyde (age 71) died.

On 12 Mar 1637 [his daughter] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England was born to Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 28) and [his wife] Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 19).

In Mar 1642 [his son] Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester was born to Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 33) and [his wife] Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 24).

Around 1643. William Dobson (age 31). Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 33).

In Dec 1645 [his former brother-in-law] John Ayloffe (age 35) died.

After 12 Mar 1646 Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton (age 49) with Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 37) and King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) travelled to the Channel Islands [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1649. The next day, came to welcome me at dinner the Lord High Treasurer Cottington (age 70), Sir Edward Hyde, Chancellor (age 40), Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State, Sir George Carteret, Governor of Jersey (age 39), and Dr. Earle (age 48), having now been absent from my wife (age 14) above a year and a half.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 May 1651. I went to take leave of the ambassadors for Spain, which were my Lord Treasurer Cottington (age 72) and Sir Edward Hyde (age 42); and, as I returned, I visited Mr. Morine's garden, and his other rarities, especially corals, minerals, stones, and natural curiosities; crabs of the Red Sea, the body no bigger than a small bird's egg, but flatter, and the two legs, or claws, a foot in length. He had abundance of shells, at least 1,000 sorts, which furnished a cabinet of great price; and had a very curious collection of scarabees and insects, of which he was compiling a natural history. He had also the pictures of his choice flowers and plants in miniature. He told me there were 10,000 sorts of tulips only. He had taille-douces out of number; the head of the rhinoceros bird, which was very extravagant, and one butterfly resembling a perfect bird.

In 1660 [his son] Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Clarendon and [his daughter-in-law] Theodosia Capell were married. She died a year later. He the son of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 50) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 42).

After 1660 William Dugdale (age 54) was appointed Norrey King of Arms with the influence of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 50).

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (age 12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the King's (age 29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42), while I and the rest went to see the Queen (age 50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the Princess Dowager's (age 28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:-"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".

Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, Charles II (age 29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (age 51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.

Note 2. Mary, Princess Royal (age 28), eldest daughter of Charles I, and widow of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1660. My letters tell me, that Mr. Calamy1 had preached before the King in a surplice (this I heard afterwards to be false); that my Lord, Gen. Monk (age 51), and three more Lords, are made Commissioners for the Treasury2; that my Lord had some great place conferred on him, and they say Master of the Wardrobe3; that the two Dukes [Duke of York and Duke of Gloucester.] do haunt the Park much, and that they were at a play, Madam Epicene,-["Epicene, or the Silent Woman", a comedy, by Ben Jonson.] the other day; that Sir. Ant. Cooper (age 38), Mr. Hollis (age 60), and Mr. Annesly (age 45), & late President of the Council of State, are made Privy Councillors to the King. At night very busy sending Mr. Donne away to London, and wrote to my father for a coat to be made me against I come to London, which I think will not be long. At night Mr. Edward Montagu came on board and staid long up with my Lord. I to bed and about one in the morning,

Note 1. Edmund Calamy, D.D., the celebrated Nonconformist divine, born February, 1600, appointed Chaplain to Charles II., 1660. He refused the bishopric of Lichfield which was offered to him. Died October 29th, 1666.

Note 2. The names of the Commissioners were Sir Edward Hyde (age 51), afterwards Earl of Clarendon, General Monk (age 51), Thomas, Earl of Southampton (age 53), John, Lord Robartes (age 54), Thomas, Lord Colepeper (age 60), Sir Edward Montagu, with Sir Edward Nicholas (age 67) and Sir William Morrice (age 57) as principal Secretaries of State. The patents are dated June 19th, 1660.

Note 3. The duty of the Master of the Wardrobe was to provide "proper furniture for coronations, marriages, and funerals" of the sovereign and royal family, "cloaths of state, beds, hangings, and other necessaries for the houses of foreign ambassadors, cloaths of state for Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Prince of Wales, and ambassadors abroad", as also to provide robes for Ministers of State, Knights of the Garter, &c. The last Master of the Wardrobe was Ralph, Duke of Montague (age 21), who died 1709.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jul 1660. Lord's Day. To White Hall chapel, where I got in with ease by going before the Lord Chancellor (age 51) with Mr. Kipps. Here I heard very good music, the first time that ever I remember to have heard the organs and singing-men in surplices in my life1. The Bishop of Chichester (age 68) preached before the King, and made a great flattering sermon, which I did not like that Clergy should meddle with matters of state. Dined with Mr. Luellin and Salisbury at a cook's shop. Home, and staid all the afternoon with my wife till after sermon. There till Mr. Fairebrother came to call us out to my father's (age 59) to supper. He told me how he had perfectly procured me to be made Master in Arts by proxy, which did somewhat please me, though I remember my cousin Roger Pepys (age 43) was the other day persuading me from it. While we were at supper came Win. Howe to supper to us, and after supper went home to bed.

Note 1. During the Commonwealth organs were destroyed all over the country, and the following is the title of the Ordinances under which this destruction took place: "Two Ordinances of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, for the speedy demolishing of all organs, images, and all matters of superstitious monuments in all Cathedrals and Collegiate or Parish Churches and Chapels throughout the Kingdom of England and the dominion of Wales; the better to accomplish the blessed reformation so happily begun, and to remove all offences and things illegal in the worship of God. Dated May 9th, 1644". When at the period of the Restoration music again obtained its proper place in the services of the Church, there was much work for the organ builders. According to Dr. Rimbault ("Hopkins on the Organ", 1855, p. 74), it was more than fifty years after the Restoration when our parish churches began commonly to be supplied with organs. Drake says, in his "Eboracum" (published in 1733), that at that date only one parish church in the city of York possessed an organ. Bernard Schmidt, better known as "Father Smith", came to England from Germany at the time of the Restoration, and he it was who built the organ at the Chapel Royal. He was in high favour with Charles II., who allowed, him apartments in Whitehall Palace.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1660. To White Hall, where I did acquaint Mr. Watkins with my being sworn into the Privy Seal, at which he was much troubled, but put it up and did offer me a kinsman of his to be my clerk, which I did give him some hope of, though I never intend it. In the afternoon I spent much time in walking in White Hall Court with Mr. Bickerstaffe, who was very glad of my Lord's being sworn, because of his business with his brother Baron, which is referred to my Lord Chancellor (age 51), and to be ended to-morrow. Baron had got a grant beyond sea, to come in before the reversionary of the Privy Seal. This afternoon Mr. Mathews came to me, to get a certificate of my Lord's and my being sworn, which I put in some forwardness, and so home and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1660. I went to visit Sir Philip Warwick (age 50), now secretary to the Lord Treasurer (age 51), at his house in North Cray.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1660. Office Day. As Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I were walking in the garden, a messenger came to me from the Duke of York (age 26) to fetch me to the Lord Chancellor (age 51). So (Mrs. Turner (age 37) with her daughter The. being come to my house to speak with me about a friend of hers to send to sea) I went with her in her coach as far as Worcester House, but my Lord Chancellor (age 51) being gone to the House of Lords, I went thither, and (there being a law case before them this day) got in, and there staid all the morning, seeing their manner of sitting on woolpacks1, &c., which I never did before.

Note 1. It is said that these woolpacks were placed in the House of Lords for the judges to sit on, so that the fact that wool was a main source of our national wealth might be kept in the popular mind. The Lord Chancellor's (age 51) seat is now called the Woolsack.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1660. In the evening I went all alone to drink at Mr. Harper's, where I found Mrs. Crisp's daughter, with whom and her friends I staid and drank, and so with W. Hewer (age 18) by coach to Worcester House, where I light, sending him home with the £100 that I received to-day. Here I staid, and saw my Lord Chancellor (age 51) come into his Great Hall, where wonderful how much company there was to expect him at a Seal. Before he would begin any business, he took my papers of the state of the debts of the Fleet, and there viewed them before all the people, and did give me his advice privately how to order things, to get as much money as we can of the Parliament. That being done, I went home, where I found all my things come home from sea (sent by desire by Mr. Dun), of which I was glad, though many of my things are quite spoilt with mould by reason of lying so long a shipboard, and my cabin being not tight. I spent much time to dispose of them tonight, and so to bed.

On 03 Sep 1660 [his son-in-law] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) and [his daughter] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23) were married in secret. She by marriage Duchess York. She gave birth to their son Charles Stewart seven weeks later. She the daughter of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 51) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 43). He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 50).

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1660. Lord's Day. To White Hall on foot, calling at my father's (age 59) to change my long black cloak for a short one (long cloaks being now quite out); but he being gone to church, I could not get one, and therefore I proceeded on and came to my Lord before he went to chapel and so went with him, where I heard Dr. Spurstow preach before the King a poor dry sermon; but a very good anthem of Captn. Cooke's afterwards. Going out of chapel I met with Jack Cole, my old friend (whom I had not seen a great while before), and have promised to renew acquaintance in London together. To my Lord's and dined with him; he all dinner time talking French to me, and telling me the story how the Duke of York hath got my Lord Chancellor's (age 51) [his daughter] daughter (age 23)1 with child, and that she, do lay it to him, and that for certain he did promise her marriage, and had signed it with his blood, but that he by stealth had got the paper out of her cabinet. And that the King would have him to marry her, but that he will not. So that the thing is very bad for the Duke, and them all; but my Lord do make light of it, as a thing that he believes is not a new thing for the Duke to do abroad. Discoursing concerning what if the Duke should marry her, my Lord told me that among his father's many old sayings that he had wrote in a book of his, this is one-that he that do get a wench with child and marry her afterwards is as if a man should--in his hat and then clap it on his head. I perceive my Lord is grown a man very indifferent in all matters of religion, and so makes nothing of these things. After dinner to the Abbey, where I heard them read the church-service, but very ridiculously, that indeed I do not in myself like it at all. A poor cold sermon of Dr. Lamb's, one of the prebends, in his habit, came afterwards, and so all ended, and by my troth a pitiful sorry devotion that these men pay. So walked home by land, and before supper I read part of the Marian persecution in Mr. Fuller (age 52). So to supper, prayers, and to bed.

Note 1. Anne Hyde, born March 12th, 1637, daughter of Edward, first Earl of Clarendon. She was attached to the court of the Princess of Orange, daughter of Charles I., 1654, and contracted to James, Duke of York, at Breda, November 24th, 1659. The marriage was avowed in London September 3rd, 1660. She joined the Church of Rome in 1669, and died March 31st, 1671.

Note 2. The Duke of York married Anne Hyde, and he avowed the marriage September 3rd, so that Pepys was rather behindhand in his information.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Oct 1660. There dined with me a French count, with Sir George Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent over to the Queen-Mother (age 50), to break the marriage of the [his son-in-law] Duke (age 26) with the [his daughter] daughter (age 23) of Chancellor Hyde (age 51). The Queen (age 50) would fain have undone it; but it seems matters were reconciled, on great offers of the Chancellor's (age 51) to befriend the Queen (age 50), who was much in debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs go through his hands.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1660. Office day; after that to dinner at home upon some ribs of roast beef from the Cook's (which of late we have been forced to do because of our house being always under the painters' and other people's hands, that we could not dress it ourselves). After dinner to my Lord's, where I found all preparing for my Lord's going to sea to fetch the Queen (age 50) tomorrow. At night my Lord came home, with whom I staid long, and talked of many things. Among others I got leave to have his picture, that was done by Lilly (age 42)1, copied, and talking of religion, I found him to be a perfect Sceptic, and said that all things would not be well while there was so much preaching, and that it would be better if nothing but Homilies were to be read in Churches. This afternoon (he told me) there hath been a meeting before the King and my Lord Chancellor (age 51), of some Episcopalian and Presbyterian Divines; but what had passed he could not tell me. After I had done talk with him, I went to bed with Mr. Sheply in his chamber, but could hardly get any sleep all night, the bed being ill made and he a bad bedfellow.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1660. We rose early in the morning to get things ready for My Lord, and Mr. Sheply going to put up his pistols (which were charged with bullets) into the holsters, one of them flew off, and it pleased God that, the mouth of the gun being downwards, it did us no hurt, but I think I never was in more danger in my life, which put me into a great fright. About eight o'clock my Lord went; and going through the garden my Lord met with Mr. William Montagu (age 42), who told him of an estate of land lately come into the King's (age 30) hands, that he had a mind my Lord should beg. To which end my Lord writ a letter presently to my Lord Chancellor (age 51) to do it for him, which (after leave taken of my Lord at White Hall bridge) I did carry to Warwick House to him; and had a fair promise of him, that he would do it this day for my Lord. In my way thither I met the Lord Chancellor (age 51) and all the judges riding on horseback and going to Westminster Hall [Map], it being the first day of the term, which was the first time I ever saw any such solemnity. Having done there I returned to Whitehall, where meeting with my brother Ashwell and his cozen Sam. Ashwell and Mr. Mallard, I took them to the Leg in King Street and gave them a dish of meat for dinner and paid for it. From thence going to Whitehall I met with Catan Stirpin in mourning, who told me that her mistress was lately dead of the small pox, and that herself was now married to Monsieur Petit, as also what her mistress had left her, which was very well. She also took me to her lodging at an Ironmonger's in King Street, which was but very poor, and I found by a letter that she shewed me of her husband's to the King, that he is a right Frenchman, and full of their own projects, he having a design to reform the universities, and to institute schools for the learning of all languages, to speak them naturally and not by rule, which I know will come to nothing. From thence to my Lord's, where I went forth by coach to Mrs. Parker's with my Lady, and so to her house again. From thence I took my Lord's picture, and carried it to Mr. de Cretz to be copied. So to White Hall, where I met Mr. Spong, and went home with him and played, and sang, and eat with him and his mother. After supper we looked over many books, and instruments of his, especially his wooden jack in his chimney, which goes with the smoke, which indeed is very pretty. I found him to be as ingenious and good-natured a man as ever I met with in my life, and cannot admire him enough, he being so plain and illiterate a man as he is. From thence by coach home and to bed, which was welcome to me after a night's absence.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1660. To White Hall, in my way met with Mr. Moore, who went back with me. He tells me, among other things, that the Duke of York is now sorry for his lying with my Lord Chancellor's (age 51) daughter, who is now brought to bed of a boy. From Whitehall to Mr. De Cretz, who I found about my Lord's picture.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1660. In the morning with Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) by water to Westminster, where at my Lord's I met with Mr. Creed. With him to see my Lord's picture (now almost done), and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where we found the Parliament met to-day, and thence meeting with Mr. Chetwind, I took them to the Sun, and did give them a barrel of oysters, and had good discourse; among other things Mr. Chetwind told me how he did fear that this late business of the Duke of York's (age 27) would prove fatal to my Lord Chancellor (age 51). From thence Mr. Creed and I to Wilkinson's, and dined together, and in great haste thence to our office, where we met all, for the sale of two ships by an inch of candle1 (the first time that ever I saw any of this kind), where I observed how they do invite one another, and at last how they all do cry, [To cry was to bid.] and we have much to do to tell who did cry last. The ships were the Indian, sold for £1,300, and the Half-moon, sold for £830. Home, and fell a-reading of the tryalls of the late men that were hanged for the King's death, and found good satisfaction in reading thereof.

Note 1. The old-fashioned custom of sale by auction by inch of candle was continued in sales by the Admiralty to a somewhat late date. See September 3rd, 1662.

On 15 Nov 1660 Robert South (age 26) was appointed Chaplain to Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 51).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1660. Up exceedingly early to go to the Comptroller, but he not being up and it being a very fine, bright, moonshine morning I went and walked all alone twenty turns in Cornhill [Map], from Gracious Street corner to the Stockes and back again, from 6 o'clock till past 7, so long that I was weary, and going to the Comptroller's thinking to find him ready, I found him gone, at which I was troubled, and being weary went home, and from thence with my wife by water to Westminster, and put her to my father Bowyer's (they being newly come out of the country), but I could not stay there, but left her there. I to the Hall and there met with Col. Slingsby (age 49). So hearing that the Duke of York (age 27) is gone down this morning, to see the ship sunk yesterday at Woolwich, Kent [Map], he and I returned by his coach to the office, and after that to dinner. After dinner he came to me again and sat with me at my house, ands among other discourse he told me that it is expected that the Duke will marry the Lord Chancellor's (age 51) daughter at last which is likely to be the ruin of Mr. Davis and my Lord Barkley (age 58), who have carried themselves so high against the Chancellor; Sir Chas. Barkley (age 30) swearing that he and others had lain with her often, which all believe to be a lie. He and I in the evening to the Coffee House in Cornhill [Map], the first time that ever I was there, and I found much pleasure in it, through the diversity of company and discourse.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1660. The marriage of the Chancellor's (age 51) [his daughter] daughter (age 23) being now newly owned, I went to see her, she being Sir Richard Browne's (age 55) intimate acquaintance when she waited on the Princess of Orange (age 29); she was now at her father's, at Worcester House, in the Strand. We all kissed her hand, as did also my Lord Chamberlain (age 58) (Manchester) and Countess of Northumberland (age 37). This was a strange change-can it succeed well?-I spent the evening at St. James's, whither the Princess Henrietta (age 16) was retired during the fatal sickness of her sister, the Princess of Orange (age 29), now come over to salute the King (age 30) her brother. The Princess (age 16) gave my wife (age 25) an extraordinary compliment and gracious acceptance, for the "Character" she had presented her the day before, and which was afterward printed.

Pepy's Diary. Jan 1661. At the end of the last and the beginning of this year, I do live in one of the houses belonging to the Navy Office, as one of the principal officers, and have done now about half a year. After much trouble with workmen I am now almost settled; my family being, myself, my wife, Jane, Will. Hewer, and Wayneman1, my girle's brother. Myself in constant good health, and in a most handsome and thriving condition. Blessed be Almighty God for it. I am now taking of my sister to come and live with me. As to things of State.-The King settled, and loved of all. The Duke of York (age 27) matched to my Lord Chancellor's (age 51) daughter, which do not please many. The Queen (age 51) upon her return to France with the Princess Henrietta (age 16). The Princess of Orange lately dead, and we into new mourning for her. We have been lately frighted with a great plot, and many taken up on it, and the fright not quite over. The Parliament, which had done all this great good to the King, beginning to grow factious, the King did dissolve it December 29th last, and another likely to be chosen speedily. I take myself now to be worth £300 clear in money, and all my goods and all manner of debts paid, which are none at all.

Note 1. Will Wayneman appears by this to have been forgiven for his theft (see ante). He was dismissed on July 8th, 1663.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Jan 1661. I visited my Lord Chancellor Clarendon (age 51), with whom I had been well acquainted abroad.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1661. This my birthday, 28 years. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60), Pen, and I did some business, and then I by water to Whitehall, having met Mr. Hartlibb (age 61) by the way at Alderman Backwell's (age 43). So he did give me a glass of Rhenish wine at the Steeleyard, and so to Whitehall by water. He continues of the same bold impertinent humour that he was always of and will ever be. He told me how my Lord Chancellor (age 52) had lately got the Duke of York (age 27) and Duchess, and her woman, my Lord Ossory's and a Doctor, to make oath before most of the judges of the kingdom, concerning all the circumstances of their marriage. And in fine, it is confessed that they were not fully married till about a month or two before she was brought to bed; but that they were contracted long before, and time enough for the child to be legitimate1. But I do not hear that it was put to the judges to determine whether it was so or no.

Note 1. The Duke of York's (age 27) marriage took place September 3rd, 1660. Anne Hyde was contracted to the Duke at Breda, November 24th, 1659.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1661. I went to my Lord Chancellor's (age 52), and delivered to him the state of my concernment at Sayes Court [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1661. After dinner I went to the Temple [Map] and there heard Dr. Griffith, a good sermon for the day; so with Mr. Moore (whom I met there) to my Lord's, and there he shewed me a copy of my Lord Chancellor's (age 52) patent for Earl, and I read the preamble, which is very short, modest, and good. Here my Lord saw us and spoke to me about getting Mr. Moore to come and govern his house while he goes to sea, which I promised him to do and did afterwards speak to Mr. Moore, and he is willing.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1661. Then with my Lady and my Lady Wright to White Hall; and in the Banqueting-house [Map] saw the King create my Lord Chancellor (age 52) and several others, Earls, and Mr. Crew (age 63) and several others, Barons: the first being led up by Heralds and five old Earls to the King, and there the patent is read, and the King puts on his vest, and sword, and coronet, and gives him the patent. And then he kisseth the King's hand, and rises and stands covered before the king. And the same for the Barons, only he is led up but by three of the old Barons, and are girt with swords before they go to the King.

Coronation of Charles II

On 20 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) created a number of new Baronets and Peers:

William Morice 1st Baronet (age 33) was created 1st Baronet Morice of Werrington in Devon. Gertrude Bampfylde Lady Morice by marriage Lady Morice of Werrington in Devon.

John Crew 1st Baron Crew (age 63) was created 1st Baron Crew of Stene in Northamptonshire. Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew (age 59) by marriage Baroness Crew of Stene in Northamptonshire.

Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 52) was created 1st Earl Clarendon at Westminster Abbey [Map] on the occasion of the Coronation Charles II. [his wife] Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 43) by marriage Countess Clarendon.

Oliver Fitzwilliam 1st Earl Tyrconnel (age 51) was created 1st Earl Tyrconnel. Eleanore Holles Countess Tyrconnel by marriage Countess Tyrconnel.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. Was the splendid cavalcade of his Majesty (age 30) from the Tower of London to Whitehall, when I saw him in the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map] create six Earls, and as many Barons, viz:

Edward Lord Hyde, Lord Chancellor (age 52), Earl of Clarendon; supported by the Earls of Northumberland (age 58) and Sussex (age 14); the Earl of Bedford (age 44) carried the cap and coronet, the Earl of Warwick (age 46), the sword, the Earl of Newport (age 64), the mantle.

Next, was Capel, created Earl of Essex.

Brudenell, Cardigan;.

Valentia, Anglesea;.

Greenvill, Bath;.

Howard, Earl of Carlisle.

The Barons were: Denzille Holles; Cornwallis; Booth; Townsend; Cooper; Crew; who were led up by several Peers, with Garter and officers of arms before them; when, after obedience on their several approaches to the throne, their patents were presented by Garter King-at-Arms, which being received by the Lord Chamberlain (age 59), and delivered to his Majesty (age 30), and by him to the Secretary of State, were read, and then again delivered to his Majesty (age 30), and by him to the several Lords created; they were then robed, their coronets and collars put on by his Majesty (age 30), and they were placed in rank on both sides of the state and throne; but the Barons put off their caps and circles, and held them in their hands, the Earls keeping on their coronets, as cousins to the King (age 30).

I spent the rest of the evening in seeing the several archtriumphals built in the streets at several eminent places through which his Majesty (age 30) was next day to pass, some of which, though temporary, and to stand but one year, were of good invention and architecture, with inscriptions.

Notes:

Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex (age 29) was created 1st Earl Essex. Elizabeth Percy Countess Essex (age 25) by marriage Countess Essex.

Thomas Brudenell 1st Earl Cardigan (age 78) was created 1st Earl Cardigan. Mary Tresham Countess Cardigan by marriage Countess Cardigan.

Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Annesley (age 46) was created 1st Earl Anglesey, 1st Baron Annesley Newport Pagnell Buckinghamshire. Elizabeth Altham Countess Anglesey (age 41) by marriage Countess Anglesey.

John Granville 1st Earl Bath (age 32) was created 1st Earl Bath.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle (age 32) was created 1st Earl Carlisle.

Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles (age 61) was created 1st Baron Holles. Jane Shirley Baroness Holles by marriage Baroness Holles.

Frederick Cornwallis 1st Baron Cornwallis (age 50) was created 1st Baron Cornwallis.

George Booth 1st Baron Delamer (age 38) was created 1st Baron Delamer. Elizabeth Grey Baroness Delamer (age 39) by marriage Baroness Delamer.

Horatio Townshend 1st Viscount Townsend (age 30) was created 1st Baron Townshend of Lynn Regis in Norfolk.

Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury (age 39) was created 1st Baron Ashley of Wimborne St Giles.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. First went the Duke of York's Horse Guards. Messengers of the Chamber. 136 Esquires to the Knights of the Bath, each of whom had two, most richly habited. The Knight Harbinger. Sergeant Porter. Sewers of the Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. Clerk of the Signet. Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of the Council, of the Parliament, and of the Crown. Chaplains in ordinary having dignities, 10. King's Advocates and Remembrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chancery. Puisne Sergeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. King's eldest Sergeant. Secretaries of the French and Latin tongue. Gentlemen Ushers. Daily Waiters, Sewers, Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Counsellors, viz, of the Tents, Revels, Ceremonies, Armory, Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests. Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord Chief-Baron. Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. Master of the Rolls. Lord Chief-Justice of England. Trumpets. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Knights of the Bath, 68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the noblest show of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty (age 30) excepted. Knight Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of the Jewels. Lords of the Privy Council. Comptroller of the Household. Treasurer of the Household. Trumpets. Sergeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. Earls. Lord Chamberlain of the Household (age 59). Two Heralds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and Norroy. Lord Chancellor (age 52). Lord High Steward of England. Two persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and Acquitaine, viz, Sir Richard Fanshawe and Sir Herbert Price, in fantastic habits of the time. Gentlemen Ushers. Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York alone (the rest by twos). Lord High Constable of England. Lord Great Chamberlain of England. The sword borne by the Earl Marshal of England. the King (age 30), in royal robes and equipage. Afterward, followed equerries, footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, leading a horse richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. Captain of the Pensioners. Captain of the Guard. The Guard. The Horse Guard. The troop of Volunteers, with many other officers and gentlemen.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. And a Generall Pardon also was read by the Lord Chancellor (age 52), and meddalls flung up and down by my Lord Cornwallis (age 50), of silver, but I could not come by any. But so great a noise that I could make but little of the musique; and indeed, it was lost to every body. But I had so great a lust to.... that I went out a little while before the King had done all his ceremonies, and went round the Abbey to Westminster Hall [Map], all the way within rayles, and 10,000 people, with the ground covered with blue cloth; and scaffolds all the way. Into the Hall I got, where it was very fine with hangings and scaffolds one upon another full of brave ladies; and my wife in one little one, on the right hand. Here I staid walking up and down, and at last upon one of the side stalls I stood and saw the King come in with all the persons (but the soldiers) that were yesterday in the cavalcade; and a most pleasant sight it was to see them in their several robes. And the King came in with his crown on, and his sceptre in his hand, under a canopy borne up by six silver staves, carried by Barons of the Cinque Ports1, and little bells at every end. And after a long time, he got up to the farther end, and all set themselves down at their several tables; and that was also a brave sight: and the King's first course carried up by the Knights of the Bath.

Note 1. Pepys was himself one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at the Coronation of James II.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Apr 1661. I presented his Majesty (age 30) with his "Panegyric" in the Privy Chamber, which he was pleased to accept most graciously; I gave copies to the Lord Chancellor (age 52), and most of the noblemen who came to me for it. I dined at the Marquis of Ormond's (age 50) where was a magnificent feast, and many great persons.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 May 1661. I had audience of my Lord Chancellor (age 52) about my title to Sayes Court [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1661. Early to my Lord's, who privately told me how the King had made him Embassador in the bringing over the Queen (age 22)1. That he is to go to Algier, &c., to settle the business, and to put the fleet in order there; and so to come back to Lisbone with three ships, and there to meet the fleet that is to follow him. He sent for me, to tell me that he do intrust me with the seeing of all things done in his absence as to this great preparation, as I shall receive orders from my Lord Chancellor (age 52) and Mr. Edward Montagu. At all which my heart is above measure glad; for my Lord's honour, and some profit to myself, I hope.

Note 1. Katherine of Braganza (age 22), daughter of John IV. of Portugal, born 1638, married to Charles II, May 21st, 1662. After the death of the king she lived for some time at Somerset House [Map], and then returned to Portugal, of which country she became Regent in 1704 on the retirement of her brother Don Pedro. She died December 31st, 1705.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1661. From thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where it was expected that the Parliament was to have been adjourned for two or three months, but something hinders it for a day or two. In the lobby I spoke with Mr. George Montagu (age 38), and advised about a ship to carry my Lord Hinchingbroke and the rest of the young gentlemen to France, and they have resolved of going in a hired vessell from Rye [Map], and not in a man of war. He told me in discourse that my Lord Chancellor (age 52) is much envied, and that many great men, such as the Duke of Buckingham (age 33) and my Lord of Bristoll (age 48), do endeavour to undermine him, and that he believes it will not be done; for that the King (though he loves him not in the way of a companion, as he do these young gallants that can answer him in his pleasures), yet cannot be without him, for his policy and service.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1661. At the office all the morning; at noon the children are sent for by their mother my Lady Sandwich (age 36) to dinner, and my wife goes along with them by coach, and she to my father's and dines there, and from thence with them to see Mrs. Cordery, who do invite them before my father goes into the country, and thither I should have gone too but that I am sent for to the Privy Seal, and there I found a thing of my Lord Chancellor's (age 52)1 to be sealed this afternoon, and so I am forced to go to Worcester House, where severall Lords are met in Council this afternoon. And while I am waiting there, in comes the King in a plain common riding-suit and velvet cap, in which he seemed a very ordinary man to one that had not known him. Here I staid till at last, hearing that my Lord Privy Seal had not the seal here, Mr. Moore and I hired a coach and went to Chelsy, and there at an alehouse sat and drank and past the time till my Lord Privy Seal came to his house, and so we to him and examined and sealed the thing, and so homewards, but when we came to look for our coach we found it gone, so we were fain to walk home afoot and saved our money.

Note 1. This "thing" was probably one of those large grants which Clarendon quietly, or, as he himself says, "without noise or scandal", procured from the king. Besides lands and manors, Clarendon states at one time that the king gave him a "little billet into his hand, that contained a warrant of his own hand-writing to Sir Stephen Fox (age 34) to pay to the Chancellor the sum of £20,000, (approximately 10 million dollars in the year 2000) of which nobody could have notice". In 1662 he received £5,000 out of the money voted to the king by the Parliament of Ireland, as he mentions in his vindication of himself against the impeachment of the Commons; and we shall see that Pepys, in February, 1664, names another sum of £20,000 given to the Chancellor to clear the mortgage upon Clarendon Park; and this last sum, it was believed, was paid from the money received from France by the sale of Dunkirk. B.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1661. This morning up early, and to my Lord Chancellor's (age 52) with a letter to him from my Lord, and did speak with him; and he did ask me whether I was son to Mr. Talbot Pepys or no (with whom he was once acquainted in the Court of Requests), and spoke to me with great respect. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] (it being Term time) and there met with Commissioner Pett (age 51), and so at noon he and I by appointment to the Sun [Map] in New Fish Street, where Sir J. Minnes (age 62), Sir W. Batten (age 60), and we all were to dine, at an invitation of Captain Stoaks and Captain Clerk, and were very merry, and by discourse I found Sir J. Minnes (age 62) a fine gentleman and a very good scholler.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1661. By appointment, we all went this morning to wait upon the Duke of York (age 28), which we did in his chamber, as he was dressing himself in his riding suit to go this day by sea to the Downs. He is in mourning for his wife's grandmother (deceased), which is thought a great piece of fondness1. After we had given him our letter relating the bad condition of the Navy for want of money, he referred it to his coming back and so parted, and I to Whitehall and to see la belle Pierce, and so on foot to my Lord Crew's, where I found him come to his new house, which is next to that he lived in last; here I was well received by my Lord and Sir Thomas, with whom I had great talk: and he tells me in good earnest that he do believe the Parliament (which comes to sit again the next week), will be troublesome to the Court and Clergy, which God forbid! But they see things carried so by my Lord Chancellor (age 52) and some others, that get money themselves, that they will not endure it.

Note 1. Fondness, foolishness. "Fondness it were for any, being free, To covet fetters, tho' they golden be". Spenser, Sonnet 37,-M. B.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Nov 1661. I presented my translation of "Naudæus concerning Libraries" to my Lord Chancellor (age 52); but it was miserably false printed.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Dec 1661. By universal suffrage of our philosophic assembly, an order was made and registered that I should receive their public thanks for the honorable mention I made of them by the name of Royal Society, in my Epistle dedicatory to the Lord Chancellor (age 52), before my Traduction of Naudæus. Too great an honor for a trifle.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Jan 1662. I went to London, invited to the solemn foolery of the Prince de la Grange, at Lincoln's Inn, where came the King (age 31), Duke, etc. It began with a grand masque, and a formal pleading before the mock Princes, Grandees, Nobles, and Knights of the Sun. He had his Lord Chancellor (age 52), Chamberlain, Treasurer, and other Royal Officers, gloriously clad and attended. It ended in a magnificent banquet. One Mr. Lort was the young spark who maintained the pageantry.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1662. After musique-practice, to White Hall, and thence to Westminster, in my way calling at Mr. George Montagu's (age 39), to condole him the loss of his son, who was a fine gentleman, and it is no doubt a great discomfort to our two young gentlemen, his companions in France. After this discourse he told me, among other news, the great jealousys that are now in the Parliament House. The Lord Chancellor (age 52), it seems, taking occasion from this late plot to raise fears in the people, did project the raising of an army forthwith, besides the constant militia, thinking to make the Duke of York (age 28) General thereof. But the House did, in very open terms, say, they were grown too wise to be fooled again into another army; and said they had found how that man that hath the command of an army is not beholden to any body to make him King.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1662. This morning came Mr. Child to see me, and set me something to my Theorbo, and by and by come letters from Tangier from my Lord, telling me how, upon a great defete given to the Portuguese there by the Moors, he had put in 300 men into the town, and so he is in possession, of which we are very glad, because now the Spaniard's designs of hindering our getting the place are frustrated. I went with the letter inclosed to my Lord Chancellor (age 53) to the House of Lords, and did give it him in the House.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1662. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map]; and there walked up and down and heard the great difference that hath been between my Lord Chancellor (age 53) and my Lord of Bristol (age 49), about a proviso that my Lord Chancellor (age 53) would have brought into the Bill for Conformity, that it shall be in the power of the King (age 31), when he sees fit, to dispense with the Act of Conformity; and though it be carried in the House of Lords, yet it is believed it will hardly pass in the Commons.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1662. Lord's Day. My intention being to go this morning to White Hall to hear South (age 27), my Lord Chancellor's (age 53) chaplain, the famous preacher and oratour of Oxford, (who the last Lord's day did sink down in the pulpit before the King (age 31), and could not proceed,) it did rain, and the wind against me, that I could by no means get a boat or coach to carry me; and so I staid at Paul's, where the judges did all meet, and heard a sermon, it being the first Sunday of the term; but they had a very poor sermon.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 May 1662. To London, being chosen one of the Commissioners for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and incumbrances, and regulating the hackney coaches in the city of London, taking my oath before my Lord Chancellor (age 53), and then went to his Majesty's (age 31) Surveyor's office, in Scotland Yard, about naming and establishing officers, adjourning till the 16th, when I went to view how St Martin's Lane might be made more passable into the Strand [Map]. There were divers gentlemen of quality in this commission.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1662. Spent some time with the Lord Chancellor (age 53), where I had discourse with my Lord Willoughby, Governor of Barbadoes, concerning divers particulars of that colony.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1662. Thence to Mrs. Sarah, and there looked over my Lord's lodgings, which are very pretty; and White Hall garden and the Bowling-ally (where lords and ladies are now at bowles), in brave condition. Mrs. Sarah told me how the falling out between my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) and her Lord was about christening of the child lately1, which he would have, and had done by a priest: and, some days after, she had it again christened by a minister; the King (age 32), and Lord of Oxford, and Duchesse of Suffolk, being witnesses: and christened with a proviso, that it had not already been christened. Since that she left her Lord, carrying away every thing in the house; so much as every dish, and cloth, and servant but the porter. He is gone discontented into France, they say, to enter a monastery; and now she is coming back again to her house in Kingstreet. But I hear that the Queen (age 23) did prick her out of the list presented her by the King (age 32);2 desiring that she might have that favour done her, or that he would send her from whence she come: and that the King (age 32) was angry and the Queen (age 23) discontented a whole day and night upon it; but that the King (age 32) hath promised to have nothing to do with her hereafter. But I cannot believe that the King (age 32) can fling her off so, he loving her too well: and so I writ this night to my Lady to be my opinion; she calling her my lady, and the lady I admire. Here I find that my Lord hath lost the garden to his lodgings, and that it is turning into a tennis-court. Hence by water to the Wardrobe to see how all do there, and so home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. The boy was born in June at Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) house in King Street. By the direction of Lord Castlemaine, who had become a Roman Catholic, the child was baptized by a priest, and this led to a final separation between husband and wife. Some days afterwards the child was again baptized by the rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster [Map], in presence of the godparents, the King (age 32), Aubrey De Vere (age 35), Earl of Oxford, and Barbara, Countess of Suffolk (age 40), first Lady of the Bedchamber to the Queen (age 23) and Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) aunt. The entry in the register of St. Margaret's [Map] is as follows: "1662 June 18 Charles Palmer Ld Limbricke, s. to ye right honorble Roger Earl of Castlemaine by Barbara" (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", 1871, p. 33). The child was afterwards called Charles Fitzroy, and was created Duke of Southampton in 1674. He succeeded his mother in the dukedom of Cleveland in 1709, and died 1730.

Note 2. By the King's command Lord Clarendon (age 53), much against his inclination, had twice visited his royal mistress with a view of inducing her, by persuasions which he could not justify, to give way to the King's determination to have Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) of her household.... Lord Clarendon (age 53) has given a full account of all that transpired between himself, the King (age 32) and the Queen (age 23), on this very unpleasant business ('Continuation of Life of Clarendon,' 1759, ff. 168-178). Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland, p. 35. The day at length arrived when Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) was to be formally admitted a Lady of the Bedchamber. The royal warrant, addressed to the Lord Chamberlain (age 60), bears date June 1, 1663, and includes with that of her ladyship, the names of the Duchess of Buckingham (age 23), the Countesses of Chesterfield and Bath (age 22), and the Countess Mareshall. A separate warrant of the same day directs his lordship to admit the Countess of Suffolk as Groom of the Stole and first Lady of the Bedchamber, to which undividable offices she had, with the additional ones of Mistress of the Robes and Keeper of the Privy Purse, been nominated by a warrant dated April 2, 1662, wherein the reception of her oath is expressly deferred until the Queen's (age 23) household shall be established. We here are furnished with the evidence that Charles would not sign the warrants for the five until Catherine had withdrawn her objection to his favourite one. Addenda to Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland (privately printed), 1874, p. i.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1662. Came my Lord Chancellor (the Earl of Clarendon) (age 53) and his [his wife] lady (age 45), his purse and mace borne before him, to visit me. They were likewise collationed with us, and were very merry. They had all been our old acquaintance in exile, and indeed this great person had ever been my friend. His son, [his son] Lord Cornbury, was here, too.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1662. After sitting, Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and I walked a good while in the garden, who told me that Sir W. Batten (age 61) had made his complaint to him that some of us had a mind to do him a bad turn, but I do not see that Sir George (age 52) is concerned for him at all, but rather against him. He professes all love to me, and did tell me how he had spoke of me to my Lord Chancellor (age 53), and that if my Lord Sandwich (age 37) would ask my Lord Chancellor (age 53), he should know what he had said of me to him to my advantage, of which I am very glad, and do not doubt that all things will grow better and better every day for me.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1662. By and by comes in Mr. Coventry (age 34) to us, whom my Lord tells that he is also put into the commission, and that I am there, of which he said he was glad; and did tell my Lord that I was indeed the life of this office, and much more to my commendation beyond measure. And that, whereas before he did bear me respect for his sake, he do do it now much more for my own; which is a great blessing to me. Sir G. Carteret (age 52) having told me what he did yesterday concerning his speaking to my Lord Chancellor (age 53) about me. So that on all hands, by God's blessing, I find myself a very rising man.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Aug 1662. The Council and Fellows of the Royal Society went in a body to Whitehall [Map], to acknowledge his Majesty's (age 32) royal grace in granting our Charter, and vouchsafing to be himself our founder; when the President made an eloquent speech, to which his Majesty (age 32) gave a gracious reply and we all kissed his hand. Next day we went in like manner with our address to my Lord Chancellor (age 53), who had much promoted our patent: he received us with extraordinary favor. In the evening I went to the Queen-Mother's (age 52) Court, and had much discourse with her.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1662. Thence Tom waiting for me homewards towards my house, talking and scolding him for his folly, and telling him my mind plainly what he has to trust to if he goes this way to work, for he shall never have her upon the terms they demand of £50. He left me, and I to my uncle Wight, and there supped, and there was pretty Mistress Margt. Wight, whom I esteem very pretty, and love dearly to look upon her. We were very pleasant, I droning with my aunt and them, but I am sorry to hear that the news of the selling of Dunkirk1 is taken so generally ill, as I find it is among the merchants; and other things, as removal of officers at Court, good for worse; and all things else made much worse in their report among people than they are. And this night, I know not upon what ground, the gates of the City ordered to be kept shut, and double guards every where.

Note 1. A treaty was signed on the 27th October by which Dunkirk was sold to France for five million livres, two of which were to be paid immediately, and the remaining three by eight bills at dates varying from three months to two years; during which time the King (age 32) of England was to contribute the aid of a naval force, if necessary, for defence against Spain. Subsequently the remaining three millions were reduced to 2,500,000 to be paid at Paris, and 254,000 in London. It is not known that Clarendon (age 53) suggested the sale of Dunkirk, but it is certain that he adopted the measure with zeal. There is also no doubt that he got as much as France could be induced to give.-Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii. 173-4.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1662. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), from whom I receive every day more and more signs of his confidence and esteem of me. Here I met with Pierce the chyrurgeon, who tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) is with child; but though it be the King's, yet her Lord (age 28) being still in town, and sometimes seeing of her, though never to eat or lie together, it will be laid to him. He tells me also how the Duke of York (age 29) is smitten in love with my Lady Chesterfield (age 22)1 (a virtuous lady, daughter to my Lord of Ormond (age 52)); and so much, that the [his daughter] Duchess of York (age 25) hath complained to the King (age 32) and her father (age 53) about it, and my Lady Chesterfield (age 22) is gone into the country for it. At all which I am sorry; but it is the effect of idleness, and having nothing else to employ their great spirits upon.

Note 1. Lady Elizabeth Butler (age 22), daughter of James Butler (age 52), first Duke of Ormond, second wife of Philip Stanhope (age 28), second Earl of Chesterfield. She died July, 1665 (see "Memoires de Grammont", chap. viii.). Peter Cunningham thinks that this banishment was only temporary, for, according to the Grammont Memoirs, she was in town when the Russian ambassador was in London, December, 1662, and January, 1662- 63. "It appears from the books of the Lord Steward's office... that Lord Chesterfield (age 28) set out for the country on the 12th May, 1663, and, from his 'Short Notes' referred to in the Memoirs before his Correspondence, that he remained at Bretby, in Derbyshire, with his wife, throughout the summer of that year" ("Story of Nell Gwyn", 1852, p. 189).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1662. By and by comes James Pearce Surgeon, who among other things tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) interest at Court increases, and is more and greater than the Queen's (age 24); that she hath brought in Sir H. Bennet (age 44), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); but that the Queen (age 24) is a most good lady, and takes all with the greatest meekness that may be. He tells me too that Mr. Edward Montagu (age 27) is quite broke at Court with his repute and purse; and that he lately was engaged in a quarrell against my Lord Chesterfield (age 28): but that the King (age 32) did cause it to be taken up. He tells me, too, that the King (age 32) is much concerned in the Chancellor's (age 53) sickness, and that the Chancellor (age 53) is as great, he thinks, as ever he was with the King (age 32). He also tells me what the world says of me, "that Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I do all the business of the office almost:" at which I am highly proud. He being gone I fell to business, which was very great, but got it well over by nine at night, and so home, and after supper to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1662. So to my brother's and shoemaker, and so to my Lord Crew's, and dined alone with him, and after dinner much discourse about matters. Upon the whole, I understand there are great factions at Court, and something he said that did imply a difference like to be between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), in case the Queen (age 24) should not be with child. I understand, about this bastard (age 13)1. He says, also, that some great man will be aimed at when Parliament comes to sit again; I understand, the Chancellor (age 53) and that there is a bill will be brought in, that none that have been in arms for the Parliament shall be capable of office. And that the Court are weary of my Lord Albemarle (age 54) and Chamberlin (age 60). He wishes that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) had some good occasion to be abroad this summer which is coming on, and that my Lord Hinchingbroke (age 14) were well married, and Sydney (age 12) had some place at Court. He pities the poor ministers that are put out, to whom, he says, the King (age 32) is beholden for his coming in, and that if any such thing had been foreseen he had never come in.

Note 1. James Crofts (age 13), son of Charles II by Lucy Walter, created Duke of Monmouth (age 13) in 1663, Duke of Buccleuch in 1673, when he took the name of Scott.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. My Chancellor (age 53) is threatened by people to be questioned, the next sitting of the Parliament, by some spirits that do not love to see him so great: but certainly he is a good servant to the King (age 32). The Queen-Mother (age 53) is said to keep too great a Court now; and her being married to my Lord St. Albans (age 57) is commonly talked of; and that they had a daughter between them in France, how true, God knows.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1663. Here dined with me Dr. Whore and Mr. Scawen. Therewith him and Mr. Bland, whom we met by the way, to my Chancellor's (age 53), where the King (age 32) was to meet my Lord Treasurer (age 55), &c., many great men, to settle the revenue of Tangier. I staid talking awhile there, but the King (age 32) not coming I walked to my brother's, where I met my cozen Scotts (Tom not being at home) and sent for a glass of wine for them, and having drunk we parted, and I to the Wardrobe talking with Mr. Moore about my law businesses, which I doubt will go ill for want of time for me to attend them.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1663. And after much talk (among other things Mr. Montagu telling him that there was a fellow in the town, naming me, that had done ill offices, and that if he knew it to be so, he would have him cudgelled) my Lord did promise him that, if upon account he saw that there was not many tradesmen unpaid, he would sign the books; but if there was, he could not bear with taking too great a debt upon him. So this day he sent him an account, and a letter assuring him there was not above £200 unpaid; and so my Lord did sign to the Exchequer books. Upon the whole, I understand fully what a rogue he is, and how my Lord do think and will think of him for the future; telling me that thus he has served his father my Lord Manchester (age 61), and his whole family, and now himself: and which is worst, that he hath abused, and in speeches every day do abuse, my Chancellor (age 53), whose favour he hath lost; and hath no friend but Sir H. Bennet (age 45), and that (I knowing the rise of the friendship) only from the likeness of their pleasures, and acquaintance, and concernments, they have in the same matters of lust and baseness; for which, God forgive them! But he do flatter himself, from promises of Sir H. Bennet (age 45), that he shall have a pension of £2000 per annum, and be made an Earl.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1663. By and by comes Sir J. Minnes (age 63), who (like himself and all that he do) tells us that he can do no good, but that my Chancellor (age 54) wonders that we did not cause the seamen to fall about their ears: which we wished we could have done without our being seen in it; and Captain Grove being there, he did give them some affront, and would have got some seamen to have drubbed them, but he had not time, nor did we think it fit to have done it, they having executed their commission; but there was occasion given that he did draw upon one of them and he did complain that Grove had pricked him in the breast, but no hurt done; but I see that Grove would have done our business to them if we had bid him.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1663. Thence with great satisfaction to me back to the Company, where I heard good discourse, and so to the afternoon Lecture upon the heart and lungs, &c., and that being done we broke up, took leave, and back to the office, we two, Sir W. Batten (age 62), who dined here also, being gone before. Here late, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) to speak upon some business, where I found Sir J. Minnes (age 63) pretty well fuddled I thought: he took me aside to tell me how being at my Chancellor's (age 54) to-day, my Lord told him that there was a Great Seal passing for Sir W. Pen (age 41), through the impossibility of the Comptroller's duty to be performed by one man; to be as it were joynt-comptroller with him, at which he is stark mad; and swears he will give up his place, and do rail at Sir W. Pen (age 41) the cruellest; he I made shift to encourage as much as I could, but it pleased me heartily to hear him rail against him, so that I do see thoroughly that they are not like to be great friends, for he cries out against him for his house and yard and God knows what. For my part, I do hope, when all is done, that my following my business will keep me secure against all their envys. But to see how the old man do strut, and swear that he understands all his duty as easily as crack a nut, and easier, he told my Chancellor (age 54), for his teeth are gone; and that he understands it as well as any man in England; and that he will never leave to record that he should be said to be unable to do his duty alone; though, God knows, he cannot do it more than a child. All this I am glad to see fall out between them and myself safe, and yet I hope the King's service well done for all this, for I would not that should be hindered by any of our private differences. So to my office, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. But I perceive great differences there are at Court; and Sir H. Bennet (age 45) and my Lord Bristol (age 50), and their faction, are likely to carry all things before them (which my Lord's judgment is, will not be for the best), and particularly against the Chancellor (age 54), who, he tells me, is irrecoverably lost: but, however, that he will not actually joyne in anything against the Chancellor (age 54), whom he do own to be his most sure friend, and to have been his greatest; and therefore will not openly act in either, but passively carry himself even.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. Up betimes, and after having at my office settled some accounts for my Lord Sandwich (age 37), I went forth, and taking up my father at my brother's, took coach and towards Chelsey, 'lighting at an alehouse near the Gatehouse at Westminster to drink our morning draught, and so up again and to Chelsey, where we found my Lord all alone at a little table with one joynt of meat at dinner; we sat down and very merry talking, and mightily extolling the manner of his retirement, and the goodness of his diet, which indeed is so finely dressed: the mistress of the house, Mrs. Becke, having been a woman of good condition heretofore, a merchant's wife, and hath all things most excellently dressed; among others, her cakes admirable, and so good that my Lord's words were, they were fit to present to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). From ordinary discourse my Lord fell to talk of other matters to me, of which chiefly the second part of the fray, which he told me a little while since of, between Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) and himself, which is that after that he had since been with him three times and no notice taken at all of any difference between them, and yet since that he hath forborn coming to him almost two months, and do speak not only slightly of my Lord every where, but hath complained to my Chancellor (age 54) of him, and arrogated all that ever my Lord hath done to be only by his direction and persuasion. Whether he hath done the like to the King (age 32) or no, my Lord knows not; but my Lord hath been with the King (age 32) since, and finds all things fair; and my Chancellor (age 54) hath told him of it, but with so much contempt of Mr. Montagu, as my Lord knows himself very secure against any thing the fool can do; and notwithstanding all this, so noble is his nature, that he professes himself ready to show kindness and pity to Mr. Montagu on any occasion. My Lord told me of his presenting Sir H. Bennet (age 45) with a gold cupp of £100, which he refuses, with a compliment; but my Lord would have been glad he had taken it, that he might have had some obligations upon him which he thinks possible the other may refuse to prevent it; not that he hath any reason to doubt his kindness.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1663. The talk being done, we fell off to White Hall, leaving the King (age 32) in the Park, and going back, met the Duke going towards St. James's to meet us. So he turned back again, and to his closett at White Hall; and there, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) present, we did our weekly errand, and so broke up; and I down into the garden with my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (after we had sat an hour at the Tangier Committee); and after talking largely of his own businesses, we begun to talk how matters are at Court: and though he did not flatly tell me any such thing, yet I do suspect that all is not kind between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), and that the King's fondness to the little Duke (age 14) do occasion it; and it may be that there is some fear of his being made heir to the Crown. But this my Lord did not tell me, but is my guess only; and that my Chancellor (age 54) is without doubt falling past hopes.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose [his daughter] lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1663. So by and by to dinner, and then carried my wife and Ashwell to St. James's, and there they sat in the coach while I went in, and finding nobody there likely to meet with the Duke, but only Sir J. Minnes (age 64) with my Lord Barkely (age 61) (who speaks very kindly, and invites me with great compliments to come now and then and eat with him, which I am glad to hear, though I value not the thing, but it implies that my esteem do increase rather than fall), and so I staid not, but into the coach again, and taking up my wife's taylor, it raining hard, they set me down, and who should our coachman be but Carleton the Vintner, that should have had Mrs. Sarah, at Westminster, my Chancellor's (age 54), and then to Paternoster Row [Map]. I staid there to speak with my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and in my staying, meeting Mr. Lewis Phillips of Brampton, he and afterwards others tell me that news came last night to Court, that the King of France (age 24) is sick of the spotted fever, and that they are struck in again; and this afternoon my Lord Mandeville (age 29) is gone from the King (age 32) to make him a visit; which will be great news, and of great import through Europe.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1663. So I up and by water to the Temple [Map], and thence with Commissioner Pett (age 52) to St. James's, where an hour with Mr. Coventry (age 35) talking of Mr. Pett's (age 52) proceedings lately in the forest of Sherwood, and thence with Pett to my Lord Ashley (age 41), Chancellor (age 54) of the Exchequer; where we met the auditors about settling the business of the accounts of persons to whom money is due before the King's time in the Navy, and the clearing of their imprests for what little of their debts they have received. I find my Lord, as he is reported, a very ready, quick, and diligent person.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1663. Being come from church, I to make up my month's accounts, and find myself clear worth £726, for which God be praised, but yet I might have been better by £20 almost had I forborne some layings out in dancing and other things upon my wife, and going to plays and other things merely to ease my mind as to the business of the dancing-master, which I bless God is now over and I falling to my quiet of mind and business again, which I have for a fortnight neglected too much. This month the greatest news is, the height and heat that the Parliament is in, in enquiring into the revenue, which displeases the Court, and their backwardness to give the King (age 33) any money. Their enquiring into the selling of places do trouble a great many among the chief, my Chancellor (age 54) (against whom particularly it is carried), and Mr. Coventry (age 35); for which I am sorry.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1663. Home by water, where by and by comes Dean Honiwood, and I showed him my double horizontal diall, and promise to give him one, and that shall be it. So, without eating or drinking, he went away to Mr. Turner's, where Sir J. Minnes (age 64) do treat my Chancellor (age 54) and a great deal of guests to-day with a great dinner, which I thank God I do not pay for; and besides, I doubt it is too late for any man to expect any great service from my Chancellor (age 54), for which I am sorry, and pray God a worse do not come in his room. So I to dinner alone, and so to my chamber, and then to the office alone, my head aching and my mind in trouble for my wife, being jealous of her spending the day, though God knows I have no great reason. Yet my mind is troubled.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. He tells me, too, that he hath lately been observed to tack about at Court, and to endeavour to strike in with the persons that are against the Chancellor (age 54); but this he says of him, that he do not say nor do anything to the prejudice of the Chancellor (age 54). But he told me that the Chancellor (age 54) was rising again, and that of late Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) business and employment hath not been so full as it used to be while the Chancellor (age 54) stood up. From that we discoursed of the evil of putting out men of experience in business as the Chancellor (age 54), and from that to speak of the condition of the King's party at present, who, as the Papists, though otherwise fine persons, yet being by law kept for these fourscore years out of employment, they are now wholly uncapable of business; and so the Cavaliers for twenty years, who, says he, for the most part have either given themselves over to look after country and family business, and those the best of them, and the rest to debauchery, &c.; and that was it that hath made him high against the late Bill brought into the House for the making all men incapable of employment that had served against the King (age 33). Why, says he, in the sea-service, it is impossible to do any thing without them, there being not more than three men of the whole King's side that are fit to command almost; and these were Captain Allen (age 51), Smith, and Beech; and it may be Holmes, and Utber, and Batts might do something. I desired him to tell me if he thought that I did speak anything that I do against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) out of ill will or design. He told me quite the contrary, and that there was reason enough. After a good deal of good and fine discourse, I took leave, and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) house, where I met my Lord, and there did discourse of our office businesses, and how the Duke do show me kindness, though I have endeavoured to displease more or less of my fellow officers, all but Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Pett; but it matters not. Yes, says my Lord, Sir J. Minnes (age 64), who is great with the Chancellor (age 54); I told him the Chancellor (age 54) I have thought was declining, and however that the esteem he has among them is nothing but for a jester or a ballad maker; at which my Lord laughs, and asks me whether I believe he ever could do that well.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1663. Up and he home, and I with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to Westminster, to St. James's, thinking to meet Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and to attend the Duke (age 29), but he not coming we broke up, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there meeting with Mr. Moore he tells me great news that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is fallen from Court, and this morning retired. He gives me no account of the reason of it, but that it is so: for which I am sorry: and yet if the King (age 33) do it to leave off not only her but all other mistresses, I should be heartily glad of it, that he may fall to look after business. I hear my Lord Digby (age 50) is condemned at Court for his speech, and that my Chancellor (age 54) grows great again.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1663. Thence walked alone, only part of the way Deane (age 29) walked with me, complaining of many abuses in the Yard, to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and so by water to Deptford, where I found Mr. Coventry (age 35), and with him up and down all the stores, to the great trouble of the officers, and by his help I am resolved to fall hard to work again, as I used to do. So thence he and I by water talking of many things, and I see he puts his trust most upon me in the Navy, and talks, as there is reason, slightly of the two old knights, and I should be glad by any drudgery to see the King's stores and service looked to as they ought, but I fear I shall never understand half the miscarriages and tricks that the King (age 33) suffers by. He tells me what Mr. Pett (age 52) did to-day, that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) told the King (age 33) that he will impeach the Chancellor (age 54) of High Treason: but I find that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) hath undone himself already in every body's opinion, and now he endeavours to raise dust to put out other men's eyes, as well as his own; but I hope it will not take, in consideration merely that it is hard for a Prince to spare an experienced old officer, be he never so corrupt; though I hope this man is not so, as some report him to be. He tells me that Don John (age 34) is yet alive, and not killed, as was said, in the great victory against the Spaniards in Portugall of late. So home, and late at my office.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1663. Up to the Lobby, and there sent out for Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), and told them if they thought convenient I would go to Chatham, Kent [Map] today, Sir John Minnes (age 64) being already there at a Pay, and I would do such and such business there, which they thought well of, and so I went home and prepared myself to go after, dinner with Sir W. Batten (age 62). Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Mr. Coventry (age 35) tell me that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) hath this day impeached my Chancellor (age 54) in the House of Lords of High Treason. The chief of the articles are these:

Note 1st. That he should be the occasion of the peace made with Holland lately upon such disadvantageous terms, and that he was bribed to it.

Note 2d. That Dunkirke was also sold by his advice chiefly, so much to the damage of England.

Note 3d. That he had £6000 given him for the drawing-up or promoting of the Irish declaration lately, concerning the division of the lands there.

Note 4th. He did carry on the design of the Portugall match, so much to the prejudice of the Crown of England, notwithstanding that he knew the Queen (age 24) is not capable of bearing children.

Note 5th. That the Duke's (age 29) marrying of his [his daughter] daughter (age 26) was a practice of his, thereby to raise his family; and that it was done by indirect courses.

Note 6th. That the breaking-off of the match with Parma, in which he was employed at the very time when the match with Portugall was made up here, which he took as a great slur to him, and so it was; and that, indeed, is the chief occasion of all this fewde.

Note 7th. That he hath endeavoured to bring in Popery, and wrote to the Pope for a cap for a subject of the King (age 33) of England's (my Lord Aubigny (age 43) ); and some say that he lays it to the Chancellor (age 54), that a good Protestant Secretary (Sir Edward Nicholas) was laid aside, and a Papist, Sir H. Bennet (age 45), put in his room: which is very strange, when the last of these two is his own creature, and such an enemy accounted to the Chancellor (age 54), that they never did nor do agree; and all the world did judge the Chancellor (age 54) to be falling from the time that Sir H. Bennet (age 45) was brought in. Besides my Lord Bristoll (age 50) being a Catholique himself, all this is very strange.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1663. These are the main of the Articles. Upon which my Chancellor (age 54) desired that the noble Lord that brought in these Articles, would sign to them with his hand; which my Lord Bristoll (age 50) did presently. Then the House did order that the judges should, against Monday next, bring in their opinion, Whether these articles are treason, or no? and next, they would know, Whether they were brought in regularly or no, without leave of the Lords' House? After dinner I took boat (H. Russell) and down to Gravesend, Kent [Map] in good time, and thence with a guide post to Chatham, Kent [Map], where I found Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Mr. Wayth walking in the garden, whom I told all this day's news, which I left the town full of, and it is great news, and will certainly be in the consequence of it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1663. Home I found all well there, and after dressing myself, I walked to the Temple; and there, from my cozen Roger (age 46), hear that the judges have this day brought in their answer to the Lords, That the articles against my Chancellor (age 54) are not Treason; and to-morrow they are to bring in their arguments to the House for the same. This day also the King (age 33) did send by my Lord Chamberlain (age 61) to the Lords, to tell them from him, that the most of the articles against my Chancellor (age 54) he himself knows to be false.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1663. So after dinner, they being gone, I to my office, and so home to bed. This day I hear the judges, according to order yesterday, did bring into the Lords' House their reasons of their judgment in the business between my Lord Bristoll (age 50) and the Chancellor (age 54); and the Lords do concur with the Judges that the articles are not treason, nor regularly brought into the House, and so voted that a Committee should be chosen to examine them; but nothing to be done therein till the next sitting of this Parliament (which is like to be adjourned in a day or two), and in the mean time the two Lords to, remain without prejudice done to either of them.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1663. This day I am told that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) hath warrants issued out against him, to have carried him to the Tower; but he is fled away, or hid himself. So much the Chancellor (age 54) hath got the better of him.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1663. To London, to see my Lord Chancellor (age 54), where I had discourse with my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (age 65) and the Bishop of Winchester (age 65), who enjoined me to write to Dr. Pierce (age 41), President of Magdalen College, Oxford, about a letter sent him by Dr. Goffe (age 58), a Romish Oratorian, concerning an answer to Dean Cressy's late book.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Sep 1663. So home with her, and then I away (Creed being gone) to Captain Minors upon Tower Hill [Map], and there, abating only some impertinence of his, I did inform myself well in things relating to the East Indys; both of the country and the disappointment the King (age 33) met with the last voyage, by the knavery of the Portugall Viceroy, and the inconsiderablenesse of the place of Bombaim1, if we had had it. But, above all things, it seems strange to me that matters should not be understood before they went out; and also that such a thing as this, which was expected to be one of the best parts of the Queen's (age 24) portion, should not be better understood; it being, if we had it, but a poor place, and not really so as was described to our King in the draught of it, but a poor little island; whereas they made the King (age 33) and Chancellor (age 54), and other learned men about the King (age 33), believe that that, and other islands which are near it, were all one piece; and so the draught was drawn and presented to the King (age 33), and believed by the King (age 33) and expected to prove so when our men came thither; but it is quite otherwise.

Note 1. Bombay, India, which was transferred to the East India Company in 1669. The seat of the Western Presidency of India was removed from Surat to Bombay in 1685-87.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat; and at noon Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and I to dinner to my Lord Mayor's, being invited, where was the Farmers of the Customes, my Chancellor's (age 54) three sons, and other great and much company, and a very great noble dinner, as this Mayor [Sir John Robinson (age 48).] is good for nothing else. No extraordinary discourse of any thing, every man being intent upon his dinner, and myself willing to have drunk some wine to have warmed my belly, but I did for my oath's sake willingly refrain it, but am so well pleased and satisfied afterwards thereby, for it do keep me always in so good a frame of mind that I hope I shall not ever leave this practice.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1663. By and by about one o'clock, before the Lord Mayor (age 47) came, come into the Hall, from the room where they were first led into, the Chancellor (age 54) (Archbishopp before him), with the Lords of the Council, and other Bishopps, and they to dinner. Anon comes the Lord Mayor (age 47), who went up to the lords, and then to the other tables to bid wellcome; and so all to dinner. I sat near Proby, Baron, and Creed at the Merchant Strangers' table; where ten good dishes to a messe, with plenty of wine of all sorts, of which I drunk none; but it was very unpleasing that we had no napkins nor change of trenchers, and drunk out of earthen pitchers and wooden dishes1. It happened that after the lords had half dined, came the French Embassador, up to the lords' table, where he was to have sat; but finding the table set, he would not sit down nor dine with the Lord Mayor (age 47), who was not yet come, nor have a table to himself, which was offered; but in a discontent went away again. After I had dined, I and Creed rose and went up and down the house, and up to the lady's room, and there stayed gazing upon them. But though there were many and fine, both young and old, yet I could not discern one handsome face there; which was very strange, nor did I find the lady that young Dawes married so pretty as I took her for, I having here an opportunity of looking much upon her very near. I expected musique, but there was none but only trumpets and drums, which displeased me. The dinner, it seems, is made by the Mayor and two Sheriffs for the time being, the Lord Mayor (age 47) paying one half, and they the other. And the whole, Proby says, is reckoned to come to about 7 or £800 at most.

Note 1. The City plate was probably melted during the Civil War.-M.B.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1663. Dr. South (age 29), my Lord Chancellor's (age 54) chaplain, preached at Westminster Abbey [Map] an excellent discourse concerning obedience to magistrates, against the pontificians and sectaries. I afterward dined at Sir Philip Warwick's (age 53), where was much company.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. Thence, after walking a good while in the Long gallery, home to my Lord's lodging, my Lord telling me how my father did desire him to speak to me about my giving of my sister something, which do vex me to see that he should trouble my Lord in it, but however it is a good occasion for me to tell my Lord my condition, and so I was glad of it. After that we begun to talk of the Court, and he tells me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) begins to show respect to him again after his endeavouring to bespatter him all was, possible; but he is resolved never to admit him into his friendship again. He tells me how he and Sir H. Bennet (age 45), the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) and his Duchesse (age 25), was of a committee with somebody else for the getting of Mrs. Stewart (age 16) for the King (age 33); but that she proves a cunning slut, and is advised at Somerset House [Map] by the Queene-Mother (age 24), and by her mother (age 53), and so all the plot is spoiled and the whole committee broke. Mr. Montagu (age 28) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) fallen a-pieces, the Duchesse (age 25) going to a nunnery; and so Montagu begins to enter friendship with my Lord, and to attend the Chancellor (age 54) whom he had deserted. My Lord tells me that Mr. Montagu (age 28), among other things, did endeavour to represent him to the Chancellor's (age 54) sons as one that did desert their father in the business of my Lord of Bristol (age 51); which is most false, being the only man that hath several times dined with him when no soul hath come to him, and went with him that very day home when the Earl impeached him in the Parliament House, and hath refused ever to pay a visit to my Lord of Bristol (age 51), not so much as in return to a visit of his. So that the Chancellor (age 54) and my Lord are well known and trusted one by another. But yet my Lord blames the Chancellor (age 54) for desiring to have it put off to the next Session of Parliament, contrary to my Lord Treasurer's (age 56) advice, to whom he swore he would not do it: and, perhaps, my Chancellor (age 54), for aught I see by my Lord's discourse, may suffer by it when the Parliament comes to sit. My Lord tells me that he observes the Duke of York (age 30) do follow and understand business very well, and is mightily improved thereby.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1664. Thence with Alderman Maynell by his coach to the 'Change [Map], and there with several people busy, and so home to dinner, and took my wife out immediately to the King's Theatre [Map], it being a new month, and once a month I may go, and there saw "The Indian Queen" acted; which indeed is a most pleasant show, and beyond my expectation; the play good, but spoiled with the ryme, which breaks the sense. But above my expectation most, the eldest Marshall did do her part most excellently well as I ever heard woman in my life; but her voice not so sweet as Ianthe's (age 27); but, however, we came home mightily contented. Here we met Mr. Pickering (age 46) and his mistress, Mrs. Doll Wilde (age 31); he tells me that the business runs high between the Chancellor (age 54) and my Lord Bristoll (age 51) against the Parliament; and that my Lord Lauderdale (age 47) and Cooper (age 42) open high against the Chancellor (age 54); which I am sorry for.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Feb 1664. I presented my "Sylva" to the Society; and next day to his Majesty (age 33), to whom it was dedicated; also to the Lord Treasurer (age 56) and the Lord Chancellor (age 54).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. That my Lord Digby (age 51) endeavours what he can to bring the business into the House of Commons, hoping there to master the Chancellor (age 55), there being many enemies of his there; but I hope the contrary. That whereas the late King did mortgage 'Clarendon' to somebody for £20,000, and this to have given it to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), and he sold it to my Chancellor (age 55), whose title of Earldome is fetched from thence; the King (age 33) hath this day sent his order to the Privy Seale for the payment of this £20,000 to my Chancellor (age 55), to clear the mortgage!

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. That my Lord Digby (age 51) did send to Lisbon a couple of priests, to search out what they could against the Chancellor (age 55) concerning the match, as to the point of his knowing before-hand that the Queene (age 54) was not capable of bearing children; and that something was given her to make her so. But as private as they were, when they came thither they were clapped up prisoners.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. That my Lord Lauderdale (age 47), being Middleton's (age 56) enemy, and one that scorns the Chancellor (age 55) even to open affronts before the King (age 33), hath got the whole power of Scotland into his hand; whereas the other day he was in a fair way to have had his whole estate, and honour, and life, voted away from him.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1664. Dined with my Lord Chancellor (age 55); and thence to Court, where I had great thanks for my "Sylva", and long discourse with the King (age 33) of divers particulars.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1664. This morning Mr. Burgby, one of the writing clerks belonging to the Council, was with me about business, a knowing man, he complains how most of the Lords of the Council do look after themselves and their own ends, and none the publique, unless Sir Edward Nicholas (age 70). Sir G. Carteret (age 54) is diligent, but all for his own ends and profit. My Lord Privy Seale (age 58), a destroyer of every body's business, and do no good at all to the publique. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 65) speaks very little, nor do much, being now come to the highest pitch that he can expect. He tells me, he believes that things will go very high against the Chancellor (age 55) by Digby (age 51), and that bad things will be proved. Talks much of his neglecting the King (age 33); and making the King (age 33) to trot every day to him, when he is well enough to go to visit his cozen Chief-Justice Hide (age 69), but not to the Council or King. He commends my Lord of Ormond (age 53) mightily in Ireland; but cries out cruelly of Sir G. Lane (age 44) for his corruption; and that he hath done my Lord great dishonour by selling of places here, which are now all taken away, and the poor wretches ready to starve. That nobody almost understands or judges of business better than the King (age 33), if he would not be guilty of his father's fault to be doubtfull of himself, and easily be removed from his own opinion. That my Lord Lauderdale (age 47) is never from the King's care nor council, and that he is a most cunning fellow. Upon the whole, that he finds things go very bad every where; and even in the Council nobody minds the publique.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1664. The business between my Lords Chancellor (age 55) and Bristoll (age 51), they say, is hushed up; and the latter gone or going, by the King's licence, to France.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1664. Up and to my brother's (deceased), where all the morning doing business against to-morrow, and so to my cozen Stradwicke's about the same business, and to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, where my wife in bed sick still, but not so bad as yesterday. I dined by her, and so to the office, where we sat this afternoon, having changed this day our sittings from morning to afternoons, because of the Parliament which returned yesterday; but was adjourned till Monday next; upon pretence that many of the members were said to be upon the road; and also the King (age 33) had other affairs, and so desired them to adjourn till then. But the truth is, the King (age 33) is offended at my Lord of Bristol (age 51), as they say, whom he hath found to have been all this while (pretending a desire of leave to go into France, and to have all the difference between him and the Chancellor (age 55) made up,) endeavouring to make factions in both Houses to the Chancellor (age 55). So the King (age 33) did this to keep the Houses from meeting; and in the meanwhile sent a guard and a herald last night to have taken him at Wimbleton, where he was in the morning, but could not find him: at which the King (age 33) was and is still mightily concerned, and runs up and down to and from the Chancellor's (age 55) like a boy: and it seems would make Digby's articles against the Chancellor (age 55) to be treasonable reflections against his Majesty. So that the King (age 33) is very high, as they say; and God knows what will follow upon it!

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1664. After dinner Sir W. Batten (age 63) sent to speak with me, and told me that he had proffered our bill today in the House, and that it was read without any dissenters, and he fears not but will pass very well, which I shall be glad of. He told me also how Sir [Richard] Temple (age 29) hath spoke very discontentfull words in the House about the Tryennial Bill; but it hath been read the second time to-day, and committed; and, he believes, will go on without more ado, though there are many in the House are displeased at it, though they dare not say much. But above all expectation, Mr. Prin (age 64) is the man against it, comparing it to the idoll whose head was of gold, and his body and legs and feet of different metal. So this Bill had several degrees of calling of Parliaments, in case the King (age 33), and then the Council, and then the Chancellor (age 55), and then the Sheriffes, should fail to do it. He tells me also, how, upon occasion of some 'prentices being put in the pillory to-day for beating of their masters, or some such like thing, in Cheapside, a company of 'prentices came and rescued them, and pulled down the pillory; and they being set up again, did the like again. So that the Lord Mayor (age 48) and Major Generall Browne (age 62) was fain to come and stay there, to keep the peace; and drums, all up and down the city, was beat to raise the trained bands, for to quiett the towne, and by and by, going out with my uncle (age 62) and aunt Wight (age 45) by coach with my wife through Cheapside (the rest of the company after much content and mirth being broke up), we saw a trained band stand in Cheapside upon their guard. We went, much against my uncle's will, as far almost as Hyde Park, he and my aunt (age 45) falling out all the way about it, which vexed me, but by this I understand my uncle more than ever I did, for he was mighty soon angry, and wished a pox take her, which I was sorry to hear. The weather I confess turning on a sudden to rain did make it very unpleasant, but yet there was no occasion in the world for his being so angry, but she bore herself very discreetly, and I must confess she proves to me much another woman than I thought her, but all was peace again presently, and so it raining very fast, we met many brave coaches coming from the Parke and so we turned and set them down at home, and so we home ourselves, and ended the day with great content to think how it hath pleased the Lord in six years time to raise me from a condition of constant and dangerous and most painfull sicknesse and low condition and poverty to a state of constant health almost, great honour and plenty, for which the Lord God of heaven make me truly thankfull.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. Thence I to the Half Moone [Map], against the 'Change [Map], to acquaint Lanyon and his friends of our proceedings, and thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), and there heard several tryals, wherein I perceive my Lord is a most able and ready man. After all done, he himself called, "Come, Mr. Pepys, you and I will take a turn in the garden". So he was led down stairs, having the goute, and there walked with me, I think, above an houre, talking most friendly, yet cunningly. I told him clearly how things were; how ignorant I was of his Lordship's concernment in it; how I did not do nor say one word singly, but what was done was the act of the whole Board. He told me by name that he was more angry with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) than with me, and also with the whole body of the Board. But thinking who it was of the Board that knew him least, he did place his fear upon me; but he finds that he is indebted to none of his friends there. I think I did thoroughly appease him, till he thanked me for my desire and pains to satisfy him; and upon my desiring to be directed who I should of his servants advise with about this business, he told me nobody, but would be glad to hear from me himself. He told me he would not direct me in any thing, that it might not be said that the Chancellor (age 55) did labour to abuse the King (age 34); or (as I offered) direct the suspending the Report of the Purveyors but I see what he means, and I will make it my worke to do him service in it. But, Lord! to see how he is incensed against poor Deane (age 30), as a fanatique rogue, and I know not what: and what he did was done in spite to his Lordship, among all his friends and tenants. He did plainly say that he would not direct me in any thing, for he would not put himself into the power of any man to say that he did so and so; but plainly told me as if he would be glad I did something. Lord! to see how we poor wretches dare not do the King (age 34) good service for fear of the greatness of these men. He named Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and the rest; and that he was as angry with them all as me. But it was pleasant to think that, while he was talking to me, comes into the garden Sir G. Carteret (age 54); and my Lord avoided speaking with him, and made him and many others stay expecting him, while I walked up and down above an houre, I think; and would have me walk with my hat on. And yet, after all this, there has been so little ground for this his jealousy of me, that I am sometimes afeard that he do this only in policy to bring me to his side by scaring me; or else, which is worse, to try how faithfull I would be to the King (age 34); but I rather think the former of the two. I parted with great assurance how I acknowledged all I had to come from his Lordship; which he did not seem to refuse, but with great kindness and respect parted. So I by coach home, calling at my Lord's, but he not within.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. So I left them, and I to my Chancellor's (age 55); and there coming out after dinner I accosted him, telling him that I was the unhappy Pepys that had fallen into his high displeasure, and come to desire him to give me leave to make myself better understood to his Lordship, assuring him of my duty and service. He answered me very pleasingly, that he was confident upon the score of my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) character of me, but that he had reason to think what he did, and desired me to call upon him some evening: I named to-night, and he accepted of it. So with my heart light I to White Hall, and there after understanding by a stratagem, and yet appearing wholly desirous not to understand Mr. Gauden's price when he desired to show it me, I went down and ordered matters in our tender so well that at the meeting by and by I was ready with Mr. Gauden's and his, both directed him a letter to me to give the board their two tenders, but there being none but the Generall Monk (age 55) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Povy (age 50) and I, I did not think fit to expose them to view now, but put it off till Saturday, and so with good content rose.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. Thence to my Lord's again, and my Lord being up, was sent for up, and he and I alone. He did begin with a most solemn profession of the same confidence in and love for me that he ever had, and then told me what a misfortune was fallen upon me and him: in me, by a displeasure which my Chancellor (age 55) did show to him last night against me, in the highest and most passionate manner that ever any man did speak, even to the not hearing of any thing to be said to him: but he told me, that he did say all that could be said for a man as to my faithfullnesse and duty to his Lordship, and did me the greatest right imaginable. And what should the business be, but that I should be forward to have the trees in Clarendon Park marked and cut down, which he, it seems, hath bought of my Lord Albemarle (age 55); when, God knows! I am the most innocent man in the world in it, and did nothing of myself, nor knew of his concernment therein, but barely obeyed my Lord Treasurer's (age 57) warrant for the doing thereof. And said that I did most ungentlemanlike with him, and had justified the rogues in cutting down a tree of his; and that I had sent the veriest Fanatique [Deane (age 30)] that is in England to mark them, on purpose to nose [provoke] him. All which, I did assure my Lord, was most properly false, and nothing like it true; and told my Lord the whole passage. My Lord do seem most nearly affected; he is partly, I believe, for me, and partly for himself. So he advised me to wait presently upon my Lord, and clear myself in the most perfect manner I could, with all submission and assurance that I am his creature both in this and all other things; and that I do owne that all I have, is derived through my Lord Sandwich (age 38) from his Lordship. So, full of horror, I went, and found him busy in tryals of law in his great room; and it being Sitting-day, durst not stay, but went to my Lord and told him so: whereupon he directed me to take him after dinner; and so away I home, leaving my Lord mightily concerned for me. I to the office, and there sat busy all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1664. Up, and to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38); where he sent for me up, and I did give my Lord an account of what had passed with my Chancellor (age 55) yesterday; with which he was well pleased, and advised me by all means to study in the best manner I could to serve him in this business. After this discourse ended, he begun to tell me that he had now pitched upon his day of going to sea upon Monday next, and that he would now give me an account how matters are with him. He told me that his work now in the world is only to keep up his interest at Court, having little hopes to get more considerably, he saying that he hath now about £8,000 per annum. It is true, he says, he oweth about £10,000; but he hath been at great charges in getting things to this pass in his estate; besides his building and good goods that he hath bought. He says he hath now evened his reckonings at the Wardrobe till Michaelmas last, and hopes to finish it to Ladyday before he goes. He says now there is due, too, £7,000 to him there, if he knew how to get it paid, besides £2000 that Mr. Montagu do owe him. As to his interest, he says that he hath had all the injury done him that ever man could have by another bosom friend that knows all his secrets, by Mr. Montagu; but he says that the worst of it all is past, and he gone out and hated, his very person by the King (age 34), and he believes the more upon the score of his carriage to him; nay, that the Duke of Yorke (age 30) did say a little while since in his closett, that he did hate him because of his ungratefull carriage to my Lord of Sandwich (age 38). He says that he is as great with the Chancellor (age 55), or greater, than ever in his life. That with the King (age 34) he is the like; and told me an instance, that whereas he formerly was of the private council to the King (age 34) before he was last sicke, and that by the sickness an interruption was made in his attendance upon him; the King (age 34) did not constantly call him, as he used to do, to his private council, only in businesses of the sea and the like; but of late the King (age 34) did send a message to him by Sir Harry Bennet (age 46), to excuse the King (age 34) to my Lord that he had not of late sent for him as he used to do to his private council, for it was not out of any distaste, but to avoid giving offence to some others whom he did not name; but my Lord supposes it might be Prince Rupert (age 44), or it may be only that the King (age 34) would rather pass it by an excuse, than be thought unkind: but that now he did desire him to attend him constantly, which of late he hath done, and the King (age 34) never more kind to him in his life than now.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1664. The Duke of Yorke (age 30), as much as is possible; and in the business of late, when I was to speak to my Lord about his going to sea, he says that he finds the Duke did it with the greatest ingenuity and love in the world; "and whereas", says my Lord, "here is a wise man hard by that thinks himself so, and would be thought so, and it may be is in a degree so (naming by and by my Lord Crew (age 66)), would have had me condition with him that neither Prince Rupert (age 44) nor any body should come over his head, and I know not what". The Duke himself hath caused in his commission, that he be made Admirall of this and what other ships or fleets shall hereafter be put out after these; which is very noble. He tells me in these cases, and that of Mr. Montagu's, and all others, he finds that bearing of them patiently is his best way, without noise or trouble, and things wear out of themselves and come fair again. But, says he, take it from me, never to trust too much to any man in the world, for you put yourself into his power; and the best seeming friend and real friend as to the present may have or take occasion to fall out with you, and then out comes all. Then he told me of Sir Harry Bennet (age 46), though they were always kind, yet now it is become to an acquaintance and familiarity above ordinary, that for these months he hath done no business but with my Lord's advice in his chamber, and promises all faithfull love to him and service upon all occasions. My Lord says, that he hath the advantage of being able by his experience to helpe and advise him; and he believes that that chiefly do invite Sir Harry to this manner of treating him. "Now", says my Lord, "the only and the greatest embarras that I have in the world is, how to behave myself to Sir H. Bennet (age 46) and my Chancellor (age 55), in case that there do lie any thing under the embers about my Lord Bristoll (age 51), which nobody can tell; for then", says he, "I must appear for one or other, and I will lose all I have in the world rather than desert my Chancellor (age 55): so that", says he, "I know not for my life what to do in that case". For Sir H. Bennet's (age 46) love is come to the height, and his confidence, that he hath given my Lord a character, and will oblige my Lord to correspond with him. "This", says he, "is the whole condition of my estate and interest; which I tell you, because I know not whether I shall see you again or no". Then as to the voyage, he thinks it will be of charge to him, and no profit; but that he must not now look after nor think to encrease, but study to make good what he hath, that what is due to him from the Wardrobe or elsewhere may be paid, which otherwise would fail, and all a man hath be but small content to him. So we seemed to take leave one of another; my Lord of me, desiring me that I would write to him and give him information upon all occasions in matters that concern him; which, put together with what he preambled with yesterday, makes me think that my Lord do truly esteem me still, and desires to preserve my service to him; which I do bless God for. In the middle of our discourse my Baroness Crew came in to bring my Lord word that he hath another son, my Lady being brought to bed just now, I did not think her time had been so nigh, but she's well brought to bed, for which God be praised! and send my Lord to study the laying up of something the more! Then with Creed to St. James's, and missing Mr. Coventry (age 36), to White Hall; where, staying for him in one of the galleries, there comes out of the chayre-room Mrs. Stewart (age 17), in a most lovely form, with her hair all about her eares, having her picture taking there. There was the King (age 34) and twenty more, I think, standing by all the while, and a lovely creature she in this dress seemed to be.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1664. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), but he being busy I went away to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1664. Thence to St. James's to the Duke (age 30), and there did our usual business. He discourses very freely of a warr with Holland, to begin about winter, so that I believe we shall come to it. Before we went up to the Duke, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and I did talk together in the Parke about my Chancellor's (age 55) business of the timber; he telling me freely that my Chancellor (age 55) was never so angry with him in all his life, as he was for this business, in great passion; and that when he saw me there, he knew what it was about. And plots now with me how we may serve my Lord, which I am mightily glad of; and I hope together we may do it.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1664. By and by comes Creed, and I out with him to Fleet Street, and he to Mr. Povy's (age 50), I to my Chancellor's (age 55), and missing him again walked to Povy's (age 50), and there saw his new perspective in his closet. Povy (age 50), to my great surprise and wonder, did here attacque me in his own and Mr. Bland's behalf that I should do for them both for the new contractors for the victualling of the garrison. Which I am ashamed that he should ask of me, nor did I believe that he was a man that did seek benefit in such poor things. Besides that he professed that he did not believe that I would have any hand myself in the contract, and yet here declares that he himself would have profit by it, and himself did move me that Sir W. Rider might join, and Ford with Gauden. I told him I had no interest in them, but I fear they must do something to him, for he told me that those of the Mole did promise to consider him.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1664. I to my Chancellor (age 55), and discoursed his business with him. I perceive, and he says plainly, that he will not have any man to have it in his power to say that my Chancellor (age 55) did contrive the wronging the King (age 34) of his timber; but yet I perceive, he would be glad to have service done him therein; and told me Sir G. Carteret (age 54) hath told him that he and I would look after his business to see it done in the best manner for him. Of this I was glad, and so away.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1664. Up, and a while to my office, and then home with Deane (age 30) till dinner, discoursing upon the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber in Clarendon Parke, and how to make a report therein without offending him; which at last I drew up, and hope it will please him. But I would to God neither I nor he ever had had any thing to have done with it! Dined together with a good pig, and then out by coach to White Hall, to the Committee for Fishing; but nothing done, it being a great day to-day there upon drawing at the Lottery of Sir Arthur Slingsby (age 41). I got in and stood by the two Queenes [Note. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 25) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 54) ] and the [his daughter] Duchesse of Yorke (age 27), and just behind my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), whom I do heartily adore; and good sport it was to see how most that did give their ten pounds did go away with a pair of globes only for their lot, and one gentlewoman, one Mrs. Fish, with the only blanke. And one I staid to see drew a suit of hangings valued at £430, and they say are well worth the money, or near it. One other suit there is better than that; but very many lots of three and fourscore pounds. I observed the King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) did get but as poor lots as any else. But the wisest man I met with was Mr. Cholmley (age 31), who insured as many as would, from drawing of the one blank for 12d.; in which case there was the whole number of persons to one, which I think was three or four hundred. And so he insured about 200 for 200 shillings, so that he could not have lost if one of them had drawn it, for there was enough to pay the £10; but it happened another drew it, and so he got all the money he took.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jul 1664. After dinner to [give] my Chancellor (age 55) a good account of his business, and he is very well pleased therewith, and carries himself with great discretion to me, without seeming over glad or beholding to me; and yet I know that he do think himself very well served by me.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where I took occasion to break the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber to Mr. Coventry (age 36) in the best manner I could. He professed to me, that, till, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) did speake of it at the table, after our officers were gone to survey it, he did not know that my Chancellor (age 55) had any thing to do with it; but now he says that he had been told by the Duke (age 30) that Sir G. Carteret (age 54) had spoke to him about it, and that he had told the Duke that, were he in my Chancellor's (age 55) case, if he were his father, he would rather fling away the gains of two or £3,000, than have it said that the timber, which should have been the King's, if it had continued the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55), was concealed by us in favour of my Chancellor (age 55); for, says he, he is a great man, and all such as he, and he himself particularly, have a great many enemies that would be glad of such an advantage against him. When I told him it was strange that Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir G. Carteret (age 54), that knew my Chancellor's (age 55) concernment therein, should not at first inform us, he answered me that for Sir J. Minnes (age 65), he is looked upon to be an old good companion, but by nobody at the other end of the towne as any man of business, and that my Chancellor (age 55), he dares say, never did tell him of it, only Sir G. Carteret (age 54), he do believe, must needs know it, for he and Sir J. Shaw are the greatest confidants he hath in the world. So for himself, he said, he would not mince the matter, but was resolved to do what was fit, and stand upon his owne legs therein, and that he would speak to the Duke, that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 54) might be appointed to attend my Chancellor (age 55) in it. All this disturbs me mightily. I know not what to say to it, nor how to carry myself therein; for a compliance will discommend me to Mr. Coventry (age 36), and a discompliance to my Chancellor (age 55). But I think to let it alone, or at least meddle in it as little more as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 36), who appointed to meet me there, and with him to the Attorney General, and there with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 54) consulted of a new commission to be had through the Broad Seale to enable us to make this contract for Tangier victualling.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1664. After dinner Deane (age 30) and I [had] great discourse again about my Chancellor's (age 55) timber, out of which I wish I may get well.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1664. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's (age 55), where was the Duke of Ormond (age 53), Earl of Cork, and Bishop of Winchester (age 66). After dinner, my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and his [his wife] lady (age 47) carried me in their coach to see their palace (for he now lived at Worcester-House in the Strand), building at the upper end of St. James's street, and to project the garden. In the evening, I presented him with my book on Architecture, as before I had done to his Majesty (age 34) and the Queen-Mother (age 54). His lordship caused me to stay with him in his bedchamber, discoursing of several matters very late, even till he was going into his bed.

1664 Transit of Mercury

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (age 47) at Shotover. This gentleman married the daughter and heir (age 45) of Dr. James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, that learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain of the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and other timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's (age 47), principal of Magdalen-Hall (related to the Lord Chancellor (age 55)), brother to the Lord Chief Justice (age 69) and that Sir Henry Hyde, who lost his head for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of houses, came to visit [his son] Lord Cornbury his father (age 55) being now Chancellor of the University), and next day invited us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle (age 37) (now here), whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren, in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the passing of Mercury that day before it; but the latitude was so great that nothing appeared; so we went to see the rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's body. Thence, to the new theater, now building at an exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury [Sheldon (age 66)], to keep the Acts in for the future, till now being in St. Mary's Church. The foundation had been newly laid, and the whole designed by that incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in some particulars. Thence, to see the picture on the wall over the altar of All Souls, being the largest piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation of it, for it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by the hand of one Fuller; yet I fear it will not hold long. It seems too full of nakeds for a chapel.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Oct 1664. We came back to Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire; next day to London, where we dined at the Lord Chancellor's (age 55), with my Lord Bellasis (age 50).

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall [Map] at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (age 46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (age 57), the Dukes of Ormond (age 54) and Albemarle (age 55), Earl of Manchester (age 62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (age 34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1664. Home and eat something, and then shifted myself, and to White Hall, and there the King (age 34) being in his Cabinet Council (I desiring to speak with Sir G. Carteret (age 54)), I was called in, and demanded by the King (age 34) himself many questions, to which I did give him full answers. There were at this Council my Chancellor (age 55), Archbishop of Canterbury (age 66), Lord Treasurer (age 57), the two Secretarys, and Sir G. Carteret (age 54). Not a little contented at this chance of being made known to these persons, and called often by my name by the King (age 34), I to Mr. Pierces to take leave of him, but he not within, but saw her and made very little stay, but straight home to my office, where I did business, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1664. So abroad, intending to have spoke with my Chancellor (age 55) about the old business of his wood at Clarendon, but could not, and so home again, and late at my office, and then home to supper and bed. My little girle Susan is fallen sicke of the meazles, we fear, or, at least, of a scarlett feavour.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1664. After dinner out again by coach to my Chancellor's (age 55), but could not speak with him, then up and down to seek Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 54), Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and my Lord Berkeley (age 62), but failed in all, and so home and there late at business. Among other things Mr. Turner making his complaint to me how my clerks do all the worke and get all the profit, and he hath no comfort, nor cannot subsist, I did make him apprehend how he is beholding to me more than to any body for my suffering him to act as Pourveyour of petty provisions, and told him so largely my little value of any body's favour, that I believe he will make no complaints again a good while.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1664. Thence to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) about Navy business: and my Lord Ashly (age 43); and afterwards to my Chancellor (age 55), who is very well pleased with me, and my carrying of his business.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1664. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), and there staid long with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), to speak with my Lord about our Prize Office business; but, being sicke and full of visitants, we could not speak with him, and so away home. Where Sir Richard Ford (age 50) did meet us with letters from Holland this day, that it is likely the Dutch fleete will not come out this year; they have not victuals to keep them out, and it is likely they will be frozen before they can get back. Captain Cocke (age 47) is made Steward for sick and wounded seamen.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1664. After the House had received the King's speech, and what more he had to say, delivered in writing, the Chancellor (age 55) being sicke, it rose, and I with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) home and conferred our matters about the charge of the Navy, and have more to give him in the excessive charge of this year's expense. I dined with him, and Mr. Povy (age 50) with us and Sir Edmund Pooly (age 45), a fine gentleman, and Mr. Chichly (age 50), and fine discourse we had and fine talke, being proud to see myself accepted in such company and thought better than I am.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1664. Called up very betimes by Mr. Cholmly (age 32), and with him a good while about some of his Tangier accounts; and, discoursing of the condition of Tangier, he did give me the whole account of the differences between Fitzgerald and Norwood, which were very high on both sides, but most imperious and base on Fitzgerald's, and yet through my Lord FitzHarding's (age 34) means, the Duke of York (age 31) is led rather to blame Norwood and to speake that he should be called home, than be sensible of the other. He is a creature of FitzHarding's (age 34), as a fellow that may be done with what he will, and, himself certainly pretending to be Generall of the King's armies, when Monk (age 56) dyeth, desires to have as few great or wise men in employment as he can now, but such as he can put in and keep under, which he do this coxcomb Fitzgerald. It seems, of all mankind there is no man so led by another as the Duke (age 31) is by Lord Muskerry and this FitzHarding (age 34), insomuch, as when the King (age 34) would have him to be Privy-Purse, the Duke (age 31) wept, and said, "But, Sir, I must have your promise, if you will have my dear Charles from me, that if ever you have occasion for an army again, I may have him with me; believing him to be the best commander of an army in the world". But Mr. Cholmly (age 32) thinks, as all other men I meet with do, that he is a very ordinary fellow. It is strange how the Duke (age 31) also do love naturally, and affect the Irish above the English. He, of the company he carried with him to sea, took above two-thirds Irish and French. He tells me the King (age 34) do hate my Chancellor (age 55); and that they, that is the King (age 34) and my Lord FitzHarding (age 34), do laugh at him for a dull fellow; and in all this business of the Dutch war do nothing by his advice, hardly consulting him. Only he is a good minister in other respects, and the King (age 34) cannot be without him; but, above all, being the Duke's father-in-law, he is kept in; otherwise FitzHarding (age 34) were able to fling down two of him. This, all the wise and grave lords see, and cannot help it; but yield to it. But he bemoans what the end of it may be, the King (age 34) being ruled by these men, as he hath been all along since his coming; to the razing all the strong-holds in Scotland, and giving liberty to the Irish in Ireland, whom Cromwell had settled all in one corner; who are now able, and it is feared everyday a massacre again among them.

In 1665 [his son] Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester (age 22) and [his daughter-in-law] Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington (age 52) and Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington (age 51). He the son of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 55) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 47).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1665. At four o'clock with Sir W. Pen (age 43) in his coach to my Chancellor's (age 55), where by and by Mr. Coventry (age 37), Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir J. Lawson (age 50), Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and myself were called in to the King (age 34), there being several of the Privy Council, and my Chancellor (age 55) lying at length upon a couch (of the goute I suppose); and there Sir W. Pen (age 43) begun, and he had prepared heads in a paper, and spoke pretty well to purpose, but with so much leisure and gravity as was tiresome; besides, the things he said were but very poor to a man in his trade after a great consideration, but it was to purpose, indeed to dissuade the King (age 34) from letting these Turkey ships to go out: saying (in short) the King (age 34) having resolved to have 130 ships out by the spring, he must have above 20 of them merchantmen. Towards which, he in the whole River could find but 12 or 14, and of them the five ships taken up by these merchants were a part, and so could not be spared. That we should need 30,000 [sailors] to man these 130 ships, and of them in service we have not above 16,000; so we shall need 14,000 more. That these ships will with their convoys carry above 2,000 men, and those the best men that could be got; it being the men used to the Southward that are the best men for warr, though those bred in the North among the colliers are good for labour. That it will not be safe for the merchants, nor honourable for the King (age 34), to expose these rich ships with his convoy of six ships to go, it not being enough to secure them against the Dutch, who, without doubt, will have a great fleete in the Straights. This, Sir J. Lawson (age 50) enlarged upon. Sir G. Ascue (age 49) he chiefly spoke that the warr and trade could not be supported together, and, therefore, that trade must stand still to give way to them. This Mr. Coventry (age 37) seconded, and showed how the medium of the men the King (age 34) hath one year with another employed in his Navy since his coming, hath not been above 3,000 men, or at most 4,000 men; and now having occasion of 30,000, the remaining 26,000 must be found out of the trade of the nation. He showed how the cloaths, sending by these merchants to Turkey, are already bought and paid for to the workmen, and are as many as they would send these twelve months or more; so the poor do not suffer by their not going, but only the merchant, upon whose hands they lit dead; and so the inconvenience is the less. And yet for them he propounded, either the King (age 34) should, if his Treasure would suffer it, buy them, and showed the losse would not be so great to him: or, dispense with the Act of Navigation, and let them be carried out by strangers; and ending that he doubted not but when the merchants saw there was no remedy, they would and could find ways of sending them abroad to their profit. All ended with a conviction (unless future discourse with the merchants should alter it) that it was not fit for them to go out, though the ships be loaded. The King (age 34) in discourse did ask me two or three questions about my newes of Allen's loss in the Streights, but I said nothing as to the business, nor am not much sorry for it, unless the King (age 34) had spoke to me as he did to them, and then I could have said something to the purpose I think. So we withdrew, and the merchants were called in.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jan 1665. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's (age 55), who caused me after dinner to sit two or three hours alone with him in his bedchamber.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1665. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) to attend the Duke (age 31), and then we back again and rode into the beginning of my Chancellor's (age 56) new house, near St. James's; which common people have already called Dunkirke-house, from their opinion of his having a good bribe for the selling of that towne. And very noble I believe it will be. Near that is my Lord Barkeley (age 63) beginning another on one side, and Sir J. Denham (age 50) on the other.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Mar 1665. I went with his Majesty (age 34) into the lobby behind the House of Lords, where I saw the King (age 34) and the rest of the Lords robe themselves, and got into the House of Lords in a corner near the woolsack, on which the Lord Chancellor sits next below the throne: the King (age 34) sat in all the regalia, the crown-imperial on his head, the sceptre and globe, etc. The Duke of Albemarle (age 56) bore the sword, the Duke of Ormond (age 54), the cap of dignity. The rest of the Lords robed in their places:-a most splendid and august convention. Then came the Speaker and the House of Commons (age 48), and at the bar made a speech, and afterward presented several bills, a nod only passing them, the clerk saying, Le Roy le veult, as to public bills, as to private, Soit faite commeil est desirè. Then, his Majesty (age 34) made a handsome but short speech, commanding my Lord Privy Seal (age 59) to prorogue the Parliament, which he did, the Chancellor (age 56) being ill and absent. I had not before seen this ceremony.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1665. At noon dined with Mr. Povy (age 51), and then to the getting some business looked over of his, and then I to my Chancellor's (age 56), where to have spoke with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), but the King (age 34) and Council busy, I could not; then to the Old Exchange [Map] and there of my new pretty seamstress bought four bands, and so home, where I found my house mighty neat and clean. Then to my office late, till past 12, and so home to bed. The French Embassadors1 are come incognito before their train, which will hereafter be very pompous. It is thought they come to get our King to joyne with the King of France (age 26) in helping him against Flanders, and they to do the like to us against Holland. We have laine a good while with a good fleete at Harwich [Map]. The Dutch not said yet to be out. We, as high as we make our shew, I am sure, are unable to set out another small fleete, if this should be worsted. Wherefore, God send us peace! I cry.

Note 1. The French ambassadors were Henri de Bourbon, Duc de Verneuil (age 63), natural son of Henry IV. and brother of Henrietta Maria, and M. de Courtin. B.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1665. So home and to the 'Change [Map], and thence to the "Old James" to dine with Sir W. Rider, Cutler, and Mr. Deering, upon the business of hemp, and so hence to White Hall to have attended the King (age 34) and Chancellor (age 56) about the debts of the navy and to get some money, but the meeting failed. So my Lord Brunkard (age 45) took me and Sir Thomas Harvy (age 39) in his coach to the Parke, which is very troublesome with the dust; and ne'er a great beauty there to-day but Mrs. Middleton (age 20), and so home to my office, where Mr. Warren proposed my getting of £100 to get him a protection for a ship to go out, which I think I shall do.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1665. Dined at home and thence to White Hall again (where I lose most of my time now-a-days to my great trouble, charge, and loss of time and benefit), and there, after the Council rose, Sir G. Carteret (age 55), my Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir Thomas Harvy (age 39), and myself, down to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber to him and the Chancellor (age 56), and the Duke of Albemarle (age 56); and there I did give them a large account of the charge of the Navy, and want of money. But strange to see how they held up their hands crying, "What shall we do?" Says my Lord Treasurer (age 58), "Why, what means all this, Mr. Pepys? This is true, you say; but what would you have me to do? I have given all I can for my life. Why will not people lend their money? Why will they not trust the King (age 34) as well as Oliver? Why do our prizes come to nothing, that yielded so much heretofore?" And this was all we could get, and went away without other answer, which is one of the saddest things that, at such a time as this, with the greatest action on foot that ever was in England, nothing should be minded, but let things go on of themselves do as well as they can.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1665. Thence to White Hall again, and there spent the afternoon, and then home to fetch a letter for the Council, and so back to White Hall, where walked an hour with Mr. Wren, of my Chancellor's (age 56), and Mr. Ager, and then to Unthanke's and called my wife, and with her through the city to Mile-End Greene [Map], and eat some creame and cakes and so back home, and I a little at the office, and so home to supper and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall [Map], to the King (age 34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the [his son-in-law] Duke of York (age 31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (age 34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (age 47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (age 56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (age 69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1665. And come home to dinner, and then to write a letter to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about the victualling-ships, and carried it myself to the Council-chamber, where it was read; and when they rose, my Chancellor (age 56) passing by stroked me on the head, and told me that the Board had read my letter, and taken order for the punishing of the watermen for not appearing on board the ships1. And so did the King (age 34) afterwards, who do now know me so well, that he never sees me but he speaks to me about our Navy business.

Note 1. Among the State Papers are lists of watermen impressed and put on board the victualling ships. Attached to one of these is a "note of their unfitness and refractory conduct; also that many go ashore to sleep, and are discontent that they, as masters of families, are pressed, while single men are excused on giving money to the pressmen" (Calendar, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 323).

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1665. Thence with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) in his coach to my Lord Treasurer (age 58), and there was before the King (age 34) (who ever now calls me by my name) and Chancellor (age 56), and many other great Lords, discoursing about insuring of some of the King's goods, wherein the King (age 34) accepted of my motion that we should; and so away, well pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1665. At noon with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to my Lord Mayor's to dinner, where much company in a little room, and though a good, yet no extraordinary table. His name, Sir John Lawrence, whose father, a very ordinary old man, sat there at table, but it seems a very rich man. Here were at table three Sir Richard Brownes (age 60), viz.: he of the Councill, a clerk, and the Alderman, and his son; and there was a little grandson also Richard, who will hereafter be Sir Richard Browne (age 60). The Alderman did here openly tell in boasting how he had, only upon suspicion of disturbances, if there had been any bad newes from sea, clapped up several persons that he was afeard of; and that he had several times done the like and would do, and take no bail where he saw it unsafe for the King (age 35). But by and by he said that he was now sued in the Exchequer by a man for false imprisonment, that he had, upon the same score, imprisoned while he was Mayor four years ago, and asked advice upon it. I told him I believed there was none, and told my story of Field, at which he was troubled, and said that it was then unsafe for any man to serve the King (age 35), and, I believed, knows not what to do therein; but that Sir Richard Browne (age 60), of the Councill, advised him to speak with my Chancellor (age 56) about it. My Lord Mayor very respectfull to me; and so I after dinner away and found Sir J. Minnes (age 66) ready with his coach and four horses at our office gate, for him and me to go out of towne to meet the Duke of Yorke (age 31) coming from Harwich [Map] to-night, and so as far as Ilford, and there 'light.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1665. Home to dinner and staid Mr. Hater with me, and after dinner drew up a petition for Mr. Hater to present to the Councill about his troublesome business of powder, desiring a trial that his absence may be vindicated, and so to White Hall, but it was not proper to present it to-day. Here I met with Mr. Cowling, who observed to me how he finds every body silent in the praise of my Lord Sandwich (age 39), to set up the Duke (age 31) and the Prince (age 45); but that the Duke (age 31) did both to the King (age 35) and my Chancellor (age 56) write abundantly of my Lord's courage and service1.

Note 1. Charles II's letter of thanks to Lord Sandwich (age 39), dated "Whitehall, June 9th, 1665", written entirely in the King's hand, is printed in Ellis's "Original Letters", 1st series, vol. iii., p. 327.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. Up and to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), who I find at Secretary Bennet's (age 47), there being now no other great Statesman, I think, but my Chancellor (age 56), in towne. I received several commands from them; among others, to provide some bread and cheese for the garrison at Guernsey [Map], which they promised to see me paid for.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. And so to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who is come this day from Chatham, Kent [Map], and mighty glad he is to see me, and begun to talk of our great business of the match, which goes on as fast as possible, but for convenience we took water and over to his coach to Lambeth, by which we went to Deptford, Kent [Map], all the way talking, first, how matters are quite concluded with all possible content between my Lord and him and signed and sealed, so that my Lady Sandwich (age 40) is to come thither to-morrow or next day, and the young lady is sent for, and all likely to be ended between them in a very little while, with mighty joy on both sides, and the King (age 35), Duke (age 31), Chancellor (age 56), and all mightily pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1665. There I met with Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and by and by was heard by my Chancellor (age 56) and Treasurer about our Tangier money, and my Lord Treasurer (age 58) had ordered me to forbear meddling with the £15,000 he offered me the other day, but, upon opening the case to them, they did offer it again, and so I think I shall have it, but my Lord General must give his consent in it, this money having been promised to him, and he very angry at the proposal. Here though I have not been in many years, yet I lacke time to stay, besides that it is, I perceive, an unpleasing thing to be at Court, everybody being fearful one of another, and all so sad, enquiring after the plague, so that I stole away by my horse to Kingston [Map], and there with trouble was forced, to press two sturdy rogues to carry me to London, and met at the waterside with Mr. Charnocke, Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 55) clerke, who had been in company and was quite foxed. I took him with me in my boat, and so away to Richmond, and there, by night, walked with him to Moreclacke, a very pretty walk, and there staid a good while, now and then talking and sporting with Nan the servant, who says she is a seaman's wife, and at last bade good night.

John Reresby's Diary 05 Aug 1665. 05 Aug 1665. [his son-in-law] His royal highness (age 31) and his [his daughter] duchess (age 28) came down to York, where they stayed till September the 23rd, when the Duke (age 31) went for Oxford, where the King (age 35) was to meet the Parliament. The Duchess (age 28) went not till some time after. Most of the gentry attended at York whilst their liighnesses were there. The Duke passed his time in shooting and other exercises, the Duchess (age 28) in receiving the ladies, which she did very obligingly. One evening having a little snake (which I kept in bran in a box) in my hand as I was in the presence, one of the maids of honour seeing of it was frightened. The Duchess (age 28), hearing the noise, and what was the occasion, desired to see the snake, and took it into her hand without any fear. This Duchess (age 28) was Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess (age 28) not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1665. At the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) I overheard some examinations of the late plot that is discoursed of and a great deale of do there is about it. Among other discourses, I heard read, in the presence of the Duke (age 31), an examination and discourse of Sir Philip Howard's (age 34), with one of the plotting party. In many places these words being, "Then", said Sir P. Howard (age 34), "if you so come over to the King (age 35), and be faithfull to him, you shall be maintained, and be set up with a horse and armes", and I know not what. And then said such a one, "Yes, I will be true to the King (age 35)". "But, damn me", said Sir Philip, "will you so and so?" And thus I believe twelve times Sir P. Howard answered him a "damn me", which was a fine way of rhetorique to persuade a Quaker or Anabaptist from his persuasion. And this was read in the hearing of Sir P. Howard (age 34), before the Duke (age 31) and twenty more officers, and they make sport of it, only without any reproach, or he being anything ashamed of it1! But it ended, I remember, at last, "But such a one (the plotter) did at last bid them remember that he had not told them what King he would be faithfull to".

Note 1. This republican plot was described by the Chancellor (age 56) in a speech delivered on October 9th, when parliament met at Oxford.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1665. After dinner, my Lord (age 45) and his mistress would see her home again, it being a most cursed rainy afternoon, having had none a great while before, and I, forced to go to the office on foot through all the rain, was almost wet to my skin, and spoiled my silke breeches almost. Rained all the afternoon and evening, so as my letters being done, I was forced to get a bed at Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find Sir W. Doyly (age 51), and he, and Evelyn (age 44) at supper; and I with them full of discourse of the neglect of our masters, the great officers of State, about all business, and especially that of money: having now some thousands prisoners, kept to no purpose at a great charge, and no money provided almost for the doing of it. We fell to talk largely of the want of some persons understanding to look after businesses, but all goes to rack. "For", says Captain Cocke (age 48), "my Lord Treasurer (age 58), he minds his ease, and lets things go how they will: if he can have his £8000 per annum, and a game at l'ombre, [Spanish card game] he is well. My Chancellor (age 56) he minds getting of money and nothing else; and my Lord Ashly (age 44) will rob the Devil and the Alter, but he will get money if it be to be got".

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1665. I abroad to the office and thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), all my way reading a book of Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) translating and sending me as a present, about directions for gathering a Library1 but the book is above my reach, but his epistle to my Chancellor (age 56) is a very fine piece.

Note 1. Instructions concerning erecting of a Library, presented to my Lord the President De Mesme by Gilbert Naudeus, and now interpreted by Jo. Evelyn, Esquire. London, 1661: This little book was dedicated to Lord Clarendon by the translator. It was printed while Evelyn was abroad, and is full of typographical errors; these are corrected in a copy mentioned in Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings", 1825, p. xii, where a letter to Dr. GoDolphin on the subject is printed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. To the Still Yarde [Map], which place, however, is now shut up of the plague; but I was there, and we now make no bones of it. Much talke there is of the Chancellor's (age 56) speech and the King's at the Parliament's meeting, which are very well liked; and that we shall certainly, by their speeches, fall out with France at this time, together with the Dutch, which will find us work. Late at the office entering my Journall for 8 days past, the greatness of my business hindering me of late to put it down daily, but I have done it now very true and particularly, and hereafter will, I hope, be able to fall into my old way of doing it daily.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. By and by comes down my Lord, and then he and I an houre together alone upon private discourse. He tells me that Mr. Coventry (age 37) and he are not reconciled, but declared enemies: the only occasion of it being, he tells me, his ill usage from him about the first fight, wherein he had no right done him, which, methinks, is a poor occasion, for, in my conscience, that was no design of Coventry's. But, however, when I asked my Lord whether it were not best, though with some condescension, to be friends with him, he told me it was not possible, and so I stopped. He tells me, as very private, that there are great factions at the Court between the King's party and the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and that the King (age 35), which is a strange difficulty, do favour my Lord in opposition to the Duke's party; that my Chancellor (age 56), being, to be sure, the patron of the Duke's, it is a mystery whence it should be that Mr. Coventry (age 37) is looked upon by him [Clarendon] as an enemy to him; that if he had a mind himself to be out of this employment, as Mr. Coventry (age 37), he believes, wishes, and himself and I do incline to wish it also, in many respects, yet he believes he shall not be able, because of the King (age 35), who will keepe him in on purpose, in opposition to the other party; that Prince Rupert (age 45) and he are all possible friends in the world; that Coventry (age 37) hath aggravated this business of the prizes, though never so great plundering in the world as while the Duke and he were at sea; and in Sir John Lawson's time he could take and pillage, and then sink a whole ship in the Streights, and Coventry (age 37) say nothing to it; that my Lord Arlington (age 47) is his fast friend; that the Chancellor (age 56) is cold to him, and though I told him that I and the world do take my Chancellor (age 56), in his speech the other day, to have said as much as could be wished, yet he thinks he did not.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. That my Chancellor (age 56) do from hence begin to be cold to him, because of his seeing him and Arlington (age 47) so great: that nothing at Court is minded but faction and pleasure, and nothing intended of general good to the Kingdom by anybody heartily; so that he believes with me, in a little time confusion will certainly come over all the nation. He told me how a design was carried on a while ago, for the Duke of Yorke (age 32) to raise an army in the North, and to be the Generall of it, and all this without the knowledge or advice of the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which when he come to know, he was so vexed, they were fain to let it fall to content him: that his matching with the family of Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do make the difference greater between Coventry (age 37) and him, they being enemies; that the Chancellor (age 56) did, as every body else, speak well of me the other day, but yet was, at the Committee for Tangier, angry that I should offer to suffer a bill of exchange to be protested.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. But, for all this, the King (age 35) is most firme to my Lord, and so is my Chancellor (age 56), and my Lord Arlington (age 47).

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. That this late Act of Parliament for bringing the money into the Exchequer, and making of it payable out there, intended as a prejudice to him and will be his convenience hereafter and ruine the King's business, and so I fear it will and do wonder Sir W. Coventry (age 37) would be led by Sir G. Downing (age 40) to persuade the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) to have it so, before they had thoroughly weighed all circumstances; that for my Lord, the King (age 35) has said to him lately that I was an excellent officer, and that my Chancellor (age 56) do, he thinks, love and esteem of me as well as he do of any man in England that he hath no more acquaintance with.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. After dinner a great deal alone with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who tells me that my Lord hath received still worse and worse usage from some base people about the Court. But the King (age 35) is very kind, and the Duke do not appear the contrary; and my Chancellor (age 56) swore to him "by--I will not forsake my Lord of Sandwich (age 40)". Our next discourse is upon this Act for money, about which Sir G. Carteret (age 55) comes to see what money can be got upon it. But none can be got, which pleases him the thoughts of, for, if the Exchequer should succeede in this, his office would faile. But I am apt to think at this time of hurry and plague and want of trade, no money will be got upon a new way which few understand. We walked, Cocke (age 48) and I, through the Parke with him, and so we being to meet the Vice-Chamberlayne to-morrow at Nonsuch [Map], to treat with Sir Robert Long (age 65) about the same business, I into London, it being dark night, by a hackney coach; the first I have durst to go in many a day, and with great pain now for fear. But it being unsafe to go by water in the dark and frosty cold, and unable being weary with my morning walke to go on foot, this was my only way. Few people yet in the streets, nor shops open, here and there twenty in a place almost; though not above five or sixe o'clock at night.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1666. Up betimes and by water to the Cockepitt [Map], there met Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and, after discourse with the Duke (age 32), all together, and there saw a letter wherein Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did take notice to the Duke with a commendation of my paper about Pursers, I to walke in the Parke with the Vice-Chamberlain, and received his advice about my deportment about the advancing the credit of the Act; giving me caution to see that we do not misguide the King (age 35) by making them believe greater matters from it than will be found. But I see that this arises from his great trouble to see the Act succeede, and to hear my name so much used and my letters shown at Court about goods served us in upon the credit of it. But I do make him believe that I do it with all respect to him and on his behalfe too, as indeed I do, as well as my owne, that it may not be said that he or I do not assist therein. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) do proceed on his journey with the greatest kindnesse that can be imagined from the King (age 35) and Chancellor (age 56), which was joyfull newes to me.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1666. After dinner Pierce and I up to my chamber, where he tells me how a great difference hath been between the Duke (age 32) and [his daughter] Duchesse (age 28), he suspecting her to be naught with Mr. Sidney (age 24)1. But some way or other the matter is made up; but he was banished the Court, and the Duke for many days did not speak to the Duchesse at all. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is lost there at Court, though the King (age 35) is particularly his friend. But people do speak every where slightly of him; which is a sad story to me, but I hope it may be better again. And that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is neglected, and hath great enemies at work against him. That matters must needs go bad, while all the town, and every boy in the streete, openly cries, "the King (age 35) cannot go away till my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) be ready to come along with him"; she being lately put to bed And that he visits her and Mrs. Stewart (age 18) every morning before he eats his breakfast. All this put together makes me very sad, but yet I hope I shall do pretty well among them for all this, by my not meddling with either of their matters. He and Ferrers gone I paid uncle Thomas his last quarter's money, and then comes Mr. Gawden and he and I talked above stairs together a good while about his business, and to my great joy got him to declare that of the £500 he did give me the other day, none of it was for my Treasurershipp for Tangier (I first telling him how matters stand between Povy (age 52) and I, that he was to have half of whatever was coming to me by that office), and that he will gratify me at 2 per cent. for that when he next receives any money. So there is £80 due to me more than I thought of. He gone I with a glad heart to the office to write, my letters and so home to supper and bed, my wife mighty full of her worke she hath to do in furnishing her bedchamber.

Note 1. "This Duchess (age 28) was Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported" (Sir John Reresby's Memoirs, August 5th, 1664, ed. Cartwright, pp. 64,65). "'How could the Duke of York (age 32) make my mother a Papist?' said the Princess Mary to Dr. Bumet. 'The Duke caught a man in bed with her,' said the Doctor, 'and then had power to make her do anything.' The Prince, who sat by the fire, said, 'Pray, madam, ask the Doctor a few more questions'" (Spence's "Anecdotes", ed. Singer, 329).

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1666. By and by to the 'Change [Map], and there did several businesses, among others brought home my cozen Pepys, whom I appointed to be here to-day, and Mr. Moore met us upon the business of my Lord's bond. Seeing my neighbour Mr. Knightly walk alone from the 'Change [Map], his family being not yet come to town, I did invite him home with me, and he dined with me, a very sober, pretty man he is. He is mighty solicitous, as I find many about the City that live near the churchyards, to have the churchyards covered with lime, and I think it is needfull, and ours I hope will be done. Good pleasant discourse at dinner of the practices of merchants to cheate the "Customers", occasioned by Mr. Moore's being with much trouble freed of his prize goods, which he bought, which fell into the Customers' hands, and with much ado hath cleared them. Mr. Knightly being gone, my cozen Pepys and Moore and I to our business, being the clearing of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) bond wherein I am bound with him to my cozen for £1000 I have at last by my dexterity got my Lord's consent to have it paid out of the money raised by his prizes. So the bond is cancelled, and he paid by having a note upon Sir Robert Viner (age 35), in whose hands I had lodged my Lord's money, by which I am to my extraordinary comfort eased of a liablenesse to pay the sum in case of my Lord's death, or troubles in estate, or my Lord's greater fall, which God defend! Having settled this matter at Sir R. Viner's (age 35), I took up Mr. Moore (my cozen going home) and to my Chancellor's (age 56) new house which he is building, only to view it, hearing so much from Mr. Evelyn (age 45) of it; and, indeed, it is the finest pile I ever did see in my life, and will be a glorious house.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1666. Up, and very busy to perform an oathe in finishing my Journall this morning for 7 or 8 days past. Then to several people attending upon business, among others Mr. Grant (age 45) and the executors of Barlow for the £25 due for the quarter before he died, which I scrupled to pay, being obliged but to pay every half year. Then comes Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute-master, whom I have not seen since the plague before, but he hath been in Westminster all this while very well; and tells me in the height of it, how bold people there were, to go in sport to one another's burials; and in spite too, ill people would breathe in the faces (out of their windows) of well people going by. Then to dinner before the 'Change [Map], and so to the 'Change [Map], and then to the taverne to talk with Sir William Warren, and so by coach to several places, among others to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there to meet my Lord Sandwich (age 40), but missed, and met him at [my] Chancellor's (age 56), and there talked with him about his accounts, and then about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and I find by him that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) has a worse game to play than my Lord Sandwich (age 40), for people are jeering at him, and he cries out of the business of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who strikes at all and do all.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. Having done in private with my Lord I brought Mr. Hill (age 36) to kisse his hands, to whom my Lord professed great respect upon my score. My Lord being gone, I took Mr. Hill (age 36) to my Chancellor's (age 56) new house that is building, and went with trouble up to the top of it, and there is there the noblest prospect that ever I saw in my life, Greenwich, Kent [Map] being nothing to it; and in every thing is a beautiful house, and most strongly built in every respect; and as if, as it hath, it had the Chancellor (age 56) for its master.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. Thence hoping to find my Lord Sandwich (age 40), away by coach to my Chancellor's (age 57), but missed him, and so home and to office, and then to supper and my Journall, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. He tells me my Lord of Suffolke (age 47), Lord Arlington (age 48), Archbishop of Canterbury (age 67), Lord Treasurer (age 58), Mr. Atturny Montagu (age 48), Sir Thomas Clifford (age 35) in the House of Commons, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and some others I cannot presently remember, are friends that I may rely on for him. He tells me my Chancellor (age 57) seems his very good friend, but doubts that he may not think him so much a servant of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) as he would have him, and indeed my Lord tells me he hath lately made it his business to be seen studious of the King's favour, and not of the Duke's, and by the King (age 35) will stand or fall, for factions there are, as he tells me, and God knows how high they may come.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. The Duke of Albemarle's (age 57) post is so great, having had the name of bringing in the King (age 35), that he is like to stand, or, if it were not for him, God knows in what troubles we might be from some private faction, if an army could be got into another hand, which God forbid! It is believed that though Mr. Coventry (age 38) be in appearance so great against the Chancellor (age 57), yet that there is a good understanding between the Duke and him. He dreads the issue of this year, and fears there will be some very great revolutions before his coming back again. He doubts it is needful for him to have a pardon for his last year's actions, all which he did without commission, and at most but the King's private single word for that of Bergen; but he dares not ask it at this time, lest it should make them think that there is something more in it than yet they know; and if it should be denied, it would be of very ill consequence. He says also, if it should in Parliament be enquired into the selling of Dunkirke (though the Chancellor (age 57) was the man that would have it sold to France, saying the King of Spayne had no money to give for it); yet he will be found to have been the greatest adviser of it; which he is a little apprehensive may be called upon this Parliament. He told me it would not be necessary for him to tell me his debts, because he thinks I know them so well. He tells me, that for the match propounded of Mrs. Mallett (age 15) for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), it hath been lately off, and now her friends bring it on again, and an overture hath been made to him by a servant of hers, to compass the thing without consent of friends, she herself having a respect to my Lord's family, but my Lord will not listen to it but in a way of honour. The Duke hath for this weeke or two been very kind to him, more than lately; and so others, which he thinks is a good sign of faire weather again. He says the Archbishopp of Canterbury (age 67) hath been very kind to him, and hath plainly said to him that he and all the world knows the difference between his judgment and brains and the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57), and then calls my Lady Duchesse (age 46) the veryst slut and drudge and the foulest worde that can be spoke of a woman almost.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1666. After dinner my uncle and I abroad by coach to White Hall, up and down the house, and I did some business and thence with him and a gentleman he met with to my Chancellor's (age 57) new house, and there viewed it again and again and up to the top and I like it as well as ever and think it a most noble house.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1666. Thence took them to the cakehouse, and there called in the coach for cakes and drank, and thence I carried them to my Chancellor's (age 57) new house to shew them that, and all mightily pleased, thence set each down at home, and so I home to the office, where about ten of the clock W. Hewer (age 24) comes to me to tell me that he has left my wife well this morning at Bugden, which was great riding, and brings me a letter from her. She is very well got thither, of which I am heartily glad.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jun 1666. So home and met Sir George Smith by the way, who tells me that this day my Chancellor (age 57) and some of the Court have been with the City, and the City have voted to lend the King (age 36) £100,000; which, if soon paid (as he says he believes it will), will be a greater service than I did ever expect at this time from the City.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1666. Thence with my wife and Mercer to my Chancellor's (age 57) new house, and there carried them up to the leads, where I find my Lord Camberlain, Lauderdale, Sir Robert Murray (age 58), and others, and do find it the most delightfull place for prospect that ever was in the world, and even ravishing me, and that is all, in short, I can say of it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1666. After dinner to the office, and anon with my wife and sister abroad, left them in Paternoster Row [Map], while Creed, who was with me at the office, and I to Westminster; and leaving him in the Strand, I to my Chancellor's (age 57), and did very little business, and so away home by water, with more and more pleasure, I every time reading over my Lord Bacon's "Faber Fortunae".

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. But, however, I was in pain, after we come out, to know how I had done; and hear well enough. But, however, it shall be a caution to me to prepare myself against a day of inquisition. Being come out, I met with Mr. Moore, and he and I an houre together in the Gallery, telling me how far they are gone in getting my Lord [Sandwich's] pardon, so as the Chancellor (age 57) is prepared in it; and Sir H. Bennet (age 48) do promote it, and the warrant for the King's signing is drawn. The business between my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) and Mrs. Mallett (age 15) is quite broke off; he attending her at Tunbridge [Map], and she declaring her affections to be settled; and he not being fully pleased with the vanity and liberty of her carriage. He told me how my Lord has drawn a bill of exchange from Spayne of £1200, and would have me supply him with £500 of it, but I avoyded it, being not willing to embarke myself in money there, where I see things going to ruine.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. After dinner we parted, and I to my office, whither I sent for Mr. Lewes and instructed myself fully in the business of the Victualling, to enable me to answer in the matter; and then Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I by coach to White Hall, and there staid till the King (age 36) and Cabinet were met in the Green Chamber, and then we were called in; and there the King (age 36) begun with me, to hear how the victualls of the fleete stood. I did in a long discourse tell him and the rest (the Duke of Yorke (age 32), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), both the Secretarys, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and Sir W. Coventry (age 38),) how it stood, wherein they seemed satisfied, but press mightily for more supplies; and the letter of the Generalls, which was read, did lay their not going or too soon returning from the Dutch coast, this next bout, to the want of victuals. They then proceeded to the enquiry after the fireships; and did all very superficially, and without any severity at all.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. Thence to discourse of the times; and he tells me he believes both my Lord Arlington (age 48) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), as well as my Lord Sandwich (age 41) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56), have reason to fear, and are afeard of this Parliament now coming on. He tells me that Bristoll's (age 53) faction is getting ground apace against my Chancellor (age 57). He told me that my old Lord Coventry was a cunning, crafty man, and did make as many bad decrees in Chancery as any man; and that in one case, that occasioned many years' dispute, at last when the King (age 36) come in, it was hoped by the party grieved, to get my Chancellor (age 57) to reverse a decree of his. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) took the opportunity of the business between the Duke of Yorke (age 32) and the [his daughter] Duchesse (age 29), and said to my Chancellor (age 57), that he had rather be drawn up Holborne to be hanged, than live to see his father pissed upon (in these very terms) and any decree of his reversed. And so the Chancellor (age 57) did not think fit to do it, but it still stands, to the undoing of one Norton, a printer, about his right to the printing of the Bible, and Grammar, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1666. So I away from him, and met with the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), and I told him when I had this evening in coming hither met with Captain Cocke (age 49), and he told me of a wild motion made in the House of Lords by the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) for all men that had cheated the King (age 36) to be declared traitors and felons, and that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) was named. This put me into a great pain, so the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), who had heard nothing of it, having been all day in the City, away with me to White Hall; and there come to me and told me that, upon Lord Ashly's (age 45) asking their direction whether, being a peere, he should bring in his accounts to the Commons, which they did give way to, the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) did move that, for the time to come, what I have written above might be declared by some fuller law than heretofore. Lord Ashly (age 45) answered, that it was not the fault of the present laws, but want of proof; and so said the Chancellor (age 57). He answered, that a better law, he thought, might be made so the House laughing, did refer it to him to bring in a Bill to that purpose, and this was all.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and after visiting my father in his chamber, to church, and then home to dinner. Little Michell and his wife come to dine with us, which they did, and then presently after dinner I with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) to White Hall, where met by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Lord Bruncker (age 46), to attend the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) at the Cabinet; but nobody had determined what to speak of, but only in general to ask for money. So I was forced immediately to prepare in my mind a method of discoursing. And anon we were called in to the Green Room, where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 32), Prince Rupert (age 46), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), Duke of Albemarle (age 57), [Sirs] G. Carteret (age 56), W. Coventry (age 38), Morrice (age 63). Nobody beginning, I did, and made a current, and I thought a good speech, laying open the ill state of the Navy: by the greatness of the debt; greatness of work to do against next yeare; the time and materials it would take; and our incapacity, through a total want of money. I had no sooner done, but Prince Rupert (age 46) rose up and told the King (age 36) in a heat, that whatever the gentleman had said, he had brought home his fleete in as good a condition as ever any fleete was brought home; that twenty boats would be as many as the fleete would want: and all the anchors and cables left in the storm might be taken up again. This arose from my saying, among other things we had to do, that the fleete was come in-the greatest fleete that ever his Majesty had yet together, and that in as bad condition as the enemy or weather could put it; and to use Sir W. Pen's (age 45) words, who is upon the place taking a survey, he dreads the reports he is to receive from the Surveyors of its defects. I therefore did only answer, that I was sorry for his Highness's offence, but that what I said was but the report we received from those entrusted in the fleete to inform us. He muttered and repeated what he had said; and so, after a long silence on all hands, nobody, not so much as the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), seconding the Prince, nor taking notice of what he said, we withdrew. I was not a little troubled at this passage, and the more when speaking with Jacke Fenn about it, he told me that the Prince (age 46) will be asking now who this Pepys is, and find him to be a creature of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41), and therefore this was done only to disparage him.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1666. He being ready, he and my Chancellor (age 57), and Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and Prince Rupert (age 46), Lord Bellasses (age 52), Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), Povy (age 52), and myself, met at a Committee for Tangier. My Lord Bellasses's (age 52) propositions were read and discoursed of, about reducing the garrison to less charge; and indeed I am mad in love with my Chancellor (age 57), for he do comprehend and speak out well, and with the greatest easinesse and authority that ever I saw man in my life. I did never observe how much easier a man do speak when he knows all the company to be below him, than in him; for though he spoke, indeed, excellent welt, yet his manner and freedom of doing it, as if he played with it, and was informing only all the rest of the company, was mighty pretty. He did call again and again upon Mr. Povy (age 52) for his accounts. I did think fit to make the solemn tender of my accounts that I intended. I said something that was liked, touching the want of money, and the bad credit of our tallys. My Chancellor (age 57) moved, that without any trouble to any of the rest of the Lords, I might alone attend the King (age 36), when he was with his private Council; and open the state of the garrison's want of credit; and all that could be done, should. Most things moved were referred to Committees, and so we broke up. And at the end Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come; so I away with him, and he discoursed with me something of the Parliament's business. They have voted giving the [King] for next year £1,800,000; which, were it not for his debts, were a great sum. He says, he thinks the House may say no more to us for the present, but that we must mend our manners against the next tryall, and mend them we will. But he thinks it not a fit time to be found making of trouble among ourselves, meaning about Sir J. Minnes (age 67), who most certainly must be removed, or made a Commissioner, and somebody else Comptroller. But he tells me that the House has a great envy at Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and that had he ever thought fit in all his discourse to have touched upon the point of our want of money and badness of payment, it would have been laid hold on to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) hurt; but he hath avoided it, though without much reason for it, most studiously, and in short did end thus, that he has never shewn so much of the pigeon in all his life as in his innocence to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) at this time; which I believe, and will desire Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to thank him for it.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1666. He told me other good things, which made me bless God that we have received no greater disasters this year than we have, though they have been the greatest that ever was known in England before, put all their losses of the King's ships by want of skill and seamanship together from the beginning. He being gone, comes Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and he and I walked together awhile, discoursing upon the sad condition of the times, what need we have, and how impossible it is to get money. He told me my Chancellor (age 57) the other day did ask him how it come to pass that his friend Pepys do so much magnify all things to worst, as I did on Sunday last, in the bad condition of the fleete. Sir G. Carteret (age 56) tells me that he answered him, that I was but the mouth of the rest, and spoke what they have dictated to me; which did, as he says, presently take off his displeasure. So that I am well at present with him, but I must have a care not to be over busy in the office again, and burn my fingers.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and with my wife to church, and her new woman Barker with her the first time. The girle will, I think, do very well. Here a lazy sermon, and so home to dinner, and took in my Lady Pen (age 42) and Peg (age 15) (Sir William being below with the fleete), and mighty merry we were, and then after dinner presently (it being a mighty cool day) I by coach to White Hall, and there attended the Cabinet, and was called in before the King (age 36) and them to give an account of our want of money for Tangier, which troubles me that it should be my place so often and so soon after one another to come to speak there of their wants-the thing of the world that they love least to hear of, and that which is no welcome thing to be the solicitor for-and to see how like an image the King (age 36) sat and could not speak one word when I had delivered myself was very strange; only my Chancellor (age 57) did ask me, whether I thought it was in nature at this time to help us to anything. So I was referred to another meeting of the Lords Commissioners for Tangier and my Lord Treasurer (age 59), and so went away, and by coach home, where I spent the evening in reading Stillingfleet's (age 31) defence of the Archbishopp, the part about Purgatory, a point I had never considered before, what was said for it or against it, and though I do believe we are in the right, yet I do not see any great matter in this book.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1666. Thence to talk about publique business; he tells me how the two Houses begin to be troublesome; the Lords to have quarrels one with another. My Lord Duke of Buckingham (age 38) having said to the Chancellor (age 57) (who is against the passing of the Bill for prohibiting the bringing over of Irish cattle), that whoever was against the Bill, was there led to it by an Irish interest, or an Irish understanding, which is as much as to say he is a Poole; this bred heat from my Chancellor (age 57), and something he [Buckingham] said did offend my Lord of Ossory (age 32) my (Lord Duke of Ormond's (age 56) son), and they two had hard words, upon which the latter sends a challenge to the former; of which the former complains to the House, and so the business is to be heard on Monday next. Then as to the Commons; some ugly knives, like poignards, to stab people with, about two or three hundred of them were brought in yesterday to the House, found in one of the house's rubbish that was burned, and said to be the house of a Catholique. This and several letters out of the country, saying how high the Catholiques are everywhere and bold in the owning their religion, have made the Commons mad, and they presently voted that the King (age 36) be desired to put all Catholiques out of employment, and other high things; while the business of money hangs in the hedge. So that upon the whole, God knows we are in a sad condition like to be, there being the very beginnings of the late troubles.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1666. After dinner I carried and set my wife down at her brother's, and then to Barkeshire-house, where my Chancellor (age 57) hath been ever since the fire, but he is not come home yet, so I to Westminster Hall [Map], where the Lords newly up and the Commons still sitting. Here I met with Mr. Robinson, who did give me a printed paper wherein he states his pretence to the post office, and intends to petition the Parliament in it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1666. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 57), and there Mr. Creed and Gawden, Cholmley (age 34), and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) walking in the Park over against the house. I walked with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who I find displeased with the letter I have drawn and sent in yesterday, finding fault with the account we give of the ill state of the Navy, but I said little, only will justify the truth of it.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1666. After church home, where I met Mr. Gregory, who I did then agree with to come to teach my wife to play on the Viall, and he being an able and sober man, I am mightily glad of it. He had dined, therefore went away, and I to dinner, and after dinner by coach to Barkeshire-house, and there did get a very great meeting; the Duke of York (age 33) being there, and much business done, though not in proportion to the greatness of the business, and my Chancellor (age 57) sleeping and snoring the greater part of the time. Among other things I declared the state of our credit as to tallys to raise money by, and there was an order for payment of £5000 to Mr. Gawden, out of which I hope to get something against Christmas.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1666. Up, and at my office all the morning, and several people with me, Sir W. Warren, who I do every day more and more admire for a miracle of cunning and forecast in his business, and then Captain Cocke (age 49), with whom I walked in the garden, and he tells me how angry the Court is at the late Proviso brought in by the House. How still my Chancellor (age 57) is, not daring to do or say any thing to displease the Parliament; that the Parliament is in a very ill humour, and grows every day more and more so; and that the unskilfulness of the Court, and their difference among one another, is the occasion of all not agreeing in what they would have, and so they give leisure and occasion to the other part to run away with what the Court would not have. Then comes Mr. Gawden, and he and I in my chamber discoursing about his business, and to pay him some Tangier orders which he delayed to receive till I had money instead of tallies, but do promise me consideration for my victualling business for this year, and also as Treasurer for Tangier, which I am glad of, but would have been gladder to have just now received it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1666. Left them, and in the dark and cold home by water, and so to supper and to read and so to bed, my eyes being better to-day, and I cannot impute it to anything but by my being much in the dark to-night, for I plainly find that it is only excess of light that makes my eyes sore. This after noon I walked with Lord Bruncker (age 46) into the Park and there talked of the times, and he do think that the King (age 36) sees that he cannot never have much more money or good from this Parliament, and that therefore he may hereafter dissolve them, that as soon as he has the money settled he believes a peace will be clapped up, and that there are overtures of a peace, which if such as the Chancellor (age 57) can excuse he will take. For it is the Chancellor's (age 57) interest, he says, to bring peace again, for in peace he can do all and command all, but in war he cannot, because he understands not the nature of the war as to the management thereof. He tells me he do not believe the Duke of York (age 33) will go to sea again, though there are a great many about the King (age 36) that would be glad of any occasion to take him out of the world, he standing in their ways; and seemed to mean the Duke of Monmouth (age 17), who spends his time the most viciously and idly of any man, nor will be fit for any thing; yet bespeaks as if it were not impossible but the King (age 36) would own him for his son, and that there was a marriage between his mother and him; which God forbid should be if it be not true, nor will the Duke of York (age 33) easily be gulled in it. But this put to our other distractions makes things appear very sad, and likely to be the occasion of much confusion in a little time, and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) seems to say that nothing can help us but the King's making a peace soon as he hath this money; and thereby putting himself out of debt, and so becoming a good husband, and then he will neither need this nor any other Parliament, till he can have one to his mind: for no Parliament can, as he says, be kept long good, but they will spoil one another, and that therefore it hath been the practice of kings to tell Parliaments what he hath for them to do, and give them so long time to do it in, and no longer. Harry Kembe, one of our messengers, is lately dead.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1667. After dinner I with my brother away by water to White Hall, and there walked in the Parke, and a little to my Chancellor's (age 57), where the King (age 36) and Cabinet met, and there met Mr. Brisband, with whom good discourse, to White Hall towards night, and there he did lend me "The Third Advice to a Paynter", a bitter satyre upon the service of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) the last year. I took it home with me, and will copy it, having the former, being also mightily pleased with it. So after reading it, I to Sir W. Pen (age 45) to discourse a little with him about the business of our prizes, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1667. So a little troubled at this fray, I away by coach with my wife, and left her at the New Exchange, and I to my Chancellor's (age 57), and then back, taking up my wife to my Lord Bellasses (age 52), and there spoke with Mr. Moone, who tells me that the peace between us and Spayne is, as he hears, concluded on, which I should be glad of, and so home, and after a little at my office, home to finish my journall for yesterday and to-day, and then a little supper and to bed. This day the House hath passed the Bill for the Assessment, which I am glad of; and also our little Bill, for giving any one of us in the office the power of justice of peace, is done as I would have it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1667. But going, after the business of money was over, to other businesses, of settling the garrison, he did fling out, and so did the Duke of York (age 33), two or three severe words touching my Lord Bellasses (age 52): that he would have no Governor come away from thence in less than three years; no, though his lady were with child. "And", says the Duke of York (age 33), "there should be no Governor continue so, longer than three years". "Nor", says Lord Arlington (age 49), "when our rules are once set, and upon good judgment declared, no Governor should offer to alter them".-"We must correct the many things that are amiss there; for", says the Chancellor (age 57), "you must think we do hear of more things amisse than we are willing to speak before our friends' faces". My Lord Bellasses (age 52) would not take notice of their reflecting on him, and did wisely, but there were also many reflections on him.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1667. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner by coach to my Chancellor's (age 57), and there a meeting: the Duke of York (age 33), Duke of Albemarle (age 58), and several other Lords of the Commission of Tangier. And there I did present a state of my accounts, and managed them well; and my Chancellor (age 57) did say, though he was, in other things, in an ill humour, that no man in England was of more method, nor made himself better understood than myself.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. So parted, and I by water home and to dinner, W. Hewer (age 25) with us, a good dinner and-very merry, my wife and I, and after dinner to my chamber, to fit some things against: the Council anon, and that being done away to White Hall by water, and thence to my Chancellor's (age 57), where I met with, and had much pretty discourse with, one of the Progers's that knows me; and it was pretty to hear him tell me, of his own accord, as a matter of no shame, that in Spayne he had a pretty woman, his mistress, whom, when money grew scarce with him, he was forced to leave, and afterwards heard how she and her husband lived well, she being kept by an old fryer who used her as his whore; but this, says he, is better than as our ministers do, who have wives that lay up their estates, and do no good nor relieve any poor-no, not our greatest prelates, and I think he is in the right for my part.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1667. By and by, come to my Chancellor (age 58), who heard mighty quietly my complaints for lack of money, and spoke mighty kind to me, but little hopes of help therein, only his good word. He do prettily cry upon Povy's (age 53) account with sometimes seeming friendship and pity, and this day quite the contrary. He do confess our streights here and every where else arise from our outspending our revenue. I mean that the King (age 36) do do so.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1667. Thence with my tallies home, and a little dinner, and then with my wife by coach to Lincoln's Inn Fields, sent her to her brother's (age 27), and I with Lord Bellasses (age 52) to the Chancellor's (age 58). Lord Bellasses (age 52) tells me how the King of France (age 28) hath caused the stop to be made to our proposition of treating in The Hague; that he being greater than they, we may better come and treat at Paris: so that God knows what will become of the peace!

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1667. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 58), and there, meeting Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), he and I walked in my Lord's garden, and talked; among other things, of the treaty: and he says there will certainly be a peace, but I cannot believe it. He tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) his crimes, as far as he knows, are his being of a caball with some discontented persons of the late House of Commons, and opposing the desires of the King (age 36) in all his matters in that House; and endeavouring to become popular, and advising how the Commons' House should proceed, and how he would order the House of Lords. And that he hath been endeavouring to have the King's nativity calculated; which was done, and the fellow now in the Tower about it; which itself hath heretofore, as he says, been held treason, and people died for it; but by the Statute of Treasons, in Queen Mary's times and since, it hath been left out. He tells me that this silly Lord hath provoked, by his ill-carriage, the Duke of York (age 33), my Chancellor (age 58), and all the great persons; and therefore, most likely, will die. He tells me, too, many practices of treachery against this King; as betraying him in Scotland, and giving Oliver an account of the King's private councils; which the King (age 36) knows very well, and hath yet pardoned him1.

Note 1. Two of our greatest poets have drawn the character of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) in brilliant verse, and both have condemned him to infamy. There is enough in Pepys's reports to corroborate the main features of Dryden's (age 35) magnificent portrait of Zimri in "Absolom and Achitophel". "In the first rank of these did Zimri stand; A man so various that he seemed to be Not one, but all mankind's epitome; Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong; Was everything by starts, and nothing long, But, in the course of one revolving moon, Was chymist, fiddler, statesman, and buffoon; Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking, Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking, * * * * * * * He laughed himself from Court, then sought relief By forming parties, but could ne'er be chief". Pope's facts are not correct, and hence the effect of his picture is impaired. In spite of the duke's constant visits to the Tower, Charles II still continued his friend; but on the death of the King (age 36), expecting little from James, he retired to his estate at Helmsley, in Yorkshire, to nurse his property and to restore his constitution. He died on April 16th, 1687, at Kirkby Moorside, after a few days' illness, caused by sitting on the damp grass when heated from a fox chase. The scene of his death was the house of a tenant, not "the worst inn's worst room" ("Moral Essays", epist. iii.). He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) in his coach, set him down at the Treasurer's Office in Broad-streete, and I in his coach to White Hall, and there had the good fortune to walk with Sir W. Coventry (age 39) into the garden, and there read our melancholy letter to the Duke of York (age 33), which he likes. And so to talk: and he flatly owns that we must have a peace, for we cannot set out a fleete; and, to use his own words, he fears that we shall soon have enough of fighting in this new way, which we have thought on for this year. He bemoans the want of money, and discovers himself jealous that Sir G. Carteret (age 57) do not look after, or concern himself for getting, money as he used to do, and did say it is true if Sir G. Carteret (age 57) would only do his work, and my Lord Treasurer (age 60) would do his own, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) hath nothing to do to look after money, but if he will undertake my Lord Treasurer's (age 60) work to raise money of the Bankers, then people must expect that he will do it, and did further say, that he [Carteret] and my Chancellor (age 58) do at this very day labour all they can to villify this new way of raising money, and making it payable, as it now is, into the Exchequer; and expressly said that in pursuance hereof, my Chancellor (age 58) hath prevailed with the King (age 36), in the close of his last speech to the House, to say, that he did hope to see them come to give money as it used to be given, without so many provisos, meaning, as Sir W. Coventry (age 39) says, this new method of the Act.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Apr 1667. By and by up to the Duke of York (age 33), where our usual business, and among other things I read two most dismal letters of the straits we are in (from Collonell Middleton and Commissioner Taylor) that ever were writ in the world, so as the Duke of York (age 33) would have them to shew the King (age 36), and to every demand of money, whereof we proposed many and very pressing ones, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) could make no answer but no money, which I confess made me almost ready to cry for sorrow and vexation, but that which was the most considerable was when Sir G. Carteret (age 57) did say that he had no funds to raise money on; and being asked by Sir W. Coventry (age 39) whether the eleven months' tax was not a fund, and he answered, "No, that the bankers would not lend money upon it". Then Sir W. Coventry (age 39) burst out and said he did supplicate his Royal Highness, and would do the same to the King (age 36), that he would remember who they were that did persuade the King (age 36) from parting with the Chimney-money to the Parliament, and taking that in lieu which they would certainly have given, and which would have raised infallibly ready money; meaning the bankers and the farmers of the Chimney-money, whereof Sir, G. Carteret, I think, is one; saying plainly, that whoever did advise the King (age 36) to that, did, as much as in them lay, cut the King's throat, and did wholly betray him; to which the Duke of York (age 33) did assent; and remembered that the King (age 36) did say again and again at the time, that he was assured, and did fully believe, the money would be raised presently upon a land-tax. This put as all into a stound; and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) went on to declare, that he was glad he was come to have so lately concern in the Navy as he hath, for he cannot now give any good account of the Navy business; and that all his work now was to be able to provide such orders as would justify his Royal Highness in the business, when it shall be called to account; and that he do do, not concerning himself whether they are or can be performed, or no; and that when it comes to be examined, and falls on my Lord Treasurer (age 60), he cannot help it, whatever the issue of it shall be. Hereupon Sir W. Batten (age 66) did pray him to keep also by him all our letters that come from the office that may justify us, which he says he do do, and, God knows, it is an ill sign when we are once to come to study how to excuse ourselves. It is a sad consideration, and therewith we broke up, all in a sad posture, the most that ever I saw in my life. One thing more Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did say to the Duke of York (age 33), when I moved again, that of about £9000 debt to Lanyon, at Plymouth, Devon [Map], he might pay £3700 worth of prize-goods, that he bought lately at the candle, out of this debt due to him from the King (age 36); and the Duke of York (age 33), and Sir G: Carteret, and Lord Barkeley (age 65), saying, all of them, that my Lord Ashly (age 45) would not be got to yield to it, who is Treasurer of the Prizes, Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did plainly desire that it might be declared whether the proceeds of the prizes were to go to the helping on of the war, or no; and, if it were, how then could this be denied? which put them all into another stound; and it is true, God forgive us! Thence to the chappell, and there, by chance, hear that Dr. Crew (age 34) is to preach; and so into the organ-loft, where I met Mr. Carteret, and my Lady Jemimah, and Sir Thomas Crew's (age 43) two daughters, and Dr. Childe (age 61) played; and Dr. Crew (age 34) did make a very pretty, neat, sober, honest sermon; and delivered it very readily, decently, and gravely, beyond his years: so as I was exceedingly taken with it, and I believe the whole chappell, he being but young; but his manner of his delivery I do like exceedingly. His text was, "But seeke ye first the Kingdom of God, and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you". Thence with my Lady to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) lodgings, and so up into the house, and there do hear that the Dutch letters are come, and say that the Dutch have ordered a passe to be sent for our Commissioners, and that it is now upon the way, coming with a trumpeter blinded, as is usual. But I perceive every body begins to doubt the success of the treaty, all their hopes being only that if it can be had on any terms, the Chancellor (age 58) will have it; for he dare not come before a Parliament, nor a great many more of the courtiers, and the King (age 36) himself do declare he do not desire it, nor intend it but on a strait; which God defend him from! Here I hear how the King (age 36) is not so well pleased of this marriage between the Duke of Richmond and Mrs. Stewart (age 19), as is talked; and that he [the Duke] by a wile did fetch her to the Beare [Map], at the bridge foot, where a coach was ready, and they are stole away into Kent, without the King's leave; and that the King (age 36) hath said he will never see her more; but people do think that it is only a trick. This day I saw Prince Rupert (age 47) abroad in the Vane-room, pretty well as he used to be, and looks as well, only something appears to be under his periwigg on the crown of his head.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1667. So to the 'Change [Map], and there met with Mr. James Houblon, but no hopes, as he sees, of peace whatever we pretend, but we shall be abused by the King of France (age 28). Then home to the office, and busy late, and then to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where Mr. Young was talking about the building of the City again; and he told me that those few churches that are to be new built are plainly not chosen with regard to the convenience of the City; they stand a great many in a cluster about Cornhill [Map]; but that all of them are either in the gift of the Lord Archbishop, or Bishop of London, or Chancellor (age 58), or gift of the City. Thus all things, even to the building of churches, are done in this world! And then he says, which I wonder at, that I should not in all this time see, that Moorefields [Map] have houses two stories high in them, and paved streets, the City having let leases for seven years, which he do conclude will be very much to the hindering the building of the City; but it was considered that the streets cannot be passable in London till a whole street be built; and several that had got ground of the City for charity, to build sheds on, had got the trick presently to sell that for £60, which did not cost them £20 to put up; and so the City, being very poor in stock, thought it as good to do it themselves, and therefore let leases for seven years of the ground in Moorefields [Map]; and a good deal of this money, thus advanced, hath been employed for the enabling them to find some money for Commissioner Taylor, and Sir W. Batten (age 66), towards the charge of "The Loyall London", or else, it is feared, it had never been paid. And Taylor having a bill to pay wherein Alderman Hooker (age 55) was concerned it was his invention to find out this way of raising money, or else this had not been thought on.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1667. We broke up; and I soon after to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) chamber, where I find the poor man telling his lady (age 65) privately, and she weeping. I went into them, and did seem, as indeed I was, troubled for this; and did give the best advice I could, which, I think, did please them: and they do apprehend me their friend, as indeed I am, for I do take the Vice-chamberlain for a most honest man. He did assure me that he was not, all expences and things paid, clear in estate £15,000 better than he was when the King (age 36) come in; and that the King (age 36) and Chancellor (age 58) did know that he was worth, with the debt the King (age 36) owed him, £50,000, I think, he said, when the King (age 36) come into England.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1667. Thence I over the Park to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and after him by coach to the Chancellor's (age 58) house, the first time I have been therein; and it is very noble, and brave pictures of the ancient and present nobility, never saw better.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. By the way, he tells me, that of all the great men of England there is none that endeavours more to raise those that he takes into favour than my Lord Arlington (age 49); and that, on that score, he is much more to be made one's patron than my Chancellor (age 58), who never did, nor never will do, any thing, but for money! After having this long discourse we parted, about one of the clock, and so away by water home, calling upon Michell, whose wife and girle are pretty well, and I home to dinner, and after dinner with Sir W. Batten (age 66) to White Hall, there to attend the Duke of York (age 33) before council, where we all met at his closet and did the little business we had, and here he did tell us how the King of France (age 28) is intent upon his design against Flanders, and hath drawn up a remonstrance of the cause of the war, and appointed the 20th of the next month for his rendezvous, and himself to prepare for the campaign the 30th, so that this, we are in hopes, will keep him in employment. Turenne is to be his general. Here was Carcasses business unexpectedly moved by him, but what was done therein appears in my account of his case in writing by itself. Certain newes of the Dutch being abroad on our coast with twenty-four great ships.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1667. After dinner Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone in his closet an hour or more talking of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) coming home, which, the peace being likely to be made here, he expects, both for my Lord's sake and his own (whose interest he wants) it will be best for him to be at home, where he will be well received by the King (age 36); he is sure of his service well accepted, though the business of Spain do fall by this peace. He tells me my Lord Arlington (age 49) hath done like a gentleman by him in all things. He says, if my Lord [Sandwich] were here, he were the fittest man to be Lord Treasurer (age 60) of any man in England; and he thinks it might be compassed; for he confesses that the King's matters do suffer through the inability of this man, who is likely to die, and he will propound him to the King (age 36). It will remove him from his place at sea, and the King (age 36) will have a good place to bestow. He says to me, that he could wish, when my Lord comes, that he would think fit to forbear playing, as a thing below him, and which will lessen him, as it do my Lord St. Albans (age 62), in the King's esteem: and as a great secret tells me that he hath made a match for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) to a daughter (age 22) of my Lord Burlington's (age 54), where there is a great alliance, £10,000 portion; a civil family, and relation to my Chancellor (age 58), whose son (age 5) hath married one of the daughters (age 4); and that my Chancellor (age 58) do take it with very great kindness, so that he do hold himself obliged by it. My Lord Sandwich (age 41) hath referred it to my Lord Crew (age 69), Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and Mr. Montagu (age 49), to end it. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and the lady know nothing yet of it. It will, I think, be very happy. Very glad of this discourse, I away mightily pleased with the confidence I have in this family, and so away, took up my wife, who was at her mother's, and so home, where I settled to my chamber about my accounts, both Tangier and private, and up at it till twelve at night, with good success, when news is brought me that there is a great fire in Southwarke [Map]: so we up to the leads, and then I and the boy down to the end of our, lane, and there saw it, it seeming pretty great, but nothing to the fire of London, that it made me think little of it. We could at that distance see an engine play-that is, the water go out, it being moonlight.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1667. Mightily pleased with the noblenesse of this house, and the brave furniture and pictures, which indeed is very noble, and, being broke up, I with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) in his coach into Hide Park, to discourse of things, and spent an hour in this manner with great pleasure, telling me all his concernments, and how he is gone through with the purchase for my Lady Jemimah and her husband (age 26); how the Treasury is like to come into the hands of a Committee; but that not that, nor anything else, will do our business, unless the King (age 36) himself will mind his business, and how his servants do execute their parts; he do fear an utter ruin in the state, and that in a little time, if the King (age 36) do not mind his business soon; that the King (age 36) is very kind to him, and to my Lord Sandwich (age 41), and that he doubts not but at his coming home, which he expects about Michaelmas, he will be very well received. But it is pretty strange how he began again the business of the intention of a marriage of my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) to a daughter of my Lord Burlington's (age 54) to my Chancellor (age 58), which he now tells me as a great secret, when he told it me the last Sunday but one; but it may be the poor man hath forgot, and I do believe he do make it a secret, he telling me that he has not told it to any but myself, end this day to his daughter my Lady Jemimah, who looks to lie down about two months hence.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1667. Thence with him to my Chancellor (age 58) at Clarendon House, to a Committee for Tangier, where several things spoke of and proceeded on, and particularly sending Commissioners thither before the new Governor (age 59) goes, which I think will signify as much good as any thing else that hath been done about the place, which is none at all. I did again tell them the badness of their credit by the time their tallies took before they become payable, and their spending more than their fund. They seem well satisfied with what I said, and I am glad that I may be remembered that I do tell them the case plain; but it troubled me that I see them hot upon it, that the Governor (age 59) shall not be paymaster, which will force me either to the providing one there to do it (which I will never undertake), or leave the employment, which I had rather do.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1667. At last it was found that the meeting did fail from no known occasion, at which my Chancellor (age 58) was angry, and did cry out against Creed that he should give him no notice. So Povy (age 53) and I went forth, and staid at the gate of the house by the streete, and there stopped to talk about the business of the Treasury of Tangier, which by the badness of our credit, and the resolution that the Governor shall not be paymaster, will force me to provide one there to be my paymaster, which I will never do, but rather lose my place, for I will not venture my fortune to a fellow to be employed so far off, and in that wicked place.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1667. After dinner comes Fist, and he and I to our report again till 9 o'clock, and then by coach to my Chancellor's (age 58), where I met Mr. Povy (age 53), expecting the coming of the rest of the Commissioners for Tangier. Here I understand how the two Dukes, both the only sons of the Duke of York (age 33), are sick even to danger, and that on Sunday last they were both so ill, as that the poor [his daughter] Duchess (age 30) was in doubt which would die first: the Duke of Cambridge (age 3) of some general disease; the other little Duke (age 18), whose title I know not, of the convulsion fits, of which he had four this morning. Fear that either of them might be dead, did make us think that it was the occasion that the Duke of York (age 33) and others were not come to the meeting of the Commission which was designed, and my Chancellor (age 58) did expect.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1667. And it was pretty to observe how, when my Lord sent down to St. James's to see why the Duke of York (age 33) come not, and Mr. Povy (age 53), who went, returned, my Lord (Chancellor (age 58)) did ask, not how the Princes or the Dukes do, as other people do, but "How do the children?" which methought was mighty great, and like a great man and grandfather. I find every body mightily concerned for these children, as a matter wherein the State is much concerned that they should live.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1667. Thence we to Islington, to the Old House, and there eat and drank, and then it being late and a pleasant evening, we home, and there to my chamber, and to bed. It is remarkable that this afternoon Mr. Moore come to me, and there, among other things, did tell me how Mr. Moyer, the merchant, having procured an order from the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) and Council, with the consent of my Chancellor (age 58), and by assistance of Lord Arlington (age 49), for the releasing out of prison his brother, Samuel Moyer, who was a great man in the late times in Haberdashers'-hall, and was engaged under hand and seal to give the man that obtained it so much in behalf of my Chancellor (age 58); but it seems my Lady Duchess of Albemarle (age 48) had before undertaken it for so much money, but hath not done it. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58) did the next day send for this Moyer, to tell him, that notwithstanding this order of the King (age 36) and Council's being passed for release of his brother, yet, if he did not consider the pains of some friends of his, he would stop that order. This Moyer being an honest, bold man, told him that he was engaged to the hand that had done the thing to give him a reward; and more he would not give, nor could own any kindness done by his Grace's interest; and so parted. The next day Sir Edward Savage did take the said Moyer in tax about it, giving ill words of this Moyer and his brother; which he not being able to bear, told him he would give to the person that had engaged him what he promised, and not any thing to any body else; and that both he and his brother were as honest men as himself, or any man else; and so sent him going, and bid him do his worst. It is one of the most extraordinary cases that ever I saw or understood; but it is true.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1667. After dinner Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone, and there, among other discourse, he did declare that he would be content to part with his place of Treasurer of the Navy upon good terms. I did propose my Lord Bellasses (age 52) as a man likely to buy it, which he listened to, and I did fully concur and promote his design of parting with it, for though I would have my father live, I would not have him die Treasurer of the Navy, because of the accounts which must be uncleared at his death, besides many other circumstances making it advisable for him to let it go. He tells me that he fears all will come to naught in the nation soon if the King (age 36) do not mind his business, which he do not seem likely to do. He says that the Treasury will be managed for a while by a Commission, whereof he thinks my Chancellor (age 58) for the honour of it, and my Lord Ashly (age 45), and the two Secretaries will be, and some others he knows not.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1667. Up betimes, and comes my flagelette master to set me a new tune, which I played presently, and shall in a month do as much as I desire at it. He being gone, I to several businesses in my chamber, and then by coach to the Commissioners of Excise, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there spoke with several persons I had to do with. Here among other news, I hear that the Commissioners for the Treasury were named by the King (age 36) yesterday; but who they are nobody could tell: but the persons are the Chancellor (age 58), the two Secretaries, Lord Ashly (age 45), and others say Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and Sir John Duncomb (age 44), but all conclude the Duke of Albemarle (age 58); but reports do differ, but will be known in a day or two.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1667. In the evening comes Mr. Pelling, and several others, to the office, and tell me that never were people so dejected as they are in the City all over at this day; and do talk most loudly, even treason; as, that we are bought and sold-that we are betrayed by the Papists, and others, about the King (age 37); cry out that the office of the Ordnance hath been so backward as no powder to have been at Chatham, Kent [Map] nor Upnor Castle, Kent [Map] till such a time, and the carriages all broken; that Legg is a Papist; that Upnor [Map], the old good castle built by Queen Elizabeth, should be lately slighted; that the ships at Chatham, Kent [Map] should not be carried up higher. They look upon us as lost, and remove their families and rich goods in the City; and do think verily that the French, being come down with his army to Dunkirke, it is to invade us, and that we shall be invaded. Mr. Clerke, the solicitor, comes to me about business, and tells me that he hears that the King (age 37) hath chosen Mr. Pierpont (age 59) and Vaughan (age 63) of the West, Privy-councillors; that my Chancellor (age 58) was affronted in the Hall this day, by people telling him of his Dunkirke house; and that there are regiments ordered to be got together, whereof to be commanders my Lord Fairfax (age 55), Ingoldsby (age 49), Bethell, Norton, and Birch (age 51), and other Presbyterians; and that Dr. Bates will have liberty to preach. Now, whether this be true or not, I know not; but do think that nothing but this will unite us together.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. I have this morning good news from Gibson; three letters from three several stages, that he was safe last night as far as Royston [Map], at between nine and ten at night. The dismay that is upon us all, in the business of the Kingdom and Navy at this day, is not to be expressed otherwise than by the condition the citizens were in when the City was on fire, nobody knowing which way to turn themselves, while every thing concurred to greaten the fire; as here the easterly gale and spring-tides for coming up both rivers, and enabling them to break the chaine. D. Gauden did tell me yesterday, that the day before at the Council they were ready to fall together by the ears at the Council-table, arraigning one another of being guilty of the counsel that brought us into this misery, by laying up all the great ships. Mr. Hater tells me at noon that some rude people have been, as he hears, at my Chancellor's (age 58), where they have cut down the trees before his house and broke his windows; and a gibbet either set up before or painted upon his gate, and these three words writ: "Three sights to be seen; Dunkirke, Tangier, and a barren Queene (age 57)"1.

Note 1. "Pride, Lust, Ambition, and the People's Hate, the Kingdom's broker, ruin of the State, Dunkirk's sad loss, divider of the fleet, Tangier's compounder for a barren sheet This shrub of gentry, married to the crown, His daughter to the heir, is tumbled down". Poems on State Affairs, vol. i., p. 253. B.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. At dinner we discoursed of Tom of the Wood, a fellow that lives like a hermit near Woolwich, Kent [Map], who, as they say, and Mr. Bodham, they tell me, affirms that he was by at the justice's when some did accuse him there for it, did foretell the burning of the City, and now says that a greater desolation is at hand. Thence we read and laughed at Lilly's prophecies this month, in his Almanack this year! So to the office after dinner; and thither comes Mr. Pierce, who tells me his condition, how he cannot get his money, about £500, which, he says, is a very great part of what he hath for his family and children, out of Viner's (age 36) hand: and indeed it is to be feared that this will wholly undo the bankers. He says he knows nothing of the late affronts to my Chancellor's (age 58) house, as is said, nor hears of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) being made High Constable; but says that they are in great distraction at White Hall, and that every where people do speak high against Sir W. Coventry (age 39): but he agrees with me, that he is the best Minister of State the King (age 37) hath, and so from my heart I believe.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. He [Povy (age 53)] tells me that the other day, upon this ill newes of the Dutch being upon us, White Hall was shut up, and the Council called and sat close; and, by the way, he do assure me, from the mouth of some Privy-councillors, that at this day the Privy-council in general do know no more what the state of the Kingdom as to peace and war is, than he or I; nor knows who manages it, nor upon whom it depends; and there my Chancellor (age 58) did make a speech to them, saying that they knew well that he was no friend to the war from the beginning, and therefore had concerned himself little in, nor could say much to it; and a great deal of that kind, to discharge himself of the fault of the war. Upon which my Lord Anglesey (age 52) rose up and told his Majesty that he thought their coming now together was not to enquire who was, or was not, the cause of the war, but to enquire what was, or could be, done in the business of making a peace, and in whose hands that was, and where it was stopped or forwarded; and went on very highly to have all made open to them: and, by the way, I remember that Captain Cocke (age 50) did the other day tell me that this Lord Anglesey (age 52) hath said, within few days, that he would willingly give £10,000 of his estate that he was well secured of the rest, such apprehensions he hath of the sequel of things, as giving all over for lost.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. In the evening comes Mr. Povy (age 53) about business; and he and I to walk in the garden an hour or two, and to talk of State matters. He tells me his opinion that it is out of possibility for us to escape being undone, there being nothing in our power to do that is necessary for the saving us: a lazy Prince (age 47), no Council, no money, no reputation at home or abroad. He says that to this day the King (age 37) do follow the women as much as ever he did; that the Duke of York (age 33) hath not got Mrs. Middleton (age 22), as I was told the other day: but says that he wants not her, for he hath others, and hath always had, and that he [Povy (age 53)] hath known them brought through the Matted Gallery at White Hall into his [the Duke's] closet; nay, he hath come out of his [his daughter] wife's (age 30) bed, and gone to others laid in bed for him: that Mr. Bruncker (age 47) is not the only pimp, but that the whole family is of the same strain, and will do anything to please him: that, besides the death of the two Princes lately, the family is in horrible disorder by being in debt by spending above £60,000 per. annum, when he hath not £40,000: that the Duchesse (age 30) is not only the proudest woman in the world, but the most expensefull; and that the Duke of York's (age 33) marriage with her hath undone the Kingdom, by making the Chancellor (age 58) so great above reach, who otherwise would have been but an ordinary man, to have been dealt with by other people; and he would have been careful of managing things well, for fear of being called to account; whereas, now he is secure, and hath let things run to rack, as they now appear.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. That at a certain time Mr. Povy (age 53) did carry him an account of the state of the Duke of York's (age 33) estate, showing in faithfullness how he spent more than his estate would bear, by above £20,000 per annum, and asked my Lord's opinion of it; to which he answered that no man that loved the King (age 37) or kingdom durst own the writing of that paper; at which Povy (age 53) was startled, and reckoned himself undone for this good service, and found it necessary then to show it to the Duke of York's (age 33) Commissioners; who read, examined, and approved of it, so as to cause it to be put into form, and signed it, and gave it the Duke. Now the end of the Chancellor (age 58) was, for fear that his [his daughter] daughter's (age 30) ill housewifery should be condemned.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1667. Busy all the afternoon at the office. Towards night I with Mr. Kinaston to White Hall about a Tangier order, but lost our labour, only met Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) there, and he tells me great newes; that this day in Council the King (age 37) hath declared that he will call his Parliament in thirty days: which is the best newes I have heard a great while, and will, if any thing, save the Kingdom. How the King (age 37) come to be advised to this, I know not; but he tells me that it was against the Duke of York's (age 33) mind flatly, who did rather advise the King (age 37) to raise money as he pleased; and against the Chancellor's (age 58), who told the King (age 37) that Queen Elizabeth did do all her business in eighty-eight without calling a Parliament, and so might he do, for anything he saw.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1667. After dinner Sir G. Carteret (age 57) come in, and I to him and my Lady, and there he did tell me that the business was done between him and my Lord Anglesey (age 52); that himself is to have the other's place of Deputy Treasurer of Ireland, which is a place of honour and great profit, being far better, I know not for what reason, but a reason there is, than the Treasurer's, my Lord of Corke's (age 54), and to give the other his, of Treasurer of the Navy; that the King (age 37), at his earnest entreaty, did, with much unwillingness, but with owning of great obligations to him, for his faithfulness and long service to him and his father, and therefore was willing to grant his desire. That the Duke of York (age 33) hath given him the same kind words, so that it is done with all the good manner that could be, and he I perceive do look upon it, and so do I, I confess, as a great good fortune to him to meet with one of my Lord Anglesey's (age 52) quality willing to receive it at this time. Sir W. Coventry (age 39) he hath not yet made acquainted with it, nor do intend it, it being done purely to ease himself of the many troubles and plagues which he thinks the perverseness and unkindness of Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and others by his means have and is likely every day to bring upon him, and the Parliament's envy, and lastly to put himself into a condition of making up his accounts, which he is, he says, afeard he shall never otherwise be. My Chancellor (age 58), I perceive, is his friend in it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1667. Up, and by coach to St. James's, and there find Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and Sir W. Pen (age 46) above stairs, and then we to discourse about making up our accounts against the Parliament; and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did give us the best advice he could for us to provide for our own justification, believing, as everybody do, that they will fall heavily upon us all, though he lay all upon want of money, only a little, he says (if the Parliament be in any temper), may be laid upon themselves for not providing money sooner, they being expressly and industriously warned thereof by him, he says, even to the troubling them, that some of them did afterwards tell him that he had frighted them. He says he do prepare to justify himself, and that he hears that my Chancellor (age 58), my Lord Arlington (age 49), the Vice Chamberlain and himself are reported all up and down the Coffee houses to be the four sacrifices that must be made to atone the people.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. Up betimes and to my chamber, there doing business, and by and by comes Greeting and begun a new month with him, and now to learn to set anything from the notes upon the flageolet, but, Lord! to see how like a fool he goes about to give me direction would make a man mad. I then out and by coach to White Hall and to the Treasury chamber, where did a little business, and thence to the Exchequer to Burges, about Tangier business, and so back again, stepping into the Hall a little, and then homeward by coach, and met at White Hall with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and so into his coach, and he with me to the Excise Office, there to do a little business also, in the way he telling me that undoubtedly the peace is concluded; for he did stand yesterday where he did hear part of the discourse at the Council table, and there did hear the King (age 37) argue for it. Among other things, that the spirits of the seamen were down, and the forces of our enemies are grown too great and many for us, and he would not have his subjects overpressed; for he knew an Englishman would do as much as any man upon hopeful terms; but where he sees he is overpressed, he despairs soon as any other; and, besides that, they have already such a load of dejection upon them, that they will not be in temper a good while again. He heard my Chancellor (age 58) say to the King (age 37), "Sir", says he, "the whole world do complain publickly of treachery, that things have been managed falsely by some of his great ministers".-"Sir", says he, "I am for your Majesty's falling into a speedy enquiry into the truth of it, and, where you meet with it, punish it. But, at the same time, consider what you have to do, and make use of your time for having a peace; for more money will not be given without much trouble, nor is it, I fear, to be had of the people, nor will a little do it to put us into condition of doing our business". But Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me he [the] Chancellors (age 58) did say the other day at his table, "Treachery!" says he; "I could wish we could prove there was anything of that in it; for that would imply some wit and thoughtfulness; but we are ruined merely by folly and neglect".

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1667. Home, and to dinner, and by and by comes Mr. Pierce, who is interested in the Panther, for some advice, and then comes Creed, and he and I spent the whole afternoon till eight at night walking and talking of sundry things public and private in the garden, but most of all of the unhappy state of this nation at this time by the negligence of the King (age 37) and his Council. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is, it seems, set at liberty, without any further charge against him or other clearing of him, but let to go out; which is one of the strangest instances of the fool's play with which all publick things are done in this age, that is to be apprehended. And it is said that when he was charged with making himself popular-as indeed he is, for many of the discontented Parliament, Sir Robert Howard (age 41) and Sir Thomas Meres, and others, did attend at the Council-chamber when he was examined-he should answer, that whoever was committed to prison by my Chancellor (age 58) or my Lord Arlington (age 49), could not want being popular. But it is worth considering the ill state a Minister of State is in, under such a Prince as ours is; for, undoubtedly, neither of those two great men would have been so fierce against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Council-table the other day, had they [not] been assured of the King's good liking, and supporting them therein: whereas, perhaps at the desire of my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who, I suppose, hath at last overcome the King (age 37), the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is well received again, and now these men delivered up to the interest he can make for his revenge. He told me over the story of Mrs. Stewart (age 20), much after the manner which I was told it long since, and have entered it in this book, told me by Mr. Evelyn (age 46); only he says it is verily believed that the King (age 37) did never intend to marry her to any but himself, and that the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) were jealous of it; and that Mrs. Stewart (age 20) might be got with child by the King (age 37), or somebody else, and the King (age 37) own a marriage before his contract, for it is but a contract, as he tells me, to this day, with the Queene (age 57), and so wipe their noses of the Crown; and that, therefore, the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) did do all they could to forward the match with my Lord Duke of Richmond (age 28), that she might be married out of the way; but, above all, it is a worthy part that this good lady hath acted.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1667. So up to my Chancellor's (age 58), where was a Committee of Tangier in my Lord's roome, where he is to hear causes, where all the judges' pictures hang up, very fine. Here I read my letter to them, which was well received, and they did fall seriously to discourse the want of money and other particulars, and to some pretty good purpose. But to see how Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did oppose both my Chancellor (age 58) and the Duke of York (age 33) himself, about the Order of the Commissioners of the Treasury to me for not paying of pensions, and with so much reason, and eloquence so natural, was admirable. And another thing, about his pressing for the reduction of the charge of Tangier, which they would have put off to another time; "But", says he, "the King (age 37) suffers so much by the putting off of the consideration of reductions of charge, that he is undone; and therefore I do pray you, sir, to his Royal Highness, that when any thing offers of the kind, you will not let it escape you". Here was a great bundle of letters brought hither, sent up from sea, from a vessel of ours that hath taken them after they had been flung over by a Dutchman; wherein, among others, the Duke of York (age 33) did read the superscription of one to De Witt, thus "To the most wise, foreseeing and discreet, These, &c."; which, I thought with myself, I could have been glad might have been duly directed to any one of them at the table, though the greatest men in this kingdom. The Duke of York (age 33), the Chancellor (age 58), my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Arlington, Ashley, Peterborough, and Coventry (the best of them all for parts), I perceive they do all profess their expectation of a peace, and that suddenly, and do advise of things accordingly, and do all speak of it (and expressly, I remember, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58)), saying that they hoped for it. Letters were read at the table from Tangier that Guiland is wholly lost, and that he do offer Arzill to us to deliver it to us. But Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did declare his opinion that we should have nothing to do with it, and said that if Tangier were offered us now, as the King's condition is, he would advise against the taking it; saying, that the King's charge is too great, and must be brought down, it being, like the fire of this City, never to be mastered till you have brought it under you; and that these places abroad are but so much charge to the King (age 37), and we do rather hitherto strive to greaten them than lessen them; and then the King (age 37) is forced to part with them, "as", says he, "he did with Dunkirke", by my Lord Tiviott's making it so chargeable to the King (age 37) as he did that, and would have done Tangier, if he had lived: I perceive he is the only man that do seek the King's profit, and is bold to deliver what he thinks on every occasion. Having broke up here, I away with Mr. Gawden in his coach to the 'Change [Map], and there a little, and then home and dined, and then to the office, and by and by with my wife to White Hall (she to Unthanke's), and there met Creed and did a little business at the Treasury chamber, and then to walk in Westminster Hall [Map] an hour or two, with much pleasure reflecting upon our discourse to-day at the Tangier meeting, and crying up the worth of Sir W. Coventry (age 39). Creed tells me of the fray between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Duke's playhouse the last Saturday (and it is the first day I have heard that they have acted at either the King's or Duke's houses this month or six weeks) and Henry Killigrew (age 30), whom the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did soundly beat and take away his sword, and make a fool of, till the fellow prayed him to spare his life; and I am glad of it; for it seems in this business the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did carry himself very innocently and well, and I wish he had paid this fellow's coat well. I heard something of this at the 'Change [Map] to-day: and it is pretty to hear how people do speak kindly of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), as one that will enquire into faults; and therefore they do mightily favour him. And it puts me in mind that, this afternoon, Billing (age 44), the Quaker, meeting me in the Hall, come to me, and after a little discourse did say, "Well", says he, "now you will be all called to an account"; meaning the Parliament is drawing near. This done I took coach and took up my wife, and so home, and after a little at the office I home to my chamber a while, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1667. He tells me that the King (age 37) and Court were never in the world so bad as they are now for gaming, swearing, whoring, and drinking, and the most abominable vices that ever were in the world; so that all must come to nought. He told me that Sir G. Carteret (age 57) was at this end of the town; so I went to visit him in Broad Street; and there he and I together: and he is mightily pleased with my Lady Jem's having a son; and a mighty glad man he is. He [Sir George Carteret (age 57)] tells me, as to news, that the peace is now confirmed, and all that over. He says it was a very unhappy motion in the House the other day about the land-army; for, whether the King (age 37) hath a mind of his own to do the thing desired or no, his doing it will be looked upon as a thing done only in fear of the Parliament. He says that the Duke of York (age 33) is suspected to be the great man that is for raising of this army, and bringing things to be commanded by an army; but he believes that he is wronged, and says that he do know that he is wronged therein. He do say that the Court is in a way to ruin all for their pleasures; and says that he himself hath once taken the liberty to tell the King (age 37) the necessity of having, at least, a show of religion in the Government, and sobriety; and that it was that, that did set up and keep up Oliver, though he was the greatest rogue in the world, and that it is so fixed in the nature of the common Englishman that it will not out of him. He tells me that while all should be labouring to settle the Kingdom, they are at Court all in factions, some for and others against my Chancellor (age 58), and another for and against another man, and the King (age 37) adheres to no man, but this day delivers himself up to this, and the next to that, to the ruin of himself and business; that he is at the command of any woman like a slave, though he be the best man to the Queene (age 57) in the world, with so much respect, and never lies a night from her: but yet cannot command himself in the presence of a woman he likes. Having had this discourse, I parted, and home to dinner, and thence to the office all the afternoon to my great content very busy. It raining this day all day to our great joy, it having not rained, I think, this month before, so as the ground was everywhere so burned and dry as could be; and no travelling in the road or streets in London, for dust. At night late home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. After dinner comes W. How and a son of Mr. Pagett's to see me, with whom I drank, but could not stay, and so by coach with cozen Roger (age 50) (who before his going did acquaint me in private with an offer made of his marrying of Mrs. Elizabeth Wiles, whom I know; a kinswoman of Mr. Honiwood's, an ugly old maid, but a good housewife; and is said to have £2500 to her portion; but if I can find that she hath but £2000, which he prays me to examine, he says he will have her, she being one he hath long known intimately, and a good housewife, and discreet woman; though I am against it in my heart, she being not handsome at all) and it hath been the very bad fortune of the Pepyses that ever I knew, never to marry an handsome woman, excepting Ned Pepys and Creed, set the former down at the Temple [Map] resolving to go to Cambridge to-morrow, and Creed and I to White Hall to the Treasury chamber there to attend, but in vain, only here, looking out of the window into the garden, I saw the King (age 37) (whom I have not had any desire to see since the Dutch come upon the coast first to Sheerness, for shame that I should see him, or he me, methinks, after such a dishonour) come upon the garden; with him two or three idle Lords; and instantly after him, in another walk, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), led by Bab. May (age 39): at which I was surprised, having but newly heard the stories of the King (age 37) and her being parted for ever. So I took Mr. Povy (age 53), who was there, aside, and he told me all, how imperious this woman is, and hectors the King (age 37) to whatever she will. It seems she is with child, and the King (age 37) says he did not get it: with that she made a slighting "puh" with her mouth, and went out of the house, and never come in again till the King (age 37) went to Sir Daniel Harvy's to pray her; and so she is come to-day, when one would think his mind should be full of some other cares, having but this morning broken up such a Parliament, with so much discontent, and so many wants upon him, and but yesterday heard such a sermon against adultery. But it seems she hath told the King (age 37), that whoever did get it, he should own it; and the bottom of the quarrel is this:-She is fallen in love with young Jermin who hath of late lain with her oftener than the King (age 37), and is now going to marry my Lady Falmouth; the King (age 37) he is mad at her entertaining Jermin, and she is mad at Jermin's going to marry from her: so they are all mad; and thus the Kingdom is governed! and they say it is labouring to make breaches between the Duke of Richmond and his lady that the King (age 37) may get her to him. But he tells me for certain that nothing is more sure than that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 33), and the Chancellor (age 58), are desirous and labouring all they can to get an army, whatever the King (age 37) says to the Parliament; and he believes that they are at last resolved to stand and fall all three together: so that he says match of the Duke of York (age 33) with the Chancellor's (age 58) daughter hath undone the nation. He tells me also that the King (age 37) hath not greater enemies in the world than those of his own family; for there is not an officer in the house almost but curses him for letting them starve, and there is not a farthing of money to be raised for the buying them bread. Having done talking with him I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there talked and wandered up and down till the evening to no purpose, there and to the Swan [Map], and so till the evening, and so home, and there to walk in the garden with my wife, telling her of my losing £300 a year by my place that I am to part with, which do a little trouble me, but we must live with somewhat more thrift, and so home to supper and to play on the flageolet, which do do very prettily, and so to bed. Many guns were heard this afternoon, it seems, at White Hall and in the Temple [Map] garden very plain; but what it should be nobody knows, unless the Dutch be driving our ships up the river. To-morrow we shall know.

On 08 Aug 1667 [his wife] Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 50) died. She was buried in the Hyde Vault, Crypt, Westminster Abbey.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1667. Then to the office, where we sat upon a particular business all the morning: and my Lord Anglesey (age 53) with us: who, and my Lord Bruncker (age 47), do bring us news how my Chancellor's (age 58) seal is to be taken away from him to-day. The thing is so great and sudden to me, that it put me into a very great admiration what should be the meaning of it; and they do not own that they know what it should be: but this is certain, that the King (age 37) did resolve it on Saturday, and did yesterday send the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), the only man fit for those works, to him for his purse: to which the Chancellor (age 58) answered, that he received it from the King (age 37), and would deliver it to the King's own hand, and so civilly returned the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) without it; and this morning my Chancellor (age 58) is to be with the King (age 37), to come to an end in the business. After sitting, we rose, and my wife being gone abroad with Mrs. Turner (age 44) to her washing at the whitster's, I dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where Mr. Boreman was, who come from White Hall; who tells us that he saw my Chancellor (age 58) come in his coach with some of his men, without his Seal, to White Hall to his chamber; and thither the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) come and staid together alone, an hour or more: and it is said that the King (age 37) do say that he will have the Parliament meet, and that it will prevent much trouble by having of him out of their enmity, by his place being taken away; for that all their enmity will be at him. It is said also that my Chancellor (age 58) answers, that he desires he may be brought to his trial, if he have done any thing to lose his office; and that he will be willing, and is most desirous, to lose that, and his head both together. Upon what terms they parted nobody knows but the Chancellor (age 58) looked sad, he says. Then in comes Sir Richard Ford (age 53), and says he hears that there is nobody more presses to reconcile the King (age 37) and Chancellor (age 58) than the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and Duke of Buckingham (age 39): the latter of which is very strange, not only that he who was so lately his enemy should do it, but that this man, that but the other day was in danger of losing his own head, should so soon come to be a mediator for others: it shows a wise Government. They all say that he [Clarendon] is but a poor man, not worth above £3000 a-year in land; but this I cannot believe: and all do blame him for having built so great a house, till he had got a better estate. Having dined, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and I to White Hall, where we could be informed in no more than we were told before, nobody knowing the result of the meeting, but that the matter is suspended. So I walked to the King's playhouse, there to meet Sir W. Pen (age 46), and saw "The Surprizall", a very mean play, I thought: or else it was because I was out of humour, and but very little company in the house. But there Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I had a great deal of discourse with Moll; who tells us that Nell (age 17) is already left by my Lord Buckhurst (age 24), and that he makes sport of her, and swears she hath had all she could get of him; and Hart1, her great admirer, now hates her; and that she is very poor, and hath lost my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who was her great friend also but she is come to the House, but is neglected by them all2. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 46) home, and I to the office, where late about business, and then home to supper, and so to bed.

Note 1. Charles Hart, great-nephew of Shakespeare, a favourite actor. He is credited with being Nell Gwyn's (age 17) first lover (or Charles I, as the wits put it), and with having brought her on the stage. He died of stone, and was buried at Stanmore Magna, Middlesex, where he had a country house.

Note 2. Lord Buckhurst's (age 24) liaison with Nell Gwyn probably came to an end about this time. We learn from Pepys that in January, 1667-68, the King (age 37) sent several times for Nelly (age 17) (see January 11th, 1667-68). Nell's eldest son by Charles II, Charles Beauclerc, was not born till May 8th, 1670. He was created Earl of Burford in 1676 and Duke of St. Albans in 1684.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1667. Thence home, and there did business, and so in the evening home to supper and to bed. This day Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, was with me; and tells me how this business of my Chancellor's (age 58) was certainly designed in my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) chamber; and that, when he went from the King (age 37) on Monday morning, she was in bed, though about twelve o'clock, and ran out in her smock into her aviary looking into White Hall garden; and thither her woman brought her her nightgown; and stood joying herself at the old man's going away: and several of the gallants of White Hall, of which there were many staying to see the Chancellor (age 58) return, did talk to her in her birdcage; among others, Blancford, telling her she was the bird of paradise1. 28th. Up; and staid undressed till my tailor's boy did mend my vest, in order to my going to the christening anon. Then out and to White Hall, to attend the Council, by their order, with an answer to their demands touching our advice for the paying off of the seamen, when the ships shall come in, which answer is worth seeing, shewing the badness of our condition. There, when I come, I was forced to stay till past twelve o'clock, in a crowd of people in the lobby, expecting the hearing of the great cause of Alderman Barker against my Lord Deputy of Ireland, for his ill usage in his business of land there; but the King (age 37) and Council sat so long, as they neither heard them nor me. So when they rose, I into the House, and saw the King (age 37) and Queen (age 28) at dinner, and heard a little of their viallins' musick, and so home, and there to dinner, and in the afternoon with my Lady Batten, Pen, and her daughter, and my wife, to Mrs. Poole's, where I mighty merry among the women, and christened the child, a girl, Elizabeth, which, though a girl, yet my Lady Batten would have me to give the name. After christening comes Sir W. Batten (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 46), and Mr. Lowther, and mighty merry there, and I forfeited for not kissing the two godmothers presently after the christening, before I kissed the mother, which made good mirth; and so anon away, and my wife and I took coach and went twice round Bartholomew fayre; which I was glad to see again, after two years missing it by the plague, and so home and to my chamber a little, and so to supper and to bed.

Note 1. Clarendon refers to this scene in the continuation of his Life (ed. 1827, vol. iii., p. 291), and Lister writes: "Baroness Castlemaine (age 26) rose hastily from her noontide bed, and came out into her aviary, anxious to read in the saddened air of her distinguished enemy some presage of his fall" ("Life of Clarendon", vol. ii., p. 412).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1667. At noon dined at home, and then my wife and I, with Sir W. Pen (age 46), to the New Exchange, set her down, and he and I to St. James's, where Sir J. Minnes (age 68), Sir W. Batten (age 66), and we waited upon the Duke of York (age 33), but did little business, and he, I perceive, his head full of other business, and of late hath not been very ready to be troubled with any of our business. Having done with him, Sir J. Minnes (age 68), Sir W. Batten (age 66) and I to White Hall, and there hear how it is like to go well enough with my Chancellor (age 58); that he is like to keep his Seal, desiring that he may stand his trial in Parliament, if they will accuse him of any thing. Here Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and I looking upon the pictures; and Mr. Chevins (age 65), being by, did take us, of his own accord, into the King's closet, to shew us some pictures, which, indeed, is a very noble place, and exceeding great variety of brave pictures, and the best hands. I could have spent three or four hours there well, and we had great liberty to look and Chevins seemed to take pleasure to shew us, and commend the pictures. Having done here, I to the Exchange [Map], and there find my wife gone with Sir W. Pen (age 46). So I to visit Colonel Fitzgerald, who hath been long sick at Woolwich, Kent [Map], where most of the officers and soldiers quartered there, since the Dutch being in the river, have died or been sick, and he among the rest; and, by the growth of his beard and gray [hairs], I did not know him. His desire to speak with me was about the late command for my paying no more pensions for Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Aug 1667. So home, and there wrote all my letters, and then, in the evening, to White Hall again, and there met Sir Richard Browne (age 62), Clerk to the Committee for retrenchments, who assures me no one word was ever yet mentioned about my Lord's salary. This pleased me, and I to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), who I find in the same doubt about it, and assured me he saw it in our original report, my Lord's name with a discharge against it. This, though I know to be false, or that it must be a mistake in my clerk, I went back to Sir R. Browne (age 62) and got a sight of their paper, and find how the mistake arose, by the ill copying of it out for the Council from our paper sent to the Duke of York (age 33), which I took away with me and shewed Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and thence to my Lord Crew (age 69), and the mistake ended very merrily, and to all our contents, particularly my own, and so home, and to the office, and then to my chamber late, and so to supper and to bed. I find at Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) that they do mightily joy themselves in the hopes of my Chancellor's (age 58) getting over this trouble; and I make them believe, and so, indeed, I do believe he will, that my Chancellor (age 58) is become popular by it. I find by all hands that the Court is at this day all to pieces, every man of a faction of one sort or other, so as it is to be feared what it will come to. But that, that pleases me is, I hear to-night that Mr. Bruncker is turned away yesterday by the Duke of York (age 33), for some bold words he was heard by Colonel Werden to say in the garden, the day the Chancellor (age 58) was with the King (age 37)-that he believed the King (age 37) would be hectored out of everything. For this the Duke of York (age 33), who all say hath been very strong for his father-in-law at this trial, hath turned him away: and every body, I think, is glad of it; for he was a pestilent rogue, an atheist, that would have sold his King and country for 6d. almost, so covetous and wicked a rogue he is, by all men's report. But one observed to me, that there never was the occasion of men's holding their tongues at Court and everywhere else as there is at this day, for nobody knows which side will be uppermost.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1667. By and by comes newes that my Lady Viner (age 36) was come to see Mrs. Lowther, which I was glad of, and all the pleasure I had here was to see her, which I did, and saluted her, and find she is pretty, though not so eminently so as people talked of her, and of very pretty carriage and discourse. I sat with them and her an hour talking and pleasant, and then slunk away alone without taking leave, leaving my wife there to come home with them, and I to Bartholomew fayre, to walk up and down; and there, among other things, find my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) at a puppet-play, "Patient Grizill"1, and the street full of people expecting her coming out. I confess I did wonder at her courage to come abroad, thinking the people would abuse her; but they, silly people! do not know her work she makes, and therefore suffered her with great respect to take coach, and she away, without any trouble at all, which I wondered at, I confess. I only walked up and down, and, among others, saw Tom Pepys, the turner, who hath a shop, and I think lives in the fair when the fair is not. I only asked how he did as he stood in the street, and so up and down sauntering till late and then home, and there discoursed with my wife of our bad entertainment to-day, and so to bed. I met Captain Cocke (age 50) to-day at the Council Chamber and took him with me to Westminster, who tells me that there is yet expectation that the Chancellor (age 58) will lose the Seal, and that he is sure that the King (age 37) hath said it to him who told it him, and he fears we shall be soon broke in pieces, and assures me that there have been high words between the Duke of York (age 33) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), for his being so high against the Chancellor (age 58); so as the Duke of York (age 33) would not sign some papers that he brought, saying that he could not endure the sight of him: and that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) answered, that what he did was in obedience to the King's commands; and that he did not think any man fit to serve a Prince, that did not know how to retire and live a country life. This is all I hear.

Note 1. The well-known story, first told by Boccaccio, then by Petrarca, afterwards by Chaucer, and which has since become proverbial. Tom Warton, writing about 1770, says, "I need not mention that it is to this day represented in England, on a stage of the lowest species, and of the highest antiquity: I mean at a puppet show" ("Hist. of English Poetry", sect. xv.). B.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1667. At the office all the morning; where, by Sir W. Pen (age 46), I do hear that the Seal was fetched away to the King (age 37) yesterday from the Chancellor (age 58) by Secretary Morrice (age 64); which puts me into a great horror, to have it done after so much debate and confidence that it would not be done at last.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1667. When we arose I took a turn with Lord Bruncker (age 47) in the garden, and he tells me that he hath of late discoursed about this business with Sir W. Coventry (age 39), who he finds is the great man in the doing this business of the Chancellor's (age 58), and that he do persevere in it, though against the Duke of York's (age 33) opinion, to which he says that the Duke of York (age 33) was once of the same mind, and if he hath thought fit since, for any reason, to alter his mind, he hath not found any to alter his own, and so desires to be excused, for it is for the King's and kingdom's good.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1667. It is pretty to see how strange every body looks, nobody knowing whence this arises; whether from my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), Bab. May (age 39), and their faction; or from the Duke of York (age 33), notwithstanding his great appearance of defence of the Chancellor (age 58); or from Sir William Coventry (age 39), and some few with him. But greater changes are yet expected.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1667. I took a coach and went homewards; but then turned again, and to White Hall, where I met with many people; and, among other things, do learn that there is some fear that Mr. Bruncker is got into the King's favour, and will be cherished there; which will breed ill will between the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33), he lodging at this time in White Hall since he was put away from the Duke of York (age 33): and he is great with Bab. May (age 39), my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), and that wicked crew. But I find this denied by Sir G. Carteret (age 57), who tells me that he is sure he hath no kindness from the King (age 37); that the King (age 37) at first, indeed, did endeavour to persuade the Duke of York (age 33) from putting him away; but when, besides this business of his ill words concerning his Majesty in the business of the Chancellor (age 58), he told him that he hath had, a long time, a mind to put him away for his ill offices, done between him and his wife, the King (age 37) held his peace, and said no more, but wished him to do what he pleased with him; which was very noble.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1667. I met with Fenn; and he tells me, as I do hear from some others, that the business of the Chancellor's (age 58) had proceeded from something of a mistake, for the Duke of York (age 33) did first tell the King (age 37) that the Chancellor (age 58) had a desire to be eased of his great trouble; and that the King (age 37), when the Chancellor (age 58) come to him, did wonder to hear him deny it, and the Duke of York (age 33) was forced to deny to the King (age 37) that ever he did tell him so in those terms: but the King (age 37) did answer that he was sure that he did say some such thing to him; but, however, since it had gone so far, did desire him to be contented with it, as a thing very convenient for him as well as for himself (the King (age 37)), and so matters proceeded, as we find. Now it is likely the Chancellor (age 58) might, some time or other, in a compliment or vanity, say to the Duke of York (age 33), that he was weary of this burden, and I know not what; and this comes of it. Some people, and myself among them, are of good hope from this change that things are reforming; but there are others that do think but that it is a hit of chance, as all other our greatest matters are, and that there is no general plot or contrivance in any number of people what to do next, though, I believe, Sir W. Coventry (age 39) may in himself have further designs; and so that, though other changes may come, yet they shall be accidental and laid upon [not] good principles of doing good. Mr. May shewed me the King's new buildings, in order to their having of some old sails for the closing of the windows this winter. I dined with Sir G. Carteret (age 57), with whom dined Mr. Jack Ashburnham and Dr. Creeton, who I observe to be a most good man and scholar. In discourse at dinner concerning the change of men's humours and fashions touching meats, Mr. Ashburnham (age 63) told us, that he remembers since the only fruit in request, and eaten by the King (age 37) and Queen (age 28) at table as the best fruit, was the Katharine payre, though they knew at the time other fruits of France and our own country.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1667. After dinner comes in Mr. Townsend; and there I was witness of a horrid rateing, which Mr. Ashburnham (age 63), as one of the Grooms of the King's Bedchamber, did give him for want of linen for the King's person; which he swore was not to be endured, and that the King (age 37) would not endure it, and that the King (age 37) his father, would have hanged his Wardrobe-man should he have been served so the King (age 37) having at this day no handkerchers, and but three bands to his neck, he swore. Mr. Townsend answered want of money, and the owing of the linen-draper £5000; and that he hath of late got many rich things made-beds, and sheets, and saddles, and all without money, and he can go no further but still this old man, indeed, like an old loving servant, did cry out for the King's person to be neglected. But, when he was gone, Townsend told me that it is the grooms taking away the King's linen at the quarter's end, as their fees, which makes this great want: for, whether the King (age 37) can get it or no, they will run away at the quarter's end with what he hath had, let the King (age 37) get more as he can. All the company gone, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I to talk: and it is pretty to observe how already he says that he did always look upon the Chancellor (age 58) indeed as his friend, though he never did do him any service at all, nor ever got any thing by him, nor was he a man apt, and that, I think, is true, to do any man any kindness of his own nature; though I do know that he was believed by all the world to be the greatest support of Sir G. Carteret (age 57) with the King (age 37) of any man in England: but so little is now made of it! He observes that my Lord Sandwich (age 42) will lose a great friend in him; and I think so too, my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) being about a match calculated purely out of respect to my Chancellor's (age 58) family.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1667. This day is kept in the City as a publick fast for the fire this day twelve months: but I was not at church, being commanded, with the rest, to attend the Duke of York (age 33); and, therefore, with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) to St. James's, where we had much business before the Duke of York (age 33), and observed all things to be very kind between the Duke of York (age 33) and W. Coventry (age 39), which did mightily joy me. When we had done, Sir W. Coventry (age 39) called me down with him to his chamber, and there told me that he is leaving the Duke of York's (age 33) service, which I was amazed at. But he tells me that it is not with the least unkindness on the Duke of York's (age 33) side, though he expects, and I told him he was in the right, it will be interpreted otherwise, because done just at this time; "but", says he, "I did desire it a good while since, and the Duke of York (age 33) did, with much entreaty, grant it, desiring that I would say nothing of it, that he might have time and liberty to choose his successor, without being importuned for others whom he should not like:" and that he hath chosen Mr. Wren, which I am glad of, he being a very ingenious man; and so Sir W. Coventry (age 39) says of him, though he knows him little; but particularly commends him for the book he writ in answer to "Harrington's (age 56) Oceana", which, for that reason, I intend to buy. He tells me the true reason is, that he, being a man not willing to undertake more business than he can go through, and being desirous to have his whole time to spend upon the business of the Treasury, and a little for his own ease, he did desire this of the Duke of York (age 33). He assures me that the kindness with which he goes away from the Duke of York (age 33) is one of the greatest joys that ever he had in the world. I used some freedom with him, telling him how the world hath discoursed of his having offended the Duke of York (age 33), about the late business of the Chancellor (age 58). He do not deny it, but says that perhaps the Duke of York (age 33) might have some reason for it, he opposing him in a thing wherein he was so earnest but tells me, that, notwithstanding all that, the Duke of York (age 33) does not now, nor can blame him; for he tells me that he was the man that did propose the removal of the Chancellor (age 58); and that he did still persist in it, and at this day publickly owns it, and is glad of it; but that the Duke of York (age 33) knows that he did first speak of it to the Duke of York (age 33), before he spoke to any mortal creature besides, which was fair dealing: and the Duke of York (age 33) was then of the same mind with him, and did speak of it to the King (age 37); though since, for reasons best known to himself, he was afterwards altered. I did then desire to know what was the great matter that grounded his desire of the Chancellor's (age 58) removal? He told me many things not fit to be spoken, and yet not any thing of his being unfaithful to the King (age 37); but, 'instar omnium', he told me, that while he was so great at the Council-board, and in the administration of matters, there was no room for any body to propose any remedy to what was amiss, or to compass any thing, though never so good for the Kingdom, unless approved of by the Chancellor (age 58), he managing all things with that greatness which now will be removed, that the King (age 37) may have the benefit of others' advice. I then told him that the world hath an opinion that he hath joined himself with my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) faction in this business; he told me, he cannot help it, but says they are in an errour: but for first he will never, while he lives, truckle under any body or any faction, but do just as his own reason and judgment directs; and, when he cannot use that freedom, he will have nothing to do in public affairs but then he added, that he never was the man that ever had any discourse with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), or with others from her, about this or any public business, or ever made her a visit, or at least not this twelvemonth, or been in her lodgings but when called on any business to attend the King (age 37) there, nor hath had any thing to do in knowing her mind in this business. He ended all with telling me that he knows that he that serves a Prince must expect, and be contented to stand, all fortunes, and be provided to retreat, and that that he is most willing to do whenever the King (age 37) shall please. And so we parted, he setting me down out of his coach at Charing Cross [Map], and desired me to tell Sir W. Pen (age 46) what he had told me of his leaving the Duke of York's (age 33) service, that his friends might not be the last that know it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1667. All the morning, business at the office, dined at home, then in the afternoon set my wife down at the Exchange [Map], and I to St. James's, and there attended the Duke of York (age 33) about the list of ships that we propose to sell: and here there attended Mr. Wren the first time, who hath not yet, I think, received the Duke of York's (age 33) seal and papers. At our coming hither, we found the Duke (age 33) and [his daughter] Duchesse (age 30) all alone at dinner, methought melancholy; or else I thought so, from the late occasion of the Chancellor's (age 58) fall, who, they say, however, takes it very contentedly.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1667. I went to the King's Chapel to the closet, and there I hear Cresset sing a tenor part along with the Church musick very handsomely, but so loud that people did laugh at him, as a thing done for ostentation. Here I met Sir G. Downing (age 42), who would speak with me, and first to inquire what I paid for my kid's leather gloves I had on my hand, and shewed me others on his, as handsome, as good in all points, cost him but 12d. a pair, and mine me 2s. He told me he had been seven years finding out a man that could dress English sheepskin as it should be-and, indeed, it is now as good, in all respects, as kid, and he says will save £100,000 a-year, that goes out to France for kid's skins. Thus he labours very worthily to advance our own trade, but do it with mighty vanity and talking. But then he told me of our base condition, in the treaty with Holland and France, about our prisoners, that whereas before we did clear one another's prisoners, man for man, and we upon the publication of the peace did release all our's, 300 at Leith, and others in other places for nothing, the Dutch do keep theirs, and will not discharge them with[out] paying their debts according to the Treaty. That his instruments in Holland, writing to our Embassadors about this to Bredagh, they answer them that they do not know of any thing that they have done therein, but left it just as it was before. To which, when they answer, that by the treaty their Lordships had [not] bound our countrymen to pay their debts in prison, they answer they cannot help it, and we must get them off as cheap as we can. On this score, they demand £1100 for Sir G. Ascue (age 51), and £5000 for the one province of Zealand, for the prisoners that we have therein. He says that this is a piece of shame that never any nation committed, and that our very Lords here of the Council, when he related this matter to them, did not remember that they had agreed to this article; and swears that all their articles are alike, as the giving away Polleroon, and Surinam, and Nova Scotia, which hath a river 300 miles up the country, with copper mines more than Swedeland, and Newcastle [Map] coals, the only place in America that hath coals that we know of; and that Cromwell did value those places, and would for ever have made much of them; but we have given them away for nothing, besides a debt to the King of Denmarke (age 58). But, which is most of all, they have discharged those very particular demands of merchants of the Guinny company and others, which he, when he was there, had adjusted with the Dutch, and come to an agreement in writing, and they undertaken to satisfy, and that this was done in black and white under their hands; and yet we have forgiven all these, and not so much as sent to Sir G. Downing (age 42) to know what he had done, or to confer with him about any one point of the treaty, but signed to what they would have, and we here signed to whatever in grosse was brought over by Mr. Coventry (age 39). And [Sir G. Downing (age 42)] tells me, just in these words, "My Chancellor (age 58) had a mind to keep himself from being questioned by clapping up a peace upon any terms". When I answered that there was other privy-councillors to be advised with besides him, and that, therefore, this whole peace could not be laid to his charge, he answered that nobody durst say any thing at the council-table but himself, and that the King (age 37) was as much afeard of saying any thing there as the meanest privy-councillor; and says more, that at this day the King (age 37), in familiar talk, do call the Chancellor (age 58) "the insolent man", and says that he would not let him speak himself in Council: which is very high, and do shew that the Chancellor (age 58) is like to be in a bad state, unless he can defend himself better than people think. And yet Creed tells me that he do hear that my [his son] Lord Cornbury do say that his father do long for the coming of the Parliament, in order to his own vindication, more than any one of his enemies.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1667. And here it comes into my head to set down what Mr. Rawlinson (age 53), whom I met in Fenchurch Street [Map] on Friday last, looking over his ruines there, told me, that he was told by one of my Chancellor's (age 58) gentlemen lately (----byname), that a grant coming to him to be sealed, wherein the King (age 37) hath given her [Baroness Castlemaine (age 26)], or somebody by her means, a place which he did not like well of, he did stop the grant; saying, that he thought this woman would sell everything shortly: which she hearing of, she sent to let him know that she had disposed of this place, and did not doubt, in a little time, to dispose of his. This Rawlinson do tell me my Chancellor's (age 58) own gentleman did tell him himself.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and walked to St. James's; but there I find Sir W. Coventry (age 39) gone from his chamber, and Mr. Wren (age 38) not yet come thither. But I up to the Duke of York (age 33), and there, after being ready, my Lord Bruncker (age 47) and I had an audience, and thence with my Lord Bruncker (age 47) to White Hall, and he told me, in discourse, how that, though it is true that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did long since propose to the Duke of York (age 33) the leaving his service, as being unable to fulfill it, as he should do, now he hath so much public business, and that the Duke of York (age 33) did bid him to say nothing of it, but that he would take time to please himself in another to come in his place; yet the Duke's doing it at this time, declaring that he hath found out another, and this one of the Chancellor's (age 58) servants, he cannot but think was done with some displeasure, and that it could not well be otherwise, that the Duke of York (age 33) should keep one in that place, that had so eminently opposed him in the defence of his father-in-law, nor could the Duchesse ever endure the sight of him, to be sure. But he thinks that the Duke of York (age 33) and he are parted upon clear terms of friendship.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1667. Thence I into St. James's Park, and there met Mr. Povy (age 53); and he and I to walk an hour or more in the Pell Mell [Map], talking of the times. He tells me, among other things, that this business of the Chancellor (age 58) do breed a kind of inward distance between the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 33), and that it cannot be avoided; for though the latter did at first move it through his folly, yet he is made to see that he is wounded by it, and is become much a less man than he was, and so will be: but he tells me that they are, and have always been, great dissemblers one towards another; and that their parting heretofore in France is never to be thoroughly reconciled between them. He tells me that he believes there is no such thing like to be, as a composition with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), and that she shall be got out of the way before the Parliament comes; for he says she is as high as ever she was, though he believes the King (age 37) is as weary of her as is possible, and would give any thing to remove her, but he is so weak in his passion that he dare not do it; that he do believe that my Chancellor (age 58) will be doing some acts in the Parliament which shall render him popular; and that there are many people now do speak kindly of him that did not before; but that, if he do do this, it must provoke the King (age 37), and that party that removed him. He seems to doubt what the King of France (age 29) will do, in case an accommodation shall be made between Spain and him for Flanders, for then he will have nothing more easy to do with his army than to subdue us. Parted with him at White Hall, and, there I took coach and took up my wife and Mercer, and so home and I to the office, where ended my letters, and then to my chamber with my boy to lay up some papers and things that lay out of order against to-morrow, to make it clear against the feast that I am to have. Here Mr. Pelling come to sit with us, and talked of musique and the musicians of the town, and so to bed, after supper.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1667. But here come Mr. Moore, and sat and discoursed with me of publique matters: the sum of which is, that he do doubt that there is more at the bottom than the removal of the Chancellor (age 58); that is, he do verily believe that the King (age 37) do resolve to declare the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate, and that we shall soon see it. This I do not think the Duke of York (age 33) will endure without blows; but his poverty, and being lessened by having the Chancellor (age 58) fallen and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) gone from him, will disable him from being able to do any thing almost, he being himself almost lost in the esteem of people; and will be more and more, unless my Chancellor (age 58), who is already begun to be pitied by some people, and to be better thought of than was expected, do recover himself in Parliament. He would seem to fear that this difference about the Crowne (if there be nothing else) will undo us. He do say that, that is very true; that my Lord [Chancellor (age 58)] did lately make some stop of some grants of £2000 a-year to my Lord Grandison (age 50), which was only in his name, for the use of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26) children; and that this did incense her, and she did speak very scornful words, and sent a scornful message to him about it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1667. Up, and several come to me, among others Mr. Yeabsly of Plymouth, Devon [Map], to discourse about their matters touching Tangier, and by and by Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who was with me a good while; who tells me that the Duke of York's (age 33) child is christened, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and the Marquis of Worcester (age 38) godfathers, and my Lady Suffolke (age 45) godmother; and they have named it Edgar, which is a brave name. But it seems they are more joyful in the Chancellor's (age 58) family, at the birth of this Prince, than in wisdom they should, for fear it should give the King (age 37) cause of jealousy.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1667. By and by to him, and he being ready, he and I out in his coach to my Chancellor's (age 58); there to Mr. Wren's (age 38) chamber, who did tell us the whole of Sir W. Pen's (age 46) having the order for this ship of ours, and we went with him to St. James's, and there I did see the copy of it, which is built upon a suggestion of his having given the King (age 37) a ship of his, "The Prosperous", wherein is such a cheat as I have the best advantage in the world over him, and will make him do reason, or lay him on his back. This I was very glad of, and having done as far as I could in it we returned, and I home, and there at the office all the morning, and at noon with my Lord Bruncker (age 47) to the Treasurer's office to look over the clerks who are there making up the books, but in such a manner as it is a shame to see.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1667. By and by my Lord come, and we did look over Yeabsly's business a little; and I find how prettily this cunning Lord can be partial and dissemble it in this case, being privy to the bribe he is to receive. This done; we away, and with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) to Westminster; who by the way told me how merry the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) and Court were the other day, when they were abroad a-hunting. They come to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) house at Cranbourne, and there were entertained, and all made drunk; and that all being drunk, Armerer did come to the King (age 37), and swore to him, "By God, Sir", says he, "you are not so kind to the Duke of York (age 33) of late as you used to be".-"Not I?" says the King (age 37). "Why so?"-"Why", says he, "if you are, let us drink his health".-"Why, let us", says the King (age 37). Then he fell on his knees, and drank it; and having done, the King (age 37) began to drink it. "Nay, Sir", says Armerer, "by God you must do it on your knees!" So he did, and then all the company: and having done it, all fell a-crying for joy, being all maudlin and kissing one another, the King (age 37) the Duke of York (age 33), and the Duke of York (age 33) the King (age 37): and in such a maudlin pickle as never people were: and so passed the day. But Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) tells me, that the King (age 37) hath this good luck, that the next day he hates to have any body mention what he had done the day before, nor will suffer any body to gain upon him that way; which is a good quality. Parted with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) at White Hall, and there I took coach and took up my wife at Unthanke's, and so out for ayre, it being a mighty pleasant day, as far as Bow, and so drank by the way, and home, and there to my chamber till by and by comes Captain Cocke (age 50) about business; who tells me that Mr. Bruncker is lost for ever, notwithstanding my Lord Bruncker (age 47) hath advised with him, Cocke (age 50), how he might make a peace with the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58), upon promise of serving him in the Parliament but Cocke (age 50) says that is base to offer, and will have no success neither. He says that Mr. Wren hath refused a present of Tom Wilson's for his place of Store-keeper of Chatham, Kent [Map], and is resolved never to take any thing; which is both wise in him, and good to the King's service. He stayed with me very late, here being Mrs. Turner (age 44) and W. Batelier drinking and laughing, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1667. Thence to the Excise office, and so to the Exchange [Map], and did a little business, and so home and took up my wife, and so carried her to the other end, where I 'light at my Lord Ashly's (age 46), by invitation, to dine there, which I did, and Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), Creed, and Yeabsly, upon occasion of the business of Yeabsly, who, God knows, do bribe him very well for it; and it is pretty to see how this great man do condescend to these things, and do all he can in his examining of his business to favour him, and yet with great cunning not to be discovered but by me that am privy to it. At table it is worth remembering that my Lord tells us that the House of Lords is the last appeal that a man can make, upon a poynt of interpretation of the law, and that therein they are above the judges; and that he did assert this in the Lords' House upon the late occasion of the quarrel between my Lord Bristoll (age 54) and the Chancellor (age 58), when the former did accuse the latter of treason, and the judges did bring it in not to be treason: my Lord Ashly (age 46) did declare that the judgment of the judges was nothing in the presence of their Lordships, but only as far as they were the properest men to bring precedents; but not to interpret the law to their Lordships, but only the inducements of their persuasions: and this the Lords did concur in. Another pretty thing was my Lady Ashly's speaking of the bad qualities of glass-coaches; among others, the flying open of the doors upon any great shake: but another was, that my Lady Peterborough (age 45) being in her glass-coach, with the glass up, and seeing a lady pass by in a coach whom she would salute, the glass was so clear, that she thought it had been open, and so ran her head through the glass, and cut all her forehead! After dinner, before we fell to the examination of Yeabsly's business, we were put into my Lord's room before he could come to us, and there had opportunity to look over his state of his accounts of the prizes; and there saw how bountiful the King (age 37) hath been to several people and hardly any man almost, Commander of the Navy of any note, but hath had some reward or other out of it; and many sums to the Privy-purse, but not so many, I see, as I thought there had been: but we could not look quite through it. But several Bedchamber-men and people about the Court had good sums; and, among others, Sir John Minnes (age 68) and Lord Bruncker (age 47) have £200 a-piece for looking to the East India prizes, while I did their work for them.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1667. At last, rose, and up, and broke our fast, and then took coach, and away, and at Newport [Map] did call on Mr. Lowther (age 26), and he and his friend, and the master of the house, their friend, where they were, a gentleman, did presently get a-horseback and overtook us, and went with us to Audley-End [Map], and did go along with us all over the house and garden: and mighty merry we were. The house indeed do appear very fine, but not so fine as it hath heretofore to me; particularly the ceilings are not so good as I always took them to be, being nothing so well wrought as my Chancellor's (age 58) are; and though the figure of the house without be very extraordinary good, yet the stayre-case is exceeding poor; and a great many pictures, and not one good one in the house but one of Harry the Eighth, done by Holben; and not one good suit of hangings in all the house, but all most ancient things, such as I would not give the hanging-up of in my house; and the other furniture, beds and other things, accordingly1. Only the gallery is good, and, above all things, the cellars, where we went down and drank of much good liquor; and indeed the cellars are fine: and here my wife and I did sing to my great content.

Note 1. Mr. George T. Robinson, F.S.A., in a paper on "Decorative Plaster Work", read before the Society of Arts in April, 1891, refers to the ceilings at Audley End as presenting an excellent idea of the state of the stuccoer's art in the middle of James I's reign, and adds, "Few houses in England can show so fine a series of the same date ... The great hall has medallions in the square portions of the ceiling formed by its dividing timber beams. The large saloon on the principal floor-a room about 66 feet long by 30 feet wide-has a very remarkable ceiling of the pendentive type, which presents many peculiarities, the most notable of which, that these not only depend from the ceiling, but the outside ones spring from the walls in a natural and structural manner. This is a most unusual circumstance in the stucco work of the time, the reason for the omission of this reasonable treatment evidently being the unwillingness of the stuccoer to omit his elaborate frieze in which he took such delight" ("Journal Soc. of Arts", vol. xxxix., p. 449).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1667. At home we find that Sir W. Batten's (deceased) burial was to-day carried from hence, with a hundred or two of coaches, to Walthamstow [Map], and there buried. Here I hear by Mr. Pierce the surgeon; and then by Mr. Lewes, and also by Mr. Hater, that the Parliament hath met on Thursday last, and adjourned to Monday next. The King (age 37) did make them a very kind speech, promising them to leave all to them to do, and call to account what and whom they pleased; and declared by my Lord Keeper (age 61) how many, thirty-six, actes he had done since he saw them; among others, disbanding the army, and putting all Papists out of employment, and displacing persons that had managed their business ill, that the Parliament is mightily pleased with the King's speech, and voted giving him thanks for what he said and hath done; and, among things, would by name thank him for displacing my Chancellor (age 58), for which a great many did speak in the House, but it was opposed by some, and particularly Harry Coventry (age 48), who got that it should be put to a Committee to consider what particulars to mention in their thanks to the King (age 37), saying that it was too soon to give thanks for the displacing of a man, before they knew or had examined what was the cause of his displacing.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1667. And so walked over the Park to White Hall, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who walked with me, and told me most of the news I heard last night of the Parliament; and thinks they will do all things very well, only they will be revenged of my Chancellor (age 58); and says, however, that he thinks there will be but two things proved on him; and that one is, that he may have said to the King (age 37), and to others, words to breed in the King (age 37) an ill opinion of the Parliament-that they were factious, and that it was better to dissolve them: and this, he thinks, they will be able to prove; but what this will amount to, he knows not. And next, that he hath taken money for several bargains that have been made with the Crown; and did instance one that is already complained of: but there are so many more involved in it, that, should they unravel things of this sort, every body almost will be more or less concerned. But these are the two great points which he thinks they will insist on, and prove against him.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1667. Thence I to Mrs. Martin's, where by appointment comes to me Mrs. Howlett, which I was afraid was to have told me something of my freedom with her daughter, but it was not so, but only to complain to me of her son-in-law, how he abuses and makes a slave of her, and his mother is one that encourages him in it, so that they are at this time upon very bad terms one with another, and desires that I would take a time to advise him and tell him what it becomes him to do, which office I am very glad of, for some ends of my own also con sa fille, and there drank and parted, I mightily satisfied with this business, and so home by water with Sir W. Warren, who happened to be at Westminster, and there I pretty strange to him, and little discourse, and there at the office Lord Bruncker (age 47), W. Pen, T. Hater and I did some business, and so home to dinner, and thence I out to visit Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and ladies there; and from him do understand that the King (age 37) himself (but this he told me as a great secret) is satisfied that this thanks which he expects from the House, for the laying aside of my Chancellor (age 58), is a thing irregular; but, since it is come into the House, he do think it necessary to carry it on, and will have it, and hath made his mind known to be so, to some of the House. But Sir G. Carteret (age 57) do say he knows nothing of what my Lord Bruncker (age 47) told us to-day, that the King (age 37) was angry with the Duke of York (age 34) yesterday, and advised him not to hinder what he had a mind to have done, touching this business; which is news very bad, if true. Here I visited my Baroness Carteret (age 65), who hath been sick some time, but now pretty well, but laid on her bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked with Mr. Scowen, who tells me that it is at last carried in the House that the thanks shall be given to the King (age 37)-among other things, particularly for the removal of my Chancellor (age 58); but he tells me it is a strange act, and that which he thinks would never have been, but that the King (age 37) did insist upon it, that, since it come into the House, it might not be let fall.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1667. Thence with Sir Thomas Allen (age 34), in a little sorry coach which he hath set up of late, and Sir Jeremy Smith, to White Hall, and there I took water and went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there hear that the House is this day again upon the business of giving the King (age 37) the thanks of the House for his speech, and, among other things, for laying aside of my Chancellor (age 58).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1667. Up, and at home most of the morning with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), about some accounts of his; and for news he tells me that the Commons and Lords have concurred, and delivered the King (age 37) their thanks, among other things, for his removal of the Chancellor (age 58); who took their thanks very well, and, among other things, promised them, in these words, never, in any degree, to entertain the Chancellor (age 58) any employment again.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1667. And he tells me that it is very true, he hath it from one that was by, that the King (age 37) did, give the Duke of York (age 34) a sound reprimand; told him that he had lived with him with more kindness than ever any brother King lived with a brother, and that he lived as much like a monarch as himself, but advised him not to cross him in his designs about the Chancellor (age 58); in which the Duke of York (age 34) do very wisely acquiesce, and will be quiet as the King (age 37) bade him, but presently commands all his friends to be silent in the business of the Chancellor (age 58), and they were so: but that the Chancellor (age 58) hath done all that is possible to provoke the King (age 37), and to bring himself to lose his head by enraging of people. He gone, I to the office, busy all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1667. Thence to Mrs. Martin's, and there staid till two o'clock, and drank and talked, and did give her £3 to buy my goddaughter her first new gowne.... [Missing text: "and I did hazer algo con her;"] and so away homeward, and in my way met Sir W. Pen (age 46) in Cheapside [Map], and went into his coach, and back again and to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Black Prince" again: which is now mightily bettered by that long letter being printed, and so delivered to every body at their going in, and some short reference made to it in heart in the play, which do mighty well; but, when all is done, I think it the worst play of my Lord Orrery's (age 46). But here, to my great satisfaction, I did see my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and his mistress (age 23), with her father (age 55) and mother (age 54); and I am mightily pleased with the young lady, being handsome enough-and, indeed, to my great liking, as I would have her. I could not but look upon them all the play; being exceeding pleased with my good hap to see them, God bring them together! and they are now already mighty kind to one another, and he is as it were one of their family. The play done I home, and to the office a while, and then home to supper, very hungry, and then to my chamber, to read the true story, in Speed, of the Black Prince, and so to bed. This day, it was moved in the House that a day might be appointed to bring in an impeachment against the Chancellor (age 58), but it was decried as being irregular; but that, if there was ground for complaint, it might be brought to the Committee for miscarriages, and, if they thought good, to present it to the House; and so it was carried. They did also vote this day thanks to be given to the Prince and Duke of Albemarle (age 58), for their care and conduct in the last year's war, which is a strange act; but, I know not how, the blockhead Albemarle hath strange luck to be loved, though he be, and every man must know it, the heaviest man in the world, but stout and honest to his country. This evening late, Mr. Moore come to me to prepare matters for my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) defence; wherein I can little assist, but will do all I can; and am in great fear of nothing but the damned business of the prizes, but I fear my Lord will receive a cursed deal of trouble by it.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1667. Another by Crispin, the waterman, who said he was upon "The Charles"; and spoke to Lord Bruncker (age 47) coming by in his boat, to know whether they should carry up "The Charles", they being a great many naked men without armes, and he told them she was well as she was. Both these have little in them indeed, but yet both did stick close against him; and he is the weakest man in the world to make his defence, and so is like to have much fault laid on him therefrom. Spragg (age 47) was in with them all the afternoon, and hath much fault laid on him for a man that minded his pleasure, and little else of his whole charge. I walked in the lobby, and there do hear from Mr. Chichly (age 53) that they were (the Commissioners of the Ordnance) shrewdly put to it yesterday, being examined with all severity and were hardly used by them, much otherwise than we, and did go away with mighty blame; and I am told by every body that it is likely to stick mighty hard upon them: at which every body is glad, because of Duncomb's pride, and their expecting to have the thanks of the House whereas they have deserved, as the Parliament apprehends, as bad as bad can be. Here is great talk of an impeachment brought in against my Lord Mordaunt (age 41), and that another will be brought in against my Chancellor (age 58) in a few days. Here I understand for certain that they have ordered that my Lord Arlington's (age 49) letters, and Secretary Morrice's (age 64) letters of intelligence, be consulted, about the business of the Dutch fleete's coming abroad, which is a very high point, but this they have done, but in what particular manner I cannot justly say, whether it was not with the King's leave first asked. Here late, as I have said, and at last they broke up, and we had our commissions again, and I do hear how Birch (age 52) is the high man that do examine and trouble every body with his questions, and they say that he do labour all he can to clear Pett, but it seems a witness has come in tonight, C. Millett, who do declare that he did deliver a message from the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) time enough for him to carry up "The Charles", and he neglected it, which will stick very hard, it seems, on him. So Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I in his coach home, and there to supper, a good supper, and so weary, and my eyes spent, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall (calling at Michell's and drank a dram of strong water, but it being early I did not see his wife), and thence walked to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) lodging, but he was gone out, and so going towards St. James's I find him at his house which is fitting for him; and there I to him, and was with him above an hour alone, discoursing of the matters of the nation, and our Office, and himself. He owns that he is, at this day, the chief person aymed at by the Parliament-that is, by the friends of my Chancellor (age 58), and also by the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), by reason of his unhappy shewing of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) letter, the other day, in the House; but that he thinks that he is not liable to any hurt they can fasten on him for anything, he is so well armed to justify himself in every thing, unless in the old business of selling places, when he says every body did; and he will now not be forward to tell his own story, as he hath been; but tells me he is grown wiser, and will put them to prove any thing, and he will defend himself: besides that, he will dispute the statute, thinking that it will not be found to reach him. We did talk many things, which, as they come into my mind now, I shall set down without order: that he is weary of public employment; and neither ever designed, nor will ever, if his commission were brought to him wrapt in gold, would he accept of any single place in the State, as particularly Secretary of State; which, he says, the world discourses Morrice is willing to resign, and he thinks the King (age 37) might have thought of him, but he would not, by any means, now take it, if given him, nor anything, but in commission with others, who may bear part of the blame; for now he observes well, that whoever did do anything singly are now in danger, however honest and painful they were, saying that he himself was the only man, he thinks, at the council-board that spoke his mind clearly, as he thought, to the good of the King (age 37); and the rest, who sat silent, have nothing said to them, nor are taken notice of. That the first time the King (age 37) did take him so closely into his confidence and ministry of affairs was upon the business of Chatham, Kent [Map], when all the disturbances were there, and in the Kingdom; and then, while everybody was fancying for himself, the King (age 37) did find him to persuade him to call for the Parliament, declaring that it was against his own proper interest, forasmuch as [it was] likely they would find faults with him, as well as with others, but that he would prefer the service of the King (age 37) before his own: and, thereupon, the King (age 37) did take him into his special notice, and, from that time to this, hath received him so; and that then he did see the folly and mistakes of the Chancellor (age 58) in the management of things, and saw that matters were never likely to be done well in that sort of conduct, and did persuade the King (age 37) to think fit of the taking away the seals from the Chancellor (age 58), which, when it was done, he told me that he himself, in his own particular, was sorry for it; for, while he stood, there was he and my Lord Arlington (age 49) to stand between him and harm: whereas now there is only my Lord Arlington (age 49), and he is now down, so that all their fury is placed upon him but that he did tell the King (age 37), when he first moved it, that, if he thought the laying of him, W. Coventry, aside, would at all facilitate the removing of the Chancellor (age 58), he would most willingly submit to it, whereupon the King (age 37) did command him to try the Duke of York (age 34) about it, and persuade him to it, which he did, by the King's command, undertake, and compass, and the Duke of York (age 34) did own his consent to the King (age 37), but afterwards was brought to be of another mind for the Chancellor (age 58), and now is displeased with him, and [so is] the Duchesse, so that she will not see him; but he tells me the Duke of York (age 34) seems pretty kind, and hath said that he do believe that W. Coventry did mean well, and do it only out of judgment. He tells me that he never was an intriguer in his life, nor will be, nor of any combination of persons to set up this, or fling down that, nor hath, in his own business, this Parliament, spoke to three members to say any thing for him, but will stand upon his own defence, and will stay by it, and thinks that he is armed against all they can [say], but the old business of selling places, and in that thinks they cannot hurt him. However, I do find him mighty willing to have his name used as little as he can, and he was glad when I did deliver him up a letter of his to me, which did give countenance to the discharging of men by ticket at Chatham, Kent [Map], which is now coming in question; and wherein, I confess, I am sorry to find him so tender of appearing, it being a thing not only good and fit, all that was done in it, but promoted and advised by him. But he thinks the House is set upon wresting anything to his prejudice that they can pick up. He tells me he did never, as a great many have, call the Chancellor (age 58) rogue and knave, and I know not what; but all that he hath said, and will stand by, is, that his counsels were not good, nor the manner of his managing of things. I suppose he means suffering the King (age 37) to run in debt; for by and by the King (age 37) walking in the parke, with a great crowd of his idle people about him, I took occasion to say that it was a sorry thing to be a poor King, and to have others to come to correct the faults of his own servants, and that this was it that brought us all into this condition. He answered that he would never be a poor King, and then the other would mend of itself. "No", says he, "I would eat bread and drink water first, and this day discharge all the idle company about me, and walk only with two footmen; and this I have told the King (age 37), and this must do it at last". I asked him how long the King (age 37) would suffer this. He told me the King (age 37) must suffer it yet longer, that he would not advise the King (age 37) to do otherwise; for it would break out again worse, if he should break them up before the core be come up. After this, we fell to other talk, of my waiting upon him hereafter, it may be, to read a chapter in Seneca, in this new house, which he hath bought, and is making very fine, when we may be out of employment, which he seems to wish more than to fear, and I do believe him heartily.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1667. Up, and at the office, my Lord Bruncker (age 47) and I close together till almost 3 after noon, never stirring, making up a report for the Committee this afternoon about the business of discharging men by ticket, which it seems the House is mighty earnest in, but is a foolery in itself, yet gives me a great deal of trouble to draw up a defence for the Board, as if it was a crime; but I think I have done it to very good purpose. Then to my Lady Williams's, with her and my Lord, and there did eat a snapp of good victuals, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where we find the House not up, but sitting all this day about the method of bringing in the charge against my Chancellor (age 58); and at last resolved for a Committee to draw up the heads, and so rose, and no Committee to sit tonight. Here Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and Lord Bruncker (age 47) and I did in the Hall (between the two Courts at the top of the Hall) discourse about a letter of Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) to Bruncker, whereon Bruncker did justify his discharging men by ticket, and insists on one word which Sir W. Coventry (age 39) would not seem very earnest to have left out, but I did see him concerned, and did after labour to suppress the whole letter, the thing being in itself really impertinent, but yet so it is that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) do not desire to have his name used in this business, and I have prevailed with Bruncker for it.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1667. Up, and all the morning at the office, and at noon Mr. Creed and Yeabsly dined with me (my wife gone to dine with Mrs. Pierce and see a play with her), and after dinner in comes Mr. Turner, of Eynsbury, lately come to town, and also after him Captain Hill of the "Coventry", who lost her at Barbadoes, and is come out of France, where he hath been long prisoner. After a great deal of mixed discourse, and then Mr. Turner and I alone a little in my closet, talking about my Lord Sandwich (age 42) (who I hear is now ordered by the King (age 37) to come home again), we all parted, and I by water, calling at Michell's, and saw and once kissed su wife, but I do think that he is jealous of her, and so she dares not stand out of his sight; so could not do more, but away by water to the Temple [Map], and there, after spending a little time in my bookseller's shop, I to Westminster; and there at the lobby do hear by Commissioner Pett (age 57), to my great amazement, that he is in worse condition than before, by the coming in of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) and Prince Rupert's (age 47) Narratives' this day; wherein the former do most severely lay matters upon him, so as the House this day have, I think, ordered him to the Tower again, or something like it; so that the poor man is likely to be overthrown, I doubt, right or wrong, so infinite fond they are of any thing the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) says or writes to them! I did then go down, and there met with Colonel Reames and cozen Roger Pepys (age 50); and there they do tell me how the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and the Prince have laid blame on a great many, and particularly on our Office in general; and particularly for want of provision, wherein I shall come to be questioned again in that business myself; which do trouble me. But my cozen Pepys and I had much discourse alone: and he do bewail the constitution of this House, and says there is a direct caball and faction, as much as is possible between those for and those against the Chancellor (age 58), and so in other factions, that there is nothing almost done honestly and with integrity; only some few, he says, there are, that do keep out of all plots and combinations, and when their time comes will speak and see right done, if possible; and that he himself is looked upon to be a man that will be of no faction, and so they do shun to make him; and I am glad of it. He tells me that he thanks God he never knew what it was to be tempted to be a knave in his life; till he did come into the House of Commons, where there is nothing done but by passion, and faction, and private interest. Reames did tell me of a fellow last night (one Kelsy, a commander of a fire-ship, who complained for want of his money paid him) did say that he did see one of the Commissioners of the Navy bring in three waggon-loads of prize-goods into Greenwich, Kent [Map] one night; but that the House did take no notice of it, nor enquire; but this is me, and I must expect to be called to account, and answer what I did as well as I can. So thence away home, and in Holborne, going round, it being dark, I espied Sir D. Gawden's coach, and so went out of mine into his; and there had opportunity to talk of the business of victuals, which the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and Prince did complain that they were in want of the last year: but we do conclude we shall be able to show quite the contrary of that; only it troubles me that we must come to contend with these great persons, which will overrun us. So with some disquiet in my mind on this account I home, and there comes Mr. Yeabsly, and he and I to even some accounts, wherein I shall be a gainer about £200, which is a seasonable profit, for I have got nothing a great while; and he being gone, I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1667. Thence home, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to the Excise Office to see what tallies are paying, and thence back to the Old Exchange [Map], by the way talking of news, and he owning Sir W. Coventry (age 39), in his opinion, to be one of the worthiest men in the nation, as I do really think he is. He tells me he do think really that they will cut off my Chancellor's (age 58) head, the Chancellor (age 58) at this day showing as much pride as is possible to those few that venture their fortunes by coming to see him; and that the Duke of York (age 34) is troubled much, knowing that those that fling down the Chancellor (age 58) cannot stop there, but will do something to him, to prevent his having it in his power hereafter to avenge himself and father-in-law upon them. And this Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) fears may be by divorcing the Queen (age 28) and getting another, or declaring the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate; which God forbid! He tells me he do verily believe that there will come in an impeachment of High Treason against my Lord of Ormond (age 57); among other things, for ordering the quartering of soldiers in Ireland on free quarters; which, it seems, is High Treason in that country, and was one of the things that lost the Lord Strafford his head, and the law is not yet repealed; which, he says, was a mighty oversight of him not to have it repealed, which he might with ease have done, or have justified himself by an Act. From the Exchange [Map] I took a coach, and went to Turlington, the great spectacle-maker, for advice, who dissuades me from using old spectacles, but rather young ones, and do tell me that nothing can wrong my eyes more than for me to use reading-glasses, which do magnify much.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1667. Up, and to Westminster, where to the Parliament door, and there spoke with Sir G. Downing (age 42), to see what was done yesterday at the Treasury for Tangier, and it proved as good as nothing, so that I do see we shall be brought to great straits for money there. He tells me here that he is passing a Bill to make the Excise and every other part of the King's Revenue assignable on the Exchequer, which indeed will be a very good thing. This he says with great glee as an act of his, and how poor a thing this was in the beginning, and with what envy he carried it on, and how my Chancellor (age 58) could never endure him for it since he first begun it. He tells me that the thing the House is just now upon is that of taking away the charter from the Company of Woodmongers, whose frauds, it seems, have been mightily laid before them. He tells me that they are like to fly very high against my Chancellor (age 58).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1667. Called up betimes by Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to good purpose most of the morning-I in my dressing-gown with him, on our Tangier accounts, and stated them well; and here he tells me that he believes it will go hard with my Chancellor (age 58).

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1667. Up and to my workmen, who are at work close again, and I at the office all the morning, and there do hear by a messenger that Roger Pepys (age 50) would speak with me, so before the office up I to Westminster, and there find the House very busy, and like to be so all day, about my Chancellor's (age 58) impeachment, whether treason or not, where every body is mighty busy. I spoke with my cozen Roger (age 50), whose business was only to give me notice that Carcasse hath been before the Committee; and to warn me of it, which is a great courtesy in him to do, and I desire him to continue to do so. This business of this fellow, though it may be a foolish thing, yet it troubles me, and I do plainly see my weakness that I am not a man able to go through trouble, as other men, but that I should be a miserable man if I should meet with adversity, which God keep me from! He desirous to get back into the House, he having his notes in his hand, the lawyers being now speaking to the point of whether treason or not treason, the article of advising the King (age 37) to break up the Parliament, and to govern by the sword.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1667. Thence I down to the Hall, and there met Mr. King, the Parliament-man for Harwich [Map], and there he did shew, and let me take a copy of, all the articles against my Chancellor (age 58), and what members they were that undertook to bring witnesses to make them good, of which I was mighty glad, and so away home, and to dinner and to my workmen, and in the afternoon out to get Simpson the joyner to come to work at my office, and so back home and to my letters by the post to-night, and there, by W. Pen (age 46), do hear that this article was overvoted in the House not to be a ground of impeachment of treason, at which I was glad, being willing to have no blood spilt, if I could help it.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1667. Thence with him and Lord Bruncker (age 47) to Captain Cocke's (age 50) (he out of doors), and there drank their morning draught, and thence Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I toward the Temple [Map] in coach together; and there he did tell me how the King (age 37) do all he can in the world to overthrow my Chancellor (age 58), and that notice is taken of every man about the King (age 37) that is not seen to promote the ruine of the Chancellor (age 58); and that this being another great day in his business, he dares not but be there. He tells me that as soon as Secretary Morrice (age 65) brought the Great Seale from my Chancellor (age 58), Bab. May (age 39) fell upon his knees, and catched the King (age 37) about the legs, and joyed him, and said that this was the first time that ever he could call him King of England, being freed from this great man: which was a most ridiculous saying. And he told me that, when first my Lord Gerard (age 49), a great while ago, come to the King (age 37), and told him that the Chancellor (age 58) did say openly that the King (age 37) was a lazy person and not fit to govern, which is now made one of the things in the people's mouths against the Chancellor (age 58), "Why", says the King (age 37), "that is no news, for he hath told me so twenty times, and but the other day he told me so"; and made matter of mirth at it: but yet this light discourse is likely to prove bad to him. I 'light at the Temple [Map], and went to my tailor's and mercer's about a cloake, to choose the stuff, and so to my bookseller's and bought some books, and so home to dinner, and Simpson my joyner with me, and after dinner, my wife, and I, and Willett, to the King's play-house, and there saw "The Indian Emperour", a good play, but not so good as people cry it up, I think, though above all things Nell's ill speaking of a great part made me mad.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1667. Up, and to the Office, where sat all the morning; and there hear the Duke of York (age 34) do yet do very well with his smallpox: pray God he may continue to do so! This morning also, to my astonishment, I hear that yesterday my Chancellor (age 58), to another of his Articles, that of betraying the King's councils to his enemies, is voted to have matter against him for an impeachment of High Treason, and that this day the impeachment is to be carried up to the House of Lords which is very high, and I am troubled at it; for God knows what will follow, since they that do this must do more to secure themselves against any that will revenge this, if it ever come in their power! At noon home to dinner, and then to my office, and there saw every thing finished, so as my papers are all in order again and my office twice as pleasant as ever it was, having a noble window in my closet and another in my office, to my great content, and so did business late, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1667. By and by I met with Mr. Wren (age 38), who tells me that the Duke of York (age 34) is in as good condition as is possible for a man, in his condition of the smallpox. He, I perceive, is mightily concerned in the business of my Chancellor (age 58), the impeachment against whom is gone up to the House of Lords; and great differences there are in the Lords' House about it, and the Lords are very high one against another.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1667. At the office close all the morning. At noon, all my clerks with me to dinner, to a venison pasty; and there comes Creed, and dined with me, and he tells me how high the Lords were in the Lords' House about the business of the Chancellor (age 58), and that they are not yet agreed to impeach him.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1667. Thence to Westminster, and there I walked with several, and do hear that there is to be a conference between the two Houses today; so I stayed: and it was only to tell the Commons that the Lords cannot agree to the confining or sequestring of the Earle of Clarendon (age 58) from the Parliament, forasmuch as they do not specify any particular crime which they lay upon him and call Treason. This the House did receive, and so parted: at which, I hear, the Commons are like to grow very high, and will insist upon their privileges, and the Lords will own theirs, though the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), Bristoll (age 55), and others, have been very high in the House of Lords to have had him committed. This is likely to breed ill blood.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1667. They gone, towards night, I to the office awhile, and then home and to my chamber, where busy till by and by comes Mr. Moore, and he staid and supped and talked with me about many things, and tells me his great fear that all things will go to ruin among us, for that the King (age 37) hath, as he says Sir Thomas Crew (age 43) told him, been heard to say that the quarrel is not between my Chancellor (age 58) and him, but his brother and him; which will make sad work among us if that be once promoted, as to be sure it will, Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) being now the only counsel the King (age 37) follows, so as Arlington (age 49) and Coventry (age 39) are come to signify little. He tells me they are likely to fall upon my Lord Sandwich (age 42); but, for my part, sometimes I am apt to think they cannot do him much harm, he telling me that there is no great fear of the business of Resumption! By and by, I got him to read part of my Lord Cooke's chapter of treason, which is mighty well worth reading, and do inform me in many things, and for aught I see it is useful now to know what these crimes are.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1667. Thence, it being too soon, I to Westminster Hall [Map], it being now about 7 at night, and there met Mr. Gregory, my old acquaintance, an understanding gentleman; and he and I walked an hour together, talking of the bad prospect of the times; and the sum of what I learn from him is this: That the King (age 37) is the most concerned in the world against the Chancellor (age 58), and all people that do not appear against him, and therefore is angry with the Bishops, having said that he had one Bishop on his side (Crofts ), and but one: that Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) are now his only Cabinet Council1 and that, before the Duke of York (age 34) fell sick, Buckingham (age 39) was admitted to the King (age 37) of his Cabinet, and there stayed with him several hours, and the Duke of York (age 34) shut out. That it is plain that there is dislike between the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34), and that it is to be feared that the House will go so far against the Chancellor (age 58), that they must do something to undo the Duke of York (age 34), or will not think themselves safe. That this Lord Vaughan (age 28), that is so great against the Chancellor (age 58), is one of the lewdest fellows of the age, worse than Sir Charles Sidly (age 28); and that he was heard to swear, God damn him, he would do my Lord Clarendon's (age 58) business. That he do find that my Lord Clarendon (age 58) hath more friends in both Houses than he believes he would have, by reason that they do see what are the hands that pull him down; which they do not like. That Harry Coventry (age 48) was scolded at by the King (age 37) severely the other day; and that his answer was that, if he must not speak what he thought in this business in Parliament, he must not come thither. And he says that by this very business Harry Coventry (age 48) hath got more fame and common esteem than any gentleman in England hath at this day, and is an excellent and able person. That the King (age 37), who not long ago did say of Bristoll (age 55), that he was a man able in three years to get himself a fortune in any kingdom in the world, and lose all again in three months, do now hug him, and commend his parts every where, above all the world. How fickle is this man [the King (age 37)], and how unhappy we like to be! That he fears some furious courses will be taken against the Duke of York (age 34); and that he hath heard that it was designed, if they cannot carry matters against the Chancellor (age 58), to impeach the Duke of York (age 34) himself, which God forbid! That Sir Edward Nicholas (age 74), whom he served while Secretary, is one of the best men in the world, but hated by the Queen-Mother (age 57), for a service he did the old King against her mind and her favourites; and that she and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) did make the King (age 37) to lay him aside: but this man says that he is one of the most perfect heavenly and charitable men in the whole world.

Note 1. The term Cabinet Council, as stated by Clarendon, originated thus, in 1640: "The bulk and burden of the state affairs lay principally upon the shoulders of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Strafford, and the Lord Cottington; some others being joined to them, as the Earl of Northumberland for ornament, the Bishop of London for his place, the two Secretaries, Sir H. Vane and Sir Francis Windebank, for service and communication of intelligence: only the Marquis of Hamilton, indeed, by his skill and interest, bore as great a part as he had a mind to do, and had the skill to meddle no further than he had a mind. These persons made up the committee of state, which was reproachfully after called the junto, and enviously then in the Court the Cabinet Council" ("History of the Rebellion", vol. i., p. 211, edit. 1849).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and to church with my wife. A dull sermon of Mr. Mills, and then home, without strangers to dinner, and then my wife to read, and I to the office, enter my journall to this day, and so home with great content that it is done, but with sorrow to my eyes. Then home, and got my wife to read to me out of Fuller's Church History, when by and by comes Captain Cocke (age 50), who sat with me all the evening, talking, and I find by him, as by all others, that we are like to expect great confusions, and most of our discourse was the same, and did agree with that the last night, particularly that about the difference between the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) which is like to be. He tells me that he hears that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) was, a little before the Duke of York (age 34) fell sick, with the Duke of York (age 34) in his closet, and fell on his knees, and begged his pardon for what he hath done to my Chancellor (age 58); but this I dare not soon believe. But he tells me another thing, which he says he had from the person himself who spoke with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), who, he says, is a very sober and worthy man, that he did lately speak with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) about his greatness now with the King (age 37), and told him-"But, sir, these things that the King (age 37) do now, in suffering the Parliament to do all this, you know are not fit for the King (age 37) to suffer, and you know how often you have said to me that the King (age 37) was a weak man, and unable to govern, but to be governed, and that you could command him as you listed; why do you suffer him to go on in these things?"-"Why", says the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), "I do suffer him to do this, that I may hereafter the better command him". This he swears to me the person himself to whom the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) said this did tell it him, and is a man of worth, understanding, and credit. He told me one odd passage by the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), speaking how hasty a man he is, and how for certain he would have killed Sir W. Coventry (age 39), had he met him in a little time after his shewing his letter in the House. He told me that a certain lady, whom he knows, did tell him that, she being certainly informed that some of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) family did say that the Earl of Torrington was a bastard, [she] did think herself concerned to tell the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) of it, and did first tell the Duchesse, and was going to tell the old man, when the Duchesse pulled her back by the sleeve, and hindered her, swearing to her that if he should hear it, he would certainly kill the servant that should be found to have said it, and therefore prayed her to hold her peace. One thing more he told me, which is, that Garraway (age 50) is come to town, and is thinking how to bring the House to mind the public state of the nation and to put off these particular piques against man and man, and that he propounding this to Sir W. Coventry (age 39), Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did give no encouragement to it: which he says is that by their running after other men he may escape. But I do believe this is not true neither. But however I am glad that Garraway (age 50) is here, and that he do begin to think of the public condition in reference to our neighbours that we are in, and in reference to ourselves, whereof I am mightily afeard of trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1667. Thence with W. Hewer (age 25) and our messenger, Marlow, home by coach, and so late at letters, and then home to supper, and my wife to read and then to bed. This night I wrote to my father, in answer to a new match which is proposed (the executor of Ensum, my sister's former servant) for my sister (age 26), that I will continue my mind of giving her £500, if he likes of the match. My father did also this week, by Shepley, return me up a 'Guinny, which, it seems, upon searching the ground, they have found since I was there. I was told this day that [his son] Lory Hide (age 25)1, second son of my Chancellor (age 58), did some time since in the House say, that if he thought his father was guilty but of one of the things then said against him, he would be the first that should call for judgement against him: which Mr. Waller (age 61), the poet, did say was spoke like the old Roman, like Brutus, for its greatness and worthiness.

Note 1. Laurence Hyde (age 25), second son of Chancellor (age 58) Clarendon (1614-1711). He held many important offices, and was First Lord of the Treasury, 1679-84; created Earl of Rochester in 1681, and K.G. 1685.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1667. So that upon the Lords sending to the Commons, as I am told, to have a conference for them to give their answer to the Commons's Reasons, the Commons did desire a free conference: but the Lords do deny it; and the reason is, that they hold not the Commons any Court, but that themselves only are a Court, and the Chief Court of judicature, and therefore are not to dispute the laws and method of their own Court with them that are none, and so will not submit so much as to have their power disputed. And it is conceived that much of this eagerness among the Lords do arise from the fear some of them have, that they may be dealt with in the same manner themselves, and therefore do stand upon it now. It seems my Lord Clarendon (age 58) hath, as is said and believed, had his horses several times in his coach, ready to carry him to the Tower, expecting a message to that purpose; but by this means his case is like to be laid by.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon home, where my wife not very well, but is to go to Mr. Mills's child's christening, where she is godmother, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir R. Brookes (age 30) her companions. I left her after dinner (my clerks dining with me) to go with Sir J. Minnes (age 68), and I to the office, where did much business till after candlelight, and then my eyes beginning to fail me, I out and took coach to Arundell House [Map], where the meeting of Gresham College was broke up; but there meeting Creed, I with him to the taverne in St. Clement's Churchyard, where was Deane Wilkins (age 53), Dr. Whistler, Dr. Floyd (age 40), a divine admitted, I perceive, this day, and other brave men; and there, among other things of news, I do hear, that upon the reading of the House of Commons's Reasons of the manner of their proceedings in the business of my Chancellor (age 58), the Reasons were so bad, that my Lord Bristoll (age 55) himself did declare that he would not stand to what he had, and did still, advise the Lords to concur to, upon any of the Reasons of the House of Commons; but if it was put to the question whether it should be done on their Reasons, he would be against them; and indeed it seems the Reasons-however they come to escape the House of Commons, which shews how slightly the greatest matters are done in this world, and even in Parliaments were none of them of strength, but the principle of them untrue; they saying, that where any man is brought before a judge, accused of Treason in general, without specifying the particular, the judge do there constantly and is obliged to commit him. Whereas the question being put by the Lords to my Lord Keeper, he said that quite the contrary was true: and then, in the Sixth Article (I will get a copy of them if I can) there are two or three things strangely asserted to the diminishing of the King's power, as is said, at least things that heretofore would not have been heard of. But then the question being put among the Lords, as my Lord Bristoll (age 55) advised, whether, upon the whole matter and Reasons that had been laid before them, they would commit my Lord Clarendon (age 58), it was carried five to one against it; there being but three Bishops against him, of whom Cosens (age 72) and Dr. Reynolds were two, and I know not the third. This made the opposite Lords, as Bristoll (age 55) and Buckingham (age 39), so mad, that they declared and protested against it, speaking very broad that there was mutiny and rebellion in the hearts of the Lords, and that they desired they might enter their dissents, which they did do, in great fury.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1667. Up betimes, and drinking my morning draught of strong water with Betty Michell, I had not opportunity para baiser la, I by water to White Hall, and there met Creed, and thence with him to Westminster Hall [Map], where we talked long together of news, and there met with Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's Secretary, and from him learn the truth of all I heard last night; and understand further, that this stiffness of the Lords is in no manner of kindness to my Chancellor (age 58), for he neither hath, nor do, nor for the future likely can oblige any of them, but rather the contrary; but that they do fear what the consequence may be to themselves, should they yield in his case, as many of them have reason. And more, he shewed me how this is rather to the wrong and prejudice of my Chancellor (age 58); for that it is better for him to come to be tried before the Lords, where he can have right and make interest, than, when the Parliament is up, be committed by the King (age 37), and tried by a Court on purpose made by the King (age 37), of what Lords the King (age 37) pleases, who have a mind to have his head. So that my Lord [Cornbury] himself, his son, he tells me, hath moved, that if they have Treason against my Lord of Clarendon (age 58), that they would specify it and send it up to the Lords, that he might come to his trial; so full of intrigues this business is! Having now a mind to go on and to be rid of Creed, I could not, but was forced to carry him with me to the Excise Office, and thence to the Temple [Map], and there walked a good while in the Temple [Map] church, observing the plainness of Selden's tomb, and how much better one of his executors hath, who is buried by him, and there I parted with him and took coach and home, where to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1667. Up, and all the morning at my Lord Bruncker's (age 47) lodgings with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Pen (age 46) about Sir W. Warren's accounts, wherein I do not see that they are ever very likely to come to an understanding of them, as Sir J. Minnes (age 68) hath not yet handled them. Here till noon, and then home to dinner, where Mr. Pierce comes to me, and there, in general, tells me how the King (age 37) is now fallen in and become a slave to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), led by none but him, whom he, Mr. Pierce, swears he knows do hate the very person of the King (age 37), and would, as well as will, certainly ruin him. He do say, and I think with right, that the King (age 37) do in this do the most ungrateful part of a master to a servant that ever was done, in this carriage of his to my Chancellor (age 58): that, it may be, the Chancellor (age 58) may have faults, but none such as these they speak of; that he do now really fear that all is going to ruin, for he says he hears that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) hath been, just before his sickness, with the Duke of York (age 34), to ask his forgiveness and peace for what he had done; for that he never could foresee that what he meant so well, in the councilling to lay by the Chancellor (age 58), should come to this. As soon as dined, I with my boy Tom to my bookbinder's, where all the afternoon long till 8 or 9 at night seeing him binding up two or three collections of letters and papers that I had of him, but above all things my little abstract pocket book of contracts, which he will do very neatly. Then home to read, sup, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1667. Up, and at the office all this morning, and then home to dinner, and then by coach sent my wife to the King's playhouse, and I to White Hall, there intending, with Lord Bruncker (age 47), Sir J. Minnes (age 68), and Sir T. Harvy (age 42) to have seen the Duke of York (age 34), whom it seems the King (age 37) and Queen (age 29) have visited, and so we may now well go to see him. But there was nobody could speak with him, and so we parted, leaving a note in Mr. Wren's (age 38) chamber that we had been there, he being at the free conference of the two Houses about this great business of my Chancellor's (age 58), at which they were at this hour, three in the afternoon, and there they say my Lord Anglesey (age 53) do his part admirablyably, and each of us taking a copy of the Guinny company's defence to a petition against them to the Parliament the other day.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1667. Thence, paying our shot, 6s. apiece, I home, and there to the office and wrote my letters, and then home, my eyes very sore with yesterday's work, and so home and tried to make a piece by my eare and viall to "I wonder what the grave", &c., and so to supper and to bed, where frighted a good while and my wife again with noises, and my wife did rise twice, but I think it was Sir John Minnes's (age 68) people again late cleaning their house, for it was past I o'clock in the morning before we could fall to sleep, and so slept. But I perceive well what the care of money and treasure in a man's house is to a man that fears to lose it. My Lord Anglesey (age 53) told me this day that he did believe the House of Commons would, the next week, yield to the Lords; but, speaking with others this day, they conclude they will not, but that rather the King (age 37) will accommodate it by committing my Lord Clarendon (age 58) himself. I remember what Mr. Evelyn (age 47) said, that he did believe we should soon see ourselves fall into a Commonwealth again. Joseph Williamson I find mighty kind still, but close, not daring to say anything almost that touches upon news or state of affairs.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Dec 1667. Thence to Lord Crew's, and there dined with him; where, after dinner, he took me aside, and bewailed the condition of the nation, how the King (age 37) and his brother are at a distance about this business of the Chancellor (age 58), and the two Houses differing. And he do believe that there are so many about the King (age 37) like to be concerned and troubled by the Parliament, that they will get him to dissolve or prorogue the Parliament; and the rather, for that the King (age 37) is likely, by this good husbandry of the Treasury, to get out of debt, and the Parliament is likely to give no money. Among other things, my Lord Crew (age 69) did tell me, with grief, that he hears that the King (age 37) of late hath not dined nor supped with the Queen (age 29), as he used of late to do. After a little discourse, Mr. Caesar, he dining there, did give us some musique on his lute (Mr. John Crew being there) to my great content, and then away I, and Mr. Caesar followed me and told me that my boy Tom hath this day declared to him that he cared not for the French lute and would learn no more, which Caesar out of faithfulness tells me that I might not spend any more money on him in vain. I shall take the boy to task about it, though I am contented to save my money if the boy knows not what is good for himself. So thanked him, and indeed he is a very honest man I believe, and away home, there to get something ready for the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and so took my wife and girle and set them at Unthanke's, and I to White Hall, and there with the Commissioners of the Treasury, who I find in mighty good condition to go on in payment of the seamen off, and thence I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with my cozen Roger (age 50) and walked a good while with him; he tells me of the high vote of the Commons this afternoon, which I also heard at White Hall, that the proceedings of the Lords in the case of my Lord Clarendon (age 58) are an obstruction to justice, and of ill precedent to future times. This makes every body wonder what will be the effect of it, most thinking that the King (age 37) will try him by his own Commission. It seems they were mighty high to have remonstrated, but some said that was too great an appeale to the people. Roger is mighty full of fears of the consequence of it, and wishes the King (age 37) would dissolve them. So we parted, and I bought some Scotch cakes at Wilkinson's in King Street, and called my wife, and home, and there to supper, talk, and to bed. Supped upon these cakes, of which I have eat none since we lived at Westminster. This night our poor little dogg Fancy was in a strange fit, through age, of which she has had five or six.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1667. Up, by candlelight, the only time I think I have done so this winter, and a coach being got over night, I to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39), the first time I have seen him at his new house since he come to lodge there. He tells me of the vote for none of the House to be of the Commission for the Bill of Accounts; which he thinks is so great a disappointment to Birch (age 52) and others that expected to be of it, that he thinks, could it have been [fore]seen, there would not have been any Bill at all. We hope it will be the better for all that are to account; it being likely that the men, being few, and not of the House, will hear reason. The main business I went about was about. Gilsthrop, Sir W. Batten's clerk; who, being upon his death-bed, and now dead, hath offered to make discoveries of the disorders of the Navy and of £65,000 damage to the King (age 37): which made mighty noise in the Commons' House; and members appointed to go to him, which they did; but nothing to the purpose got from him, but complaints of false musters, and ships being refitted with victuals and stores at Plymouth, Devon [Map], after they come fitted from other ports; but all this to no purpose, nor more than we know, and will owne. But the best is, that this loggerhead should say this, that understands nothing of the Navy, nor ever would; and hath particularly blemished his master by name among us. I told Sir W. Coventry (age 39) of my letter to Sir R. Brookes (age 30), and his answer to me. He advises me, in what I write to him, to be as short as I can, and obscure, saving in things fully plain; for all that he do is to make mischief; and that the greatest wisdom in dealing with the Parliament in the world is to say little, and let them get out what they can by force: which I shall observe. He declared to me much of his mind to be ruled by his own measures, and not to go so far as many would have him to the ruin of my Chancellor (age 58), and for which they do endeavour to do what they can against Sir W. Coventry (age 39). "But", says he, "I have done my do in helping to get him out of the administration of things, for which he is not fit; but for his life or estate I will have nothing to say to it: besides that, my duty to my master the Duke of York (age 34) is such, that I will perish before I will do any thing to displease or disoblige him, where the very necessity of the Kingdom do not in my judgment call me". Thence I home and to the office, where my Lord Anglesey (age 53), and all the discourse was yesterday's vote in the Commons, wherein he told us that, should the Lords yield to what the Commons would have in this matter, it were to make them worse than any justice of Peace (whereas they are the highest Court in the Kingdom) that they cannot be judges whether an offender be to be committed or bailed, which every justice of Peace do do, and then he showed me precedents plain in their defence.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1667. At noon home to dinner, and busy all the afternoon, and at night home, and there met W. Batelier, who tells me the first great news that my Chancellor (age 58) is fled this day.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1667. By and by to Sir W. Pen's (age 46), where Sir R. Ford (age 53) and he and I met, with Mr. Young and Lewes, about our accounts with my Lady Batten, which prove troublesome, and I doubt will prove to our loss. But here I hear the whole that my Chancellor (age 58) is gone, and left a paper behind him for the House of Lords, telling them the reason of him retiring, complaining of a design for his ruin. But the paper I must get: only the thing at present is great, and will put the King (age 37) and Commons to some new counsels certainly.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1667. At the office all the morning. At noon to dinner, and presently with my wife abroad, whom and her girle I leave at Unthanke's, and so to White Hall in expectation of waiting on the Duke of York (age 34) to-day, but was prevented therein, only at Mr. Wren's chamber there I hear that the House of Lords did send down the paper which my Chancellor (age 58) left behind him, directed to the Lords, to be seditious and scandalous; and the Commons have voted that it be burned by the hands of the hangman, and that the King (age 37) be desired to agree to it. I do hear, also, that they have desired the King (age 37) to use means to stop his escape out of the nation. Here I also heard Mr. Jermin (age 31), who was there in the chamber upon occasion of Sir Thomas Harvy's (age 42) telling him of his brother's (age 34) having a child, and thereby taking away his hopes (that is, Mr. Jermin's) of £2000 a year. He swore, God damn him, he did not desire to have any more wealth than he had in the world, which indeed is a great estate, having all his uncle's, my Lord St. Alban's (age 62), and my Lord hath all the Queen-Mother's (age 58). But when Sir Thos. Harvy told him that "hereafter you will wish it more";-"By God", answers he, "I won't promise what I shall do hereafter". Thence into the House, and there spied a pretty woman with spots on her face, well clad, who was enquiring for the guard chamber; I followed her, and there she went up, and turned into the turning towards the chapel, and I after her, and upon the stairs there met her coming up again, and there kissed her twice, and her business was to enquire for Sir Edward Bishop, one of the serjeants at armes. I believe she was a woman of pleasure, but was shy enough to me, and so I saw her go out afterwards, and I took a Hackney coach, and away. I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked, and thence towards White Hall by coach, and spying Mrs. Burroughs in a shop did stop and 'light and speak to her; and so to White Hall, where I 'light and went and met her coming towards White Hall, but was upon business, and I could not get her to go any whither and so parted, and I home with my wife and girle (my wife not being very well, of a great looseness day and night for these two days).

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1667. By and by home with Sir J. Minnes (age 68), who tells me that my Lord Clarendon (age 58) did go away in a Custom-house boat, and is now at Calais [Map]: and, I confess, nothing seems to hang more heavy than his leaving of this unfortunate paper behind him, that hath angered both Houses, and hath, I think, reconciled them in that which otherwise would have broke them in pieces; so that I do hence, and from Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) late example and doctrine to me, learn that on these sorts of occasions there is nothing like silence; it being seldom any wrong to a man to say nothing, but, for the most part, it is to say anything. This day, in coming home, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) told me a pretty story of Sir Lewes Dives (age 68), whom I saw this morning speaking with him, that having escaped once out of prison through a house of office, and another time in woman's apparel, and leaping over a broad canal, a soldier swore, says he, this is a strange jade.... He told me also a story of my Lord Cottington, who, wanting a son, intended to make his nephew his heir, a country boy; but did alter his mind upon the boy's being persuaded by another young heir, in roguery, to crow like a cock at my Lord's table, much company being there, and the boy having a great trick at doing that perfectly. My Lord bade them take away that fool from the table, and so gave over the thoughts of making him his heir, from this piece of folly.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1667. Then home and to the office, where Captain Cocke (age 50) come to me; and, among other discourse, tells me that he is told that an impeachment against Sir W. Coventry (age 39) will be brought in very soon. He tells me, that even those that are against my Chancellor (age 58) and the Court, in the House, do not trust nor agree one with another. He tells me that my Chancellor (age 58) went away about ten at night, on Saturday last; and took boat at Westminster, and thence by a vessel to Callis [Map], where he believes he now is: and that the Duke of York (age 34) and Mr. Wren knew of it, and that himself did know of it on Sunday morning: that on Sunday his coach, and people about it, went to Twittenham, and the world thought that he had been there: that nothing but this unhappy paper hath undone him and that he doubts that this paper hath lost him everywhere that his withdrawing do reconcile things so far as, he thinks the heat of their fury will be over, and that all will be made well between the two [royal] brothers: that Holland do endeavour to persuade the King of France (age 29) to break peace with us: that the Dutch will, without doubt, have sixty sail of ships out the next year; so knows not what will become of us, but hopes the Parliament will find money for us to have a fleete. He gone, I home, and there my wife made an end to me of Sir R. Cotton's discourse of warr, which is indeed a very fine book.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) to the Duke of York (age 34), the first time that I have seen him, or we waited on him, since his sickness; and, blessed be God! he is not at all the worse for the smallpox, but is only a little weak yet. We did much business with him, and so parted. My Lord Anglesey (age 53) told me how my Lord Northampton (age 45) brought in a Bill into the House of Lords yesterday, under the name of a Bill for the Honour and Privilege of the House, and Mercy to my Lord Clarendon (age 58): which, he told me, he opposed, saying that he was a man accused of treason by the House of Commons; and mercy was not proper for him, having not been tried yet, and so no mercy needful for him. However, the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) and others did desire that the Bill might be read; and it, was for banishing my Lord Clarendon (age 58) from all his Majesty's dominions, and that it should be treason to have him found in any of them: the thing is only a thing of vanity, and to insult over him, which is mighty poor I think, and so do every body else, and ended in nothing, I think.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1667. At noon to dinner, where W. How with us, and after dinner, he being gone, I to my chamber again till almost night, and then took boat, the tide serving, and so to White Hall, where I saw the [his daughter] Duchesse of York (age 30), in a fine dress of second mourning for her [his former wife] mother, being black, edged with ermine, go to make her first visit to the Queene (age 58) since the Duke of York (age 34) was sick; and by and by, she being returned, the Queene (age 58) come and visited her. But it was pretty to observe that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and I, walking an hour and more together in the Matted Gallery, he observed, and so did I, how the Duchesse, as soon as she spied him, turned her head a one side. Here he and I walked thus long, which we have not done a great while before. Our discourse was upon everything: the unhappiness of having our matters examined by people that understand them not; that it was better for us in the Navy to have men that do understand the whole, and that are not passionate; that we that have taken the most pains are called upon to answer for all crimes, while those that, like Sir W. Batten and Sir J. Minnes (age 68), did sit and do nothing, do lie still without any trouble; that, if it were to serve the King (age 37) and kingdom again in a war, neither of us could do more, though upon this experience we might do better than we did; that the commanders, the gentlemen that could never be brought to order, but undid all, are now the men that find fault and abuse others; that it had been much better for the King (age 37) to have given Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Batten £1000 a-year to have sat still, than to have had them in his business this war: that the serving a Prince that minds not his business is most unhappy for them that serve him well, and an unhappiness so great that he declares he will never have more to do with a war, under him. That he hath papers which do flatly contradict the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) Narrative; and that he hath been with the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and shewed him them, to prevent his falling into another like fault: that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) seems to be able to answer them; but he thinks that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and the Prince are contented to let their Narratives sleep, they being not only contradictory in some things (as he observed about the business of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) being to follow the Prince upon dividing the fleete, in case the enemy come out), but neither of them to be maintained in others. That the business the other night of my Lord Anglesey (age 53) at the Council was happily got over for my Lord, by his dexterous silencing it, and the rest, not urging it further; forasmuch as, had the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) come in time enough, and had got it by the end, he, would have toused him in it; Sir W. Coventry (age 39) telling me that my Lord Anglesey (age 53) did, with such impudence, maintain the quarrel against the Commons and some of the Lords, in the business of my Lord Clarendon (age 58), that he believes there are enough would be glad but of this occasion to be revenged of him. He tells me that he hears some of the Thomsons (age 60) are like to be of the Commission for the Accounts, and Wildman (age 46), which he much wonders at, as having been a false fellow to every body, and in prison most of the time since the King's coming in. But he do tell me that the House is in such a condition that nobody can tell what to make of them, and, he thinks, they were never in before; that every body leads, and nobody follows; and that he do now think that, since a great many are defeated in their expectation of being of the Commission, now they would put it into such hands as it shall get no credit from: for, if they do look to the bottom and see the King's case, they think they are then bound to give the King (age 37) money; whereas, they would be excused from that, and therefore endeavour to make this business of the Accounts to signify little. I spoke with him about my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business, in which he is very friendly, and do say that the unhappy business of the prizes is it that hath brought all this trouble upon him, and the only thing that made any thing else mentioned, and it is true. So having discoursed with him, I spent some time with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about the business of our adjusting the new method of the Excise between the Guards household and Tangier, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury being now resolved to bring all their management into a course of payment by orders, and not by tallies, and I am glad of it, and so by water home late, and very dark, and when come home there I got my wife to read, and then come Captain Cocke (age 50) to me; and there he tells me, to my great satisfaction, that Sir Robert Brookes (age 30) did dine with him today; and that he told him, speaking of me, that he would make me the darling of the House of Commons, so much he is satisfied concerning me. And this Cocke (age 50) did tell me that I might give him thanks for it; and I do think it may do me good, for he do happen to be held a considerable person, of a young man, both for sobriety and ability. Then to discourse of business of his own about some hemp of his that is come home to receive it into the King's stores, and then parted, and by and by my wife and I to supper, she not being well, her flux being great upon her, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1667. Thence walked to my bookseller's, and there he did give me a list of the twenty who were nominated for the Commission in Parliament for the Accounts: and it is strange that of the twenty the Parliament could not think fit to choose their nine, but were fain to add three that were not in the list of the twenty, they being many of them factious people and ringleaders in the late troubles; so that Sir John Talbott did fly out and was very hot in the business of Wildman's being named, and took notice how he was entertained in the bosom of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), a Privy-counsellor; and that it was fit to be observed by the House, and punished. The men that I know of the nine I like very well; that is, Mr. Pierrepont (age 59), Lord Brereton (age 36), and Sir William Turner (age 52); and I do think the rest are so, too; but such as will not be able to do this business as it ought to be, to do any good with. Here I did also see their votes against my Lord Chiefe Justice Keeling (age 60), that his proceedings were illegal, and that he was a contemner of Magna Charta (the great preserver of our lives, freedoms, and properties) and an introduction to arbitrary government; which is very high language, and of the same sound with that in the year 1640. I home, and there wrote my letters, and so to supper and to bed. This day my Chancellor's (age 58) letter was burned at the 'Change [Map].'

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1667. Up, lying long all alone (my wife lying for these two or three days of sickness alone), thinking of my several businesses in hand, and then rose and to the office, being in some doubt of having my cozen Roger (age 50) and Lord Hinchinbroke (age 19) and Sir Thos. Crew (age 43) by my cozens invitation at dinner to-day, and we wholly unprovided. So I away to Westminster, to the Parliament-door, to speak with Roger: and here I saw my Lord Keeling (age 60) go into the House to the barr, to have his business heard by the whole House to-day; and a great crowd of people to stare upon him. Here I hear that the Lords' Bill for banishing and disabling my Lord Clarendon (age 58) from bearing any office, or being in the King's dominions, and its being made felony for any to correspond with him but his own children, is brought to the Commons: but they will not agree to it, being not satisfied with that as sufficient, but will have a Bill of Attainder brought in against him: but they make use of this against the Lords, that they, that would not think there was cause enough to commit him without hearing, will have him banished without hearing.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1667. Thence to the 'Change [Map], where I stayed very little, and so home to dinner, and there find my wife mightily out of order with her teeth. At the office all the afternoon, and at night by coach to Westminster, to the Hall, where I met nobody, and do find that this evening the King (age 37) by message (which he never did before) hath passed several bills, among others that for the Accounts, and for banishing my Chancellor (age 58), and hath adjourned the House to February; at which I am glad, hoping in this time to get leisure to state my Tangier Accounts, and to prepare better for the Parliament's enquiries. Here I hear how the House of Lords, with great severity, if not tyranny, have ordered poor Carr, who only erred in the manner of the presenting his petition against my Lord Gerard (age 49), it being first printed before it was presented; which was, it, seems, by Colonel Sands's going into the country, into whose hands he had put it: the poor man is ordered to stand in the pillory two or three times, and his eares cut, and be imprisoned I know not how long. But it is believed that the Commons, when they meet, will not be well pleased with it; and they have no reason, I think. Having only heard this from Mrs. Michell, I away again home, and there to supper and to bed, my wife exceeding ill in her face with the tooth ake, and now her face has become mightily swelled that I am mightily troubled for it.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1667. Thence to other talk. He tells me that the business of getting the Duchess of Richmond (age 20) to Court is broke off, the Duke (age 28) not suffering it; and thereby great trouble is brought among the people that endeavoured it, and thought they had compassed it. And, Lord! to think that at this time the King (age 37) should mind no other cares but these! He tells me that my Lord of Canterbury (age 69) is a mighty stout man, and a man of a brave, high spirit, and cares not for this disfavour that he is under at Court, knowing that the King (age 37) cannot take away his profits during his life, and therefore do not value it1.

Note 1. This character of Archbishop Sheldon (age 69) does not tally with the scandal that Pepys previously reported of him. Burnet has some passages of importance on this in his "Own Time", Book II He affirms that Charles's final decision to throw over Clarendon was caused by the Chancellor's (age 58) favouring Mrs. Stewart's (age 20) marriage with the Duke of Richmond. The King (age 37) had a conference with Sheldon on the removal of Clarendon, but could not convert the archbishop to his view. Lauderdale told Burnet that he had an account of the interview from the King (age 37). "the King (age 37) and Sheldon had gone into such expostulations upon it that from that day forward Sheldon could never recover the King's confidence"..

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there walked with Creed in the Matted Gallery till by and by a Committee for Tangier met: the Duke of York (age 34) there; and there I did discourse over to them their condition as to money, which they were all mightily, as I could desire, satisfied with, but the Duke of Albemarle (age 59), who takes the part of the Guards against us in our supplies of money, which is an odd consideration for a dull, heavy blockhead as he is, understanding no more of either than a goose: but the ability and integrity of Sir W. Coventry (age 39), in all the King's concernments, I do and must admire. After the Committee up, I and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) walked an hour in the gallery, talking over many businesses, and he tells me that there are so many things concur to make him and his Fellow Commissioners unable to go through the King's work that he do despair of it, every body becoming an enemy to them in their retrenchments, and the King (age 37) unstable, the debts great and the King's present occasions for money great and many and pressing, the bankers broke and every body keeping in their money, while the times are doubtful what will stand. But he says had they come in two years ago they doubt not to have done what the King (age 37) would by this time, or were the King (age 37) in the condition as heretofore, when the Chancellor (age 58) was great, to be able to have what sums of money they pleased of the Parliament, and then the ill administration was such that instead of making good use of this power and money he suffered all to go to ruin. But one such sum now would put all upon their legs, and now the King (age 37) would have the Parliament give him money when they are in an ill humour and will not be willing to give any, nor are very able, and besides every body distrusts what they give the King (age 37) will be lost; whereas six months hence, when they see that the King (age 37) can live without them, and is become steady, and to manage what he has well, he doubts not but their doubts would be removed, and would be much more free as well as more able to give him money. He told me how some of his enemies at the Duke of York's (age 34) had got the Duke of York's (age 34) commission for the Commissioners of his estate changed, and he and Brouncker (age 47) and Povy (age 53) left out: that this they did do to disgrace and impose upon him at this time; but that he, though he values not the thing, did go and tell the Duke of York (age 34) what he heard, and that he did not think that he had given him any reason to do this, out of his belief that he would not be as faithful and serviceable to him as the best of those that have got him put out. Whereupon the Duke of York (age 34) did say that it arose only from his not knowing whether now he would have time to regard his affairs; and that, if he should, he would put him into the commission with his own hand, though the commission be passed. He answered that he had been faithful to him, and done him good service therein, so long as he could attend it; and if he had been able to have attended it more, he would not have enriched himself with such and such estates as my Chancellor (age 58) hath got, that did properly belong to his Royal Highness, as being forfeited to the King (age 37), and so by the King's gift given to the Duke of York (age 34). Hereupon the Duke of York (age 34) did call for the commission, and hath since put him in. This he tells me he did only to show his enemies that he is not so low as to be trod on by them, or the Duke hath any so bad opinion of him as they would think. Here we parted, and I with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) went and took a turn into the Park, and there talked of several things, and about Tangier particularly, and of his management of his business, and among other discourse about the method he will leave his accounts in if he should suddenly die, he says there is nothing but what is easily understood, but only a sum of £500 which he has entered given to E. E. S., which in great confidence he do discover to me to be my Lord Sandwich (age 42), at the beginning of their contract for the Mole, and I suppose the rest did the like, which was £1500, which would appear a very odd thing for my Lord to be a profiter by the getting of the contract made for them. But here it puts me into thoughts how I shall own my receiving of £200 a year from him, but it is his gift, I never asked of him, and which he did to Mr. Povy (age 53), and so there is no great matter in it.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1667. Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the King (age 37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (age 53), Ashly (age 46), Hollis (age 68), Secretary Morrice (age 65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 69), and my Lord Bridgewater (age 44). He tells me that this is true, only the Duke of York (age 34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the Duke of York (age 34) himself did tell him so: that the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (age 58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester, Kent [Map] [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (age 18), and it may be, against the Queene (age 58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) do rule all now, and the Duke of York (age 34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the King (age 37), Sir W. Coventry (age 39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (age 39), Bristoll (age 55), and Arlington (age 49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden [Map], but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (age 42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1667. Up, without words to my wife, or few, and those not angry, and so to White Hall, and there waited a long time, while the Duke of York (age 34) was with the King (age 37) in the Caball, and there I and Creed stayed talking without, in the Vane-Room, and I perceive all people's expectation is, what will be the issue of this great business of putting these great Lords out of the council and power, the quarrel, I perceive, being only their standing against the will of the King (age 37) in the business of the Chancellor (age 58). Anon the Duke of York (age 34) comes out, and then to a Committee of Tangier, where my Lord Middleton (age 59) did come to-day, and seems to me but a dull, heavy man; but he is a great soldier, and stout, and a needy Lord, which will still keep that poor garrison from ever coming to be worth anything to the King (age 37). Here, after a short meeting, we broke up, and I home to the office, where they are sitting, and so I to them, and having done our business rose, and I home to dinner with my people, and there dined with me my uncle Thomas, with a mourning hat-band on, for his daughter Mary, and here I and my people did discourse of the Act for the accounts, which do give the greatest power to these people, as they report that have read it (I having not yet read it, and indeed its nature is such as I have no mind to go about to read it, for fear of meeting matter in it to trouble me), that ever was given to any subjects, and too much also.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1668. Up betimes, and by coach to Sir W. Coventry (age 40), whom I found in his chamber, and there stayed an hour and talked with him about several things of the Navy, and our want of money, which they indeed do supply us with a little, but in no degree likely to enable us to go on with the King's service. He is at a stand where to have more, and is in mighty pain for it, declaring that he believes there never was a kingdom so governed as this was in the time of the late Chancellor (age 58) and the Treasurer, nobody minding or understanding any thing how things went or what the King (age 37) had in his Treasury, or was to have, nothing in the world of it minded. He tells me that there are still people desirous to overthrow him; he resolving to stick at nothing nor no person that stands in his way against bringing the King (age 37) out of debt, be it to retrench any man's place or profit, and that he cares not, for rather than be employed under the King (age 37), and have the King (age 37) continue in this condition of indigence, he desires to be put out from among them, thinking it no honour to be a minister in such a government. He tells me he hath no friends in the whole Court but my Lord Keeper and Sir John Duncomb. He tells me they have reduced the charges of Ireland above £70,000 a-year, and thereby cut off good profits from my Lord Lieutenant; which will make a new enemy, but he cares not. He tells me that Townsend, of the Wardrobe, is the eeriest knave and bufflehead that ever he saw in his life, and wonders how my Lord Sandwich (age 42) come to trust such a fellow, and that now Reames and----are put in to be overseers there, and do great things, and have already saved a great deal of money in the King's liverys, and buy linnen so cheap, that he will have them buy the next cloth he hath, for shirts. But then this is with ready money, which answers all. He do not approve of my letter I drew and the office signed yesterday to the Commissioners of Accounts, saying that it is a little too submissive, and grants a little too much and too soon our bad managements, though we lay on want of money, yet that it will be time enough to plead it when they object it. Which was the opinion of my Lord Anglesey (age 53) also; so I was ready to alter it, and did so presently, going from him home, and there transcribed it fresh as he would have it, and got it signed, and to White Hall presently and shewed it him, and so home, and there to dinner, and after dinner all the afternoon and till 12 o'clock at night with Mr. Gibson at home upon my Tangier accounts, and did end them fit to be given the last of them to the Auditor to-morrow, to my great content. This evening come Betty Turner (age 15) and the two Mercers, and W. Batelier, and they had fiddlers, and danced, and kept a quarter1, which pleased me, though it disturbed me; but I could not be with them at all. Mr. Gibson lay at my house all night, it was so late.

Note 1. A term for making a noise or disturbance.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1668. Thence to other discourse, among others, he mightily commends my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 20) match and Lady (age 23), though he buys her £10,000 dear, by the jointure and settlement his father (age 42) makes her; and says that the Duke of York (age 34) and [his daughter] Duchess of York (age 30) did come to see them in bed together, on their wedding-night, and how my Lord had fifty pieces of gold taken out of his pocket that night, after he was in bed. He tells me that an Act of Comprehension is likely to pass this Parliament, for admitting of all persuasions in religion to the public observation of their particular worship, but in certain places, and the persons therein concerned to be listed of this, or that Church; which, it is thought, will do them more hurt than good, and make them not own, their persuasion. He tells me that there is a pardon passed to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), and the rest, for the late duell and murder1 which he thinks a worse fault than any ill use my late Chancellor (age 58) ever put the Great Seal to, and will be so thought by the Parliament, for them to be pardoned without bringing them to any trial: and that my Lord Privy-Seal (age 62) therefore would not have it pass his hand, but made it go by immediate warrant; or at least they knew that he would not pass it, and so did direct it to go by immediate warrant, that it might not come to him. He tells me what a character my Lord Sandwich (age 42) hath sent over of Mr. Godolphin (age 33), as the worthiest man, and such a friend to him as he may be trusted in any thing relating to him in the world; as one whom, he says, he hath infallible assurances that he will remaine his friend which is very high, but indeed they say the gentleman is a fine man.

Note 1. The royal pardon was thus announced in the "Gazette" of February 24th, 1668: "This day his Majesty was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent services heretofore done to his Majesty by most of the persons who were engaged in the late duel, or rencounter, wherein William Jenkins was killed, he Both graciously pardon the said offence: nevertheless, He is resolved from henceforth that on no pretence whatsoever any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any duel or rencounter, but that the course of law shall wholly take place in all such cases". The warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), is dated January 27th, 1668; and on the following day was issued, "Warrant for a grant to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45), of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), Sir John Talbot, Sir Robert Holmes, or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &c". (Calendar of State Papers, 1667-68, pp. 192,193).

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and among other things Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) comes to me about a little business, and there tells me how the Parliament, which is to meet again to-day, are likely to fall heavy on the business of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40) pardon; and I shall be glad of it: and that the King (age 37) hath put out of the Court the two Hides, my Chancellor's (age 58) two sons [Note. [his son] Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Clarendon and [his son] Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester (age 25)], and also the Bishops of Rochester (age 43) and Winchester (age 69), the latter of whom should have preached before him yesterday, being Ash Wednesday, and had his sermon ready, but was put by; which is great news.

1668 Bawdy House Riots

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1668. Betimes I to Alderman Backewell (age 50), and with him to my Lord Ashly's (age 46), where did a little business about Tangier, and to talk about the business of certificates, wherein, contrary to what could be believed, the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) themselves, in my absence, did call for some of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and give them directions about the business [of the certificates], which I, despairing to do any thing on a Sunday, and not thinking that they would think of it themselves, did rest satisfied, and stayed at home all yesterday, leaving it to do something in this day; but I find that the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) had been so pressing in it, that my Lord Ashly (age 46) was more forward with the doing of it this day, than I could have been. And so I to White Hall with Alderman Backewell (age 50) in his coach, with Mr. Blany; my Lord's Secretary: and there did draw up a rough draught of what order I would have, and did carry it in, and had it read twice and approved of, before my Lord Ashly (age 46) and three more of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and then went up to the Council-chamber, where the Duke of York (age 34), and Prince Rupert (age 48), and the rest of the Committee of the Navy were sitting: and I did get some of them to read it there: and they would have had it passed presently, but Sir John Nicholas desired they would first have it approved by a full Council: and, therefore, a Council Extraordinary was readily summoned against the afternoon, and the Duke of York (age 34) run presently to the King (age 37), as if now they were really set to mind their business, which God grant! So I thence to Westminster, and walked in the Hall and up and down, the House being called over to-day, and little news, but some talk as if the agreement between France and Spain were like to be, which would be bad for us, and at noon with Sir Herbert Price (age 63) to Mr. George Montagu's (age 45) to dinner, being invited by him in the hall, and there mightily made of, even to great trouble to me to be so commended before my face, with that flattery and importunity, that I was quite troubled with it. Yet he is a fine gentleman, truly, and his lady a fine woman; and, among many sons that I saw there, there was a little daughter that is mighty pretty, of which he is infinite fond: and, after dinner, did make her play on the gittar and sing, which she did mighty prettily, and seems to have a mighty musical soul, keeping time with most excellent spirit. Here I met with Mr. Brownlow, my old schoolfellow, who come thither, I suppose, as a suitor to one of the young ladies that were there, and a sober man he seems to be. But here Mr. Montagu (age 45) did tell me how Mr. Vaughan (age 64), in that very room, did say that I was a great man, and had great understanding, and I know not what, which, I confess, I was a little proud of, if I may believe him. Here I do hear, as a great secret, that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 34) and Duchesse, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), are now all agreed in a strict league, and all things like to go very current, and that it is not impossible to have my Lord Clarendon (age 59), in time, here again. But I do hear that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is horribly vexed at the late libell1, the petition of the poor whores about the town, whose houses were pulled down the other day. I have got one of them, but it is not very witty, but devilish severe against her and the King (age 37) and I wonder how it durst be printed and spread abroad, which shews that the times are loose, and come to a great disregard of the King (age 37), or Court, or Government.

Note 1. "The Poor Whores' Petition to the most splendid, illustrious, serene and eminent Lady of Pleasure the Countess of Castlemayne (age 27), &c., signed by us, Madam Cresswell and Damaris Page, this present 25th day of March, 1668". This sham petition occasioned a pretended answer, entitled, "The Gracious Answer of the Most Illustrious Lady of Pleasure, the Countess of Castlem.... to the Poor Whores' Petition". It is signed, "Given at our Closset, in King Street, Westminster, die Veneris, April 24, 1668. Castlem...". Compare Evelyn, April 2nd, 1668.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1668. Up betimes and to the getting ready my answer to the Committee of Accounts to several questions, which makes me trouble, though I know of no blame due to me from any, let them enquire what they can out1. I to White Hall, and there hear how Henry Brouncker (age 41) is fled, which, I think, will undo him: but what good it will do Harman (age 43) I know not, he hath so befooled himself; but it will be good sport to my Chancellor (age 59) to hear how his great enemy is fain to take the same course that he is. There met Robinson, who tells me that he fears his master, W. Coventry, will this week have his business brought upon the stage again, about selling of places, which I shall be sorry for, though the less, since I hear his standing for Pen the other day, to the prejudice, though not to the wrong, of my Lord Sandwich (age 42); and yet I do think what he did, he did out of a principle of honesty.

Note 1. The first part of the entry for April 20th is among the rough notes, and stands as follows: "Monday 20. Up and busy about answer to Committee of Accounts this morning about several questions which vexed me though in none I have reason to be troubled. But the business of The Flying Greyhound begins to find me some care, though in that I am wholly void of blame". This may be compared with the text.

On 23 Apr 1668 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 59) was assaulted at Évreux, Haute Normandie.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1668. Thence with W. Coventry (age 40) walked in the Park together a good while, he mighty kind to me. And hear many pretty stories of my Chancellor's (age 59) being heretofore made sport of by Peter Talbot the priest, in his story of the death of Cardinall Bleau1 by Lord Cottington, in his 'Dolor de las Tyipas'2 and Tom Killigrew (age 56), in his being bred in Ram Ally, and now bound prentice to Lord Cottington, going to Spain with £1000, and two suits of clothes.

Note 1. It is probable these stories, in ridicule of Clarendon, are nowhere recorded. Cardinal Jean Balue was the minister of Louis XI of France. The reader will remember him in Sir W. Scott's "Quentin Durward". He was confined for eleven years in an iron cage invented by himself in the Chateau de Loches, and died soon after he regained his liberty. B.

Note 2. Gripes. It was a joke against Lord Cottington that whenever he was seriously ill he declared himself a Roman Catholic, when he was well again he returned to the Protestant faith.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1668. Up betimes; and Mr. Povy (age 54) comes to even accounts with me, which we did, and then fell to other talk. He tells, in short, how the King (age 38) is made a child of, by Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), whom they cannot suffer to be great, for fear of my Chancellor's (age 59) return, which, therefore, they make the King (age 38) violent against. That he believes it is impossible these two great men can hold together long: or, at least, that the ambition of the former is so great, that he will endeavour to master all, and bring into play as many as he can. That Anglesey (age 54) will not lose his place easily, but will contend in law with whoever comes to execute it. That the Duke of York (age 35), in all things but in his cod-piece, is led by the nose by his [his daughter] wife (age 31). That W. Coventry (age 40) is now, by the Duke of York (age 35), made friends with the Duchess (age 31); and that he is often there, and waits on her. That he do believe that these present great men will break in time, and that W. Coventry (age 40) will be a great man again; for he do labour to have nothing to do in matters of the State, and is so usefull to the side that he is on, that he will stand, though at present he is quite out of play. That my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) hates the Duke of Buckingham (age 40). That the Duke of York (age 35) hath expressed himself very kind to my Lord Sandwich (age 43), which I am mighty glad of. That we are to expect more changes if these men stand. This done, he and I to talk of my coach, and I got him to go see it, where he finds most infinite fault with it, both as to being out of fashion and heavy, with so good reason that I am mightily glad of his having corrected me in it; and so I do resolve to have one of his build, and with his advice, both in coach and horses, he being the fittest man in the world for it, and so he carried me home, and said the same to my wife. So I to the office and he away, and at noon I home to dinner, and all the afternoon late with Gibson at my chamber about my present great business, only a little in the afternoon at the office about Sir D. Gawden's accounts, and so to bed and slept heartily, my wife and I at good peace, but my heart troubled and her mind not at ease, I perceive, she against and I for the girle, to whom I have not said anything these three days, but resolve to be mighty strange in appearance to her. This night W. Batelier come and took his leave of us, he setting out for France to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall; and there I find the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35) come the last night, and every body's mouth full of my Lord Anglesey's (age 54) suspension being sealed; which it was, it seems, yesterday; so that he is prevented in his remedy at the Council; and, it seems, the two new Treasurers did kiss the King's hand this morning, brought in by my Lord Arlington (age 50). They walked up and down together the Court this day, and several people joyed them; but I avoided it, that I might not be seen to look either way. This day also I hear that my Lord Ormond (age 58) is to be declared in Council no more Deputy Governor of Ireland, his commission being expired: and the King (age 38) is prevailed with to take it out of his hands; which people do mightily admire, saying that he is the greatest subject of any Prince in Christendome, and hath more acres of land than any, and hath done more for his Prince than ever any yet did. But all will not do; he must down, it seems, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) carrying all before him. But that, that troubles me most is, that they begin to talk that the Duke of York's (age 35) regiment is ordered to be disbanded; and more, that undoubtedly his Admiralty will follow: which do shake me mightily, and I fear will have ill consequences in the nation, for these counsels are very mad. The Duke of York (age 35) do, by all men's report, carry himself wonderfull submissive to the King (age 38), in the most humble manner in the world; but yet, it seems, nothing must be spared that tends to, the keeping out of the Chancellor (age 59); and that is the reason of all this. The great discourse now is, that the Parliament shall be dissolved and another called, which shall give the King (age 38) the Deane (age 34) and Chapter lands; and that will put him out of debt. And it is said that Buckingham do knownly meet daily with Wildman and other Commonwealth-men; and that when he is with them, he makes the King (age 38) believe that he is with his wenches; and something looks like the Parliament's being dissolved, by Harry Brouncker's (age 41) being now come back, and appears this day the first day at White Hall; but hath not been yet with the King (age 38), but is secure that he shall be well received, I hear. God bless us, when such men as he shall be restored! But that, that pleases me most is, that several do tell me that Pen is to be removed; and others, that he hath resigned his place; and particularly Spragg tells me for certain that he hath resigned it, and is become a partner with Gawden in the Victualling: in which I think he hath done a very cunning thing; but I am sure I am glad of it; and it will be well for the King (age 38) to have him out of this Office.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1668. Thence I to the Three Tuns Tavern, by Charing Cross [Map], and there dined with W. Pen (age 47), Sir J. Minnes (age 69), and Commissioner Middleton; and as merry as my mind could be, that hath so much trouble upon it at home. And thence to White Hall, and there staid in Mr. Wren's chamber with him, reading over my draught of a letter, which Mr. Gibson then attended me with; and there he did like all, but doubted whether it would be necessary for the Duke to write in so sharp a style to the Office, as I had drawn it in; which I yield to him, to consider the present posture of the times and the Duke of York (age 35) and whether it were not better to err on that hand than the other. He told me that he did not think it was necessary for the Duke of York (age 35) to do so, and that it would not suit so well with his nature nor greatness; which last, perhaps, is true, but then do too truly shew the effects of having Princes in places, where order and discipline should be. I left it to him to do as the Duke of York (age 35) pleases; and so fell to other talk, and with great freedom, of public things; and he told me, upon my several inquiries to that purpose, that he did believe it was not yet resolved whether the Parliament should ever meet more or no, the three great rulers of things now standing thus:-The Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is absolutely against their meeting, as moved thereto by his people that he advises with, the people of the late times, who do never expect to have any thing done by this Parliament for their religion, and who do propose that, by the sale of the Church-lands, they shall be able to put the King (age 38) out of debt: my Lord Keeper is utterly against putting away this and choosing another Parliament, lest they prove worse than this, and will make all the King's friends, and the King (age 38) himself, in a desperate condition: my Lord Arlington (age 50) know not which is best for him, being to seek whether this or the next will use him worst. He tells me that he believes that it is intended to call this Parliament, and try them with a sum of money; and, if they do not like it, then to send them going, and call another, who will, at the ruin of the Church perhaps, please the King (age 38) with what he will for a time. And he tells me, therefore, that he do believe that this policy will be endeavoured by the Church and their friends-to seem to promise the King (age 38) money, when it shall be propounded, but make the King (age 38) and these great men buy it dear, before they have it. He tells me that he is really persuaded that the design of the