Biography of George Carteret 1st Baronet 1610-1680

Paternal Family Tree: Carteret

1652 Sinking of Defiance

1664 Great Plague of London

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1666 Holme's Bonfire

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Poll Bill

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1672 Battle of Solebay

Around 1610 George Carteret 1st Baronet was born to Elias Carteret (age 25).

On 1640 [his father] Elias Carteret (age 55) died.

In May 1640 George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 30) and Lady Elizabeth Carteret (age 38) were married. They were first cousins.

Around 1641 [his son] Philip Carteret was born to George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 31).

In 1643 [his brother-in-law] Gideon Carteret (age 26) died.

On 22 Aug 1643 [his uncle] Philippe Carteret 3rd Seigneur Sark (age 59) died. His son [his brother-in-law] Philippe Carteret 1st Baronet (age 23) succeeded 4th Seigneur of Sark.

Around 1645 George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 35) became a proprietor of at Province of Carolina North Carolina.

Around 1645 George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 35) renamed New Netherlands to New Jersey.

In 1645 George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Carteret of Metesches in Jersey.

On 17 Feb 1649 George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 39) at St Helier, Jersey [Map] had Charles II (age 18) proclaimed King after his father Charles I was executed; an act that Charles II never forgot.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1649. The next day, came to welcome me at dinner the Lord High Treasurer Cottington (age 70), Sir Edward Hyde, Chancellor (age 40), Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State, Sir George Carteret, Governor of Jersey (age 39), and Dr. Earle (age 48), having now been absent from my wife (age 14) above a year and a half.

Before 25 Dec 1650 [his brother-in-law] Philippe Carteret 1st Baronet (age 30) and Anne Dumaresq Baroness Carteret (age 23) were married. They were first cousins.

Sinking of Defiance

In Sep 1652 [his brother-in-law] Peyton Carteret and Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 31) drowned in the Virgin Islands Caribbean when HMS Defiance sank.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1660. Infinite of business that my heart and head and all were full. Met with purser Washington, with whom and a lady, a friend of his, I dined at the Bell Tavern in King Street, but the rogue had no more manners than to invite me and to let me pay my club. All the afternoon with my Lord, going up and down the town; at seven at night he went home, and there the principal Officers of the Navy1, among the rest myself was reckoned one. We had order to meet to-morrow, to draw up such an order of the Council as would put us into action before our patents were passed. At which my heart was glad. At night supped with my Lord, he and I together, in the great dining-room alone by ourselves, the first time I ever did it in London. Home to bed, my maid pretty well again.

Note 1. A list of the Officers of the Admiralty, May 31st, 1660. From a MS. in the Pepysian Library in Pepys's own handwriting. His Royal Highness James, Duke of York, Lord High Admiral, Sir George Carteret (age 50), Treasurer, Sir Robert Slingsby (age 49), (soon after) Comptroller. Sir William Batten (age 59), Surveyor. Samuel Pepys, Esq., Clerk of the Acts. John, Lord Berkeley (age 58) (of Stratton,) Sir William Pen (age 39), Commissioners. Peter Pett, Esq. B.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1660. All the morning the Officers and Commissioners of the Navy, we met at Sir G. Carteret's (age 50)1 chamber, and agreed upon orders for the Council to supersede the old ones, and empower us to act. Dined with Mr. Stephens, the Treasurer's man of the Navy, and Mr. Turner, to whom I offered £50 out of my own purse for one year, and the benefit of a Clerk's allowance beside, which he thanked me for; but I find he hath some design yet in his head, which I could not think of. In the afternoon my heart was quite pulled down, by being told that Mr. Barlow was to enquire to-day for Mr. Coventry (age 32); but at night I met with my Lord, who told me that I need not fear, for he would get me the place against the world. And when I came to W. Howe, he told me that Dr. Petty had been with my Lord, and did tell him that Barlow was a sickly man, and did not intend to execute the place himself, which put me in great comfort again. Till 2 in the morning writing letters and things for my Lord to send to sea. So home to my wife to bed.

Note 1. Sir George Carteret (age 50), born 1599, had originally been bred to the sea service, and became Comptroller of the Navy to Charles I., and Governor of Jersey, where he obtained considerable reputation by his gallant defence of that island against the Parliament forces. At the Restoration he was made Vice-Chamberlain to the King, Treasurer of the Navy, and a Privy Councillor, and in 1661 he was elected M.P. for Portsmouth. In 1666 he exchanged the Treasurership of the Navy with the Earl of Anglesea for the Vice-Treasurership of Ireland. He became a Commissioner of the Admiralty in 1673. He continued in favour with Charles II till his death, January 14th, 1679, in his eightieth year. He married his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of [his son] Sir Philip Carteret (age 19), Knight of St. Ouen, and had issue three sons and five daughters.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1660. In the morning with my Lord at Whitehall, got the order of the Council for us to act. From thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with the Doctor that shewed us so much kindness at the Hague, and took him to the Sun tavern, and drank with him. So to my Lord's and dined with W. Howe and Sarah, thinking it might be the last time that I might dine with them together. In the afternoon my Lord and I, and Mr. Coventry (age 32) and Sir G. Carteret (age 50), went and took possession of the Navy Office, whereby my mind was a little cheered, but my hopes not great. From thence Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and I to the Treasurer's Office, where he set some things in order. And so home, calling upon Sir Geoffry Palmer (age 62), who did give me advice about my patent, which put me to some doubt to know what to do, Barlow being alive. Afterwards called at Mr. Pim's, about getting me a coat of velvet, and he took me to the Half Moon [Map], and the house so full that we staid above half an hour before we could get anything. So to my Lord's, where in the dark W. Howe and I did sing extemporys, and I find by use that we are able to sing a bass and a treble pretty well. So home, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1660. Up early, the first day that I put on my black camlett coat with silver buttons. To Mr. Spong, whom I found in his night-down writing of my patent, and he had done as far as he could "for that &c". by 8 o'clock. It being done, we carried it to Worcester House to the Chancellor, where Mr. Kipps (a strange providence that he should now be in a condition to do me a kindness, which I never thought him capable of doing for me), got me the Chancellor's receipt to my bill; and so carried it to Mr. Beale (age 28) for a dockett; but he was very angry, and unwilling to do it, because he said it was ill writ (because I had got it writ by another hand, and not by him); but by much importunity I got Mr. Spong to go to his office and make an end of my patent; and in the mean time Mr. Beale (age 28) to be preparing my dockett, which being done, I did give him two pieces, after which it was strange how civil and tractable he was to me. From thence I went to the Navy office, where we despatched much business, and resolved of the houses for the Officers and Commissioners, which I was glad of, and I got leave to have a door made me into the leads. From thence, much troubled in mind about my patent, I went to Mr. Beale (age 28) again, who had now finished my patent and made it ready for the Seal, about an hour after I went to meet him at the Chancellor's. So I went away towards Westminster, and in my way met with Mr. Spong, and went with him to Mr. Lilly (age 41) and ate some bread and cheese, and drank with him, who still would be giving me council of getting my patent out, for fear of another change, and my Lord Montagu's fall. After that to Worcester House, where by Mr. Kipps's means, and my pressing in General Montagu's name to the Chancellor, I did, beyond all expectation, get my seal passed; and while it was doing in one room, I was forced to keep Sir G. Carteret (age 50) (who by chance met me there, ignorant of my business) in talk, while it was a doing. Went home and brought my wife with me into London, and some money, with which I paid Mr. Beale (age 28) £9 in all, and took my patent of him and went to my wife again, whom I had left in a coach at the door of Hinde Court, and presented her with my patent at which she was overjoyed; so to the Navy office, and showed her my house, and were both mightily pleased at all things there, and so to my business. So home with her, leaving her at her mother's door. I to my Lord's, where I dispatched an order for a ship to fetch Sir R. Honywood home, for which I got two pieces of my Lady Honywood by young Mr. Powell. Late writing letters; and great doings of music at the next house, which was Whally's; the King and Dukes there with Madame Palmer (age 19)1, a pretty woman that they have a fancy to, to make her husband a cuckold. Here at the old door that did go into his lodgings, my Lord, I, and W. Howe, did stand listening a great while to the music. After that home to bed. This day I should have been at Guildhall to have borne witness for my brother Hawly against Black Collar, but I could not, at which I was troubled. To bed with the greatest quiet of mind that I have had a great while, having ate nothing but a bit of bread and cheese at Lilly's (age 41) to-day, and a bit of bread and butter after I was a-bed.

Note 1. Barbara Villiers (age 19), only child of William, second Viscount Grandison, born November, 1640, married April 14th, 1659, to Roger Palmer (age 26), created Earl of Castlemaine, 1661. She became the King's (age 30) mistress soon after the Restoration, and was in 1670 made Lady Nonsuch, Countess of Southampton, and Duchess of Cleveland. She had six children by the King, one of them being created Duke of Grafton, and the eldest son succeeding her as Duke of Cleveland. She subsequently married Beau Fielding (age 10), whom she prosecuted for bigamy. She died October 9th, 1709, aged sixty-nine. Her life was written by G. Steinman Steinman, and privately printed 1871, with addenda 1874, and second addenda 1878.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1660. Came Sir George Carteret (age 50) and [his wife] lady (age 58) to visit us: he was now Treasurer of the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1660. This morning Mr. Turner and I by coach from our office to Whitehall (in our way I calling on Dr. Walker for the papers I did give him the other day, which he had perused and found that the Duke's counsel had abated something of the former draught which Dr. Walker drew for my Lord) to Sir G. Carteret (age 50), where we there made up an estimate of the debts of the Navy for the Council. At noon I took Mr. Turner and Mr. Moore to the Leg in King Street, and did give them a dinner, and afterward to the Sun Tavern, and did give Mr. Turner a glass of wine, there coming to us Mr. Fowler the apothecary (the judge's son) with a book of lute lessons which his father had left there for me, such as he formerly did use to play when a young man, and had the use of his hand. To the Privy Seal, and found some business now again to do there. To Westminster Hall [Map] for a new half-shirt Mrs. Lane, and so home by water. Wrote letters by the post to my Lord and to sea. This night W. Hewer (age 18) brought me home from Mr. Pim's my velvet coat and cap, the first that ever I had. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1660. Office Day. News of the Duke's intention to go tomorrow to the fleet for a day or two to meet his sister. Col. Slingsby (age 49) and I to Whitehall, thinking to proffer our service to the Duke to wait upon him, but meeting with Sir G. Carteret (age 50) he sent us in all haste back again to hire two Catches for the present use of the Duke. So we returned and landed at the Bear [Map] at the Bridge foot, where we saw Southwark Fair (I having not at all seen Bartholomew Fair), and so to the Tower wharf, where we did hire two catches. So to the office and found Sir W. Batten (age 59) at dinner with some friends upon a good chine of beef, on which I ate heartily, I being very hungry. Home, where Mr. Snow (whom afterwards we called one another cozen) came to me to see me, and with him and one Shelston, a simple fellow that looks after an employment (that was with me just upon my going to sea last), to a tavern, where till late with them. So home, having drunk too much, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1660. To the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 59), Colonel Slingsby (age 49), and I sat awhile, and Sir R. Ford (age 46)1 coming to us about some business, we talked together of the interest of this kingdom to have a peace with Spain and a war with France and Holland; where Sir R. Ford (age 46) talked like a man of great reason and experience. And afterwards I did send for a cup of tee2 (a China drink) of which I never had drank before, and went away. Then came Col. Birch (age 45) and Sir R. Browne by a former appointment, and with them from Tower wharf in the barge belonging to our office we went to Deptford, Kent [Map] to pay off the ship Success, which (Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) coming afterwards to us) we did, Col. Birch (age 45) being a mighty busy man and one that is the most indefatigable and forward to make himself work of any man that ever I knew in my life. At the Globe we had a very good dinner, and after that to the pay again, which being finished we returned by water again, and I from our office with Col. Slingsby (age 49) by coach to Westminster (I setting him down at his lodgings by the way) to inquire for my Lord's coming thither (the King and the Princess3 coming up the river this afternoon as we were at our pay), and I found him gone to Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I found him well, only had got some corns upon his foot which was not well yet. My Lord told me how the ship that brought the Princess and him (The Tredagh) did knock six times upon the Kentish Knock4, which put them in great fear for the ship; but got off well. He told me also how the King had knighted Vice-Admiral Lawson (age 45) and Sir Richard Stayner (age 35). From him late and by coach home, where the plasterers being at work in all the rooms in my house, my wife was fain to make a bed upon the ground for her and me, and so there we lay all night.

Note 1. Sir Richard Ford was one of the commissioners sent to Breda to desire Charles II to return to England immediately.

Note 2. That excellent and by all Physicians, approved, China drink, called by the Chineans Tcha, by other nations Tay alias Tee, is sold at the Sultaness Head Coffee-House, in Sweetings Rents, by the "Royal Exchange, London". "Coffee, chocolate, and a kind of drink called tee, sold in almost every street in 1659".-Rugge's Diurnal. It is stated in "Boyne's Trade Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., 1889, p. 593 that the word tea occurs on no other tokens than those issued from 'the Great Turk' (Morat ye Great) coffeehouse in Exchange Alley. The Dutch East India Company introduced tea into Europe in 1610, and it is said to have been first imported into England from Holland about 1650. The English "East India Company" purchased and presented 2 lbs. of tea to Charles II in 1660, and 23 lbs. in 1666. The first order for its importation by the company was in 1668, and the first consignment of it, amounting to 143 lbs., was received from Bantam in 1669 (see Sir George Birdwood's "Report on the Old Records at the India Office", 1890, p. 26). By act 12 Car. II., capp. 23, 24, a duty of 8d. per gallon was imposed upon the infusion of tea, as well as on chocolate and sherbet.

Note 3. "The Princess Royall came from Gravesend, Kent [Map] to Whitehall by water, attended by a noble retinue of about one hundred persons, gentry, and servants, and tradesmen, and tirewomen, and others, that took that opportunity to advance their fortunes, by coming in with so excellent a Princess as without question she is".-Rugge's Diurnal. A broadside, entitled "Ourania, the High and Mighty Lady the Princess Royal of Aurange, congratulated on her most happy arrival, September the 25th, 1660", was printed on the 29th.

Note 4. A shoal in the North Sea, off the Thames mouth, outside the Long Sand, fifteen miles N.N.E. of the North Foreland. It measures seven miles north-eastward, and about two miles in breadth. It is partly dry at low water. A revolving light was set up in 1840.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1660. Office Day. To the office, where Sir G. Carteret (age 50) did give us an account how Mr. Holland do intend to prevail with the Parliament to try his project of discharging the seamen all at present by ticket, and so promise interest to all men that will lend money upon them at eight per cent., for so long as they are unpaid; whereby he do think to take away the growing debt, which do now lie upon the kingdom for lack of present money to discharge the seamen. But this we are, troubled at as some diminution to us. I having two barrels of oysters at home, I caused one of them and some wine to be brought to the inner room in the office, and there the Principal Officers did go and eat them. So we sat till noon, and then to dinner, and to it again in the afternoon till night. At home I sent for Mr. Hater, and broke the other barrel with him, and did afterwards sit down discoursing of sea terms to learn of him. And he being gone I went up and sat till twelve at night again to make an end of my Lord's accounts, as I did the last night. Which at last I made a good end of, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1660. This morning I took a resolution to rise early in the morning, and so I rose by candle, which I have not done all this winter, and spent my morning in fiddling till time to go to the office, where Sir G. Carteret (age 50) did begin again discourse on Mr. Holland's proposition, which the King do take very ill, and so Sir George in lieu of that do propose that the seamen should have half in ready money and tickets for the other half, to be paid in three months after, which we judge to be very practicable. After office home to dinner, where come in my cozen Snow by chance, and I had a very good capon to dinner. So to the office till night, and so home, and then come Mr. Davis, of Deptford, Kent [Map] (the first time that ever he was at my house), and after him Mons. L'Impertinent, who is to go to Ireland to-morrow, and so came to take his leave of me. They both found me under the barber's hand; but I had a bottle of good sack in the house, and so made them very welcome. Mr. Davis sat with me a good while after the other was gone, talking of his hard usage and of the endeavour to put him out of his place in the time of the late Commissioners, and he do speak very highly of their corruption. After he was gone I fell a reading 'Cornelianum dolium' till 11 o'clock at night with great pleasure, and after that to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1660. To Whitehall to Sir G. Carteret's (age 50) chamber, where all the officers met, and so we went up to the Duke of York (age 27), and he took us into his closet, and we did open to him our project of stopping the growing charge of the fleet by paying them in hand one moyety, and the other four months hence. This he do like, and we returned by his order to Sir G. Carteret's (age 50) chamber, and there we did draw up this design in order to be presented to the Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1660. This morning the Proposal which I wrote the last night I showed to the officers this morning, and was well liked of, and I wrote it fair for Sir. G. Carteret (age 50) to show to the King, and so it is to go to the Parliament. I dined at home, and after dinner I went to the new Theatre [Map] and there I saw "The Merry Wives of Windsor" acted, the humours of the country gentleman and the French doctor very well done, but the rest but very poorly, and Sir J. Falstaffe t as bad as any.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1660. This morning some of the Commissioners of Parliament and Sir W. Batten (age 59) went to Sir G. Carteret's (age 50) office here in town, and paid off the Chesnut. I carried my wife to White Friars and landed her there, and myself to Whitehall to the Privy Seal, where abundance of pardons to seal, but I was much troubled for it because that there are no fees now coming for them to me. Thence Mr. Moore and I alone to the Leg in King Street, and dined together on a neat's tongue and udder. From thence by coach to Mr. Crew's (age 62) to my Lord, who told me of his going out of town to-morrow to settle the militia in Huntingdonshire, and did desire me to lay up a box of some rich jewels and things that there are in it, which I promised to do. After much free discourse with my Lord, who tells me his mind as to his enlarging his family, &c., and desiring me to look him out a Master of the Horse and other servants, we parted. From thence I walked to Greatorex (age 35) (he was not within), but there I met with Mr. Jonas Moore (age 43)1, and took him to the Five Bells,' and drank a glass of wine and left him. To the Temple [Map], when Sir R. Parkhurst (as was intended the last night) did seal the writings, and is to have the £2000 told to-morrow. From, thence by water to Parliament Stairs, and there at an alehouse to Doling (who is suddenly to go into Ireland to venture his fortune); Simonds D'Ewes 1st Baronet (who is at a great loss for £200 present money, which I was loth to let him have, though I could now do it, and do love him and think him honest and sufficient, yet lothness to part with money did dissuade me from it); Luellin (who was very drowsy from a dose that he had got the last night), Mr. Mount and several others, among the rest one Mr. Pierce, an army man, who did make us the best sport for songs and stories in a Scotch tone (which he do very well) that ever I heard in my life. I never knew so good a companion in all my observation. From thence to the bridge by water, it being a most pleasant moonshine night, with a waterman who did tell such a company of bawdy stories, how once he carried a lady from Putney in such a night as this, and she bade him lie down by her, which he did, and did give her content, and a great deal more roguery.

Note 1. Jonas Moore (age 43) was born at Whitley, Lancashire, February 8th, 1617, and was appointed by Charles I tutor to the Duke of York (age 27). Soon after the Restoration he was knighted and made Surveyor-General of the Ordnance. He was famous as a mathematician, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society. He died August 27th, 1679, and at his funeral sixty pieces of ordnance were discharged at the Tower.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1660. To Whitehall to the Privy Seal, and thence to Mr. Pierces the Surgeon to tell them that I would call by and by to go to dinner. But I going into Westminster Hall [Map] met with Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) (who were in a great fear that we had committed a great error of £100,000 in our late account gone into the Parliament in making it too little), and so I was fain to send order to Mr. Pierces to come to my house; and also to leave the key of the chest with Mr. Spicer; wherein my Lord's money is, and went along with Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water to the office, and there with Mr. Huchinson we did find that we were in no mistake. And so I went to dinner with my wife and Mr. and Mrs. Pierce the Surgeon to Mr. Pierce, the Purser (the first time that ever I was at his house) who does live very plentifully and finely. We had a lovely chine of beef and other good things very complete and drank a great deal of wine, and her daughter played after dinner upon the virginals1, and at night by lanthorn home again, and Mr. Pierce and his wife being gone home I went to bed, having drunk so much wine that my head was troubled and was not very well all night, and the wind I observed was rose exceedingly before I went to bed.

Note 1. All instruments of the harpsichord and spinet kind were styled virginals.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1661. Where we walked up and down, and at last found Sir G. Carteret (age 51), whom I had not seen a great while, and did discourse with him about our assisting the Commissioners in paying off the Fleet, which we think to decline. Here the Treasurer did tell me that he did suspect Thos. Hater to be an informer of them in this work, which we do take to be a diminution of us, which do trouble me, and I do intend to find out the truth.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1661. After dinner I was sent for to Sir G. Carteret's (age 51), where he was, and I found the Comptroller (age 50), who are upon writing a letter to the Commissioners of Parliament in some things a rougher stile than our last, because they seem to speak high to us. So the Comptroller (age 50) and I thence to a tavern hard by, and there did agree upon drawing up some letters to be sent to all the pursers and Clerks of the Cheques to make up their accounts. Then home; where I found the parson and his wife gone. And by and by the rest of the company, very well pleased, and I too; it being the last dinner I intend to make a great while, it having now cost me almost £15 in three dinners within this fortnight. In the evening comes Sir W. Pen (age 39), pretty merry, to sit with me and talk, which we did for an hour or two, and so good night, and I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1661. By coach to Whitehall with Colonel Slingsby (age 50) (carrying Mrs. Turner (age 38) with us) and there he and I up into the house, where we met with Sir G. Carteret (age 51): who afterwards, with the Duke of York (age 27), my Lord Sandwich (age 35), and others, went into a private room to consult: and we were a little troubled that we were not called in with the rest. But I do believe it was upon something very private. We staid walking in the gallery; where we met with Mr. Slingsby, that was formerly a great friend of Mons. Blondeau, who showed me the stamps of the King's new coyne; which is strange to see, how good they are in the stamp and bad in the money, for lack of skill to make them. But he says Blondeau will shortly come over, and then we shall have it better, and the best in the world1.

Note 1. Peter Blondeau, medallist, was invited to London from Paris in 1649, and appointed by the Council of State to coin their money; but the moneyers succeeded in driving him out of the country. Soon after the Restoration he returned, and was appointed engineer to the mint.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1661. Capt. Cuttance and I walked from Redriffe [Map] to Deptford, where I found both Sir Williams and Sir G. Carteret (age 51) at Mr. Uthwayt's, and there we dined, and notwithstanding my resolution, yet for want of other victualls, I did eat flesh this Lent, but am resolved to eat as little as I can. After dinner we went to Captain Bodilaw's, and there made sale of many old stores by the candle, and good sport it was to see how from a small matter bid at first they would come to double and treble the price of things. After that Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I and my Lady Batten and her daughter by land to Redriffe [Map], staying a little at halfway house, and when we came to take boat, found Sir George, &c., to have staid with the barge a great while for us, which troubled us.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1661. Up early to see my workmen at work. My brother Tom (age 27) comes to me, and among other things I looked over my old clothes and did give him a suit of black stuff clothes and a hat and some shoes. At the office all the morning, where Sir G. Carteret (age 51) comes, and there I did get him to promise me some money upon a bill of exchange, whereby I shall secure myself of £60 which otherwise I should not know how to get.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. In which it is impossible to relate the glory of this day, expressed in the clothes of them that rid, and their horses and horses clothes, among others, my Lord Sandwich's (age 35). Embroidery and diamonds were ordinary among them. The Knights of the Bath was a brave sight of itself; and their Esquires, among which Mr. Armiger was an Esquire to one of the Knights. Remarquable were the two men that represent the two Dukes of Normandy and Aquitane. The Bishops come next after Barons, which is the higher place; which makes me think that the next Parliament they will be called to the House of Lords. My Lord Monk (age 52) rode bare after the King, and led in his hand a spare horse, as being Master of the Horse. The King, in a most rich embroidered suit and cloak, looked most noble. Wadlow1, the vintner, at the Devil [Map]; in Fleetstreet, did lead a fine company of soldiers, all young comely men, in white doublets. There followed the Vice-Chamberlain, Sir G. Carteret (age 51), a company of men all like Turks; but I know not yet what they are for.

Note 1. Simon Wadlow was the original of "old Sir Simon the king", the favourite air of Squire Western in "Tom Jones". "Hang up all the poor hop-drinkers, Cries old Sim, the king of skinkers". Ben Jonson, Verses over the door into the Apollo.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1661. So I went out of the office to Whitehall presently, and there spoke with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Sir George Carteret (age 51) and had their advice as to my going, and so back again home, where I directed Mr. Hater what to do in order to our going to-morrow, and so back again by coach to Whitehall and there eat something in the buttery at my Lord's with John Goods and Ned Osgood.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1661. In the morning to Mr. Coventry (age 33), Sir G. Carteret (age 51), and my Lord's to give them an account of my return. My Lady, I find, is, since my going, gone to the Wardrobe. Then with Mr. Creed into London, to several places about his and my business, being much stopped in our way by the City traynebands, who go in much solemnity and pomp this day to muster before the King and the Duke (age 27), and shops in the City are shut up every where all this day. He carried me to an ordinary by the Old Exchange [Map], where we come a little too late, but we had very good cheer for our 18d a-piece, and an excellent droll too, my host, and his wife so fine a woman; and sung and played so well that I staid a great while and drunk a great deal of wine. Then home and staid among my workmen all day, and took order for things for the finishing of their work, and so at night to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and there supped and so home and to bed, having sent my Lord a letter to-night to excuse myself for not going with him to-morrow to the Hope, whither he is to go to see in what condition the fleet is in.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1661. From thence to Sir G. Carteret (age 51), and there did get his promise for the payment of the remainder of the bill of Mr. Creed's, wherein of late I have been so much concerned, which did so much rejoice me that I meeting with Mr. Childe took him to the Swan Tavern in King Street, and there did give him a tankard of white wine and sugar1, and so I went by water home and set myself to get my Lord's accounts made up, which was till nine at night before I could finish, and then I walked to the Wardrobe, being the first time I was there since my Lady came thither, who I found all alone, and so she shewed me all the lodgings as they are now fitted, and they seem pretty pleasant. By and by comes in my Lord, and so, after looking over my accounts, I returned home, being a dirty and dark walk. So to bed.

Note 1. The popular taste was formerly for sweet wines, and sugar was frequently mixed with the wine.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1661. By water to the office, and there sat late, Sir George Carteret (age 51) coming in, who among other things did inquire into the naming of the maisters for this fleet, and was very angry that they were named as they are, and above all to see the maister of the Adventure (for whom there is some kind of difference between Sir W. Pen (age 40) and me) turned out, who has been in her list.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1661. To the office, where Sir R. Slingsby (age 50) was, and he and I into his and my lodgings to take a view of them, out of a desire he has to have mine of me to join to his, and give me Mr. Turner's. To the office again, where Sir G. Carteret (age 51) came and sat a while, he being angry for Sir Williams making of the maisters of this fleet upon their own heads without a full table.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jun 1661. At the office this morning, Sir G. Carteret (age 51) with us; and we agreed upon a letter to the Duke of York (age 27), to tell him the sad condition of this office for want of money; how men are not able to serve us more without some money; and that now the credit of the office is brought so low, that none will sell us any thing without our personal security given for the same. All the afternoon abroad about several businesses, and at night home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1661. Back again to the office, where I found Sir G. Carteret (age 51) had a day or two ago invited some of the officers to dinner to-day at Deptford. So at noon, when I heard that he was a-coming, I went out, because I would see whether he would send to me or no to go with them; but he did not, which do a little trouble me till I see how it comes to pass. Although in other things I am glad of it because of my going again to-day to the Privy Seal.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1661. This morning I was busy at home to take in my part of our freight of Coles, which Sir G. Carteret (age 51), Sir R. Slingsby (age 50), and myself sent for, which is 10 Chaldron, 8 of which I took in, and with the other to repay Sir W. Pen (age 40) what I borrowed of him a little while ago. So that from this day I should see how long 10 chaldron of coals will serve my house, if it please the Lord to let me live to see them burned.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 33), who sat with us all the morning, and Sir G. Carteret (age 51), Sir W. Pen (age 40), and myself, by coach to Captain Marshe's, at Limehouse [Map], to a house that hath been their ancestors for this 250 years, close by the lime-house which gives the name to the place. Here they have a design to get the King to hire a dock for the herring busses, which is now the great design on foot, to lie up in. We had a very good and handsome dinner, and excellent wine. I not being neat in clothes, which I find a great fault in me, could not be so merry as otherwise, and at all times I am and can be, when I am in good habitt, which makes me remember my father Osborne's' rule for a gentleman to spare in all things rather than in that. So by coach home, and so to write letters by post, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1661. This morning Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I should have gone out of town with my Lady Batten, to have met Sir William coming back from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; at Kingston, but could not, by reason that my Lord of Peterborough (age 39) (who is to go Governor of Tangier) came this morning, with Sir G. Carteret (age 51), to advise with us about completing of the affairs and preparacions for that place.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1661. I lay long in bed, till Sir Williams both sent me word that we were to wait upon the Duke of York (age 28) to-day; and that they would have me to meet them at Westminster Hall [Map], at noon: so I rose and went thither; and there I understand that they are gone to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) lodgings, in the Old Palace Yard, to dinner (the first time I knew he had any); and there I met them two and Sir G. Carteret (age 51), and had a very fine dinner, and good welcome, and discourse; and so, by water, after dinner to White Hall to the Duke, who met us in his closet; and there he did discourse to us the business of Holmes, and did desire of us to know what hath been the common practice about making of forrayne ships to strike sail to us, which they did all do as much as they could; but I could say nothing to it, which I was sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1661. So back to Sir G. Carteret's (age 51) and ended our business, and so away homewards, but Sir W. Batten (age 60) offering to go to the 3 Tuns at Charing Cross, where the pretty maid the daughter of the house is; I was saying that, that tickled Sir W. Pen (age 40), he seemed to take these words very captiously and angrily, which I saw, and seemed indifferent to go home in his coach with them, and so took leave to go to the Council Chamber to speak with my Lord Privy Seal, which I did, but they did stay for me, which I was pleased at, but no words passed between him and me in all our way home. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1661. Lay long in bed, and then to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked, and then with Mr. Spicer, Hawly, Washington, and little Mr. Ashwell (my old friends at the Exchequer) to the Dog [Map], and gave them two or three quarts of wine, and so away to White Hall, where, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 51), Sir Williams both and I dined very pleasantly; and after dinner, by appointment, came the Governors of the East India Company, to sign and seal the contract between us1 (in the King's (age 31) name) and them.

Note 1. Charles II's charter to the Company, confirming and extending the former charter, is dated April 3rd, 1661. Bombay, India, just acquired as part of Queen Katherine's dowry, was made over to the Company by Letters Patent dated March 27th, 1669.

In 1662 [his son-in-law] Nicholas Slanning 1st Baronet (age 18) and [his daughter] Anne Carteret were married.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1662. I rose and went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked up and down upon several businesses, and among others I met with Sir W. Pen (age 40), who told me that he had this morning heard Sir G. Carteret (age 52) extremely angry against my man Will that he is every other day with the Commissioners of Parliament at Westminster, and that his uncle was a rogue, and that he did tell his uncle every thing that passes at the office, and Sir William, though he loves the lad, did advise me to part with him, which did with this surprise mightily trouble me, though I was already angry with him, and so to the Wardrobe by water, and all the way did examine Will about the business, but did not tell him upon what score, but I find that the poor lad do suspect something.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1662. At the office all the morning private with Sir G. Carteret (age 52) (who I expected something from about yesterday's business, but he said nothing), Sir W. Batten (age 61), and Sir W. Pen (age 40), about drawing; up an answer to several demands of my Lord Treasurer, and late at it till 2 o'clock.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1662. Before we had dined came Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and we went all three to the office and did business there till night, and then to Sir W. Batten (age 61) again, and I went along with my lady and the rest of the gentlewomen to Major Holmes's, and there we had a fine supper, among others, excellent lobsters, which I never eat at this time of the year before. The Major hath good lodgings at the Trinity House, Deptford [Map]. Here we staid, and at last home, and, being in my chamber, we do hear great noise of mirth at Sir William Batten's (age 61), tearing the ribbands from my Lady and him1. So I to bed.

Note 1. As if they were a newly-married couple.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1662. Early at the office. Sir G. Carteret (age 52), the two Sir Williams and myself all alone reading of the Duke's institutions for the settlement of our office, whereof we read as much as concerns our own duties, and left the other officers for another time. I did move several things for my purpose, and did ease my mind.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1662. So home to dinner, and after dinner came Sir William and talked with me till church time, and then to church, where at our going out I was at a loss by Sir W. Pen's (age 40) putting me upon it whether to take my wife or Mrs. Martha (who alone was there), and I began to take my wife, but he jogged me, and so I took Martha, and led her down before him and my wife. So set her at home, and Sir William and my wife and I to walk in the garden, and anon hearing that Sir G. Carteret (age 52) had sent to see whether we were at home or no, Sir William and I went to his house, where we waited a good while, they being at prayers, and by and by we went up to him; there the business was about hastening the East India ships, about which we are to meet to-morrow in the afternoon. So home to my house, and Sir William supped with me, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1662. So after a little being at Sir W. Batten's (age 61) with Sir G. Carteret (age 52) talking, I went home, and so to my chamber, and then to bed, my mind somewhat troubled about Brampton affairs.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1662. Then home to dinner, and Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and I all the afternoon by ourselves upon business in the office till late at night. So to write letters and home to bed. Troubled at my maid's being ill.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1662. With Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and both the Sir Williams at Whitehall to wait on the Duke in his chamber, which we did about getting money for the Navy and other things. So back again to the office all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Mar 1662. After dinner to the office again, where Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and we staid awhile, and then Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I on board some of the ships now fitting for East Indys and Portugall, to see in what forwardness they are, and so back home again, and I write to my father by the post about Brampton Court, which is now coming on. But that which troubles me is that my Father has now got an ague that I fear may endanger his life. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1662. So having sent for my wife, she and I to my Lady Sandwich (age 37), and after a short visit away home. She home, and I to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) about business, and so home too, and Sarah having her fit we went to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1662. By and by a coach came to call me by my appointment, and so my wife and I carried to Westminster to Mrs. Hunt's, and I to Whitehall, Worcester House, and to my Lord Treasurer's to have found Sir G. Carteret (age 52), but missed in all these places.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1662. So home again, and took water with them towards Westminster; but as we put off with the boat Griffin came after me to tell me that Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and the rest were at the office, so I intended to see them through the bridge [Map] and come back again, but the tide being against us, when we were almost through we were carried back again with much danger, and Mrs. Pierce was much afeard and frightened. So I carried them to the other side and walked to the Beare [Map], and sent them away, and so back again myself to the office, but finding nobody there I went again to the Old Swan [Map], and thence by water to the New Exchange [Map], and there found them, and thence by coach carried my wife to Bowes to buy something, and while they were there went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there bought Mr. Grant's (age 41) book of observations upon the weekly bills of mortality, which appear to me upon first sight to be very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1662. Early Sir G. Carteret (age 52), both Sir Williams and I on board The Experiment, to dispatch her away, she being to carry things to the Madeiras with the East Indy fleet. Here (Sir W. Pen (age 40) going to Deptford, Kent [Map] to send more hands) we staid till noon talking, and eating and drinking a good ham of English bacon, and having put things in very good order home, where I found Jane, my old maid, come out of the country, and I have a mind to have her again.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1662. Up early. This being, by God's great blessing, the fourth solemn day of my cutting for the stone this day four years, and am by God's mercy in very good health, and like to do well, the Lord's name be praised for it. To the office and Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) all the morning about business.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1662. Early Sir G. Carteret (age 52), both Sir Williams and I by coach to Deptford, it being very windy and rainy weather, taking a codd and some prawnes in Fish Street with us. We settled to pay the Guernsey, a small ship, but come to a great deal of money, it having been unpaid ever since before the King (age 31) came in, by which means not only the King (age 31) pays wages while the ship has lain still, but the poor men have most of them been forced to borrow all the money due for their wages before they receive it, and that at a dear rate, God knows, so that many of them had very little to receive at the table, which grieved me to see it.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1662. This morning Mr. Coventry (age 34) and all our company met at the office about some business of the victualling, which being dispatched we parted. I to my Lord Crew's to dinner (in my way calling upon my brother Tom (age 28), with whom I staid a good while and talked, and find him a man like to do well, which contents me much), where used with much respect, and talking with him about my Lord's debts, and whether we should make use of an offer of Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) to lend my Lady 4 or £500, he told me by no means, we must not oblige my Lord to him, and by the by he made a question whether it was not my Lord's interest a little to appear to the King (age 31) in debt, and for people to clamor against him as well as others for their money, that by that means the King (age 31) and the world may see that he do lay out for the King's honour upon his own main stock, which many he tells me do, that in fine if there be occasion he and I will be bound for it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1662. At the office till almost noon, and then broke up. Then came Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and he and I walked together alone in the garden, taking notice of some faults in the office, particularly of Sir W. Batten's (age 61), and he seemed to be much pleased with me, and I hope will be the ground of a future interest of mine in him, which I shall be glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1662. Lord's Day. By water to White Hall, to Sir G. Carteret (age 52), to give him an account of the backwardness of the ships we have hired to Portugall: at which he is much troubled.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1662. So up and saw the King (age 31) at dinner; and thence with Sir G. Carteret (age 52) to his lodgings to dinner, with him and his [his wife] lady (age 60), where I saluted her, and was well received as a stranger by her; she seems a good lady, and all their discourse, which was very much, was upon their sufferings and services for the King (age 31). Yet not without some trouble, to see that some that had been much bound to them, do now neglect them; and others again most civil that have received least from them: and I do believe that he hath been a good servant to the King (age 31).

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1662. Sir George Carteret (age 52), Sir Williams both and myself all the morning at the office passing the Victualler's accounts, and at noon to dinner at the Dolphin, where a good chine of beef and other good cheer. At dinner Sir George showed me an account in French of the great famine, which is to the greatest extremity in some part of France at this day, which is very strange1.

Note 1. On the 5th of June following, Louis, notwithstanding the scarcity, gave that splendid carousal in the court before the Tuileries, from which the place has ever since taken its name. B.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1662. This morning Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir W. Batten (age 61) and I met at the office, and did conclude of our going to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] next week, in which my mind is at a great loss what to do with my wife, for I cannot persuade her to go to Brampton, and I am loth to leave her at, home. All the afternoon in several places to put things in order for my going. At night home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1662. So to my Lady's and dined, and so to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and so to the Chappell, where I challenged my pew as Clerk of the Privy Seal and had it, and then walked home with Mr. Blagrave to his old house in the Fishyard, and there he had a pretty kinswoman that sings, and we did sing some holy things, and afterwards others came in and so I left them, and by water through the bridge [Map] (which did trouble me) home, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1662. After taking leave of my wife, which we could hardly do kindly, because of her mind to go along with me, Sir W. Pen (age 40) and I took coach and so over the bridge to Lambeth, W. Bodham and Tom Hewet going as clerks to Sir W. Pen (age 40), and my Will for me. Here we got a dish of buttered eggs, and there staid till Sir G. Carteret (age 52) came to us from White Hall, who brought Dr. Clerke with him, at which I was very glad, and so we set out, and I was very much pleased with his company, and were very merry all the way .... We came to Gilford [Map] and there passed our time in the garden, cutting of sparagus for supper, the best that ever I eat in my life but in the house last year. Supped well, and the Doctor and I to bed together, calling cozens from his name and my office.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1662. Up and to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) lodgings at Mrs. Stephens's, where we keep our table all the time we are here.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1662. Sir George (age 52) and I, and his clerk Mr. Stephens, and Mr. Holt our guide, over to Gosport; and so rode to Southampton. In our way, besides my Lord Southampton's' (age 55) parks and lands, which in one view we could see £6,000 per annum, we observed a little church-yard, where the graves are accustomed to be all sowed with sage1.

Note 1. Gough says, "It is the custom at this day all over Wales to strew the graves, both within and without the church, with green herbs, branches of box, flowers, rushes, and flags, for one year, after which such as can afford it lay down a stone".-Brand's Popular Antiquities, edited W. C. Hazlitt, vol. ii., p. 218.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1662. In the evening Sir George (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I walked round the walls, and thence we two with the Doctor to the yard, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1662. At the pay all the morning, and so to dinner; and then to it again in the afternoon, and after our work was done, Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I walked forth, and I spied Mrs. Pierce and another lady passing by. So I left them and went to the ladies, and walked with them up and down, and took them to Mrs. Stephens, and there gave them wine and sweetmeats, and were very merry; and then comes the Doctor, and we carried them by coach to their lodging, which was very poor, but the best they could get, and such as made much mirth among us. So I appointed one to watch when the gates of the town were ready to be shut, and to give us notice; and so the Doctor and I staid with them playing and laughing, and at last were forced to bid good night for fear of being locked into the town all night. So we walked to the yard, designing how to prevent our going to London tomorrow, that we might be merry with these ladies, which I did. So to supper and merrily to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1662. This morning Sir G. Carteret (age 52) came down to the yard, and there we mustered over all the men and determined of some regulations in the yard, and then to dinner, all the officers of the yard with us, and after dinner walk to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], there to pay off the Success, which we did pretty early, and so I took leave of Sir W. Pen (age 41), he desiring to know whither I went, but I would not tell him. I went to the ladies, and there took them and walked to the Mayor's to show them the present, and then to the Dock, where Mr. Tippets made much of them, and thence back again, the Doctor being come to us to their lodgings, whither came our supper by my appointment, and we very merry, playing at cards and laughing very merry till 12 o'clock at night, and so having staid so long (which we had resolved to stay till they bade us be gone), which yet they did not do but by consent, we bade them good night, and so past the guards, and went to the Doctor's lodgings, and there lay with him, our discourse being much about the quality of the lady with Mrs. Pierce, she being somewhat old and handsome, and painted and fine, and had a very handsome maid with her, which we take to be the marks of a bawd. But Mrs. Pierce says she is a stranger to her and met by chance in the coach, and pretends to be a dresser. Her name is Eastwood. So to sleep in a bad bed about one o'clock in the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1662. To horse again after dinner, and got to Gilford [Map], where after supper I to bed, having this day been offended by Sir W. Pen's (age 41) foolish talk, and I offending him with my answers. Among others he in discourse complaining of want of confidence, did ask me to lend him a grain or two, which I told him I thought he was better stored with than myself, before Sir George (age 52). So that I see I must keep a greater distance than I have done, and I hope I may do it because of the interest which I am making with Sir George (age 52).

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1662. Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and myself, with our clerks, set out this morning from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] very early, and got by noon to Petersfield, Hampshire; several officers of the Yard accompanying us so far. Here we dined and were merry. At dinner comes my Lord Carlingford (age 59) from London, going to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]: tells us that the Duchess of York (age 25) is brought to bed of a girl, [Mary, afterwards Queen of England.] at which I find nobody pleased; and that Prince Rupert (age 42) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 34) are sworn of the Privy Councell. He himself made a dish with eggs of the butter of the sparagus, which is very fine meat, which I will practise hereafter.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. At the office all the morning doing business alone, and then to the Wardrobe, where my Lady going out with the children to dinner I staid not, but returned home, and was overtaken in St. Paul's Churchyard by Sir G. Carteret (age 52) in his coach, and so he carried me to the Exchange [Map], where I staid awhile. He told me that the Queen (age 23) and the fleet were in Mount's Bay on Monday last, and that the Queen (age 23) endures her sickness pretty well. He also told me how Sir John Lawson (age 47) hath done some execution upon the Turks in the Straight, of which I am glad, and told the news the first on the Exchange [Map], and was much followed by merchants to tell it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. And looking upon his lodgings, which are now enlarging, he in passion cried, "Guarda mi spada; for, by God, I may chance to keep him in Ireland, when he is there:" for Sir W. Pen (age 41) is going thither with my Lord Lieutenant (age 51). But it is my design to keep much in with Sir George (age 52); and I think I have begun very well towards it. So to the office, and was there late doing business, and so with my head full of business I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. So home and to dinner, and by and by to the office, and after the rest gone (my Lady Albemarle (age 43) being this day at dinner at Sir W. Batten's (age 61)) Sir G. Carteret (age 52) comes, and he and I walked in the garden, and, among other discourse, tells me that it is Mr. Coventry (age 34) that is to come to us as a Commissioner of the Navy; at which he is much vexed, and cries out upon Sir W. Pen (age 41), and threatens him highly.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1662. Back to the office and there all afternoon, and in the evening comes Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and he and I did hire a ship for Tangier, and other things together; and I find that he do single me out to join with me apart from the rest, which I am much glad of. So home, and after being trimmed, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1662. Thence to the Councell-chamber; where the King (age 31) and Councell sat till almost eleven o'clock at night, and I forced to walk up and down the gallerys till that time of night. They were reading all the bills over that are to pass to-morrow at the House, before the King's going out of town and proroguing the House. At last the Councell risen, and Sir G. Carteret (age 52) telling me what the Councell hath ordered about the ships designed to carry horse from Ireland to Portugall, which is now altered.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1662. Hence with Sir G. Carteret (age 52) to his lodging to dinner with his Lady and one Mr. Brevin, a French Divine, we were very merry, and good discourse, and I had much talk with my Lady.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1662. By and by to White Hall, hearing that Sir G. Carteret (age 52) was come to town, but I could not find him, and so back to Tom's, and thence I took my father to my house, and there he dined with me, discoursing of our businesses with uncle Thomas and T. Trice.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock and to my business in my chamber, to even accounts with my Lord and myself, and very fain I would become master of £1000, but I have not above £530 toward it yet. At the office all the morning, and Mr. Coventry (age 34) brought his patent and took his place with us this morning. Upon our making a contract, I went, as I use to do, to draw the heads thereof, but Sir W. Pen (age 41) most basely told me that the Comptroller (age 63) is to do it, and so begun to employ Mr. Turner about it, at which I was much vexed, and begun to dispute; and what with the letter of the Duke's orders, and Mr. Barlow's letter, and the practice of our predecessors, which Sir G. Carteret (age 52) knew best when he was Comptroller (age 63), it was ruled for me. What Sir J. Minnes (age 63) will do when he comes I know not, but Sir W. Pen (age 41) did it like a base raskall, and so I shall remember him while I live.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1662. Home and to the office, where about 8 at night comes Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Sir W. Batten (age 61), and so we did some business, and then home and to bed, my mind troubled about Sir W. Pen (age 41), his playing the rogue with me to-day, as also about the charge of money that is in my house, which I had forgot; but I made the maids to rise and light a candle, and set it in the dining-room, to scare away thieves, and so to sleep.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1662. Thence to White Hall, and showed Sir G. Carteret (age 52) the cheat, and so to the Wardrobe, and there staid and supped with my Lady. My Lord eating nothing, but writes letters to-night to several places, he being to go out of town to-morrow. So late home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1662. Thence sent for to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52), and there talked with him a good while. I perceive, as he told me, were it not that Mr. Coventry (age 34) had already feathered his nest in selling of places, he do like him very well, and hopes great good from him. But he complains so of lack of money, that my heart is very sad, under the apprehension of the fall of the office.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1662. This morning I tried on my riding cloth suit with close knees, the first that ever I had; and I think they will be very convenient, if not too hot to wear any other open knees after them. At the office all the morning, where we had a full Board, viz., Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir John Mennes, Sir W. Batten (age 61), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir W. Pen (age 41), Mr. Pett (age 51), and myself. Among many other businesses, I did get a vote signed by all, concerning my issuing of warrants, which they did not smell the use I intend to make of it; but it is to plead for my clerks to have their right of giving out all warrants, at which I am not a little pleased. But a great difference happened between Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34), about passing the Victualler's account, and whether Sir George (age 52) is to pay the Victualler his money, or the Exchequer; Sir George (age 52) claiming it to be his place to save his threepences. It ended in anger, and I believe will come to be a question before the King (age 32) and Council. I did what I could to keep myself unconcerned in it, having some things of my own to do before I would appear high in anything.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1662.By and by to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52), to talk with him about yesterday's difference at the office; and offered my service to look into any old books or papers that I have, that may make for him. He was well pleased therewith, and did much inveigh against Mr. Coventry (age 34); telling me how he had done him service in the Parliament, when Prin had drawn up things against him for taking of money for places; that he did at his desire, and upon his, letters, keep him off from doing it. And many other things he told me, as how the King (age 32) was beholden to him, and in what a miserable condition his family would be, if he should die before he hath cleared his accounts. Upon the whole, I do find that he do much esteem of me, and is my friend, and I may make good use of him.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1662. Early up, and brought all my money, which is near £300, out of my house into this chamber; and so to the office, and there we sat all the morning, Sir George Carteret (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34) being come from sea.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1662. At noon being invited I went with Sir George (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34) to Sir W. Batten's (age 61) to dinner, and there merry, and very friendly to Sir Wm. and he to me, and complies much with me, but I know he envies me, and I do not value him.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1662. Up early, and, going to my office, met Sir G. Carteret (age 52) in coming through the yard, and so walked a good while talking with him about Sir W. Batten (age 61), and find that he is going down the wind in every body's esteem, and in that of his honesty by this letter that he wrote to Captn. Allen concerning Alderman Barker's hemp.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1662. After sitting, Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and I walked a good while in the garden, who told me that Sir W. Batten (age 61) had made his complaint to him that some of us had a mind to do him a bad turn, but I do not see that Sir George (age 52) is concerned for him at all, but rather against him. He professes all love to me, and did tell me how he had spoke of me to my Lord Chancellor (age 53), and that if my Lord Sandwich (age 37) would ask my Lord Chancellor (age 53), he should know what he had said of me to him to my advantage, of which I am very glad, and do not doubt that all things will grow better and better every day for me.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1662. By and by comes in Mr. Coventry (age 34) to us, whom my Lord tells that he is also put into the commission, and that I am there, of which he said he was glad; and did tell my Lord that I was indeed the life of this office, and much more to my commendation beyond measure. And that, whereas before he did bear me respect for his sake, he do do it now much more for my own; which is a great blessing to me. Sir G. Carteret (age 52) having told me what he did yesterday concerning his speaking to my Lord Chancellor (age 53) about me. So that on all hands, by God's blessing, I find myself a very rising man.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1662. Up early, and about my works in my house, to see what is done and design more. Then to my office, and by and by we sat till noon at the office. After sitting, Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I did walk together a great while in the Garden, where he did tell me his mind about Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) having so much the command of the money, which must be removed. And indeed it is the bane of all our business. He observed to me also how Sir W. Batten (age 61) begins to struggle and to look after his business, which he do indeed a little, but it will come to nothing. I also put him upon getting an order from the Duke for our inquiries into the Chest, which he will see done.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1662. Up betimes and among my works and workmen, and with great pleasure seeing them go on merrily, and a good many hands, which I perceive makes good riddance, and so to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon dined alone with Sir W. Batten (age 61), which I have not done a great while, but his lady being out of the way I was the willinger to do it, and after dinner he and I by water to Deptford, and there found Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and my Lady at dinner, and so we sat down and eat another dinner of venison with them, and so we went to the payhouse, and there staid till to o'clock at night paying off the Martin and Kinsale, being small but troublesome ships to pay, and so in the dark by water home to the Custom House and so got a lanthorn to light us home, there being Mr. Morrice the wine cooper with us, he having been at Deptford, Kent [Map] to view some of the King's casks we have to sell. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1662. Up betimes and to my office preparing an account to give the Duke this morning of what we have of late done at the office. About 7 o'clock I went forth thinking to go along with Sir John Minnes (age 63) and the rest, and I found them gone, which did vex me, so I went directly to the Old Swan [Map] and took boat before them to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) lodgings at Whitehall, and there staying till he was dressed talking with him, he and I to St. James's, where Sir Williams both and Sir John were come, and so up with Mr. Coventry (age 34) to the Duke; who, after he was out of his bed, did send for us in; and, when he was quite ready, took us into his closet, and there told us that he do intend to renew the old custom for the Admirals to have their principal officers to meet them once a-week, to give them an account what they have done that week; which I am glad of: and so the rest did tell his Royal Highness that I could do it best for the time past.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1662. At my office betimes, and by and by we sat, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Mr. Pett (age 52), and myself by water to Deptford, where we met Sir G. C. (age 52), Sir W. B. (age 61), and Sir W. P. (age 41) at the pay of a ship, and we dined together on a haunch of good venison boiled, and after dinner returned again to the office, and there met several tradesmen by our appointment to know of them their lowest rates that they will take for their several provisions that they sell to us, for I do resolve to know that, and to buy no dearer, that so when we know the lowest rate, it shall be the Treasurer's fault, and not ours, that we pay dearer.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1662. Thence to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52), and find him to have sprained his foot and is lame, but yet hath been at chappell, and my Lady much troubled for one of her daughters that is sick. I dined with them, and a very pretty lady, their kinswoman, with them. My joy is, that I do think I have good hold on Sir George (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34). Sir George (age 52) told me of a chest of drawers that were given Sir W. B. by Hughes the rope-maker, whom he has since put out of his employment, and now the fellow do cry out upon Sir W. for his cabinet.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1662. At the office all the morning, and at noon Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Mr. Coventry (age 34), and I by invitation to dinner to Sheriff Maynell's, the great money-man; he, Alderman Backwell (age 44), and much noble and brave company, with the privilege of their rare discourse, which is great content to me above all other things in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1662. We met and sat all the morning, dined at home alone, and with my workmen all the afternoon, and in the evening by water and land to Deptford, Kent [Map] to give order for things about my house, and came back again by coach with Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Sir W. Batten (age 61) (who has been at a Pay to-day), and to my office and did some business, and so to supper and to my lodgings, and so to bed. In our coming home Sir G. Carteret (age 52) told me how in most cabaretts in France they have writ upon the walls in fair letters to be read, "Dieu te regarde", as a good lesson to be in every man's mind, and have also, as in Holland, their poor's box; in both which places at the making all contracts and bargains they give so much, which they call God's penny.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1662. Late at my office at night writing a letter of excuse to Sir G. Carteret (age 52) that I cannot wait upon him to-morrow morning to Chatham, Kent [Map] as I promised, which I am loth to do because of my workmen and my wife's coming to town to-morrow. So to my lodgings and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1662. My condition at present is this: I have long been building, and my house to my great content is now almost done. But yet not so but that I shall have dirt, which troubles me too, for my wife has been in the country at Brampton these two months, and is now come home a week or two before the house is ready for her. My mind is somewhat troubled about my best chamber, which I question whether I shall be able to keep or no. I am also troubled for the journey which I must needs take suddenly to the Court at Brampton, but most of all for that I am not provided to understand my business, having not minded it a great while, and at the best shall be able but to make a bad matter of it, but God, I hope, will guide all to the best, and I am resolved to-morrow to fall hard to it. I pray God help me therein, for my father and mother and all our well-doings do depend upon my care therein. My Lord Sandwich (age 37) has lately been in the country, and very civil to my wife, and hath himself spent some pains in drawing a plot of some alterations in our house there, which I shall follow as I get money. As for the office, my late industry hath been such, as I am become as high in reputation as any man there, and good hold I have of Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir G. Carteret (age 52), which I am resolved, and it is necessary for me, to maintain by all fair means. Things are all quiett, but the King poor, and no hopes almost of his being otherwise, by which things will go to rack, especially in the Navy. The late outing of the Presbyterian clergy by their not renouncing the Covenant as the Act of Parliament commands, is the greatest piece of state now in discourse. But for ought I see they are gone out very peaceably, and the people not so much concerned therein as was expected. My brother Tom (age 28) is gone out of town this day, to make a second journey to his mistress at Banbury, of which I have good expectations, and pray God to bless him therein. My mind, I hope, is settled to follow my business again, for I find that two days' neglect of business do give more discontent in mind than ten times the pleasure thereof can repair again, be it what it will.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. After dinner he and I into another room over a pot of ale and talked. He showed me our commission, wherein the Duke of York (age 29), Prince Rupert (age 42), Duke of Albemarle (age 53), Lord Peterborough (age 40), Lord Sandwich (age 37), Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir William Compton (age 37), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir R. Ford (age 48), Sir William Rider, Mr. Cholmley, Mr. Povy (age 48), myself, and Captain Cuttance, in this order are joyned for the carrying on the service of Tangier, which I take for a great honour to me.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1662. So my mind full of thoughts, and some trouble at night, home and to bed. Sir G. Carteret (age 52), who had been at the examining most of the late people that are clapped up, do say that he do not think that there hath been any great plotting among them, though they have a good will to it; but their condition is so poor, and silly, and low, that they do not fear them at all.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1662. Lord Mayor's Day. Intended to have made me fine, and by invitation to have dined with the Lord Mayor to-day, but going to see Sir W. Batten (age 61) this morning, I found Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Sir J. Minnes (age 63) going with Sir W. Batten (age 61) and myself to examine Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) accounts for the last year, whereupon I settled to it with them all the day long, only dinner time (which Sir G. Carteret (age 52) gave us), and by night did as good as finish them, and so parted, and thence to my office, and there set papers in order and business against to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. So I went; and the guard at the Tower Gate, making me leave my sword at the gate, I was forced to stay so long in the ale-house hard by, till my boy run home for my cloak, that my Lord Mayor that now is, Sir John Robinson (age 47), Lieutenant of the Tower, with all his company, was gone with their coaches to his house in Minchen Lane. So my cloak being come, I walked thither; and there, by Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) means, did presently speak with Sir H. Bennet (age 44), who did show and give me the King's warrant to me and Mr. Leigh, and another to himself, for the paying of £2,000 to my Lord, and other two to the discoverers. After a little discourse, dinner come in; and I dined with them. There was my Lord Mayor, my Lord Lauderdale, Mr. Secretary Morris, to whom Sir H. Bennet (age 44) would give the upper hand; Sir Wm. Compton, Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and myself, and some other company, and a brave dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. So to my office to put down my journal, and so home and to bed. This morning, walking with Mr. Coventry (age 34) in the garden, he did tell me how Sir G. Carteret (age 52) had carried the business of the Victuallers' money to be paid by himself, contrary to old practice; at which he is angry I perceive, but I believe means no hurt, but that things maybe done as they ought. He expects Sir George (age 52) should not bespatter him privately, in revenge, but openly. Against which he prepares to bedaub him, and swears he will do it from the beginning, from Jersey to this day.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. And as to his own taking of too large fees or rewards for places that he had sold, he will prove that he was directed to it by Sir George (age 52) himself among others. And yet he did not deny Sir G. Carteret (age 52) his due, in saying that he is a man that do take the most pains, and gives himself the most to do business of any man about the Court, without any desire of pleasure or divertisements; which is very true. But which pleased me mightily, he said in these words, that he was resolved, whatever it cost him, to make an experiment, and see whether it was possible for a man to keep himself up in Court by dealing plainly and walking uprightly, with any private game a playing: in the doing whereof, if his ground do slip from under him, he will be contented; but he is resolved to try, and never to baulke taking notice of any thing that is to the King's prejudice, let it fall where it will; which is a most brave resolucion. He was very free with me; and by my troth, I do see more reall worth in him than in most men that I do know. I would not forget two passages of Sir J. Minnes's (age 63) at yesterday's dinner. The one, that to the question how it comes to pass that there are no boars seen in London, but many sows and pigs; it was answered, that the constable gets them a-nights. The other, Thos. Killigrew's way of getting to see plays when he was a boy. He would go to the Red Bull, and when the man cried to the boys, "Who will go and be a devil, and he shall see the play for nothing?" then would he go in, and be a devil upon the stage, and so get to see plays.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Nov 1662. I was invited to the wedding of the [his daughter] daughter of Sir George Carteret (age 52) (The Treasurer of the Navy and King's Vice-Chamberlain), married to [his son-in-law] Sir Nicholas Slaning (age 19), Knight of the Bath, by the Bishop of London (age 64), in the Savoy chapel [Map]; after which was an extraordinary feast.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1662. Before I went to the office my wife's brother did come to us, and we did instruct him to go to Gosnell's and to see what the true matter is of her not coming, and whether she do intend to come or no, and so I to the office; and this morning come Sir G. Carteret (age 52) to us (being the first time we have seen him since his coming from France): he tells us, that the silver which he received for Dunkirk did weigh 120,000 weight. Here all the morning upon business, and at noon (not going home to dinner, though word was brought me that Will. Joyce was there, whom I had not seen at my house nor any where else these three or four months) with Mr. Coventry (age 34) by his coach as far as Fleet Street, and there stepped into Madam Turner's (age 39), where was told I should find my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), and with him to the Temple [Map], but not having time to do anything I went towards my Lord Sandwich's (age 37). (In my way went into Captn. Cuttance's coach, and with him to my Lord's.) But the company not being ready I did slip down to Wilkinson's, and having not eat any thing to-day did eat a mutton pie and drank, and so to my Lord's, where my Lord and Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir Wm. Darcy, one Mr. Parham (a very knowing and well-spoken man in this business), with several others, did meet about stating the business of the fishery, and the manner of the King's giving of this £200 to every man that shall set out a new-made English Busse by the middle of June next. In which business we had many fine pretty discourses; and I did here see the great pleasure to be had in discoursing of publique matters with men that are particularly acquainted with this or that business. Having come to some issue, wherein a motion of mine was well received, about sending these invitations from the King (age 32) to all the fishing-ports in general, with limiting so many Busses to this, and that port, before we know the readiness of Members, we parted, and I walked home all the way, and having wrote a letter full of business to my father, in my way calling upon my cozen Turner and Mr. Calthrop (age 38) at the Temple [Map], for their consent to be my arbitrators, which they are willing to. My wife and I to bed pretty pleasant, for that her brother brings word that Gosnell, which my wife and I in discourse do pleasantly call our Marmotte, will certainly come next week without fail, which God grant may be for the best.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1662. After dinner staid within all the afternoon, being vexed in my mind about the going away of Sarah this afternoon, who cried mightily, and so was I ready to do, and Jane did also, and then anon went Gosnell away, which did trouble me too; though upon many considerations, it is better that I am rid of the charge. All together makes my house appear to me very lonely, which troubles me much, and in a melancholy humour I went to the office, and there about business sat till I was called to Sir G. Carteret (age 52) at the Treasury office about my Lord Treasurer's (age 55) letter, wherein he puts me to a new trouble to write it over again.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1662. This morning rose, receiving a messenger from Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and a letter from Mr. Coventry (age 34), one contrary to another, about our letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 55), at which I am troubled, but I went to Sir George (age 52), and being desirous to please both, I think I have found out a way to do it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1662. Then to the Dolphin, where Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir W. Batten (age 61), and I, did treat the Auditors of the Exchequer, Auditors Wood and Beale, and hither come Sir G. Carteret (age 52) to us. We had a good dinner, cost us £5 and 6s., whereof my share 26s., and after dinner did discourse of our salarys and other matters, which I think now they will allow.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1662. Slept long to-day till Sir J. Minnes (age 63) and Sir W. Batten (age 61) were set out towards Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] before I rose, and Sir G. Carteret (age 52) came to the office to speak with me before I was up. So I started up and down to him.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1662. By and by we sat, Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I (Sir G. Carteret (age 52) being gone), and among other things, Field and Stint did come, and received the £41 given him by the judgement against me and Harry Kem1; and we did also sign bonds in £500 to stand to the award of Mr. Porter (age 31) and Smith for the rest: which, however, I did not sign to till I got Mr. Coventry (age 34) to go up with me to Sir W. Pen (age 41); and he did promise me before him to bear his share in what should be awarded, and both concluded that Sir W. Batten (age 61) would do no less.

Note 1. Fine for the imprisonment of Field (see February 4th, 1661-62, and October 21st, 1662).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, and thither came Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and among other business was Strutt's the purser, against Captn. Browne, Sir W. Batten's (age 61) brother-in-law, but, Lord! though I believe the Captain has played the knave, though I seem to have a good opinion of him and to mean him well, what a most troublesome fellow that Strutt is, such as I never did meet with his fellow in my life. His talking and ours to make him hold his peace set my head off akeing all the afternoon with great pain.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1662. Lay pleasantly, talking to my wife, till 8 o'clock, then up and to Sir W. Batten's (age 61) to see him and Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Sir J. Minnes (age 63) take coach towards the Pay at Chatham, Kent [Map], which they did and I home, and took money in my pocket to pay many reckonings to-day in the town, as my bookseller's, and paid at another shop £4 10s. for "Stephens's Thesaurus Graecae Linguae", given to Paul's School.

In 1663 [his son-in-law] Thomas Scott (age 25) and [his daughter] Caroline Carteret were married.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1663. Up and to the Duke (age 29), who himself told me that Sir J. Lawson (age 48) was come home to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] from the Streights, who is now come with great renown among all men, and, I perceive, mightily esteemed at Court by all. The Duke (age 29) did not stay long in his chamber; but to the King's chamber, whither by and by the Russia Embassadors (age 18) come; who, it seems, have a custom that they will not come to have any treaty with our or any King's Commissioners, but they will themselves see at the time the face of the King (age 32) himself, be it forty days one after another; and so they did to-day only go in and see the King (age 32); and so out again to the Council-chamber. The Duke (age 29) returned to his chamber, and so to his closett, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Mr. Coventry (age 35), and myself attended him about the business of the Navy; and after much discourse and pleasant talk he went away.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1663. In the evening to Sir W. Pen's (age 41), where Sir J. Minnes (age 63) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), and afterwards came Sir G. Carteret (age 53). There talked about business, and afterwards to Sir W. Batten's (age 62), where we staid talking and drinking Syder, and so I went away to my office a little, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. Thence to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and with him in his coach to White Hall, and first I to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (being come now from Hinchingbrooke), and after talking a little with him, he and I to the Duke's chamber, where Mr. Coventry (age 35) and he and I into the Duke's closett and Sir J. Lawson (age 48) discoursing upon business of the Navy, and particularly got his consent to the ending some difficulties in Mr. Creed's accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1663. This discourse done, and things put in a way of doing, they went away, and Captain Holmes (age 41) being called in he began his high complaint against his Master Cooper, and would have him forthwith discharged. Which I opposed, not in his defence but for the justice of proceeding not to condemn a man unheard, upon [which] we fell from one word to another that we came to very high terms, such as troubled me, though all and the worst that I ever said was that that was insolently or ill mannerdly spoken. When he told me that it was well it was here that I said it. But all the officers, Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Batten (age 62), and Sir W. Pen (age 41) cried shame of it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1663. By and by, much against my will, being twice sent for, to Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) to pass his accounts there, upon which Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and myself all the morning, and again after dinner to it, being vexed at my heart to see a thing of that importance done so slightly and with that neglect for which God pardon us, and I would I could mend it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1663. Sir G. Carteret (age 53) tells me to-night that he perceives the Parliament is likely to make a great bustle before they will give the King (age 32) any money; will call all things into question; and, above all, the expences of the Navy; and do enquire into the King's expences everywhere, and into the truth of the report of people being forced to sell their bills at 15 per cent. loss in the Navy; and, lastly, that they are in a very angry pettish mood at present, and not likely to be better.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1663. After dinner, it raining very hard, by coach to Whitehall, where, after Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I had been with the Duke, we to the Committee of Tangier and did matters there dispatching wholly my Lord Teviott, and so broke up.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1663. With Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir John Minnes (age 64) by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 56), thinking to have spoken about getting money for paying the Yards; but we found him with some ladies at cards: and so, it being a bad time to speak, we parted, and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I home, and after walking with my wife in the garden late, to supper and to bed, being somewhat troubled at Ashwell's desiring and insisting over eagerly upon her going to a ball to meet some of her old companions at a dancing school here in town next Friday, but I am resolved she shall not go.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. From that we had discourse of Sir G. Carteret (age 53), who he finds kind to him, but it may be a little envious, and most other men are, and of many others; and upon the whole do find that it is a troublesome thing for a man of any condition at Court to carry himself even, and without contracting enemys or envyers; and that much discretion and dissimulation is necessary to do it. My father staid a good while at the window and then sat down by himself while my Lord and I were thus an hour together or two after dinner discoursing, and by and by he took his leave, and told me he would stay below for me.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1663. Up betimes and to my office, whither sooner than ordinary comes Mr. Hater desiring to speak a word to me alone, which I was from the disorder of his countenance amused at, and so the poor man began telling me that by Providence being the last Lord's day at a meeting of some Friends upon doing of their duties, they were surprised, and he carried to the Counter, but afterwards released; however, hearing that Sir W. Batten (age 62) do hear of [it,] he thought it good to give me an account of it, lest it might tend to any prejudice to me. I was extraordinary surprised with it, and troubled for him, knowing that now it is out it is impossible for me to conceal it, or keep him in employment under me without danger to myself. I cast about all I could, and did give him the best advice I could, desiring to know if I should promise that he would not for the time to come commit the same, he told me he desired that I would rather forbear to promise that, for he durst not do it, whatever God in His providence shall do with him, and that for my part he did bless God and thank me for all the love and kindness I have shewed him hitherto. I could not without tears in my eyes discourse with him further, but at last did pitch upon telling the truth of the whole to Mr. Coventry (age 35) as soon as I could, and to that end did use means to prevent Sir W. Batten (age 62) (who came to town last night) from going to that end to-day, lest he might doe it to Sir G. Carteret (age 53) or Mr. Coventry (age 35) before me; which I did prevail and kept him at the office all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1663. So to the yard a little, and thence on foot to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where going I was set upon by a great dogg, who got hold of my garters, and might have done me hurt; but, Lord, to see in what a maze I was, that, having a sword about me, I never thought of it, or had the heart to make use of it, but might, for want of that courage, have been worried. Took water there and home, and both coming and going did con my lesson on my Ruler to measure timber, which I think I can well undertake now to do. At home there being Pembleton I danced, and I think shall come on to do something in a little time, and after dinner by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 42) (setting down his daughter at Clerkenwell), to St. James's, where we attended the Duke of York (age 29): and, among other things, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and I had a great dispute about the different value of the pieces of eight rated by Mr. Creed at 4s. and 5d., and by Pitts at 4s. and 9d., which was the greatest husbandry to the King (age 32)? he persisting that the greatest sum was; which is as ridiculous a piece of ignorance as could be imagined. However, it is to be argued at the Board, and reported to the Duke next week; which I shall do with advantage, I hope.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1663. So walked to Redriffe [Map], drinking at the Half-way house, and so walked and by water to White Hall, all our way by water coming and going reading a little book said to be writ by a person of Quality concerning English gentry to be preferred before titular honours, but the most silly nonsense, no sense nor grammar, yet in as good words that ever I saw in all my life, but from beginning to end you met not with one entire and regular sentence. At White Hall Sir G. Carteret (age 53) was out of the way, and so returned back presently, and home by water and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1663. Thence to Greatorex's (age 38), and there seeing Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 42) go by coach I went in to them and to White Hall; where, in the Matted Gallery, Mr. Coventry (age 35) was, who told us how the Parliament have required of Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and him an account what money shall be necessary to be settled upon the Navy for the ordinary charge, which they intend to report £200,000 per annum. And how to allott this we met this afternoon, and took their papers for our perusal, and so we parted. Only there was walking in the gallery some of the Barbary company, and there we saw a draught of the arms of the company, which the King (age 32) is of, and so is called the Royall Company, which is, in a field argent an elephant proper, with a canton on which England and France is quartered, supported by two Moors. The crest an anchor winged, I think it is, and the motto too tedious: "Regio floret, patrocinio commercium, commercioque Regnum1".

Note 1. TT. By royal patronage commerce flourishes, by commerce the realm".

Pepy's Diary. 26 May 1663. By and by my mind being in great trouble I went home to see how things were, and there I found as I doubted Mr. Pembleton with my wife, and nobody else in the house, which made me almost mad, and going up to my chamber after a turn or two I went out again and called somebody on pretence of business and left him in my little room at the door (it was the Dutchman, commander of the King's pleasure boats, who having been beat by one of his men sadly, was come to the office to-day to complain) telling him I would come again to him to speak with him about his business. So in great trouble and doubt to the office, and Mr. Coventry (age 35) nor Sir G. Carteret (age 53) being there I made a quick end of our business and desired leave to be gone, pretending to go to the Temple [Map], but it was home, and so up to my chamber, and as I think if they had any intention of hurt I did prevent doing anything at that time, but I continued in my chamber vexed and angry till he went away, pretending aloud, that I might hear, that he could not stay, and Mrs. Ashwell not being within they could not dance. And, Lord! to see how my jealousy wrought so far that I went softly up to see whether any of the beds were out of order or no, which I found not, but that did not content me, but I staid all the evening walking, and though anon my wife came up to me and would have spoke of business to me, yet I construed it to be but impudence, and though my heart full yet I did say nothing, being in a great doubt what to do. So at night, suffered them to go all to bed, and late put myself to bed in great discontent, and so to sleep.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1663. Up and by water to White Hall and so to St. James's, to Mr. Coventry (age 35); where I had an hour's private talk with him. Most of it was discourse concerning his own condition, at present being under the censure of the House, being concerned with others in the Bill for selling of offices. He tells me, that though he thinks himself to suffer much in his fame hereby, yet he values nothing more of evil to hang over him for that it is against no statute, as is pretended, nor more than what his predecessors time out of mind have taken; and that so soon as he found himself to be in an errour, he did desire to have his fees set, which was done; and since that he hath not taken a token more. He undertakes to prove, that he did never take a token of any captain to get him employed in his life beforehand, or demanded any thing: and for the other accusation, that the Cavaliers are not employed, he looked over the list of them now in the service, and of the twenty-seven that are employed, thirteen have been heretofore always under the King (age 33); two neutralls, and the other twelve men of great courage, and such as had either the King's particular commands, or great recommendation to put them in, and none by himself. Besides that, he says it is not the King's nor Duke's opinion that the whole party of the late officers should be rendered desperate. And lastly, he confesses that the more of the Cavaliers are put in, the less of discipline hath followed in the fleet; and that, whenever there comes occasion, it must be the old ones that must do any good, there being only, he says, but Captain Allen (age 51) good for anything of them all. He tells me, that he cannot guess whom all this should come from; but he suspects Sir G. Carteret (age 53), as I also do, at least that he is pleased with it. But he tells me that he will bring Sir G. Carteret (age 53) to be the first adviser and instructor of him what to make his place of benefit to him; telling him that Smith did make his place worth £5000 and he believed £7000 to him the first year; besides something else greater than all this, which he forbore to tell me. It seems one Sir Thomas Tomkins (age 58) of the House, that makes many mad motions, did bring it into the House, saying that a letter was left at his lodgings, subscribed by one Benson (which is a feigned name, for there is no such man in the Navy), telling him how many places in the Navy have been sold. And by another letter, left in the same manner since, nobody appearing, he writes him that there is one Hughes and another Butler (both rogues, that have for their roguery been turned out of their places), that will swear that Mr. Coventry (age 35) did sell their places and other things. I offered him my service, and will with all my heart serve him; but he tells me he do not think it convenient to meddle, or to any purpose, but is sensible of my love therein.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1663. Lay in bed till 7 o'clock, yet rose with an opinion that it was not 5, and so continued though I heard the clock strike, till noon, and would not believe that it was so late as it truly was. I was hardly ever so mistaken in my life before. Up and to Sir G. Carteret (age 53) at his house, and spoke to him about business, but he being in a bad humour I had no mind to stay with him, but walked, drinking my morning draft of whay, by the way, to York House [Map], where the Russia Embassador (age 18) do lie; and there I saw his people go up and down louseing themselves: they are all in a great hurry, being to be gone the beginning of next week. But that that pleased me best, was the remains of the noble soul of the late Duke of Buckingham (age 35) appearing in his house, in every place, in the doorcases and the windows.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1663. Up and betimes to Thames Street among the tarr men, to look the price of tarr and so by water to Whitehall thinking to speak with Sir G. Carteret (age 53), but he lying in the city all night, and meeting with Mr. Cutler the merchant, I with him in his coach into the city to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), but missing him there, he and I walked to find him at Sir Tho. Allen's in Bread Street, where not finding him he and I walked towards our office, he discoursing well of the business of the Navy, and particularly of the victualling, in which he was once I perceive concerned, and he and I parted and I to the office and there had a difference with Sir W. Batten (age 62) about Mr. Bowyer's tarr, which I am resolved to cross, though he sent me last night, as a bribe, a barrel of sturgeon, which, it may be, I shall send back, for I will not have the King (age 33) abused so abominably in the price of what we buy, by Sir W. Batten's (age 62) corruption and underhand dealing.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1663. So from the office, Mr. Wayth with me, to the Parliament House, and there I spoke and told Sir G. Carteret (age 53) all, with which he is well pleased, and do recall his willingness yesterday, it seems, to Sir W. Batten (age 62), that we should buy a great quantity of tarr, being abused by him.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1663. Thence with Creed and bought a lobster, and then to an alehouse, where the maid of the house is a confident merry lass, and if modest is very pleasant to the customers that come thither. Here we eat it, and thence to walk in the Park a good while. The Duke (age 29) being gone a-hunting, and by and by came in and shifted himself; he having in his hunting, rather than go about, 'light and led his horse through a river up to his breast, and came so home: and when we were come, which was by and by, we went on to him, and being ready he retired with us, and we had a long discourse with him. But Mr. Creed's accounts stick still through the perverse ignorance of Sir G. Carteret (age 53), which I cannot safely control as I would.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. We did talk highly of Sir W. Batten's (age 62) corruption, which Mr. Coventry (age 35) did very kindly say that it might be only his heaviness and unaptness for business, that he do things without advice and rashly, and to gratify people that do eat and drink and play with him, and that now and then he observes that he signs bills only in anger and fury to be rid of men. Speaking of Sir G. Carteret (age 53), of whom I perceive he speaks but slightly, and diminishing of him in his services for the King (age 33) in Jersey; that he was well rewarded, and had good lands and rents, and other profits from the King (age 33), all the time he was there; and that it was always his humour to have things done his way. He brought an example how he would not let the Castle there be victualled for more than a month, that so he might keep it at his beck, though the people of the town did offer to supply it more often themselves, which, when one did propose to the King (age 33), Sir George Carteret (age 53) being by, says Sir George (age 53), "Let me know who they are that would do it, I would with all my heart pay them". "Ah, by God", says the Commander that spoke of it, "that is it that they are afeard of, that you would hug them", meaning that he would not endure them. Another thing he told me, how the Duke of York (age 29) did give Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and the Island his profits as Admirall, and other things, toward the building of a pier there. But it was never laid out, nor like to be. So it falling out that a lady being brought to bed, the Duke (age 29) was to be desired to be one of the godfathers; and it being objected that that would not be proper, there being no peer of the land to be joyned with him, the lady replied, "Why, let him choose; and if he will not be a godfather without a peer, then let him even stay till he hath made a pier of his own1".

Note 1. In the same spirit, long after this, some question arising as to the best material to be used in building Westminster Bridge, Lord Chesterfield (age 29) remarked, that there were too many wooden piers (peers) at Westminster already. B.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. He tells me, too, that he hath lately been observed to tack about at Court, and to endeavour to strike in with the persons that are against the Chancellor (age 54); but this he says of him, that he do not say nor do anything to the prejudice of the Chancellor (age 54). But he told me that the Chancellor (age 54) was rising again, and that of late Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) business and employment hath not been so full as it used to be while the Chancellor (age 54) stood up. From that we discoursed of the evil of putting out men of experience in business as the Chancellor (age 54), and from that to speak of the condition of the King's party at present, who, as the Papists, though otherwise fine persons, yet being by law kept for these fourscore years out of employment, they are now wholly uncapable of business; and so the Cavaliers for twenty years, who, says he, for the most part have either given themselves over to look after country and family business, and those the best of them, and the rest to debauchery, &c.; and that was it that hath made him high against the late Bill brought into the House for the making all men incapable of employment that had served against the King (age 33). Why, says he, in the sea-service, it is impossible to do any thing without them, there being not more than three men of the whole King's side that are fit to command almost; and these were Captain Allen (age 51), Smith, and Beech; and it may be Holmes, and Utber, and Batts might do something. I desired him to tell me if he thought that I did speak anything that I do against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) out of ill will or design. He told me quite the contrary, and that there was reason enough. After a good deal of good and fine discourse, I took leave, and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) house, where I met my Lord, and there did discourse of our office businesses, and how the Duke do show me kindness, though I have endeavoured to displease more or less of my fellow officers, all but Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Pett; but it matters not. Yes, says my Lord, Sir J. Minnes (age 64), who is great with the Chancellor (age 54); I told him the Chancellor (age 54) I have thought was declining, and however that the esteem he has among them is nothing but for a jester or a ballad maker; at which my Lord laughs, and asks me whether I believe he ever could do that well.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. Thence to St. James Park, and there walked two or three hours talking of the difference between Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Mr. Creed about his accounts, and how to obviate him, but I find Creed a deadly cunning fellow and one that never do any thing openly, but has intrigues in all he do or says.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. Up before 4 o'clock, and so to my lute an hour or more, and then by water, drinking my morning draft alone at an alehouse in Thames Street, to the Temple [Map], and thence after a little discourse with my cozen Roger (age 46) about some business, away by water to St. James's, and there an hour's private discourse with Mr. Coventry (age 35), where he told me one thing to my great joy, that in the business of Captain Cocke's (age 46) hemp, disputed before him the other day, Mr. Coventry (age 35) absent, the Duke (age 29) did himself tell him since, that Mr. Pepys and he did stand up and carry it against the rest that were there, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), which do please me much to see that the Duke do take notice of me.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1663. About this all the morning, only Mr. Bland came to me about some business of his, and told me the news, which holds to be true, that the Portuguese did let in the Spaniard by a plot, and they being in the midst of the country and we believing that they would have taken the whole country, they did all rise and kill the whole body, near 8,000 men, and Don John of Austria (age 34) having two horses killed under him, was forced with one man to flee away. Sir George Carteret (age 53) at the office (after dinner, and Creed being gone, for both now and yesterday I was afraid to have him seen by Sir G. Carteret (age 53) with me, for fear that he should increase his doubt that I am of a plot with Creed in the business of his accounts) did tell us that upon Tuesday last, being with my Lord Treasurer (age 56), he showed him a letter from Portugall speaking of the advance of the Spaniards into their country, and yet that the Portuguese were never more courageous than now; for by an old prophecy, from France, sent thither some years, though not many since, from the French King, it is foretold that the Spaniards should come into their country, and in such a valley they should be all killed, and then their country should be wholly delivered from the Spaniards. This was on Tuesday last, and yesterday came the very first news that in this very valley they had thus routed and killed the Spaniards, which is very strange but true.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1663. Up both of us pretty early and to my chamber, where he and I did draw up a letter to Sir G. Carteret (age 53) in excuse and preparation for Creed against we meet before the Duke upon his accounts, which I drew up and it proved very well, but I am pleased to see with what secret cunning and variety of artifice this Creed has carried on his business even unknown to me, which he is now forced by an accident to communicate to me. So that taking up all the papers of moment which lead to the clearing of his accounts unobserved out of the Controller's hand, which he now makes great use of; knowing that the Controller has not wherewith to betray him.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1663. I left him here, being in my mind vexed at the trouble that this business gets me, and the distance that it makes between Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and myself, which I ought to avoyd.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1663. This morning it rained so hard (though it was fair yesterday, and we thereupon in hopes of having some fair weather, which we have wanted these three months) that it wakened Creed, who lay with me last night, and me, and so we up and fell to discourse of the business of his accounts now under dispute, in which I have taken much trouble upon myself and raised a distance between Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and myself, which troubles me, but I hope we have this morning light on an expedient that will right all, that will answer their queries, and yet save Creed the £500 which he did propose to make of the exchange abroad of the pieces of eight which he disbursed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1663. Being ready, he and I by water to White Hall, where I left him before we came into the Court, for fear I should be seen by Sir G. Carteret (age 53) with him, which of late I have been forced to avoid to remove suspicion.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1663. Walking in the garden this evening with Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir G. Carteret (age 53) told us with great contempt how like a stage-player my Lord Digby (age 50) spoke yesterday, pointing to his head as my Lord did, and saying, "First, for his head", says Sir G. Carteret (age 53), "I know what a calf's head would have done better by half for his heart and his sword, I have nothing to say to them". He told us that for certain his head cost the late King his, for it was he that broke off the treaty at Uxbridge. He told us also how great a man he was raised from a private gentleman in France by Monsieur Grandmont1, and afterwards by the Cardinall, [Mazarin] who raised him to be a Lieutenant-generall, and then higher; and entrusted by the Cardinall, when he was banished out of France, with great matters, and recommended by him to the Queen (age 61) as a man to be trusted and ruled by: yet when he came to have some power over the Queen, he begun to dissuade her from her opinion of the Cardinal; which she said nothing to till the Cardinal was returned, and then she told him of it; who told my Lord Digby (age 50), "Eh bien, Monsieur, vous estes un fort bon amy donc2" but presently put him out of all; and then he was, from a certainty of coming in two or three years' time to be Mareschall of France (to which all strangers, even Protestants, and those as often as French themselves, are capable of coming, though it be one of the greatest places in France), he was driven to go out of France into Flanders; but there was not trusted, nor received any kindness from the Prince of Conde (age 41), as one to whom also he had been false, as he had been to the Cardinal and Grandmont. In fine, he told us how he is a man of excellent parts, but of no great faith nor judgment, and one very easy to get up to great height of preferment, but never able to hold it.

Note 1. Antoine, Duc de Gramont, marshal of France, who died July 12th, 1678, aged seventy-four. His memoirs have been published.

Note 2. TT. Ah well sir, you are a very good friend, therefore.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1663. Up and he home, and I with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to Westminster, to St. James's, thinking to meet Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and to attend the Duke (age 29), but he not coming we broke up, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there meeting with Mr. Moore he tells me great news that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is fallen from Court, and this morning retired. He gives me no account of the reason of it, but that it is so: for which I am sorry: and yet if the King (age 33) do it to leave off not only her but all other mistresses, I should be heartily glad of it, that he may fall to look after business. I hear my Lord Digby (age 50) is condemned at Court for his speech, and that my Chancellor (age 54) grows great again.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. This day in the Duke's chamber there being a Roman story in the hangings, and upon the standards written these four letters-S. P. Q. R.1, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) came to me to know what the meaning of those four letters were; which ignorance is not to be borne in a Privy Counsellor, methinks, that a schoolboy should be whipt for not knowing.

Note 1. TT. SPQR. Senātus Populusque que Rōmānus. The Senate and Population that are Rome. Motto of the Roman Republic.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. The Duke (age 29) being ready, we retired with him, and there fell upon Mr. Creed's business, where the Treasurer (age 56) did, like a mad coxcomb, without reason or method run over a great many things against the account, and so did Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), which the Duke himself and Mr. Coventry (age 35) and my Lord Barkely (age 61) and myself did remove, and Creed being called in did answer all with great method and excellently to the purpose (myself I am a little conscious did not speak so well as I purposed and do think I used to do, that is, not so intelligibly and persuasively, as I well hoped I should), not that what I said was not well taken, and did carry the business with what was urged and answered by Creed and Mr. Coventry (age 35), till the Duke himself did declare that he was satisfied, and my Lord Barkely (age 61) offered to lay £100 that the King (age 33) would receive no wrong in the account, and the two last knights held their tongues, or at least by not understanding it did say what made for Mr. Creed, and so Sir G. Carteret (age 53) was left alone, but yet persisted to say that the account was not good, but full of corruption and foul dealing. And so we broke up to his shame, but I do fear to the loss of his friendship to me a good while, which I am heartily troubled for.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1663. At noon Creed comes to me, who tells me how well he has sped with Sir G. Carteret (age 53) after all our trouble, that he had his tallys up and all the kind words possible from him, which I believe is out of an apprehension what a fool he has made of himself hitherto in making so great a stop therein. But I find, and so my Lord Sandwich (age 37) may, that Sir G. Carteret (age 53) had a design to do him a disgrace, if he could possibly, otherwise he would never have carried the business so far after that manner, but would first have consulted my Lord and given him advice what to do therein for his own honour, which he thought endangered. Creed dined with me and then walked a while, and so away, and I to my office at my morning's work till dark night, and so with good content home. To supper, a little musique, and then to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jul 1663. Sir George Carteret (age 53), Treasurer of the Navy, had now married his daughter, [his daughter] Caroline, to [his son-in-law] Sir Thomas Scott (age 25), of Scott's Hall, in Kent. This gentleman was thought to be the son of Prince Rupert (age 43).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1663. Thence to the Change [Map], and so home, Creed and I to dinner, and after dinner Sir W. Warren came to me, and he and I in my closet about his last night's contract, and from thence to discourse of measuring of timber, wherein I made him see that I could understand the matter well, and did both learn of and teach him something. Creed being gone through my staying talking to him so long, I went alone by water down to Redriffe [Map], and so to sit and talk with Sir W. Pen (age 42), where I did speak very plainly concerning my thoughts of Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64). So as it may cost me some trouble if he should tell them again, but he said as much or more to me concerning them both, which I may remember if ever it should come forth, and nothing but what is true and my real opinion of them, that they neither do understand to this day Creed's accounts, nor do deserve to be employed in their places without better care, but that the King (age 33) had better give them greater salaries to stand still and do nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1663. So to the yard, and there mustered the yard, and found many faults, and discharged several fellows that were absent from their business. I staid also at Mr. Ackworth's desire at dinner with him and his wife, and there was a simple fellow, a gentleman I believe of the Court, their kinsmen, that threatened me I could have little discourse or begin, acquaintance with Ackworth's wife, and so after dinner away, with all haste home, and there found Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) at the office, and by Sir W. Batten's (age 62) testimony and Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) concurrence was forced to consent to a business of Captain Cocke's (age 46) timber, as bad as anything we have lately disputed about, and all through Mr. Coventry's (age 35) not being with us.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1663. By and by Mr. Coventry (age 35) only came (Sir John Minnes (age 64) and Sir William Batten (age 62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to pay some ships and the yard there), and after doing a little business he and I down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there up and down the yard, and by and by came Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and we all looked into matters, and then by water back to Deptford, where we dined with him at his house, a very good dinner and mightily tempted with wines of all sorts and brave French Syder, but I drunk none. But that which is a great wonder I find his little daughter Betty, that was in hanging sleeves but a month or two ago, and is a very little young child; married, and to whom, but to young Scott, son to Madam Catharine Scott, that was so long in law, and at whose triall I was with her husband; he pleading that it was unlawfully got and would not own it, she, it seems, being brought to bed of it, if not got by somebody else at Oxford, but it seems a little before his death he did own the child, and hath left him his estate, not long since. So Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath struck up of a sudden a match with him for his little daughter. He hath about £2000 per annum; and it seems Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath by this means over-reached Sir H. Bennet (age 45), who did endeavour to get this gentleman for a sister of his, but Sir G. Carteret (age 53) I say has over-reached him. By this means Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath married two daughters this year both very well.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1663. By and by comes Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and he and I did some business, and then Mr. Coventry (age 35) sending for me, he staying in the boat, I got myself presently ready and down to him, he and I by water to Gravesend, Kent [Map] (his man Lambert with us), and there eat a bit and so mounted, I upon one of his horses which met him there, a brave proud horse, all the way talking of businesses of the office and other matters to good purpose.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Aug 1663. This evening I accompanied Mr. Treasurer and Vice-Chamberlain Carteret (age 53) to his lately married son-in-law's, [his son-in-law] Sir Thomas Scott (age 25), to Scott's Hall. We took barge as far as Gravesend, Kent [Map], and thence by post to Rochester, Kent [Map], whence in coach and six horses to Scott's Hall; a right noble seat, uniformly built, with a handsome gallery. It stands in a park well stored, the land fat and good. We were exceedingly feasted by the young knight, and in his pretty chapel heard an excellent sermon by his chaplain. In the afternoon, preached the learned Sir Norton Knatchbull (who has a noble seat hard by, and a plantation of stately fir trees). In the churchyard of the parish church I measured an overgrown yew tree, that was eighteen of my paces in compass, out of some branches of which, torn off by the winds, were sawed divers goodly planks.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1663. Up betimes and among my joyners, and to my office, where the joyners are also laying mouldings in the inside of my closet. Then abroad and by water to White Hall, and there got Sir G. Carteret (age 53) to sign me my last quarter's bills for my wages, and meeting with Mr. Creed he told me how my Lord Teviott hath received another attaque from Guyland at Tangier with 10,000 men, and at last, as is said, is come, after a personal treaty with him, to a good understanding and peace with him.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1663. Thence to Sir W. Warren's again, and there drew up a contract for masts which he is to sell us, and so home to dinner, finding my poor wife busy. I, after dinner, to the office, and then to White Hall, to Sir G. Carteret's (age 53), but did not speak with him, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], God forgive me, thinking to meet Mrs. Lane, but she was not there, but here I met with Ned Pickering (age 45), with whom I walked 3 or 4 hours till evening, he telling me the whole business of my Lord's folly with this Mrs. Becke, at Chelsey, of all which I am ashamed to see my Lord so grossly play the beast and fool, to the flinging off of all honour, friends, servants, and every thing and person that is good, and only will have his private lust undisturbed with this common.... his sitting up night after night alone, suffering nobody to come to them, and all the day too, casting off Pickering, basely reproaching him with his small estate, which yet is a good one, and other poor courses to obtain privacy beneath his honour, and with his carrying her abroad and playing on his lute under her window, and forty other poor sordid things, which I am grieved to hear; but believe it to no purpose for me to meddle with it, but let him go on till God Almighty and his own conscience and thoughts of his lady and family do it. So after long discourse, to my full satisfaction but great trouble, I home by water and at my office late, and so to supper to my poor wife, and so to bed, being troubled to think that I shall be forced to go to Brampton the next Court, next week.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Sep 1663. I dined with Mr. Treasurer of the Navy (age 53), where, sitting by Mr. Secretary Morice (age 35), we had much discourse about books and authors, he being a learned man, and had a good collection.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1663. Hither Mr. Moore came to me, and he and I home and advised about business, and so after an hour's examining the state of the Navy debts lately cast up, I took coach to Sir Philip Warwick's (age 53), but finding Sir G. Carteret (age 53) there I did not go in, but directly home, again, it raining hard, having first of all been with Creed and Mrs. Harper about a cook maid, and am like to have one from Creed's lodging.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1663. Up betimes, and by water to White Hall; and thence to Sir Philip Warwick (age 53), and there had half an hour's private discourse with him; and did give him some good satisfaction in our Navy matters, and he also me, as to the money paid and due to the Navy; so as he makes me assured by particulars, that Sir G. Carteret (age 53) is paid within £80,000 every farthing that we to this day, nay to Michaelmas day next have demanded; and that, I am sure, is above £50,000 more than truly our expenses have been, whatever is become of the money.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1663. Thence by water to my office, in here all the morning, and so to the 'Change [Map] at noon, and there by appointment met and bring home my uncle Thomas, who resolves to go with me to Brampton on Monday next. I wish he may hold his mind. I do not tell him, and yet he believes that there is a Court to be that he is to do some business for us there. The truth is I do find him a much more cunning fellow than I ever took him for, nay in his very drink he has his wits about him. I took him home to dinner, and after dinner he began, after a glass of wine or two, to exclaim against Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and his family in Jersey, bidding me to have a care of him, and how high, proud, false, and politique a fellow he is, and how low he has been under his command in the island.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1663. Up very betimes by break of day, and got my wife up, whom the thought of this day's long journey do discourage; and after eating something, and changing of a piece of gold to pay the reckoning, we mounted, and through Baldwicke, where a fayre is kept to-day, and a great one for cheese and other such commodities, and so to Hatfield, Hertfordshire, it being most curious weather from the time we set out to our getting home, and here we dined, and my wife being very weary, and believing that it would be hard to get her home to-night, and a great charge to keep her longer abroad, I took the opportunity of an empty coach that was to go to London, and left her to come in it to London, for half-a-crown, and so I and the boy home as fast as we could drive, and it was even night before we got home. So that I account it very good fortune that we took this course, being myself very weary, much more would my wife have been. At home found all very well and my house in good order. To see Sir W. Pen (age 42), who is pretty well, and Sir J. Minnes (age 64), who is a little lame on one foot, and the rest gone to Chatham, Kent [Map], viz.: Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), who has in my absence inveighed against my contract the other day for Warren's masts, in which he is a knave, and I shall find matter of tryumph, but it vexes me a little.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1663. Up betimes, and after taking leave of my brother, John, who went from me to my father's this day, I went forth by water to Sir Philip Warwick's (age 53), where I was with him a pretty while; and in discourse he tells me, and made it; appear to me, that the King (age 33) cannot be in debt to the Navy at this time £5,000; and it is my opinion that Sir G. Carteret (age 53) do owe the King (age 33) money, and yet the whole Navy debt paid.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Oct 1663. Up and betimes to my office, and then to sit, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Sir W. Pen (age 42), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Mr. Coventry (age 35) and myself, a fuller board than by the King's progresse and the late pays and my absence has been a great while. Sat late, and then home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1663. Thence rose with Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and to his lodgings, and there discoursed of our frays at the table to-day, and particularly of that of the contract, and the contract of masts the other day, declaring my fair dealing, and so needing not any man's good report of it, or word for it, and that I would make it so appear to him, if he desired it, which he did, and I will do it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1663. Up (though slept well) and made some water in the morning [as] I used to do, and a little pain returned to me, and some fears, but being forced to go to the Duke (age 29) at St. James's, I took coach and in my way called upon Mr. Hollyard (age 54) and had his advice to take a glyster. At St. James's we attended the Duke all of us. And there, after my discourse, Mr. Coventry (age 35) of his own accord begun to tell the Duke how he found that discourse abroad did run to his prejudice about the fees that he took, and how he sold places and other things; wherein he desired to appeal to his Highness, whether he did any thing more than what his predecessors did, and appealed to us all. So Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did answer that some fees were heretofore taken, but what he knows not; only that selling of places never was nor ought to be countenanced. So Mr. Coventry (age 35) very hotly answered to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and appealed to himself whether he was not one of the first that put him upon looking after this taking of fees, and that he told him that Mr. Smith should say that he made £5000 the first year, and he believed he made £7000. This Sir G. Carteret (age 53) denied, and said, that if he did say so he told a lie, for he could not, nor did know, that ever he did make that profit of his place; but that he believes he might say £2500 the first year. Mr. Coventry (age 35) instanced in another thing, particularly wherein Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did advise with him about the selling of the Auditor's place of the stores, when in the beginning there was an intention of creating such an office. This he confessed, but with some lessening of the tale Mr. Coventry (age 35) told, it being only for a respect to my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 33). In fine, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did put into the Duke's hand a list of above 250 places that he did give without receiving one farthing, so much as his ordinary fees for them, upon his life and oath; and that since the Duke's establishment of fees he had never received one token more of any man; and that in his whole life he never conditioned or discoursed of any consideration from any commanders since he came to the Navy. And afterwards, my Lord Barkeley merrily discoursing that he wished his profit greater than it was, and that he did believe that he had got £50,000 since he came in, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did openly declare that his Lordship, or any of us, should have not only all he had got, but all that he had in the world (and yet he did not come a beggar into the Navy, nor would yet be thought to speak in any contempt of his Royall Highness's bounty), and should have a year to consider of it too, for £25,000. The Duke's answer was, that he wished we all had made more profit than he had of our places, and that we had all of us got as much as one man below stayres in the Court, which he presently named, and it was Sir George Lane (age 43)! This being ended, and the list left in the Duke's hand, we parted, and I with Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to the Exchange [Map], and there a while, and so home, and whether it be the jogging, or by having my mind more employed (which I believe is a great matter) I know not, but.... I begin to be suddenly well, at least better than I was.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1663. Thence home and after dinner my wife and I, by Mr. Rawlinson's (age 49) conduct, to the Jewish Synagogue: where the men and boys in their vayles, and the women behind a lattice out of sight; and some things stand up, which I believe is their Law, in a press to which all coming in do bow; and at the putting on their vayles do say something, to which others that hear him do cry Amen, and the party do kiss his vayle. Their service all in a singing way, and in Hebrew. And anon their Laws that they take out of the press are carried by several men, four or five several burthens in all, and they do relieve one another; and whether it is that every one desires to have the carrying of it, I cannot tell, thus they carried it round about the room while such a service is singing. And in the end they had a prayer for the King (age 33), which they pronounced his name in Portugall; but the prayer, like the rest, in Hebrew. But, Lord! to see the disorder, laughing, sporting, and no attention, but confusion in all their service, more like brutes than people knowing the true God, would make a man forswear ever seeing them more and indeed I never did see so much, or could have imagined there had been any religion in the whole world so absurdly performed as this. Away thence with my mind strongly disturbed with them, by coach and set down my wife in Westminster Hall [Map], and I to White Hall, and there the Tangier Committee met, but the Duke and the Africa Committee meeting in our room, Sir G. Carteret (age 53); Sir Wm. Compton (age 38), Mr. Coventry (age 35), Sir W. Rider, Cuttance and myself met in another room, with chairs set in form but no table, and there we had very fine discourses of the business of the fitness to keep Sally, and also of the terms of our King's paying the Portugees that deserted their house at Tangier, which did much please me, and so to fetch my wife, and so to the New Exchange about her things, and called at Thomas Pepys the turner's and bought something there, an so home to supper and to bed, after I had been a good while with Sir W. Pen (age 42), railing and speaking freely our minds against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64), but no more than the folly of one and the knavery of the other do deserve.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1663. Up and to my office, and there we sat a very full board all the morning upon some accounts of Mr. Gauden's. Here happened something concerning my Will which Sir W. Batten (age 62) would fain charge upon him, and I heard him mutter something against him of complaint for his often receiving people's money to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), which displeased me much, but I will be even with him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1663. Back to St. James's, and there dined with my Lord Barkeley (age 61) and his lady (age 25), where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir W. Batten (age 62), and myself, with two gentlemen more; my Lady, and one of the ladies of honour to the Duchesse (age 26) (no handsome woman, but a most excellent hand).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat; and at noon Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and I to dinner to my Lord Mayor's, being invited, where was the Farmers of the Customes, my Chancellor's (age 54) three sons, and other great and much company, and a very great noble dinner, as this Mayor [Sir John Robinson (age 48).] is good for nothing else. No extraordinary discourse of any thing, every man being intent upon his dinner, and myself willing to have drunk some wine to have warmed my belly, but I did for my oath's sake willingly refrain it, but am so well pleased and satisfied afterwards thereby, for it do keep me always in so good a frame of mind that I hope I shall not ever leave this practice.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1663. Up, and by coach to White Hall, and there in the long Matted Gallery I find Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and Sir W. Batten (age 62)-and by and by comes the King (age 33) to walk there with three or four with him; and soon as he saw us, says he, "Here is the Navy Office", and there walked twenty turns the length of the gallery, talking, methought, but ordinary talke.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. After dinner came in Captain Grove, and he and I alone to talk of many things, and among many others of the Fishery, in which he gives the such hopes that being at this time full of projects how to get a little honestly, of which some of them I trust in God will take, I resolved this afternoon to go and consult my Lord Sandwich (age 38) about it, and so, being to carry home Mrs. Hunt, I took her and my wife by coach and set them at Axe Yard [Map], and I to my Lord's and thither sent for Creed and discoursed with him about it, and he and I to White Hall, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and my Lord met me very fortunately, and wondered first to see me in my perruque, and I am glad it is over, and then, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) being gone, I took my Lord aside, who do give me the best advice he can, and telling me how there are some projectors, by name Edward Ford (age 58), who would have the making of farthings1, and out of that give so much to the King (age 33) for the maintenance of the Fishery; but my Lord do not like that, but would have it go as they offered the last year, and so upon my desire he promises me when it is seasonable to bring me into the commission with others, if any of them take, and I perceive he and Mr. Coventry (age 35) are resolved to follow it hard.

Note 1. Edward Ford (age 58), son of Sir William Ford of Harting, born at Up Park in 1605. "After the Restoration he invented a mode of coining farthings. Each piece was to differ minutely from another to prevent forgery. He failed in procuring a patent for these in England, but obtained one for Ireland. He died in Ireland before he could carry his design into execution, on September 3rd, 1670" ("Dictionary of National Biography ").

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1663. He being gone, I to my office, and put on my new shagg purple gowne, with gold buttons and loop lace, I being a little fearful of taking cold and of pain coming upon me. Here I staid making an end of a troublesome letter, but to my advantage, against Sir W. Batten (age 62), giving Sir G. Carteret (age 53) an account of our late great contract with Sir W. Warren for masts, wherein I am sure I did the King (age 33) £600 service.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1663. In the evening Mr. Moore came to tell me that he had no opportunity of speaking his mind to my Lord yesterday, and so I am resolved to write to him very suddenly. So after my business done I home, I having staid till 12 o'clock at night almost, making an end of a letter to Sir G. Carteret (age 53) about the late contract for masts, wherein I have done myself right, and no wrong to Sir W. Batten (age 62).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1663. Lord's Day. Lay very long in bed with my wife and then up and to my office there to copy fair my letter to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), which I did, and by and by most opportunely a footman of his came to me about other business, and so I sent it him by his own servant. I wish good luck with it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1663. Thence away, and Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did call me to him and discourse with me about my letter yesterday, and did seem to take it unkindly that I should doubt of his satisfaction in the bargain of masts, and did promise me that hereafter whatever he do hear to my prejudice he would tell me before he would believe it, and that this was only Sir W. Batten's (age 62) report in this business, which he says he did ever approve of, in which I know he lies.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1663. Up, and to the office, where (Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]) the rest of us met, and rode at noon. So I to the 'Change [Map], where little business, and so home to dinner, and being at dinner Mr. Creed in and dined with us, and after dinner Mr. Gentleman, my Jane's father, to see us and her. And after a little stay with them, I was sent for by Sir G. Carteret (age 53) by agreement, and so left them, and to him and with him by coach to my Lord Treasurer (age 56), to discourse with him about Mr. Gauden's having of money, and to offer to him whether it would not be necessary, Mr. Gauden's credit being so low as it is, to take security of him if he demands any great sum, such as £20,000, which now ought to be paid him upon his next year's declaration. Which is a sad thing, that being reduced to this by us, we should be the first to doubt his credit; but so it is. However, it will be managed with great tenderness to him. My Lord Treasurer (age 56) we found in his bed-chamber, being laid up of the goute. I find him a very ready man, and certainly a brave servant to the King (age 33): he spoke so quick and sensibly of the King's charge. Nothing displeased me in him but his long nails, which he lets grow upon a pretty thick white short hand, that it troubled me to see them.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1663. Thence with Sir G. Carteret (age 53) by coach, and he set me down at the New Exchange. In our way he told me there is no such thing likely yet as a Dutch war, neither they nor we being in condition for it, though it will come certainly to that in some time, our interests lying the same way, that is to say, in trade. But not yet.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. I left him in good humour, and I to White Hall, to the Duke of York (age 30) and Mr. Coventry (age 35), and there advised about insuring the hempe ship at 12 per cent., notwithstanding her being come to Newcastle [Map], and I do hope that in all my three places which are now my hopes and supports I may not now fear any thing, but with care, which through the Lord's blessing I will never more neglect, I don't doubt but to keep myself up with them all. For in the Duke (age 30), and Mr. Coventry (age 35), my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and Sir G. Carteret (age 53) I place my greatest hopes, and it pleased me yesterday that Mr. Coventry (age 35) in the coach (he carrying me to the Exchange [Map] at noon from the office) did, speaking of Sir W. Batten (age 62), say that though there was a difference between them, yet he would embrace any good motion of Sir W. Batten (age 62) to the King's advantage as well as of Mr. Pepys' or any friend he had. And when I talked that I would go about doing something of the Controller's work when I had time, and that I thought the Controller would not take it ill, he wittily replied that there was nothing in the world so hateful as a dog in the manger.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. Up and to Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) house, and with him by coach to Whitehall. He uses me mighty well to my great joy, and in our discourse took occasion to tell me that as I did desire of him the other day so he desires of me the same favour that we may tell one another at any time any thing that passes among us at the office or elsewhere wherein we are either dissatisfied one with another, and that I should find him in all things as kind and ready to serve me as my own brother. This methinks-was very sudden and extraordinary and do please me mightily, and I am resolved by no means ever to lose him again if I can. He told me that he did still observe my care for the King's service in my office. He set me down in Fleet Street [Map] and thence I by another coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there I did present him Mr. Barlow's "Terella", with which he was very much pleased, and he did show me great kindnesse, and by other discourse I have reason to think that he is not at all, as I feared he would be, discontented against me more than the trouble of the thing will work upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1663. This day Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did tell us at the table, that the Navy (excepting what is due to the Yards upon the quarter now going on, and what few bills he hath not heard of) is quite out of debt; which is extraordinary good newes, and upon the 'Change [Map] to hear how our creditt goes as good as any merchant's upon the 'Change [Map] is a joyfull thing to consider, which God continue! I am sure the King (age 33) will have the benefit of it, as well as we some peace and creditt.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1663. Up and to the office where all the morning, and among other things got Sir G. Carteret (age 53) to put his letters to Captain Taylor's bill by which I am in hopes to get £5, which joys my heart. We had this morning a great dispute between Mr. Gauden, Victualler of the Navy, and Sir J. Lawson (age 48), and the rest of the Commanders going against Argier, about their fish and keeping of Lent; which Mr. Gauden so much insists upon to have it observed, as being the only thing that makes up the loss of his dear bargain all the rest of the year.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1663. This day I heard my Lord Barkeley (age 61) tell Sir G. Carteret (age 53) that he hath letters from France that the King (age 33) hath unduked twelve Dukes, only to show his power and to crush his nobility, who he said he did see had heretofore laboured to cross him. And this my Lord Barkeley (age 61) did mightily magnify, as a sign of a brave and vigorous mind, that what he saw fit to be done he dares do.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1663. So homeward, calling upon Mr. Fen, by Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) desire, and did there shew him the bill of Captain Taylor's whereby I hope to get something justly.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1663. Thence on board two of the King's, one of them the "Leopard", Captain Beech, who I find an able and serious man. He received me civilly, and his wife was there, a very well bred and knowing woman, born at Antwerp, but speaks as good English as myself, and an ingenious woman. Here was also Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) son, who I find a pretty, but very talking man, but good humour.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1664. After dinner by coach with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) by appointment to Auditor Beale's in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, and there we did with great content look over some old ledgers to see in what manner they were kept, and indeed it was in an extraordinary good method, and such as (at least out of design to keep them employed) I do persuade Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to go upon, which will at least do as much good it may be to keep them for want of something to do from envying those that do something.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1664. Waked this morning by 4 o'clock by my wife to call the mayds to their wash, and what through my sleeping so long last night and vexation for the lazy sluts lying so long again and their great wash, neither my wife nor I could sleep one winke after that time till day, and then I rose and by coach (taking Captain Grove with me and three bottles of Tent, which I sent to Mrs. Lane by my promise on Saturday night last) to White Hall, and there with the rest of our company to the Duke (age 30) and did our business, and thence to the Tennis Court till noon, and there saw several great matches played, and so by invitation to St. James's; where, at Mr. Coventry's (age 36) chamber, I dined with my Lord Barkeley (age 62), Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Sir Edward Turner (age 47), Sir Ellis Layton, and one Mr. Seymour (age 31), a fine gentleman; were admirable good discourse of all sorts, pleasant and serious.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon all of us, viz., Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Sir W. Batten (age 63) at one end, and Mr. Coventry (age 36), Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I (in the middle at the other end, being taught how to sit there all three by my sitting so much the backwarder) at the other end, to Sir G. Carteret's (age 54), and there dined well. Here I saw [his son-in-law] Mr. Scott (age 26), the bastard that married his youngest [his daughter] daughter. Much pleasant talk at table, and then up and to the office, where we sat long upon our design of dividing the Controller's work into some of the rest of our hands for the better doing of it, but he would not yield to it, though the simple man knows in his heart that he do not do one part of it. So he taking upon him to do it all we rose, I vexed at the heart to see the King's service run after this manner, but it cannot be helped.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning sitting, and at noon upon several things to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Sir G. Carteret's (age 54) to dinner of my own accord, and after dinner with Mr. Wayth down to Deptford, Kent [Map] doing several businesses, and by land back again, it being very cold, the boat meeting me after my staying a while for him at an alehouse by Redriffe [Map] stairs.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1664. Called up to the office and much against my will I rose, my head aching mightily, and to the office, where I did argue to good purpose for the King (age 33), which I have been fitting myself for the last night against Mr. Wood about his masts, but brought it to no issue. Very full of business till noon, and then with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to the African House, and there fell to my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, and by and by to dinner, where excellent discourse, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and others of the African Company with us, and then up to the accounts again, which were by and by done, and then I straight home, my head in great pain, and drowsy, so after doing a little business at the office I wrote to my father about sending him the mastiff was given me yesterday. I home and by daylight to bed about 6 o'clock and fell to sleep, wakened about 12 when my wife came to bed, and then to sleep again and so till morning, and then:

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1664. So I to my uncle's, but staid a great while vexed both of us for Maes not coming in, and soon he came, and I with him from supper to Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and there did largely discourse of the business, and I believe he may expect as much favour as he can do him, though I fear that will not be much.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1664. He being gone I to my office again, and there made an end of my morning's work, and then, after reading my vows of course, home and back again with Mr. Maes and walked with him talking of his business in the garden, and he being gone my wife and I walked a turn or two also, and then my uncle Wight (age 62) fetching of us, she and I to his house to supper, and by the way calling on Sir G. Carteret (age 54) to desire his consent to my bringing Maes to him, which he agreed to.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1664. This morning Mr. Burgby, one of the writing clerks belonging to the Council, was with me about business, a knowing man, he complains how most of the Lords of the Council do look after themselves and their own ends, and none the publique, unless Sir Edward Nicholas (age 70). Sir G. Carteret (age 54) is diligent, but all for his own ends and profit. My Lord Privy Seale (age 58), a destroyer of every body's business, and do no good at all to the publique. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 65) speaks very little, nor do much, being now come to the highest pitch that he can expect. He tells me, he believes that things will go very high against the Chancellor (age 55) by Digby (age 51), and that bad things will be proved. Talks much of his neglecting the King (age 33); and making the King (age 33) to trot every day to him, when he is well enough to go to visit his cozen Chief-Justice Hide (age 69), but not to the Council or King. He commends my Lord of Ormond (age 53) mightily in Ireland; but cries out cruelly of Sir G. Lane (age 44) for his corruption; and that he hath done my Lord great dishonour by selling of places here, which are now all taken away, and the poor wretches ready to starve. That nobody almost understands or judges of business better than the King (age 33), if he would not be guilty of his father's fault to be doubtfull of himself, and easily be removed from his own opinion. That my Lord Lauderdale (age 47) is never from the King's care nor council, and that he is a most cunning fellow. Upon the whole, that he finds things go very bad every where; and even in the Council nobody minds the publique.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1664. Thence to my Lord's, and took up my wife, whom my Lady hath received with her old good nature and kindnesse, and so homewards, and she home, I 'lighting by the way, and upon the 'Change [Map] met my uncle Wight (age 62) and told him my discourse this afternoon with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) in Maes' business, but much to his discomfort, and after a dish of coffee home, and at my office a good while with Sir W. Warren talking with great pleasure of many businesses, and then home to supper, my wife and I had a good fowle to supper, and then I to the office again and so home, my mind in great ease to think of our coming to so good a respect with my Lord again, and my Lady, and that my Lady do so much cry up my father's usage of her children, and the goodness of the ayre there, found in the young ladies' faces at their return thence, as she says, as also my being put into the commission of the Fishery1, for which I must give my Lord thanks, and so home to bed, having a great cold in my head and throat tonight from my late cutting my hair so close to my head, but I hope it will be soon gone again.

Note 1. There had been recently established, under the Great Seal of England, a Corporation for the Royal Fishing, of which the Duke of York (age 30) was Governor, Lord Craven Deputy-Governor, and the Lord Mayor and Chamberlain of London, for the time being, Treasurers, in which body was vested the sole power of licensing lotteries ("The Newes", October 6th, 1664). The original charter (dated April 8th, 1664), incorporating James, Duke of York (age 30), and thirty-six assistants as Governor and Company of the Royal Fishing of Great Britain and Ireland, is among the State Papers. The duke was to be Governor till February 26th, 1665.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1664. Up betimes, and the Duke (age 30) being gone abroad to-day, as we heard by a messenger, I spent the morning at my office writing fair my yesterday's work till almost 2 o'clock (only Sir G. Carteret (age 54) coming I went down a little way by water towards Deptford, Kent [Map], but having more mind to have my business done I pretended business at the 'Change [Map], and so went into another boat), and then, eating a bit, my wife and I by coach to the Duke's house, where we saw "The Unfortunate Lovers" but I know not whether I am grown more curious than I was or no, but I was not much pleased with it, though I know not where to lay the fault, unless it was that the house was very empty, by reason of a new play at the other house. Yet here was my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23) in a box, and it was pleasant to hear an ordinary lady hard by us, that it seems did not know her before, say, being told who she was, that "she was well enough".

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1664. Was called up this morning by a messenger from Sir G. Carteret (age 54) to come to him to Sir W. Batten's (age 63), and so I rose and thither to him, and with him and Sir J. Minnes (age 65) to, Sir G. Carteret's (age 54) to examine his accounts, and there we sat at it all the morning. About noon Sir W. Batten (age 63) came from the House of Parliament and told us our Bill for our office was read the second time to-day, with great applause, and is committed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1664. By and by to dinner, where good cheere, and Sir G. Carteret (age 54) in his humour a very good man, and the most kind father and pleased father in his children that ever I saw. Here is now hung up a picture of my [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 62), drawn by Lilly (age 45), a very fine picture, but yet not so good as I have seen of his doing.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1664. Up very betimes to my office, and thence at 7 o'clock to Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and there with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) made an end of his accounts, but staid not dinner, my Lady having made us drink our morning draft there of several wines, but I drank: nothing but some of her coffee, which was poorly made, with a little sugar in it.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1664. Up, and all the morning very busy with multitude of clients, till my head began to be overloaded. Towards noon I took coach and to the Parliament house door, and there staid the rising of the House, and with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) discoursed of some tarr that I have been endeavouring to buy, for the market begins apace to rise upon us, and I would be glad first to serve the King (age 33) well, and next if I could I find myself now begin to cast how to get a penny myself.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1664. Then by barge with Sir W. Batten (age 63) to Trinity House, Deptford [Map]. It seems they have with much ado carried it for Sir G. Carteret (age 54) against Captain Harrison, poor man, who by succession ought to have been it, and most hands were for him, but only they were forced to fright the younger Brethren by requiring them to set their hands (which is an ill course) and then Sir G. Carteret (age 54) carryed it. Here was at dinner my Lord Sandwich (age 38), Mr. Coventry (age 36), my Lord Craven (age 56), and others. A great dinner, and good company. Mr. Prin (age 64) also, who would not drink any health, no, not the King's, but sat down with his hat on all the while1 but nobody took notice of it to him at all; but in discourse with the Doctor he did declare himself that he ever was, and has expressed himself in all his books for mixt communion against the Presbyterian examination.

Note 1. William Prynne (age 64) had published in 1628 a small book against the drinking of healths, entitled, "Healthes, Sicknesse; or a compendious and briefe Discourse, prouing, the Drinking and Pledging of Healthes to be sinfull and utterly unlawfull unto Christians ... wherein all those ordinary objections, excuses or pretences, which are made to justifie, extenuate, or excuse the drinking or pledging of Healthes are likewise cleared and answered". The pamphlet was dedicated to Charles I as "more interessed in the theame and subject of this compendious discourse then any other that I know", and "because your Majestie of all other persons within your owne dominions, are most dishonoured, prejudiced, and abused by these Healthes"..

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jun 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, where some discourse arose from Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Mr. Coventry (age 36), which gives me occasion to think that something like a war is expected now indeed, though upon the 'Change [Map] afterwards I hear too that an Embassador is landed from Holland, and one from their East India Company, to treat with ours about the wrongs we pretend to. Mr. Creed dined with me, and thence after dinner by coach with my wife only to take the ayre, it being very warm and pleasant, to Bowe and Old Ford; and thence to Hackney. There 'light, and played at shuffle-board, eat cream and good churies; and so with good refreshment home.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1664. After dinner down with Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and Sir W. Batten (age 63) to view, and did like a place by Deptford, Kent [Map] yard to lay masts in.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. Thence I to the Half Moone [Map], against the 'Change [Map], to acquaint Lanyon and his friends of our proceedings, and thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), and there heard several tryals, wherein I perceive my Lord is a most able and ready man. After all done, he himself called, "Come, Mr. Pepys, you and I will take a turn in the garden". So he was led down stairs, having the goute, and there walked with me, I think, above an houre, talking most friendly, yet cunningly. I told him clearly how things were; how ignorant I was of his Lordship's concernment in it; how I did not do nor say one word singly, but what was done was the act of the whole Board. He told me by name that he was more angry with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) than with me, and also with the whole body of the Board. But thinking who it was of the Board that knew him least, he did place his fear upon me; but he finds that he is indebted to none of his friends there. I think I did thoroughly appease him, till he thanked me for my desire and pains to satisfy him; and upon my desiring to be directed who I should of his servants advise with about this business, he told me nobody, but would be glad to hear from me himself. He told me he would not direct me in any thing, that it might not be said that the Chancellor (age 55) did labour to abuse the King (age 34); or (as I offered) direct the suspending the Report of the Purveyors but I see what he means, and I will make it my worke to do him service in it. But, Lord! to see how he is incensed against poor Deane (age 30), as a fanatique rogue, and I know not what: and what he did was done in spite to his Lordship, among all his friends and tenants. He did plainly say that he would not direct me in any thing, for he would not put himself into the power of any man to say that he did so and so; but plainly told me as if he would be glad I did something. Lord! to see how we poor wretches dare not do the King (age 34) good service for fear of the greatness of these men. He named Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and the rest; and that he was as angry with them all as me. But it was pleasant to think that, while he was talking to me, comes into the garden Sir G. Carteret (age 54); and my Lord avoided speaking with him, and made him and many others stay expecting him, while I walked up and down above an houre, I think; and would have me walk with my hat on. And yet, after all this, there has been so little ground for this his jealousy of me, that I am sometimes afeard that he do this only in policy to bring me to his side by scaring me; or else, which is worse, to try how faithfull I would be to the King (age 34); but I rather think the former of the two. I parted with great assurance how I acknowledged all I had to come from his Lordship; which he did not seem to refuse, but with great kindness and respect parted. So I by coach home, calling at my Lord's, but he not within.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. Thence with Creed by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there I got Mr. Moore to give me my Lord's hand for my receipt of £109 more of my money of Sir G. Carteret (age 54), so that then his debt to me will be under £500, I think. This do ease my mind also.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. Thence carried him and W. Howe into London, and set them down at Sir G. Carteret's (age 54) to receive some money, and I home and there busy very late, and so home to supper and to bed, with my mind in pretty good ease, my business being in a pretty good condition every where.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. Thence to Trinity House, Deptford [Map] to a dinner which Sir G. Carteret (age 54) makes there as Maister this year.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1664. Thence to St. James's to the Duke (age 30), and there did our usual business. He discourses very freely of a warr with Holland, to begin about winter, so that I believe we shall come to it. Before we went up to the Duke, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and I did talk together in the Parke about my Chancellor's (age 55) business of the timber; he telling me freely that my Chancellor (age 55) was never so angry with him in all his life, as he was for this business, in great passion; and that when he saw me there, he knew what it was about. And plots now with me how we may serve my Lord, which I am mightily glad of; and I hope together we may do it.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1664. I to my Chancellor (age 55), and discoursed his business with him. I perceive, and he says plainly, that he will not have any man to have it in his power to say that my Chancellor (age 55) did contrive the wronging the King (age 34) of his timber; but yet I perceive, he would be glad to have service done him therein; and told me Sir G. Carteret (age 54) hath told him that he and I would look after his business to see it done in the best manner for him. Of this I was glad, and so away.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jul 1664. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, among other things making a contract with Sir W. Warren for almost 1000 Gottenburg masts, the biggest that ever was made in the Navy, and wholly of my compassing and a good one I hope it is for the King (age 34). Dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 63), where I have not eat these many months. Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Mr. Coventry (age 36), Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and myself there only, and my Lady. A good venison pasty, and very merry, and pleasant I made myself with my Lady, and she as much to me. This morning to the office comes Nicholas Osborne, Mr. Gauden's clerke, to desire of me what piece of plate I would choose to have a £100, or thereabouts, bestowed upon me in, he having order to lay out so much; and, out of his freedom with me, do of himself come to make this question. I a great while urged my unwillingnesse to take any, not knowing how I could serve Mr. Gauden, but left it wholly to himself; so at noon I find brought home in fine leather cases, a pair of the noblest flaggons that ever I saw all the days of my life; whether I shall keepe them or no I cannot tell; for it is to oblige me to him in the business of the Tangier victualling, wherein I doubt I shall not; but glad I am to see that I shall be sure to get something on one side or other, have it which will: so, with a merry heart, I looked upon them, and locked them up.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where I took occasion to break the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber to Mr. Coventry (age 36) in the best manner I could. He professed to me, that, till, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) did speake of it at the table, after our officers were gone to survey it, he did not know that my Chancellor (age 55) had any thing to do with it; but now he says that he had been told by the Duke (age 30) that Sir G. Carteret (age 54) had spoke to him about it, and that he had told the Duke that, were he in my Chancellor's (age 55) case, if he were his father, he would rather fling away the gains of two or £3,000, than have it said that the timber, which should have been the King's, if it had continued the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55), was concealed by us in favour of my Chancellor (age 55); for, says he, he is a great man, and all such as he, and he himself particularly, have a great many enemies that would be glad of such an advantage against him. When I told him it was strange that Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir G. Carteret (age 54), that knew my Chancellor's (age 55) concernment therein, should not at first inform us, he answered me that for Sir J. Minnes (age 65), he is looked upon to be an old good companion, but by nobody at the other end of the towne as any man of business, and that my Chancellor (age 55), he dares say, never did tell him of it, only Sir G. Carteret (age 54), he do believe, must needs know it, for he and Sir J. Shaw are the greatest confidants he hath in the world. So for himself, he said, he would not mince the matter, but was resolved to do what was fit, and stand upon his owne legs therein, and that he would speak to the Duke, that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 54) might be appointed to attend my Chancellor (age 55) in it. All this disturbs me mightily. I know not what to say to it, nor how to carry myself therein; for a compliance will discommend me to Mr. Coventry (age 36), and a discompliance to my Chancellor (age 55). But I think to let it alone, or at least meddle in it as little more as I can.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1664. Thence to White Hall to meet with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) about hiring some ground to make our mast docke at Deptford, Kent [Map], but being Council morning failed, but met with Mr. Coventry (age 36), and he and I discoursed of the likeliness of a Dutch warr, which I think is very likely now, for the Dutch do prepare a fleet to oppose us at Guinny, and he do think we shall, though neither of us have a mind to it, fall into it of a sudden, and yet the plague do increase among them, and is got into their fleet, and Opdam's own ship, which makes it strange they should be so high.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Thus we end this month, as I said, after the greatest glut of content that ever I had; only under some difficulty because of the plague, which grows mightily upon us, the last week being about 1700 or 1800 of the plague. My Lord Sandwich (age 40) at sea with a fleet of about 100 sail, to the Northward, expecting De Ruyter (age 58), or the Dutch East India fleet. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) coming over from France, and will meet his sister at Scott's-hall. Myself having obliged both these families in this business very much; as both my Lady, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and his [his wife] Lady (age 63) do confess exceedingly, and the latter do also now call me cozen, which I am glad of. So God preserve us all friends long, and continue health among us.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Up, and very betimes by six o'clock at Deptford, Kent [Map], and there find Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and my [his wife] Lady (age 63) ready to go: I being in my new coloured silk suit, and coat trimmed with gold buttons and gold broad lace round my hands, very rich and fine. By water to the Ferry, where, when we come, no coach there; and tide of ebb so far spent as the horse-boat could not get off on the other side the river to bring away the coach. So we were fain to stay there in the unlucky Isle of Doggs, in a chill place, the morning cool, and wind fresh, above two if not three hours to our great discontent. Yet being upon a pleasant errand, and seeing that it could not be helped, we did bear it very patiently; and it was worth my observing, I thought, as ever any thing, to see how upon these two scores, Sir G. Carteret (age 55), the most passionate man in the world, and that was in greatest haste to be gone, did bear with it, and very pleasant all the while, at least not troubled much so as to fret and storm at it. Anon the coach comes: in the mean time there coming a News thither with his horse to go over, that told us he did come from Islington [Map] this morning; and that Proctor the vintner of the Miter in Wood-street, and his son, are dead this morning there, of the plague; he having laid out abundance of money there, and was the greatest vintner for some time in London for great entertainments. We, fearing the canonicall hour would be past before we got thither, did with a great deal of unwillingness send away the license and wedding ring. So that when we come, though we drove hard with six horses, yet we found them gone from home; and going towards the church, met them coming from church, which troubled us. But, however, that trouble was soon over; hearing it was well done: they being both in their old cloaths; my Lord Crew (age 67) giving her, there being three coach fulls of them. The young [his daughter-in-law] lady mighty sad, which troubled me; but yet I think it was only her gravity in a little greater degree than usual. All saluted her, but I did not till my Lady Sandwich (age 40) did ask me whether I had saluted her or no.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. Up, and betimes to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), where, not liking the horse that had been hired by Mr. Uthwayt for me, I did desire Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to let me ride his new £40 horse, which he did, and so I left my 'hacquenee'1 behind, and so after staying a good while in their bedchamber while they were dressing themselves, discoursing merrily, I parted and to the ferry, where I was forced to stay a great while before I could get my horse brought over, and then mounted and rode very finely to Dagenhams; all the way people, citizens, walking to and again to enquire how the plague is in the City this week by the Bill; which by chance, at Greenwich, Kent [Map], I had heard was 2,020 of the plague, and 3,000 and odd of all diseases; but methought it was a sad question to be so often asked me.

Note 1. Haquenee = an ambling nag fitted for ladies' riding.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1665. Lord's Day. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) come and walked by my bedside half an houre, talking and telling me how my Lord is in this unblameable in all this ill-successe, he having followed orders; and that all ought to be imputed to the falsenesse of the King (age 35) of Denmarke, who, he told me as a secret, had promised to deliver up the Dutch ships to us, and we expected no less; and swears it will, and will easily, be the ruine of him and his kingdom, if we fall out with him, as we must in honour do; but that all that can be, must be to get the fleete out again to intercept De Witt, who certainly will be coming home with the East India ships, he being gone thither. He being gone, I up and with Fenn, being ready to walk forth to see the place; and I find it to be a very noble seat in a noble forest, with the noblest prospect towards Windsor, and round about over many countys, that can be desired; but otherwise a very melancholy place, and little variety save only trees. I had thoughts of going home by water, and of seeing Windsor Chappell [Map] and Castle [Map], but finding at my coming in that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did prevent me in speaking for my sudden return to look after business, I did presently eat a bit off the spit about 10 o'clock, and so took horse for Stanes, and thence to Brainford to Mr. Povy's (age 51), the weather being very pleasant to ride in. Mr. Povy (age 51) not being at home I lost my labour, only eat and drank there with his lady, and told my bad newes, and hear the plague is round about them there. So away to Brainford [Map]; and there at the inn that goes down to the water-side, I 'light and paid off my post-horses, and so slipped on my shoes, and laid my things by, the tide not serving, and to church, where a dull sermon, and many Londoners. After church to my inn, and eat and drank, and so about seven o'clock by water, and got between nine and ten to Queenhive, very dark. And I could not get my waterman to go elsewhere for fear of the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1666. Home with his Lordship to Mrs. Williams's, in Covent-Garden [Map], to dinner (the first time I ever was there), and there met Captain Cocke (age 49); and pretty merry, though not perfectly so, because of the fear that there is of a great encrease again of the plague this week. And again my Lord Bruncker (age 46) do tell us, that he hath it from Sir John Baber; who is related to my Lord Craven (age 57), that my Lord Craven (age 57) do look after Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) place, and do reckon himself sure of it.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1666. In the evening to Lumbard-streete [Map] about money, to enable me to pay Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) £3000, which he hath lodged in my hands, in behalf of his son and my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah, toward their portion, which, I thank God, I am able to do at a minute's warning. In my [way] I inquired, and find Mrs. Rawlinson is dead of the sickness, and her mayde continues mighty ill. He himself is got out of the house. I met also with Mr. Evelyn (age 45) in the streete, who tells me the sad condition at this very day at Deptford, Kent [Map] for the plague, and more at Deale [Map] (within his precinct as one of the Commissioners for sick and wounded seamen), that the towne is almost quite depopulated.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Sep 1664. Sir G. Carteret (age 54) tells me this afternoon that the Dutch are not yet ready to set out; and by that means do lose a good wind which would carry them out and keep us in, and moreover he says that they begin to boggle in the business, and he thinks may offer terms of peace for all this, and seems to argue that it will be well for the King (age 34) too, and I pray God send it. Colonell Reames (age 50) did, among other things, this day tell me how it is clear that, if my Lord Tiviott had lived, he would have quite undone Tangier, or designed himself to be master of it. He did put the King (age 34) upon most great, chargeable, and unnecessary works there, and took the course industriously to deter, all other merchants but himself to deal there, and to make both King and all others pay what he pleased for all that was brought thither.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1664. So to Sir G. Carteret's (age 54) to dinner, and he and I and Captain Cocke (age 47) all alone, and good discourse, and thence to a Committee of Tangier at White Hall, and so home, where I found my wife not well, and she tells me she thinks she is with child, but I neither believe nor desire it. But God's will be done!

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1664. Dined with little heart at noon, in the afternoon against my will to the office, where Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and we met about an order of the Council for the hiring him a house, giving him £1000 fine, and £70 per annum for it. Here Sir J. Minnes (age 65) took occasion, in the most childish and most unbeseeming manner, to reproach us all, but most himself, that he was not valued as Comptroller (age 65) among us, nor did anything but only set his hand to paper, which is but too true; and every body had a palace, and he no house to lie in, and wished he had but as much to build him a house with, as we have laid out in carved worke. It was to no end to oppose, but all bore it, and after laughed at him for it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Sep 1664. So to supper and to bed. Fresh newes come of our beating the Dutch at Guinny quite out of all their castles almost, which will make them quite mad here at home sure. And Sir G. Carteret (age 54) did tell me, that the King (age 34) do joy mightily at it; but asked him laughing, "But", says he, "how shall I do to answer this to the Embassador when he comes?" Nay they say that we have beat them out of the New Netherlands too1 so that we have been doing them mischief for a great while in several parts of the world; without publique knowledge or reason. Their fleete for Guinny is now, they say, ready, and abroad, and will be going this week. Coming home to-night, I did go to examine my wife's house accounts, and finding things that seemed somewhat doubtful, I was angry though she did make it pretty plain, but confessed that when she do misse a sum, she do add something to other things to make it, and, upon my being very angry, she do protest she will here lay up something for herself to buy her a necklace with, which madded me and do still trouble me, for I fear she will forget by degrees the way of living cheap and under a sense of want.

Note 1. Captain (afterwards Sir Robert) Holmes' (age 42) expedition to attack the Dutch settlements in Africa eventuated in an important exploit. Holmes suddenly left the coast of Africa, sailed across the Atlantic, and reduced the Dutch settlement of New Netherlands to English rule, under the title of New York. "The short and true state of the matter is this: the country mentioned was part of the province of Virginia, and, as there is no settling an extensive country at once, a few Swedes crept in there, who surrendered the plantations they could not defend to the Dutch, who, having bought the charts and papers of one Hudson, a seaman, who, by the commission from the crown of England, discovered a river, to which he gave his name, conceited they had purchased a province. Sometimes, when we had strength in those parts, they were English subjects; at others, when that strength declined, they were subjects of the United Provinces. However, upon King Charles's claim the States disowned the title, but resumed it during our confusions. On March 12th, 1663-64, Charles II granted it to the Duke of York (age 30) ... The King (age 34) sent Holmes, when he returned, to the Tower, and did not discharge him; till he made it evidently appear that he had not infringed the law of nations ". (Campbell's "Naval History", vol. ii, p., 89). How little did the King (age 34) or Holmes himself foresee the effects of the capture, B.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Sep 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning, dined at home and Creed with me; after dinner I to Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and with him to his new house he is taking in Broad Streete, and there surveyed all the rooms and bounds, in order to the drawing up a lease thereof; and that done, Mr. Cutler, his landlord, took me up and down, and showed me all his ground and house, which is extraordinary great, he having bought all the Augustine Fryers, and many, many a £1000 he hath and will bury there.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1664. Thence with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) by coach to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier, and thence back to London, and 'light in Cheapside and I to Nellson's, and there met with a rub at first, but took him out to drink, and there discoursed to my great content so far with him that I think I shall agree with him for Bewpers to serve the Navy with.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1664. At noon, Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Sir J. Minnes (age 65), Sir W. Batten (age 63), Sir W. Pen (age 43), and myself, were treated at the Dolphin by Mr. Foly, the ironmonger, where a good plain dinner, but I expected musique, the missing of which spoiled my dinner, only very good merry discourse at dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1664. Home and eat something, and then shifted myself, and to White Hall, and there the King (age 34) being in his Cabinet Council (I desiring to speak with Sir G. Carteret (age 54)), I was called in, and demanded by the King (age 34) himself many questions, to which I did give him full answers. There were at this Council my Chancellor (age 55), Archbishop of Canterbury (age 66), Lord Treasurer (age 57), the two Secretarys, and Sir G. Carteret (age 54). Not a little contented at this chance of being made known to these persons, and called often by my name by the King (age 34), I to Mr. Pierces to take leave of him, but he not within, but saw her and made very little stay, but straight home to my office, where I did business, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1664. At noon dined with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and the Auditors of the Exchequer at the Dolphin by Mr. Wayth's desire, and after dinner fell to business relating to Sir G. Carteret's (age 54) account, and so home to the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 63) begins, too fast, to shew his knavish tricks in giving what price he pleases for commodities.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1664. After dinner out again by coach to my Chancellor's (age 55), but could not speak with him, then up and down to seek Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 54), Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and my Lord Berkeley (age 62), but failed in all, and so home and there late at business. Among other things Mr. Turner making his complaint to me how my clerks do all the worke and get all the profit, and he hath no comfort, nor cannot subsist, I did make him apprehend how he is beholding to me more than to any body for my suffering him to act as Pourveyour of petty provisions, and told him so largely my little value of any body's favour, that I believe he will make no complaints again a good while.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map] and thence home to dinner, and thence to the office a good while, and thence to the Council chamber at White Hall to speake with Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and here by accident heard a great and famous cause between Sir G. Lane (age 44) and one Mr. Phill. Whore, an Irish business about Sir G. Lane's (age 44) endeavouring to reverse a decree of the late Commissioners of Ireland in a Rebells case for his land, which the King (age 34) had given as forfeited to Sir G. Lane (age 44), for whom the Sollicitor did argue most angell like, and one of the Commissioners, Baron, did argue for the other and for himself and his brethren who had decreed it. But the Sollicitor do so pay the Commissioners, how four all along did act for the Papists, and three only for the Protestants, by which they were overvoted, but at last one word (which was omitted in the Sollicitor's repeating of an Act of Parliament in the case) being insisted on by the other part, the Sollicitor was put to a great stop, and I could discern he could not tell what to say, but was quite out.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1664. I wrote a letter to my mind and, after eating a bit at home (Mr. Sheply dining and taking his leave of me), abroad and to Sir G. Carteret (age 54) with the letter and thence to my Lord Treasurer's (age 57); wherewith Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) long studying all we could to make the last year swell as high as we could. And it is much to see how he do study for the King (age 34), to do it to get all the money from the Parliament all he can: and I shall be serviceable to him therein, to help him to heads upon which to enlarge the report of the expense. He did observe to me how obedient this Parliament was for awhile, and the last sitting how they begun to differ, and to carp at the King's officers; and what they will do now, he says, is to make agreement for the money, for there is no guess to be made of it. He told me he was prepared to convince the Parliament that the Subsidys are a most ridiculous tax (the four last not rising to £40,000), and unequall. He talks of a tax of Assessment of £70,000 for five years; the people to be secured that it shall continue no longer than there is really a warr; and the charges thereof to be paid. He told me, that one year of the late Dutch warr cost £1,623,000.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1664. At the office all the morning. Sir G. Carteret (age 54), upon a motion of Sir W. Batten's (age 63), did promise, if we would write a letter to him, to shew it to the King (age 34) on our behalf touching our desire of being Commissioners of the Prize office.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1664. This evening Mr. Hollyard (age 55) came to me and told me that he hath searched my boy, and he finds he hath a stone in his bladder, which grieves me to the heart, he being a good-natured and well-disposed boy, and more that it should be my misfortune to have him come to my house. Sir G. Carteret (age 54) was here this afternoon; and strange to see how we plot to make the charge of this warr to appear greater than it is, because of getting money.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1664. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 63) to the Committee of Lords at the Council Chamber, where Sir G. Carteret (age 54) told us what he had said to the King (age 34), and how the King (age 34) inclines to our request of making us Commissioners of the Prize office, but meeting him anon in the gallery, he tells me that my Lord Barkely (age 62) is angry we should not acquaint him with it, so I found out my Lord and pacified him, but I know not whether he was so in earnest or no, for he looked very frowardly.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1664. In the evening my wife and Sir W. Warren with me to White Hall, sending her with the coach to see her father and mother. He and I up to Sir G. Carteret (age 54), and first I alone and then both had discourse with him about things of the Navy, and so I and he calling my wife at Unthanke's, home again, and long together talking how to order things in a new contract for Norway goods, as well to the King's as to his advantage.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1664. But I was forced to rise, and up and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) to White Hall, and there we waited on the Duke (age 31). And among other things Mr. Coventry (age 36) took occasion to vindicate himself before the Duke and us, being all there, about the choosing of Taylor for Harwich [Map]. Upon which the Duke did clear him, and did tell us that he did expect, that, after he had named a man, none of us shall then oppose or find fault with the man; but if we had anything to say, we ought to say it before he had chose him. Sir G. Carteret (age 54) thought himself concerned, and endeavoured to clear himself: and by and by Sir W. Batten (age 63) did speak, knowing himself guilty, and did confess, that being pressed by the Council he did say what he did, that he was accounted a fanatique; but did not know that at that time he had been appointed by his Royal Highness. To which the Duke [replied] that it was impossible but he must know that he had appointed him; and so it did appear that the Duke did mean all this while Sir W. Batten (age 63).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1664. Dined at the Dolphin, Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Sir J. Minnes (age 65), Sir W. Batten (age 63), and I, with Sir W. Boreman and Sir Theophilus Biddulph and others, Commissioners of the Sewers, about our place below to lay masts in.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1664. Coming away back immediately to dinner, where a great deal of good discourse, and Sir G. Carteret's (age 54) discourse of this Guinny business, with great displeasure at the losse of our honour there, and do now confess that the trade brought all these troubles upon us between the Dutch and us.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map]; and there, among the merchants, I hear fully the news of our being beaten to dirt at Guinny, by De Ruyter (age 57) with his fleete. The particulars, as much as by Sir G. Carteret (age 54) afterwards I heard, I have said in a letter to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) this day at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; it being most wholly to the utter ruine of our Royall Company, and reproach and shame to the whole nation, as well as justification to them in their doing wrong to no man as to his private [property], only takeing whatever is found to belong to the Company, and nothing else.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Dec 1664. After dinner I to Sir W. Batten's (age 63), and there received so much good usage (as I have of late done) from him and my Lady, obliging me and my wife, according to promise, to come and dine with them to-morrow with our neighbours, that I was in pain all the day, and night too after, to know how to order the business of my wife's not going, and by discourse receive fresh instances of Sir J. Minnes's (age 65) folly in complaining to Sir G. Carteret (age 54) of Sir W. Batten (age 63) and me for some family offences, such as my having of a stopcock to keepe the water from them, which vexes me, but it would more but that Sir G. Carteret (age 54) knows him very well.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1665. So home to my office again, where very late about business, and so home to supper and to bed, my cold continuing in a great degree upon me still. This day I received a good sum of money due to me upon one score or another from Sir G. Carteret (age 55), among others to clear all my matters about Colours, [Flags] wherein a month or two since I was so embarrassed and I thank God I find myself to have got clear, by that commodity, £50 and something more; and earned it with dear pains and care and issuing of my owne money, and saved the King (age 34) near £100 in it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1665. So home, and among other letters found one from Jane, that is newly gone, telling me how her mistresse won't pay her her Quarter's wages, and withal tells me how her mistress will have the boy sit 3 or 4 hours together in the dark telling of stories, but speaks of nothing but only her indiscretion in undervaluing herself to do it, but I will remedy that, but am vexed she should get some body to write so much because of making it publique. Then took coach and to visit my Lady Sandwich (age 40), where she discoursed largely to me her opinion of a match, if it could be thought fit by my Lord, for my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah, with Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son; but I doubt he hath yet no settled estate in land. But I will inform myself, and give her my opinion. Then Mrs. Pickering (age 23) (after private discourse ended, we going into the other room) did, at my Lady's command, tell me the manner of a masquerade1 before the King (age 34) and Court the other day. Where six women (my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) and Duchesse of Monmouth being two of them) and six men (the Duke of Monmouth (age 15) and Lord Arran (age 25) and Monsieur Blanfort, being three of them) in vizards, but most rich and antique dresses, did dance admirably and most gloriously. God give us cause to continue the mirthe! So home, and after awhile at my office to supper and to bed.

Note 1. The masquerade at Court took place on the 2nd, and is referred to by Evelyn, who was present, in his Diary. Some amusing incidents connected with the entertainment are related in the "Grammont Memoirs (chapter vii.).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1665. Thence back by coach to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 55); and there he did contract with me a kind of friendship and freedom of communication, wherein he assures me to make me understand the whole business of the Treasurer's business of the Navy, that I shall know as well as Sir G. Carteret (age 55) what money he hath; and will needs have me come to him sometimes, or he meet me, to discourse of things tending to the serving the King (age 34): and I am mighty proud and happy in becoming so known to such a man. And I hope shall pursue it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1665. At noon I to dinner at Trinity House, Deptford [Map], and thence to Gresham College, where Mr. Hooke read a second very curious lecture about the late Comett; among other things proving very probably that this is the very same Comett that appeared before in the year 1618, and that in such a time probably it will appear again, which is a very new opinion; but all will be in print. Then to the meeting, where Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) two sons, his owne, and Sir N. Slaning, were admitted of the society: and this day I did pay my admission money, 40s. to the society. Here was very fine discourses and experiments, but I do lacke philosophy enough to understand them, and so cannot remember them. Among others, a very particular account of the making of the several sorts of bread in France, which is accounted the best place for bread in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1665. Down to dinner, where my wife in her new lace whiske, which, indeed, is very noble, and I much pleased with it, and so my Lady also. Here very pleasant my Lord was at dinner, and after dinner did look over his plate, which Burston hath brought him to-day, and is the last of the three that he will have made. After satisfied with that, he abroad, and I after much discourse with my Lady about Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) son, of whom she hath some thoughts for a husband for my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah, we away home by coach again, and there sang a good while very pleasantly with Mr. Andrews and Hill. They gone; we to supper, and betimes to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1665. Thence to the Committee of Tangier, where the Duke (age 31) a little, and then left us and we staid. A very great Committee, the Lords Albemarle (age 56), Sandwich (age 39), Barkely (age 63), Fitzharding (age 35), Peterborough (age 43), Ashley (age 43), Sir Thos. Ingram (age 50), Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and others. The whole business was the stating of Povy's (age 51) accounts, of whom to say no more, never could man say worse himself nor have worse said of him than was by the company to his face; I mean, as to his folly and very reflecting words to his honesty. Broke up without anything but trouble and shame, only I got my businesses done to the signing of two bills for the Contractors and Captain Taylor, and so come away well pleased, and home, taking up my wife at the 'Change [Map], to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1665. Thence I to Creed, and walked talking in the Park an hour with him, and then to my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) to dinner, and after dinner to Mr. Povy's (age 51), who hath been with the Duke of Yorke (age 31), and, by the mediation of Mr. Coventry (age 37), the Duke (age 31) told him that the business shall go on, and he will take off Brunkerd, and my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) is quiett too. But to see the mischief, I hear that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did not seem pleased, but said nothing when he heard me proposed to come in Povy's (age 51) room, which may learn me to distinguish between that man that is a man's true and false friend.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1665. Thence to my Lady Sandwich's (age 40), where my wife all this day, having kept Good Friday very strict with fasting. Here we supped, and talked very merry. My Lady alone with me, very earnest about Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) son, with whom I perceive they do desire my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah may be matched.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1665. So to my Lady Sandwich's (age 40) to dinner, and up to her chamber after dinner, and there discoursed about Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) son, in proposition between us two for my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1665. At noon eat a bit and stepped to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55), by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and after some private conference and examining of my papers with him I did return into the City and to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), whom I found with the Commissioners of Prizes dining at Captain Cocke's (age 48), in Broad Streete, very merry. Among other tricks, there did come a blind fiddler to the doore, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did go to the doore and lead the blind fiddler by the hand in.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1665. Thence with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to my Lord Treasurer (age 58), and by and by come Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and anon we come to my Lord, and there did lay open the expence for the six months past, and an estimate of the seven months to come, to November next: the first arising to above £500,000, and the latter will, as we judge, come to above £1,000,000. But to see how my Lord Treasurer (age 58) did bless himself, crying he could do no more than he could, nor give more money than he had, if the occasion and expence were never so great, which is but a sad story. And then to hear how like a passionate and ignorant asse Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did harangue upon the abuse of Tickets did make me mad almost and yet was fain to hold my tongue.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1665. At the office sat all the morning, where, in the absence of Sir W. Batten (age 64), Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being angry about the business of tickets, spoke of Sir W. Batten (age 64) for speaking some words about the signing of tickets, and called Sir W. Batten (age 64) in his discourse at the table to us (the clerks being withdrawn) "shitten foole", which vexed me.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1665. Home and after a mouthfull of dinner to the office, where till 6 o'clock, and then to White Hall, and there with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and my Lord Brunckerd (age 45) attended the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about the business of money. I also went to Jervas's, my barber, for my periwigg that was mending there, and there do hear that Jane is quite undone, taking the idle fellow for her husband yet not married, and lay with him several weeks that had another wife and child, and she is now going into Ireland.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1665. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and up and down, doing not much; then to London, but to prevent Povy's (age 51) dining with me (who I see is at the 'Change [Map]) I went back again and to Herbert's at Westminster, there sent for a bit of meat and dined, and then to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and there with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55), and thence to White Hall in my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) till dark night, about fower hours talking of the business of the Navy Charge, and how Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do order business, keeping us in ignorance what he do with his money, and also Sir Philip did shew me nakedly the King's condition for money for the Navy; and he do assure me, unless the King (age 34) can get some noblemen or rich money-gentlemen to lend him money, or to get the City to do it, it is impossible to find money: we having already, as he says, spent one year's share of the three-years' tax, which comes to £2,500,000. Being very glad of this day's discourse in all but that I fear I shall quite lose Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who knows that I have been privately here all this day with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55). However, I will order it so as to give him as little offence as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1665. Dined at home and thence to White Hall again (where I lose most of my time now-a-days to my great trouble, charge, and loss of time and benefit), and there, after the Council rose, Sir G. Carteret (age 55), my Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir Thomas Harvy (age 39), and myself, down to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber to him and the Chancellor (age 56), and the Duke of Albemarle (age 56); and there I did give them a large account of the charge of the Navy, and want of money. But strange to see how they held up their hands crying, "What shall we do?" Says my Lord Treasurer (age 58), "Why, what means all this, Mr. Pepys? This is true, you say; but what would you have me to do? I have given all I can for my life. Why will not people lend their money? Why will they not trust the King (age 34) as well as Oliver? Why do our prizes come to nothing, that yielded so much heretofore?" And this was all we could get, and went away without other answer, which is one of the saddest things that, at such a time as this, with the greatest action on foot that ever was in England, nothing should be minded, but let things go on of themselves do as well as they can.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1665. Up and to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55), and walked with him an houre with great delight in the Parke about Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) accounts, and the endeavours that he hath made to bring Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to show his accounts and let the world see what he receives and what he pays.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1665. Up betimes and walked to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 55), where a long time with him in his chamber alone talking of Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) business, and the abuses he puts on the nation by his bad payments to both our vexations, but no hope of remedy for ought I see.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1665. To the office, and dined, and then to the office again, and abroad to speak with Sir G. Carteret (age 55); but, Lord! to see how fraile a man I am, subject to my vanities, that can hardly forbear, though pressed with never so much business, my pursuing of pleasure, but home I got, and there very busy very late. Among other things consulting with Mr. Andrews about our Tangier business, wherein we are like to meet with some trouble, and my Lord Bellasses's (age 50) endeavour to supplant us, which vexes my mind; but, however, our undertaking is so honourable that we shall stand a tug for it I think.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1665. Lay long, and very busy all the morning, at noon to the 'Change [Map], and thence to dinner to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), to talk upon the business of insuring our goods upon the Hambrough [ships]. Here a very fine, neat French dinner, without much cost, we being all alone with my Lady and one of the house with her; thence home and wrote letters, and then in the evening, by coach, with my wife and mother and Mercer, our usual tour by coach, and eat at the old house at Islington [Map]; but, Lord! to see how my mother found herself talk upon every object to think of old stories. Here I met with one that tells me that Jack Cole, my old schoolefellow, is dead and buried lately of a consumption, who was a great crony of mine. So back again home, and there to my closet to write letters. Hear to my great trouble that our Hambrough ships1, valued of the King's goods and the merchants' (though but little of the former) to £200,000 [are lost].

Note 1. On May 29th Sir William Coventry wrote to Lord Arlington: "Capt. Langhorne has arrived with seven ships, and reports the taking of the Hamburg fleet with the man of war their convoy; mistaking the Dutch fleet for the English, he fell into it" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 393).

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1665. Up to Court about these two, and for the former was led up to my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 24) lodgings, where the King (age 35) and she and others were at supper, and there I read the letter and returned; and then to Sir G. Carteret (age 55) about Hater, and shall have him released to-morrow, upon my giving bail for his appearance, which I have promised to do. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did go on purpose to the King (age 35) to ask this, and it was granted.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1665. Up and to White Hall, where Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did go with me to Secretary Morris (age 62), and prevailed with him to let Mr. Hater be released upon bail for his appearance. So I at a loss how to get another besides myself, and got Mr. Hunt, who did patiently stay with me all the morning at Secretary Morris's chamber, Mr. Hater being sent for with his keeper, and at noon comes in the Secretary, and upon entering [into] recognizances, he for £200, and Mr. Hunt and I for £100 each for his appearance upon demand, he was released, it costing him, I think, above £3.

Battle of Lowestoft

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1665. Waked in the morning before 4 o'clock with great pain to piss, and great pain in pissing by having, I think, drank too great a draught of cold drink before going to bed. But by and by to sleep again, and then rose and to the office, where very busy all the morning, and at noon to dinner with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to his house with all our Board, where a good pasty and brave discourse. But our great fear was some fresh news of the fleete, but not from the fleete, all being said to be well and beaten the Dutch, but I do not give much belief to it, and indeed the news come from Sir W. Batten (age 64) at Harwich [Map], and writ so simply that we all made good mirth of it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1665. Thence to the office, where upon Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) accounts, to my great vexation there being nothing done by the Controller to right the King (age 35) therein. I thence to my office and wrote letters all the afternoon, and in the evening by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 55) about my Tangier business to get money, and so to my Lady Sandwich's (age 40), who, poor lady, expects every hour to hear of my Lord; but in the best temper, neither confident nor troubled with fear, that I ever did see in my life. She tells me my Lord Rochester (age 18) is now declaredly out of hopes of Mrs. Mallett (age 14), and now she is to receive notice in a day or two how the King (age 35) stands inclined to the giving leave for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) to look after her, and that being done to bring it to an end shortly.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1665. This morning my wife and mother rose about two o'clock; and with Mercer, Mary, the boy, and W. Hewer (age 23), as they had designed, took boat and down to refresh themselves on the water to Gravesend, Kent [Map]. Lay till 7 o'clock, then up and to the office upon Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) accounts again, where very busy; thence abroad and to the 'Change [Map], no news of certainty being yet come from the fleete.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1665. Thence to the Dolphin Taverne, where Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir Thomas Harvy (age 40), and myself dined, upon Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) charge, and very merry we were, Sir Thomas Harvy (age 40) being a very drolle.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1665. At noon with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to my Lord Mayor's to dinner, where much company in a little room, and though a good, yet no extraordinary table. His name, Sir John Lawrence, whose father, a very ordinary old man, sat there at table, but it seems a very rich man. Here were at table three Sir Richard Brownes (age 60), viz.: he of the Councill, a clerk, and the Alderman, and his son; and there was a little grandson also Richard, who will hereafter be Sir Richard Browne (age 60). The Alderman did here openly tell in boasting how he had, only upon suspicion of disturbances, if there had been any bad newes from sea, clapped up several persons that he was afeard of; and that he had several times done the like and would do, and take no bail where he saw it unsafe for the King (age 35). But by and by he said that he was now sued in the Exchequer by a man for false imprisonment, that he had, upon the same score, imprisoned while he was Mayor four years ago, and asked advice upon it. I told him I believed there was none, and told my story of Field, at which he was troubled, and said that it was then unsafe for any man to serve the King (age 35), and, I believed, knows not what to do therein; but that Sir Richard Browne (age 60), of the Councill, advised him to speak with my Chancellor (age 56) about it. My Lord Mayor very respectfull to me; and so I after dinner away and found Sir J. Minnes (age 66) ready with his coach and four horses at our office gate, for him and me to go out of towne to meet the Duke of Yorke (age 31) coming from Harwich [Map] to-night, and so as far as Ilford, and there 'light.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. Thence back to White Hall, where we parted, and I to find my Lord to receive his farther direction about his proposal this morning. Wherein I did that I should first by another hand break my intentions to Sir G. Carteret (age 55). I pitched upon Dr. Clerke, which my Lord liked, and so I endeavoured but in vain to find him out to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. How poorly Sir John Lawson (age 50) performed, notwithstanding all that was said of him; and how his ship turned out of the way, while Sir J. Lawson (age 50) himself was upon the deck, to the endangering of the whole fleete. It therefore troubles my Lord that Mr. Coventry (age 37) should not mention a word of him in his relation. I did, in answer, offer that I was sure the relation was not compiled by Mr. Coventry (age 37), but by L'Estrange, out of several letters, as I could witness; and that Mr. Coventry's (age 37) letter that he did give the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) did give him as much right as the Prince (age 45), for I myself read it first and then copied it out, which I promised to show my Lord, with which he was somewhat satisfied. From that discourse my Lord did begin to tell me how much he was concerned to dispose of his children, and would have my advice and help; and propounded to match my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son, which I approved of, and did undertake the speaking with him about it as from myself, which my Lord liked. So parted, with my head full of care about this business.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. Thence I to Sir G. Carteret (age 55) at his chamber, and in the best manner I could, and most obligingly, moved the business: he received it with great respect and content, and thanks to me, and promised that he would do what he could possibly for his son, to render him fit for my Lord's [his future daughter-in-law] daughter, and shewed great kindness to me, and sense of my kindness to him herein. Sir William Pen (age 44) told me this day that Mr. Coventry (age 37) is to be sworn a Privy Counsellor, at which my soul is glad.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. Midsummer-Day. Up very betimes, by six, and at Dr. Clerke's at Westminster by 7 of the clock, having over night by a note acquainted him with my intention of coming, and there I, in the best manner I could, broke my errand about a match between Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son and my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) [his future daughter-in-law] eldest daughter, which he (as I knew he would) took with great content: and we both agreed that my Lord and he, being both men relating to the sea, under a kind aspect of His Majesty, already good friends, and both virtuous and good familys, their allyance might be of good use to us; and he did undertake to find out Sir George (age 55) this morning, and put the business in execution. So being both well pleased with the proposition, I saw his niece there and made her sing me two or three songs very prettily, and so home to the office, where to my great trouble I found Mr. Coventry (age 37) and the board met before I come. I excused my late coming by having been on the River about office business.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. So to Dr. Clerke, and there found that he had broke the business to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and that he takes the thing mighty well.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1665. This night Sir G. Carteret (age 55) told me with great kindnesse that the order of the Council did run for the making of Hater and Whitfield incapable of any serving the King (age 35) again, but that he had stopped the entry of it, which he told me with great kindnesse, but the thing troubles me.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1665. At noon dined, and then I abroad by water, it raining hard, thinking to have gone down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], but I did not, but back through bridge to White Hall, where, after I had again visited Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and received his (and now his [his wife] Lady's (age 63)) full content in my proposal, I went to my Lord Sandwich (age 39), and having told him how Sir G. Carteret (age 55) received it, he did direct me to return to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and give him thanks for his kind reception of this offer, and that he would the next day be willing to enter discourse with him about the business. Which message I did presently do, and so left the business with great joy to both sides. My Lord, I perceive, intends to give £5000 with [his future daughter-in-law] her, and expects about £800 per annum joynture.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1665. Thence by water to Blackfriars, and so to Paul's churchyard and bespoke severall books, and so home and there dined, my man William giving me a lobster sent him by my old maid Sarah. This morning I met with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who tells me how all things proceed between my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and himself to full content, and both sides depend upon having the match finished presently, and professed great kindnesse to me, and said that now we were something akin. I am mightily, both with respect to myself and much more of my Lord's family, glad of this alliance.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. Thus this book of two years ends. Myself and family in good health, consisting of myself and wife, Mercer, her woman, Mary, Alice, and Susan our maids, and Tom my boy. In a sickly time of the plague growing on. Having upon my hands the troublesome care of the Treasury of Tangier, with great sums drawn upon me, and nothing to pay them with: also the business of the office great. Consideration of removing my wife to Woolwich, Kent [Map]; she lately busy in learning to paint, with great pleasure and successe. All other things well; especially a new interest I am making, by a match in hand between the eldest son of Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah Montage. The Duke of Yorke (age 31) gone down to the fleete, but all suppose not with intent to stay there, as it is not fit, all men conceive, he should.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1665. In the evening my Lady Pen (age 41) and daughter come to see, and supped with us, then a messenger about business of the office from Sir G. Carteret (age 55) at Chatham, Kent [Map], and by word of mouth did send me word that the business between my Lord and him is fully agreed on1, and is mightily liked of by the King (age 35) and the Duke of Yorke (age 31), and that he sent me this word with great joy; they gone, we to bed.

Note 1. The arrangements for the marriage of [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah Montagu to [his son] Philip Carteret (age 24) were soon settled, for the wedding took place on July 31st.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. And so to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who is come this day from Chatham, Kent [Map], and mighty glad he is to see me, and begun to talk of our great business of the match, which goes on as fast as possible, but for convenience we took water and over to his coach to Lambeth, by which we went to Deptford, Kent [Map], all the way talking, first, how matters are quite concluded with all possible content between my Lord and him and signed and sealed, so that my Lady Sandwich (age 40) is to come thither to-morrow or next day, and the young lady is sent for, and all likely to be ended between them in a very little while, with mighty joy on both sides, and the King (age 35), Duke (age 31), Chancellor (age 56), and all mightily pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. So to the office, where all the morning till noon, and so to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner. In the afternoon I abroad to St. James's, and there with Mr. Coventry (age 37) a good while, and understand how matters are ordered in the fleete: that is, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) goes Admiral; under him Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and Sir T. Teddiman; Vice-Admiral, Sir W. Pen (age 44); and under him Sir W. Barkeley (age 26), and Sir Jos. Jordan: Reere-Admiral, Sir Thomas Allen (age 32); and under him Sir Christopher Mings (age 39)1, and Captain Harman (age 40). We talked in general of business of the Navy, among others how he had lately spoken to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and professed great resolution of friendship with him and reconciliation, and resolves to make it good as well as he can, though it troubles him, he tells me, that something will come before him wherein he must give him offence, but I do find upon the whole that Mr. Coventry (age 37) do not listen to these complaints of money with the readiness and resolvedness to remedy that he used to do, and I think if he begins to draw in it is high time for me to do so too.

Note 1. The son of a shoemaker, bred to the sea-service; he rose to the rank of an admiral, and was killed in the fight with the Dutch, June, 1666. B. See post June 10th, 1666.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. Thence to newes, wherein I find that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do now take all my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) business to heart, and makes it the same with his owne. He tells me how at Chatham, Kent [Map] it was proposed to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) to be joined with the Prince (age 45) in the command of the fleete, which he was most willing to; but when it come to the Prince (age 45), he was quite against it; saying, there could be no government, but that it would be better to have two fleetes, and neither under the command of the other, which he would not agree to. So the King (age 35) was not pleased; but, without any unkindnesse, did order the fleete to be ordered as above, as to the Admirals and commands: so the Prince (age 45) is come up; and Sir G. Carteret (age 55), I remember, had this word thence, that, says he, by this means, though the King (age 35) told him that it would be but for this expedition, yet I believe we shall keepe him out for altogether. He tells me how my Lord was much troubled at Sir W. Pen's (age 44) being ordered forth (as it seems he is, to go to Solebay [Map], and with the best fleete he can, to go forth), and no notice taken of my Lord Sandwich (age 39) going after him, and having the command over him. But after some discourse Mr. Coventry (age 37) did satisfy, as he says, my Lord, so as they parted friends both in that point and upon the other wherein I know my Lord was troubled, and which Mr. Coventry (age 37) did speak to him of first thinking that my Lord might justly take offence at, his not being mentioned in the relation of the fight in the news book, and did clear all to my Lord how little he was concerned in it, and therewith my Lord also satisfied, which I am mightily glad of, because I should take it a very great misfortune to me to have them two to differ above all the persons in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1665. At noon dined at home, and then by water to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (age 55) about money for the office, a sad thought, for in a little while all must go to wracke, winter coming on apace, when a great sum must be ready to pay part of the fleete, and so far we are from it that we have not enough to stop the mouths of poor people and their hands from falling about our eares here almost in the office. God give a good end to it! Sir G. Carteret (age 55) told me one considerable thing: Alderman Backewell (age 47) is ordered abroad upon some private score with a great sum of money; wherein I was instrumental the other day in shipping him away. It seems some of his creditors have taken notice of it, and he was like to be broke yesterday in his absence; Sir G. Carteret (age 55) telling me that the King (age 35) and the Kingdom must as good as fall with that man at this time; and that he was forced to get £4000 himself to answer Backewell's people's occasions, or he must have broke; but committed this to me as a great secret and which I am heartily sorry to hear.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1665. To Westminster, and there with Mr. Povy (age 51) and Creed talking of our Tangier business, and by and by I drew Creed aside and acquainted him with what Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did tell me about Backewell the other day, because he hath money of his in his hands.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jul 1665. All day very diligent at the office, ended my letters by 9 at night, and then fitted myself to go down to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to my wife, which I did, calling at Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) at Deptford, Kent [Map], and there hear that my Lady Sandwich (age 40) is come, but not very well. By 12 o'clock to Woolwich, Kent [Map], found my wife asleep in bed, but strange to think what a fine night I had down, but before I had been one minute on shore, the mightiest storm come of wind and rain that almost could be for a quarter of an houre and so left. I to bed, being the first time I come to her lodgings, and there lodged well.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jul 1665. Lord's Day. Very pleasant with her and among my people, while she made her ready, and, about 10 o'clock, by water to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and there find my Lady [Sandwich] in her chamber, not very well, but looks the worst almost that ever I did see her in my life. It seems her drinking of the water at Tunbridge [Map] did almost kill her before she could with most violent physique get it out of her body again. We are received with most extraordinary kindnesse by my [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 63) and her children, and dined most nobly. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) went to Court this morning.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1665. So I to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and there with much ado did get his consent in part to my having the money promised for Tangier, and the other part did not concur. So being displeased with this, I back to the office and there sat alone a while doing business, and then by a solemn invitation to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], where a great dinner and company, Captain Dobbin's feast for Elder Brother. But I broke up before the dinner half over and by water to the Harp and Ball, and thence had Mary meet me at the New Exchange, and there took coach and I with great pleasure took the ayre to Highgate, and thence to Hampstead, much pleased with her company, pretty and innocent, and had what pleasure almost I would with her, and so at night, weary and sweaty, it being very hot beyond bearing, we back again, and I set her down in St. Martin's Lane, and so I to the evening 'Change [Map], and there hear all the towne full that Ostend is delivered to us, and that Alderman Backewell (age 47)1 did go with £50,000 to that purpose. But the truth of it I do not know, but something I believe there is extraordinary in his going. So to the office, where I did what I could as to letters, and so away to bed, shifting myself, and taking some Venice treakle, feeling myself out of order, and thence to bed to sleep.

Note 1. Among the State Papers is a letter from the King (age 35) to the Lord General (dated August 8th, 1665): "Alderman Backwell (age 47) being in great straits for the second payment he has to make for the service in Flanders, as much tin is to be transmitted to him as will raise the sum. Has authorized him and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with the tin farmers for 500 tons of tin to be speedily transported under good convoy; but if, on consulting with Alderman Backwell (age 47), this plan of the tin seems insufficient, then without further difficulty he is to dispose for that purpose of the £10,000 assigned for pay of the Guards, not doubting that before that comes due, other ways will be found for supplying it; the payment in Flanders is of such importance that some means must be found of providing for it" (Calendar, Domestic, 1664-65, pp. 508, 509).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1665. Lay long, being sleepy, and then up to the office, my Lord Bruncker (age 45) (after his sickness) being come to the office, and did what business there was, and so I by water, at night late, to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), but there being no oars to carry me, I was fain to call a skuller that had a gentleman already in it, and he proved a man of love to musique, and he and I sung together the way down with great pleasure, and an incident extraordinary to be met with.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1665. So he in the evening gone, I by water to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), and there find my Lady Sandwich (age 40) and her buying things for my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jem.'s wedding; and my Lady Jem. is beyond expectation come to Dagenhams, where Mr. Carteret is to go to visit her to-morrow; and my proposal of waiting on him, he being to go alone to all persons strangers to him, was well accepted, and so I go with him.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1665. Up, and after all business done, though late, I to Deptford, Kent [Map], but before I went out of the office saw there young Bagwell's wife returned, but could not stay to speak to her, though I had a great mind to it, and also another great lady, as to fine clothes, did attend there to have a ticket signed; which I did do, taking her through the garden to my office, where I signed it and had a salute [kiss] of her, and so I away by boat to Redriffe [Map], and thence walked, and after dinner, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), where they stayed till almost three o'clock for me, and anon took boat, Mr. Carteret and I to the ferry-place at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there staid an hour crossing the water to and again to get our coach and horses over; and by and by set out, and so toward Dagenhams.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1665. To London to my office, and there took letters from the office, where all well, and so to the Bridge [Map], and there he and I took boat and to Deptford, Kent [Map], where mighty welcome, and brought the good newes of all being pleased to them. Mighty mirth at my giving them an account of all; but the young man could not be got to say one word before me or my Lady Sandwich (age 40) of his adventures, but, by what he afterwards related to his father and mother and sisters, he gives an account that pleases them mightily. Here Sir G. Carteret (age 55) would have me lie all night, which I did most nobly, better than ever I did in my life, Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being mighty kind to me, leading me to my chamber; and all their care now is, to have the business ended, and they have reason, because the sicknesse puts all out of order, and they cannot safely stay where they are.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jul 1665. To supper, and after supper to talk without end. Very late I went away, it raining, but I had a design 'pour aller a la femme de Bagwell' and did so.... So away about 12, and it raining hard I back to Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and there called up the page, and to bed there, being all in a most violent sweat.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1665. So down to Deptford, Kent [Map] and there dined, and after dinner saw my Lady Sandwich (age 40) and [his son] Mr. Carteret (age 24) and his two sisters over the water, going to Dagenhams, and my [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 63) towards Cranburne1. So all the company broke up in most extraordinary joy, wherein I am mighty contented that I have had the good fortune to be so instrumental, and I think it will be of good use to me.

Note 1. The royal lodge of that name in Windsor Forest, occupied by Sir George Carteret (age 55) as Vice-Chamberlain to the King (age 35). B.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1665. To my office, where late writing letters, and getting myself prepared with business for Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow, and so having caused a good pullet to be got for my supper, all alone, I very late to bed. All the news is great: that we must of necessity fall out with France, for He will side with the Dutch against us. That Alderman Backewell (age 47) is gone over (which indeed he is) with money, and that Ostend is in our present possession. But it is strange to see how poor Alderman Backewell (age 47) is like to be put to it in his absence, Mr. Shaw his right hand being ill. And the Alderman's absence gives doubts to people, and I perceive they are in great straits for money, besides what Sir G. Carteret (age 55) told me about fourteen days ago. Our fleet under my Lord Sandwich (age 39) being about the latitude 55 (which is a great secret) to the Northward of the Texell.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1665. We set out so late that it grew dark, so as we doubted the losing of our way; and a long time it was, or seemed, before we could get to the water-side, and that about eleven at night, where, when we come, all merry (only my eye troubled me, as I said), we found no ferryboat was there, nor no oares to carry us to Deptford, Kent [Map]. However, afterwards oares was called from the other side at Greenwich, Kent [Map]; but, when it come, a frolique, being mighty merry, took us, and there we would sleep all night in the coach in the Isle of Doggs. So we did, there being now with us my [his daughter] Lady Scott, and with great pleasure drew up the glasses, and slept till daylight, and then some victuals and wine being brought us, we ate a bit, and so up and took boat, merry as might be; and when come to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), there all to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1665. And then up and home, and there dressed myself, and by appointment to Deptford, Kent [Map], to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), between six and seven o'clock, where I found him and my George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 55) and [his wife] Lady (age 63) almost ready, and by and by went over to the ferry, and took coach and six horses nobly for Dagenhams, himself and lady and their little daughter, [his daughter] Louisonne, and myself in the coach; where, when we come, we were bravely entertained and spent the day most pleasantly with the young ladies, and I so merry as never more. Only for want of sleep, and drinking of strong beer had a rheum in one of my eyes, which troubled me much. Here with great content all the day, as I think I ever passed a day in my life, because of the contentfulnesse of our errand, and the noblenesse of the company and our manner of going. But I find [his son] Mr. Carteret (age 24) yet as backward almost in his caresses, as he was the first day. At night, about seven o'clock, took coach again; but, Lord! to see in what a pleasant humour Sir G. Carteret (age 55) hath been both coming and going; so light, so fond, so merry, so boyish (so much content he takes in this business), it is one of the greatest wonders I ever saw in my mind. But once in serious discourse he did say that, if he knew his son to be a debauchee, as many and, most are now-a-days about the Court, he would tell it, and my [his future daughter-in-law] Lady Jem. should not have him; and so enlarged both he and she about the baseness and looseness of the Court, and told several stories of the Duke of Monmouth (age 16), and Richmond (age 26), and some great person, my Lord of Ormond's (age 54) second son (age 26), married to a Richard Butler 1st Earl Arran (age 26) and lady (age 14) of extraordinary quality (fit and that might have been made a wife for the King (age 35) himself), about six months since, that this great person hath given the pox to---; and discoursed how much this would oblige the Kingdom if the King (age 35) would banish some of these great persons publiquely from the Court, and wished it with all their hearts.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1665. Up, and after doing a little business, down to Deptford, Kent [Map] with Sir W. Batten (age 64), and there left him, and I to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the Park, where I hear the King (age 35) and Duke (age 31) are come by water this morn from Hampton Court [Map]. They asked me several questions. The King (age 35) mightily pleased with his new buildings there. I followed them to Castle's (age 36) ship in building, and there, met Sir W. Batten (age 64), and thence to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), where all the morning with them; they not having any but the Duke of Monmouth (age 16), and Sir W. Killigrew (age 59), and one gentleman, and a page more. Great variety of talk, and was often led to speak to the King (age 35) and Duke (age 31).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. Thence, with mighty pleasure, with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) by coach, with great discourse of kindnesse with him to my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and to me also; and I every day see more good by the alliance.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. By and by comes by promise to me Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and viewed the house above and below, and sat and drank there, and I had a little opportunity to kiss and spend some time with the ladies above, his daughter, a buxom lass, and his sister Fissant, a serious lady, and a little daughter of hers, that begins to sing prettily.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1665. Up betimes, and down to Deptford, Kent [Map], where, after a little discourse with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who is much displeased with the order of our officers yesterday to remove the office to Deptford, Kent [Map], pretending other things, but to be sure it is with regard to his own house (which is much because his family is going away). I am glad I was not at the order making, and so I will endeavour to alter it.

On 31 Jul 1665 [his son] Philip Carteret (age 24) and [his daughter-in-law] Jemima Montagu were married. She the daughter of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 40) and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Thus I ended this month with the greatest joy that ever I did any in my life, because I have spent the greatest part of it with abundance of joy, and honour, and pleasant journeys, and brave entertainments, and without cost of money; and at last live to see the business ended with great content on all sides. This evening with Mr. Brisband, speaking of enchantments and spells; I telling him some of my charms; he told me this of his owne knowledge, at Bourdeaux, in France. The words these:

Voyci un Corps mort, [Behold, a dead body]

Royde come un Baston, [Still as a stone]

Froid comme Marbre, [Cold as marble]

Froid comme Marbre, [Cold as marble]

Leger come un esprit, [Light as a spirit]

Levons to au nom de Jesus Christ. [We lift you in the name of Jesus Christ.]

He saw four little girles, very young ones, all kneeling, each of them, upon one knee; and one begun the first line, whispering in the eare of the next, and the second to the third, and the third to the fourth, and she to the first. Then the first begun the second line, and so round quite through, and, putting each one finger only to a boy that lay flat upon his back on the ground, as if he was dead; at the end of the words, they did with their four fingers raise this boy as high as they could reach, and he [Mr. Brisband] being there, and wondering at it, as also being afeard to see it, for they would have had him to have bore a part in saying the words, in the roome of one of the little girles that was so young that they could hardly make her learn to repeat the words, did, for feare there might be some sleight used in it by the boy, or that the boy might be light, call the cook of the house, a very lusty fellow, as Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) cook, who is very big, and they did raise him in just the same manner. This is one of the strangest things I ever heard, but he tells it me of his owne knowledge, and I do heartily believe it to be true. I enquired of him whether they were Protestant or Catholique girles; and he told me they were Protestant, which made it the more strange to me.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1665. Slept, and lay long; then up and my Lord [Crew] and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being gone abroad, I first to see the [his son] bridegroom (age 24) and [his daughter-in-law] bride, and found them both up, and he gone to dress himself. Both red in the face, and well enough pleased this morning with their night's lodging.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1665. Thence down and Mr. Brisband and I to billiards: anon come my Lord and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) in, who have been looking abroad and visiting some farms that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) hath thereabouts, and, among other things, report the greatest stories of the bigness of the calfes they find there, ready to sell to the butchers, as big, they say, as little Cowes, and that they do give them a piece of chalke to licke, which they hold makes them white in the flesh within. Very merry at dinner, and so to talk and laugh after dinner, and up and down, some to [one] place, some to another, full of content on all sides.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1665. Anon about five o'clock, Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and his [his wife] lady (age 63) and I took coach with the greatest joy and kindnesse that could be from the two familys or that ever I saw with so much appearance, and, I believe, reality in all my life.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. By and by comes Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and so we set out for Chatham, Kent [Map]: in my way overtaking some company, wherein was a lady, very pretty, riding singly, her husband in company with her. We fell into talke, and I read a copy of verses which her husband showed me, and he discommended, but the lady commended: and I read them, so as to make the husband turn to commend them.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. Come to Chatham, Kent [Map] mighty merry, and anon to supper, it being near 9 o'clock ere we come thither. My [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 63) come thither in a coach, by herself, before us. Great mind they have to buy a little 'hacquenee' that I rode on from Greenwich, Kent [Map], for a woman's horse. Mighty merry, and after supper, all being withdrawn, Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did take an opportunity to speak with much value and kindness to me, which is of great joy to me. So anon to bed. Mr. Brisband and I together to my content.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. Sent back our coaches to Dagenhams. I, by and by, by boat to Gravesend, Kent [Map], where no newes of Sir G. Carteret (age 55) come yet; so back again, and fetched them all over, but the two saddle-horses that were to go with us, which could not be brought over in the horseboat, the wind and tide being against us, without towing; so we had some difference with some watermen, who would not tow them over under 20s., whereupon I swore to send one of them to sea and will do it. Anon some others come to me and did it for 10s.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. Coming to Dagenhams, I there met our company coming out of the house, having staid as long as they could for me; so I let them go a little before, and went and took leave of my Lady Sandwich (age 40), good woman, who seems very sensible of my service in this late business, and having her directions in some things, among others, to get Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and my Lord to settle the portion, and what Sir G. Carteret (age 55) is to settle, into land, soon as may be, she not liking that it should lie long undone, for fear of death on either side.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1665. Then they took coach, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) kissed me himself heartily, and my Lady several times, with great kindnesse, and then the young ladies, and so with much joy, bade "God be with you!" and an end I think it will be to my mirthe for a great while, it having been the passage of my whole life the most pleasing for the time, considering the quality and nature of the business, and my noble usage in the doing of it, and very many fine journys, entertainments and great company. I returned into the house for a while to do business there with Commissioner Pett (age 54), and there with the officers of the Chest, where I saw more of Sir W. Batten's (age 64) business than ever I did before, for whereas he did own once under his hand to them that he was accountable for £2200, of which he had yet paid but £1600, he writes them a letter lately that he hath but about £50 left that is due to the Chest, but I will do something in it and that speedily.

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. The King (age 35) to the Lord General (age 56). Alderman Backwell (age 47) being in great straits for the second payment he has to make for the service in Flanders, as much tin is to be transmitted to him as will raise the sum. Has authorized him and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with the tin farmers for 500 tons of tin to be speedily transported under good convoy; but if on consulting with Alderman Backwell (age 47), this plan of the tin seems insufficient, then without further difficulty, he is to dispose for that purpose of the £10,000. assigned for pay of the Guards, not doubting that before that comes due, other ways will be found for supplying it; the payment in Flanders is of such importance that some means must be found of providing for it. [Ent. Book 17, pp. 122-3.]

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. 65. The King (age 35) to the Lord General (age 56) and Sir George Carteret (age 55). Authorizes them to treat with the farmers of tin for the sale or deposit for a year of 500 tons of tin, to be sent to Flanders and sold to meet the second payment which Alderman Backwell (age 47) has to make there. They are to agree with the farmers as best they can, giving tallies on the Royal aid to secure repayment, to conclude the contract at once, the pressing importance of the service admitting no delay, and to have vessels and convoys ready to transmit the tin to Ostend. [Ent. Book 17, p. 125.]

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. 63. Draft of the above. The King to the Farmers of tin. Having determined to raise money beyond seas by sale of tin, has authorized the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with them for sale or deposit of 500 tons, on good security for their forbearance. The occasion being pressing, admits of no return nor reply. [£nt. Book 17, p. 124.]

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1665. At noon am sent for by Sir G. Carteret (age 55), to meet him and my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) at Deptford, Kent [Map], but my Lord did not come thither, he having crossed the river at Gravesend, Kent [Map] to Dagenhams, whither I dare not follow him, they being afeard of me; but Sir G. Carteret (age 55) says, he is a most sweet youth in every circumstance. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being in haste of going to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) and the Archbishop (age 67), he was pettish, and so I could not fasten any discourse, but take another time.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1665. Up, and my mind being at mighty ease from the dispatch of my business so much yesterday, I down to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), where with him a great while, and a great deale of private talke concerning my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) and his matters, and chiefly of the latter, I giving him great deale of advice about the necessity of his having caution concerning Fenn, and the many ways there are of his being abused by any man in his place, and why he should not bring his son in to look after his business, and more, to be a Commissioner of the Navy, which he listened to and liked, and told me how much the King (age 35) was his good Master, and was sure not to deny him that or any thing else greater than that, and I find him a very cunning man, whatever at other times he seems to be, and among other things he told me he was not for the fanfaroone1 to make a show with a great title, as he might have had long since, but the main thing to get an estate; and another thing, speaking of minding of business, "By God", says he, "I will and have already almost brought it to that pass, that the King (age 35) shall not be able to whip a cat, but I must be at the tayle of it". Meaning so necessary he is, and the King (age 35) and my Lord Treasurer (age 58) and all do confess it; which, while I mind my business, is my own case in this office of the Navy, and I hope shall be more, if God give me life and health.

Note 1. Fanfaron, French, from fanfare, a sounding of trumpets; hence, a swaggerer, or empty boaster.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1665. Thence by agreement to Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) lodgings, where I found my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and so by water to the ferry, and there took Sir W. Batten's (age 64) coach that was sent for us, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 64), where very merry, good cheer, and up and down the garden with great content to me, and, after dinner, beat Captain Cocke (age 48) at billiards, won about 8s. of him and my Lord Bruncker (age 45). So in the evening after, much pleasure back again and I by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where supped with my wife, and then to bed betimes, because of rising to-morrow at four of the clock in order to the going out with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) toward Cranborne to my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) in his way to Court.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1665. Up by 4 o'clock and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where called at Captain Cocke's (age 48) and to his chamber, he being in bed, where something put my last night's dream into my head, which I think is the best that ever was dreamt, which was that I had my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) in my armes and was admitted to use all the dalliance I desired with her, and then dreamt that this could not be awake, but that it was only a dream; but that since it was a dream, and that I took so much real pleasure in it, what a happy thing it would be if when we are in our graves (as Shakespeere resembles it) we could dream, and dream but such dreams as this, that then we should not need to be so fearful of death, as we are this plague time. Here I hear that news is brought Sir G. Carteret (age 55) that my Lord Hinchingbrooke is not well, and so cannot meet us at Cranborne to-night. So I to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55); and there was sorry with him for our disappointment. So we have put off our meeting there till Saturday next. Here I staid talking with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), he being mighty free with me in his business, and among other things hath ordered Rider and Mr. Cutler to put into my hands copper to the value of £5,000 (which Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) share it seems come to in it), which is to raise part of the money he is to layout for a purchase for my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1665. Thence he and I to Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) by invitation, where Sir W. Batten (age 64) and my Lady, and my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and all of us dined upon a venison pasty and other good meat, but nothing well dressed. But my pleasure lay in getting some bills signed by Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and promise of present payment from Mr. Fenn, which do rejoice my heart, it being one of the heaviest things I had upon me, that so much of the little I have should lie (viz. near £1000) in the King's hands. Here very merry and (Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being gone presently after dinner) to Captain Cocke's (age 48), and there merry, and so broke up and I by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), with whom I spoke a great deale in private, they being designed to send a fleete of ships privately to the Streights. No news yet from our fleete, which is much wondered at, but the Duke says for certain guns have been heard to the northward very much. It was dark before I could get home, and so land at Church-yard stairs, where, to my great trouble, I met a dead corps of the plague, in the narrow ally just bringing down a little pair of stairs. But I thank God I was not much disturbed at it. However, I shall beware of being late abroad again.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1665. Slept till 8 o'clock, and then up and met with letters from the King (age 35) and Lord Arlington (age 47), for the removal of our office to Greenwich, Kent [Map]. I also wrote letters, and made myself ready to go to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), at Windsor; and having borrowed a horse of Mr. Blackbrough, sent him to wait for me at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) door: when, on a sudden, a letter comes to us from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to tell us that the fleete is all come back to Solebay [Map], and are presently to be dispatched back again. Whereupon I presently by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to know what news; and there I saw a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and also from Sir W. Coventry (age 37) and Teddiman; how my Lord having commanded Teddiman with twenty-two ships1.

Note 1. A news letter of August 19th (Salisbury), gives the following account of this affair:-"The Earl of Sandwich being on the Norway coast, ordered Sir Thomas Teddeman with 20 ships to attack 50 Dutch merchant ships in Bergen harbour; six convoyers had so placed themselves that only four or five of the ships could be reached at once. The Governor of Bergen fired on our ships, and placed 100 pieces of ordnance and two regiments of foot on the rocks to attack them, but they got clear without the loss of a ship, only 500 men killed or wounded, five or six captains among them. The fleet has gone to Sole Bay to repair losses and be ready to encounter the Dutch fleet, which is gone northward" (Calendar of State Papers, 1664-65, pp. 526, 527). Medals were struck in Holland, the inscription in Dutch on one of these is thus translated: "Thus we arrest the pride of the English, who extend their piracy even against their friends, and who insulting the forts of Norway, violate the rights of the harbours of King Frederick; but, for the reward of their audacity, see their vessels destroyed by the balls of the Dutch" (Hawkins's "Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland", ed. Franks and Grueber, 1885, vol. i., p. 508). Sir Gilbert Talbot's "True Narrative of the Earl of Sandwich's Attempt upon Bergen with the English Fleet on the 3rd of August, 1665, and the Cause of his Miscarriage thereupon", is in the British Museum (Harl. MS., No. 6859). It is printed in "Archaeologia", vol. xxii., p. 33. The Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map] also gave an account of the action in a letter to his mother (Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth edition, vol. iv., p. 611). Sir John Denham (age 50), in his "Advice to a Painter", gives a long satirical account of the affair. A coloured drawing of the attack upon Bergen, on vellum, showing the range of the ships engaged, is in the British Museum. Shortly after the Bergen affair forty of the Dutch merchant vessels, on their way to Holland, fell into the hands of the English, and in Penn's "Memorials of Sir William Pen (age 44)", vol. ii., p. 364, is a list of the prizes taken on the 3rd and 4th September. The troubles connected with these prizes and the disgrace into which Lord Sandwich (age 40) fell are fully set forth in subsequent pages of the Diary. Evelyn writes in his Diary (November 27th, 1665): "There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders who were at ye taking of ye East India prizes to break bulk and take to themselves jewels, silkes, &c., tho' I believe some whom I could name fill'd their pockets, my Lo. Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossess'd ye Lo. Generall (Duke of Albemarle (age 56)), for he spake to me of it with much zeale and concerne, and I believe laid load enough on Lo. Sandwich at Oxford". (of which but fifteen could get thither, and of those fifteen but eight or nine could come up to play) to go to Bergen; where, after several messages to and fro from the Governor of the Castle, urging that Teddiman ought not to come thither with more than five ships, and desiring time to think of it, all the while he suffering the Dutch ships to land their guns to their best advantage; Teddiman on the second pretence, began to play at the Dutch ships, (wherof ten East India-men,) and in three hours' time (the town and castle, without any provocation, playing on our ships,) they did cut all our cables, so as the wind being off the land, did force us to go out, and rendered our fire-ships useless; without doing any thing, but what hurt of course our guns must have done them: we having lost five commanders, besides Mr. Edward Montagu, and Mr. Windham. This Mr. Windham had entered into a formal engagement with the Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map], "not without ceremonies of religion, that if either of them died, he should appear, and give the other notice of the future state, if there was any". He was probably one of the brothers of Sir William Wyndham, Bart. See Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth. edition, vol. iv., p. 615. B.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1665. So to Stanes, and there by this time it was dark night, and got a guide who lost his way in the forest, till by help of the moone (which recompenses me for all the pains I ever took about studying of her motions,) I led my guide into the way back again; and so we made a man rise that kept a gate, and so he carried us to Cranborne. Where in the dark I perceive an old house new building with a great deal of rubbish, and was fain to go up a ladder to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) chamber. And there in his bed I sat down, and told him all my bad newes, which troubled him mightily; but yet we were very merry, and made the best of it; and being myself weary did take leave, and after having spoken with Mr. Fenn in bed, I to bed in my Lady's chamber that she uses to lie in, and where the Duchesse of York, that now is, was born.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1665. Thence, after dinner, I by water to Sir W. Warren's and with him two hours, talking of things to his and my profit, and particularly good advice from him what use to make of Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) kindnesse to me and my interest in him, with exceeding good cautions for me not using it too much nor obliging him to fear by prying into his secrets, which it were easy for me to do.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1665. There after dinner an houre or two, and so to the office, where ended my business with the Captains; and I think of twenty-two ships we shall make shift to get out seven. (God helpe us! men being sick, or provisions lacking.) And so to write letters to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55), Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to Court about the last six months' accounts, and sent away by an express to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1665. But my heart and head to-night is full of the Victualling business, being overjoyed and proud at my success in my proposal about it, it being read before the King (age 35), Duke (age 32), and the Caball with complete applause and satisfaction. This Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and Sir W. Coventry (age 37) both writ me, besides Sir W. Coventry's (age 37) letter to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which I read yesterday, and I hope to find my profit in it also. So late home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. That my Chancellor (age 56) do from hence begin to be cold to him, because of his seeing him and Arlington (age 47) so great: that nothing at Court is minded but faction and pleasure, and nothing intended of general good to the Kingdom by anybody heartily; so that he believes with me, in a little time confusion will certainly come over all the nation. He told me how a design was carried on a while ago, for the Duke of Yorke (age 32) to raise an army in the North, and to be the Generall of it, and all this without the knowledge or advice of the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which when he come to know, he was so vexed, they were fain to let it fall to content him: that his matching with the family of Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do make the difference greater between Coventry (age 37) and him, they being enemies; that the Chancellor (age 56) did, as every body else, speak well of me the other day, but yet was, at the Committee for Tangier, angry that I should offer to suffer a bill of exchange to be protested.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1665. After an houre's talke we to bed, the lady mightily troubled about a pretty little bitch she hath, which is very sicke, and will eat nothing, and the worst was, I could hear her in her chamber bemoaning the bitch, and by and by taking her into bed with her. The bitch pissed and shit a bed, and she was fain to rise and had coals out of my chamber to dry the bed again. This night I had a letter that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) would be in towne to-morrow, which did much surprize me.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. Then they broke up, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) come out, and thence through the garden to the water side and by water I with him in his boat down with Captain Cocke (age 48) to his house at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and while supper was getting ready Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and I did walk an houre in the garden before the house, talking of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) business; what enemies he hath, and how they have endeavoured to bespatter him: and particularly about his leaving of 30 ships of the enemy, when Pen (age 44) would have gone, and my Lord called him back again: which is most false.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. At last, however, to Lambeth, Surrey [Map] and thence the Cockpitt [Map], where we found Sir G. Carteret (age 55) come, and in with the Duke (age 32) and the East India Company about settling the business of the prizes, and they have gone through with it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. So having done and received from me the sad newes that we are like to have no money here a great while, not even of the very prizes, I set up my rest1 in giving up the King's service to be ruined and so in to supper, where pretty merry, and after supper late to Mr. Glanville's (age 47), and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to bed. I also to bed, it being very late.

Note 1. The phrase "set up my rest" is a metaphor from the once fashionable game of Primero, meaning, to stand upon the cards you have in your hand, in hopes they may prove better than those of your adversary. Hence, to make up your mind, to be determined (see Nares's "Glossary").

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1665. Up, and to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and with him, he being very passionate to be gone, without staying a minute for breakfast, to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) and I with him by water and with Fen: but, among other things, Lord! to see how he wondered to see the river so empty of boats, nobody working at the Custome-house keys; and how fearful he is, and vexed that his man, holding a wine-glasse in his hand for him to drinke out of, did cover his hands, it being a cold, windy, rainy morning, under the waterman's coate, though he brought the waterman from six or seven miles up the river, too. Nay, he carried this glasse with him for his man to let him drink out of at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), where he intended to dine, though this he did to prevent sluttery, for, for the same reason he carried a napkin with him to Captain Cocke's (age 48), making him believe that he should eat with foule linnen. Here he with the Duke (age 32) walked a good while in the Parke, and I with Fen, but cannot gather that he intends to stay with us, nor thinks any thing at all of ever paying one farthing of money more to us here, let what will come of it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1665. Thence in, and Sir W. Batten (age 64) comes in by and by, and so staying till noon, and there being a great deal of company there, Sir W. Batten (age 64) and I took leave of the Duke (age 32) and Sir G. Carteret (age 55), there being no good to be done more for money, and so over the River and by coach to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where at Boreman's we dined, it being late.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1665. Up, and to the office, where all the morning doing business, and at noon home to dinner and quickly back again to the office, where very busy all the evening and late sent a long discourse to Mr. Coventry (age 37) by his desire about the regulating of the method of our payment of bills in the Navy, which will be very good, though, it may be, he did ayme principally at striking at Sir G. Carteret (age 55). So weary but pleased with this business being over I home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. His going, I hear, is upon putting the sea business into order, and, as some say, and people of his owne family, that he is agog to go to sea himself the next year. Here I met with a letter from Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who is come to Cranborne, that he will be here this afternoon and desires me to be with him. So the Duke would have me dine with him.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. After dinner a great deal alone with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who tells me that my Lord hath received still worse and worse usage from some base people about the Court. But the King (age 35) is very kind, and the Duke do not appear the contrary; and my Chancellor (age 56) swore to him "by--I will not forsake my Lord of Sandwich (age 40)". Our next discourse is upon this Act for money, about which Sir G. Carteret (age 55) comes to see what money can be got upon it. But none can be got, which pleases him the thoughts of, for, if the Exchequer should succeede in this, his office would faile. But I am apt to think at this time of hurry and plague and want of trade, no money will be got upon a new way which few understand. We walked, Cocke (age 48) and I, through the Parke with him, and so we being to meet the Vice-Chamberlayne to-morrow at Nonsuch [Map], to treat with Sir Robert Long (age 65) about the same business, I into London, it being dark night, by a hackney coach; the first I have durst to go in many a day, and with great pain now for fear. But it being unsafe to go by water in the dark and frosty cold, and unable being weary with my morning walke to go on foot, this was my only way. Few people yet in the streets, nor shops open, here and there twenty in a place almost; though not above five or sixe o'clock at night.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. So it being not dinner time, I to the Swan [Map], and there found Sarah all alone in the house.... So away to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) again, and there to dinner, he most exceeding kind to me to the observation of all that are there. At dinner comes Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and dines with us.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1665. After dinner to talk of our business, the Act of Parliament, where in short I see Sir R. Long (age 65) mighty fierce in the great good qualities of it. But in that and many other things he was stiff in, I think without much judgement, or the judgement I expected from him, and already they have evaded the necessity of bringing people into the Exchequer with their bills to be paid there. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) is titched [fretful, tetchy] at this, yet resolves with me to make the best use we can of this Act for the King (age 35), but all our care, we think, will not render it as it should be. He did again here alone discourse with me about my Lord, and is himself strongly for my Lord's not going to sea, which I am glad to hear and did confirm him in it. He tells me too that he talked last night with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about my Lord Sandwich (age 40), by the by making him sensible that it is his interest to preserve his old friends, which he confessed he had reason to do, for he knows that ill offices were doing of him, and that he honoured my Lord Sandwich (age 40) with all his heart.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1665. Up and to the office, where very busy all day. Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) letter tells me my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is, as I was told, declared Embassador Extraordinary to Spayne, and to go with all speed away, and that his enemies have done him as much good as he could wish.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. So we rose, and by water to White Hall, where we found Sir G. Carteret (age 55) with the Duke (age 32), and also Sir G. Downing (age 40), whom I had not seen in many years before. He greeted me very kindly, and I him; though methinks I am touched, that it should be said that he was my master heretofore, as doubtless he will.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. Up, well pleased in my mind about my Lord Sandwich (age 40), about whom I shall know more anon from Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who will be in towne, and also that the Hambrough [ships] after all difficulties are got out. God send them good speed!

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. That done I to the 'Change [Map], and among many other things, especially for getting of my Tangier money, I by appointment met Mr. Gawden, and he and I to the Pope's Head Taverne, and there he did give me alone a very pretty dinner. Our business to talk of his matters and his supply of money, which was necessary for us to talk on before the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) this afternoon and Sir G. Carteret (age 55). After that I offered now to pay him the £4000 remaining of his £8000 for Tangier, which he took with great kindnesse, and prayed me most frankly to give him a note for £3500 and accept the other £500 for myself, which in good earnest was against my judgement to do, for [I] expected about £100 and no more, but however he would have me do it, and ownes very great obligations to me, and the man indeed I love, and he deserves it. This put me into great joy, though with a little stay to it till we have time to settle it, for for so great a sum I was fearfull any accident might by death or otherwise defeate me, having not now time to change papers.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. Thence after some discourse with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who, though he tells me that he is glad of my Lord's being made Embassador, and that it is the greatest courtesy his enemies could do him; yet I find he is not heartily merry upon it, and that it was no design of my Lord's friends, but the prevalence of his enemies, and that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Prince Rupert (age 45) are like to go to sea together the next year. I pray God, when my Lord is gone, they do not fall hard upon the Vice-Chamberlain, being alone, and in so envious a place, though by this late Act and the instructions now a brewing for our office as to method of payments will destroy the profit of his place of itself without more trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1665. Called up betimes by my Lord Bruncker (age 45), who is come to towne from his long water worke at Erith, Kent last night, to go with him to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), which by his coach I did. Our discourse upon the ill posture of the times through lacke of money. At the Duke's did some business, and I believe he was not pleased to see all the Duke's discourse and applications to me and everybody else. Discoursed also with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) about office business, but no money in view. Here my Lord and I staid and dined, the Vice-Chamberlain taking his leave. At table the Duchesse (age 46), a damned ill-looked woman, complaining of her Lord's going to sea the next year, said these cursed words: "If my Lord had been a coward he had gone to sea no more: it may be then he might have been excused, and made an Embassador" (meaning my Lord Sandwich (age 40))1. This made me mad, and I believed she perceived my countenance change, and blushed herself very much. I was in hopes others had not minded it, but my Lord Bruncker (age 45), after we were come away, took notice of the words to me with displeasure.

Note 1. When Lord Sandwich (age 40) was away a new commander had to be chosen, and rank and long service pointed out Prince Rupert (age 45) for the office, it having been decided that the heir presumptive should be kept at home. It was thought, however, that the same confidence could not be placed in the prince's discretion as in his courage, and therefore the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was induced to take a joint command with him, "and so make one admiral of two persons" (see Lister's "Life of Clarendon", vol. ii., pp. 360,361).

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1665. Thence after dinner away by water, calling and taking leave of Sir G. Carteret (age 55), whom we found going through at White Hall, and so over to Lambeth and took coach and home, and so to the office, where late writing letters, and then home to Mr. Hill (age 35), and sang, among other things, my song of "Beauty retire", which he likes, only excepts against two notes in the base, but likes the whole very well. So late to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1666. I with my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Mrs. Williams by coach with four horses to London, to my Lord's house in Covent-Guarden [Map]. But, Lord! what staring to see a nobleman's coach come to town. And porters every where bow to us; and such begging of beggars! And a delightfull thing it is to see the towne full of people again as now it is; and shops begin to open, though in many places seven or eight together, and more, all shut; but yet the towne is full, compared with what it used to be. I mean the City end; for Covent-Guarden [Map] and Westminster are yet very empty of people, no Court nor gentry being there. Set Mrs. Williams down at my Lord's house and he and I to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), at his chamber at White Hall, he being come to town last night to stay one day.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1666. Up betimes and by water to the Cockepitt [Map], there met Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and, after discourse with the Duke (age 32), all together, and there saw a letter wherein Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did take notice to the Duke with a commendation of my paper about Pursers, I to walke in the Parke with the Vice-Chamberlain, and received his advice about my deportment about the advancing the credit of the Act; giving me caution to see that we do not misguide the King (age 35) by making them believe greater matters from it than will be found. But I see that this arises from his great trouble to see the Act succeede, and to hear my name so much used and my letters shown at Court about goods served us in upon the credit of it. But I do make him believe that I do it with all respect to him and on his behalfe too, as indeed I do, as well as my owne, that it may not be said that he or I do not assist therein. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) do proceed on his journey with the greatest kindnesse that can be imagined from the King (age 35) and Chancellor (age 56), which was joyfull newes to me.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and being trimmed I was invited by Captain Cocke (age 49), so I left my wife, having a mind to some discourse with him, and dined with him. He tells me of new difficulties about his goods which troubles me and I fear they will be great. He tells me too what I hear everywhere how the towne talks of my Lord Craven (age 57) being to come into Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) place; but sure it cannot be true. But I do fear those two families, his and my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), are quite broken. And I must now stand upon my own legs.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1666. After dinner Pierce and I up to my chamber, where he tells me how a great difference hath been between the Duke (age 32) and Duchesse (age 28), he suspecting her to be naught with Mr. Sidney (age 24)1. But some way or other the matter is made up; but he was banished the Court, and the Duke for many days did not speak to the Duchesse at all. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is lost there at Court, though the King (age 35) is particularly his friend. But people do speak every where slightly of him; which is a sad story to me, but I hope it may be better again. And that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is neglected, and hath great enemies at work against him. That matters must needs go bad, while all the town, and every boy in the streete, openly cries, "the King (age 35) cannot go away till my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) be ready to come along with him"; she being lately put to bed And that he visits her and Mrs. Stewart (age 18) every morning before he eats his breakfast. All this put together makes me very sad, but yet I hope I shall do pretty well among them for all this, by my not meddling with either of their matters. He and Ferrers gone I paid uncle Thomas his last quarter's money, and then comes Mr. Gawden and he and I talked above stairs together a good while about his business, and to my great joy got him to declare that of the £500 he did give me the other day, none of it was for my Treasurershipp for Tangier (I first telling him how matters stand between Povy (age 52) and I, that he was to have half of whatever was coming to me by that office), and that he will gratify me at 2 per cent. for that when he next receives any money. So there is £80 due to me more than I thought of. He gone I with a glad heart to the office to write, my letters and so home to supper and bed, my wife mighty full of her worke she hath to do in furnishing her bedchamber.

Note 1. "This Duchess (age 28) was Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported" (Sir John Reresby's Memoirs, August 5th, 1664, ed. Cartwright, pp. 64,65). "'How could the Duke of York (age 32) make my mother a Papist?' said the Princess Mary to Dr. Bumet. 'The Duke caught a man in bed with her,' said the Doctor, 'and then had power to make her do anything.' The Prince, who sat by the fire, said, 'Pray, madam, ask the Doctor a few more questions'" (Spence's "Anecdotes", ed. Singer, 329).

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1666. Up and to the office. By and by to the Custome House to the Farmers, there with a letter of Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) for £3000, which they ordered to be paid me. So away back again to the office, and at noon to dinner all of us by invitation to Sir W. Pen's (age 44), and much other company. Among others, Lieutenant of the Tower (age 51), and Broome, his poet, and Dr. Whistler, and his (Sir W. Pen's (age 44)) son-in-law Lowder (age 25), servant [lover] to Mrs. Margaret Pen, and Sir Edward Spragg (age 46), a merry man, that sang a pleasant song pleasantly. Rose from table before half dined, and with Mr. Mountney of the Custome House to the East India House, and there delivered to him tallys for £3000 and received a note for the money on Sir R. Viner (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1666. At noon my Lord Bruncker (age 46) did come, but left the keys of the chests we should open, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), wherein Howe's supposed jewells are; so we could not, according to my Lord Arlington's (age 48) order, see them today; but we parted, resolving to meet here at night: my Lord Bruncker (age 46) being going with Dr. Wilkins, Mr. Hooke (age 30), and others, to Colonell Blunts, to consider again of the business of charriots, and to try their new invention. Which I saw here my Lord Bruncker (age 46) ride in; where the coachman sits astride upon a pole over the horse, but do not touch the horse, which is a pretty odde thing; but it seems it is most easy for the horse, and, as they say, for the man also.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1666. Thence my Lord and I, the weather being a little fairer, by water to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) house, where W. Howe met us, and there we opened the chests, and saw the poor sorry rubys which have caused all this ado to the undoing of W. Howe; though I am not much sorry for it, because of his pride and ill nature. About 200 of these very small stones, and a cod of muske (which it is strange I was not able to smell) is all we could find; so locked them up again, and my Lord and I, the wind being again very furious, so as we durst not go by water, walked to London quite round the bridge, no boat being able to stirre; and, Lord! what a dirty walk we had, and so strong the wind, that in the fields we many times could not carry our bodies against it, but were driven backwards. We went through Horsydowne, where I never was since a little boy, that I went to enquire after my father, whom we did give over for lost coming from Holland. It was dangerous to walk the streets, the bricks and tiles falling from the houses that the whole streets were covered with them; and whole chimneys, nay, whole houses in two or three places, blowed down. But, above all, the pales on London-bridge [Map] on both sides were blown away, so that we were fain to stoop very low for fear of blowing off of the bridge. We could see no boats in the Thames afloat, but what were broke loose, and carried through the bridge, it being ebbing water. And the greatest sight of all was, among other parcels of ships driven here and there in clusters together, one was quite overset and lay with her masts all along in the water, and keel above water. So walked home, my Lord away to his house and I to dinner, Mr. Creed being come to towne and to dine with me, though now it was three o'clock.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1666. Up, and pleased mightily with what my poor wife hath been doing these eight or ten days with her owne hands, like a drudge in fitting the new hangings of our bed-chamber of blue, and putting the old red ones into my dressing-room, and so by coach to White Hall, where I had just now notice that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is come to towne. He seems pleased, but I perceive he is heartily troubled at this Act, and the report of his losing his place, and more at my not writing to him to the prejudice of the Act. But I carry all fair to him and he to me. He bemoans the Kingdom as in a sad state, and with too much reason I doubt, having so many enemys about us and no friends abroad, nor money nor love at home.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. The Council being up, out comes the King (age 35), and I kissed his hand, and he grasped me very kindly by the hand. The Duke (age 32) also, I kissed his, and he mighty kind, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38). I found my Lord Sandwich (age 40) there, poor man! I see with a melancholy face, and suffers his beard to grow on his upper lip more than usual. I took him a little aside to know when I should wait on him, and where: he told me, and that it would be best to meet at his lodgings, without being seen to walk together. Which I liked very well; and, Lord! to see in what difficulty I stand, that I dare not walk with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), for fear my Lord or Sir G. Carteret (age 56) should see me; nor with either of them, for fear Sir W. Coventry (age 38) should.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. I walked with them quite out of the Court into the fields, and then back to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) chamber, where I find him very melancholy and not well satisfied, I perceive, with my carriage to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), but I did satisfy him and made him confess to me, that I have a very hard game to play; and told me he was sorry to see it, and the inconveniences which likely may fall upon me with him; but, for all that, I am not much afeard, if I can but keepe out of harm's way in not being found too much concerned in my Lord's or Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) matters, and that I will not be if I can helpe it. He hath got over his business of the prizes, so far as to have a privy seale passed for all that was in his distribution to the officers, which I am heartily glad of; and, for the rest, he must be answerable for what he is proved to have. But for his pardon for anything else, he thinks it not seasonable to aske it, and not usefull to him; because that will not stop a Parliament's mouth, and for the King (age 35), he is sure enough of him. I did aske him whether he was sure of the interest and friendship of any great Ministers of State and he told me, yes.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1666. So home to my wife, whom I find not well, in bed, and it seems hath not been well these two days. She rose and we to dinner, after dinner up to my chamber, where she entertained me with what she hath lately bought of clothes for herself, and Damask linnen, and other things for the house. I did give her a serious account how matters stand with me, of favour with the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32), and of danger in reference to my Lord's and Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) falls, and the dissatisfaction I have heard the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) hath acknowledged to somebody, among other things, against my Lord Sandwich (age 40), that he did bring me into the Navy against his desire and endeavour for another, which was our doting foole Turner.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1666. Up, and very busy to perform an oathe in finishing my Journall this morning for 7 or 8 days past. Then to several people attending upon business, among others Mr. Grant (age 45) and the executors of Barlow for the £25 due for the quarter before he died, which I scrupled to pay, being obliged but to pay every half year. Then comes Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute-master, whom I have not seen since the plague before, but he hath been in Westminster all this while very well; and tells me in the height of it, how bold people there were, to go in sport to one another's burials; and in spite too, ill people would breathe in the faces (out of their windows) of well people going by. Then to dinner before the 'Change [Map], and so to the 'Change [Map], and then to the taverne to talk with Sir William Warren, and so by coach to several places, among others to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there to meet my Lord Sandwich (age 40), but missed, and met him at [my] Chancellor's (age 56), and there talked with him about his accounts, and then about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and I find by him that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) has a worse game to play than my Lord Sandwich (age 40), for people are jeering at him, and he cries out of the business of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who strikes at all and do all.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. The meeting done I away, my wife and they being come back and staying for me at the gate. But, Lord! to see how afeard I was that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) should have spyed me once whispering with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), though not intended by me, but only Sir G. Carteret (age 56) come to me and I could not avoyde it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. St. Valentine's Day. This morning called up by Mr. Hill (age 36), who, my wife thought, had been come to be her Valentine; she, it seems, having drawne him last night, but it proved not. However, calling him up to our bed-side, my wife challenged him. I up, and made myself ready, and so with him by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) by appointment to deliver Mr. Howe's accounts to my Lord. Which done, my Lord did give me hearty and large studied thanks for all my kindnesse to him and care of him and his business. I after profession of all duty to his Lordship took occasion to bemoane myself that I should fall into such a difficulty about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), as not to be for him, but I must be against Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and therefore desired to be neutrall, which my Lord approved and confessed reasonable, but desired me to befriend him privately.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. Thence with him to his paynter, Mr. Hales (age 66), who is drawing his picture, which will be mighty like him, and pleased me so, that I am resolved presently to have my wife's and mine done by him, he having a very masterly hand. So with mighty satisfaction to the 'Change [Map] and thence home, and after dinner abroad, taking Mrs. Mary Batelier with us, who was just come to see my wife, and they set me down at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and themselves went with the coach into the fields to take the ayre. I staid a meeting of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and the officers of the Navy and Ordnance. My Lord Treasurer (age 58) lying in bed of the gowte. Our business was discourse of the straits of the Navy for want of money, but after long discourse as much out of order as ordinary people's, we come to no issue, nor any money promised, or like to be had, and yet the worke must be done. Here I perceive Sir G. Carteret (age 56) had prepared himself to answer a choque of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), by offering of himself to shew all he had paid, and what is unpaid, and what moneys and assignments he hath in his hands, which, if he makes good, was the best thing he ever did say in his life, and the best timed, for else it must have fallen very foule on him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. So home. I find my wife gone out to Hales, her Paynter's (age 57), and I after a little dinner do follow her, and there do find him at worke, and with great content I do see it will be a very brave picture. Left her there, and I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), where Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) met me, and before my Lord Treasurer (age 58) and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) the state of our Navy debts were laid open, being very great, and their want of money to answer them openly professed, there being but £1,500,000 to answer a certaine expense and debt of £2,300,000.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. He tells me my Lord of Suffolke (age 47), Lord Arlington (age 48), Archbishop of Canterbury (age 67), Lord Treasurer (age 58), Mr. Atturny Montagu (age 48), Sir Thomas Clifford (age 35) in the House of Commons, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and some others I cannot presently remember, are friends that I may rely on for him. He tells me my Chancellor (age 57) seems his very good friend, but doubts that he may not think him so much a servant of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) as he would have him, and indeed my Lord tells me he hath lately made it his business to be seen studious of the King's favour, and not of the Duke's, and by the King (age 35) will stand or fall, for factions there are, as he tells me, and God knows how high they may come.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Feb 1666. Called up about five in the morning, and my Lord up, and took leave, a little after six, very kindly of me and the whole company. Then I in, and my wife up and to visit my [his daughter] Lady Slaving in her bed, and there sat three hours, with [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah with us, talking and laughing, and by and by my [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 64) comes, and she and I to talke, I glad to please her in discourse of Sir G. Carteret (age 56), that all will do well with him, and she is much pleased, he having had great annoyance and fears about his well doing, and I fear hath doubted that I have not been a friend to him, but cries out against my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25), that makes the King (age 35) neglect his business and seems much to fear that all will go to wracke, and I fear with great reason; exclaims against the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and more the Duchesse (age 46) for a filthy woman, as indeed she is.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1666. So home mightily pleased, and there late at business and set down my three last days' journalls, and so to bed, overjoyed to thinke of the pleasure of the last Sunday and yesterday, and my ability to bear the charge of these pleasures, and with profit too, by obliging my Lord, and reconciling Sir George Carteret's (age 56) family.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1666. After dinner I did give my wife money to lay out on Knipp, 20s., and I abroad to White Hall to visit Colonell Norwood (age 52), and then Sir G. Carteret (age 56), with whom I have brought myself right again, and he very open to me; is very melancholy, and matters, I fear, go down with him, but he seems most afeard of a general catastrophe to the whole kingdom, and thinks, as I fear, that all things will come to nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1666. At noon dined and to the office again, and about 4 o'clock took coach and to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) and thence to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 56) new house by appointment, there to spend an houre in talking and we were together above an hour, and very good discourse about the state of the King (age 35) as to money, and particularly in the point of the Navy. He endeavours hard to come to a good understanding of Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) accounts, and by his discourse I find Sir G. Carteret (age 56) must be brought to it, and what a madman he is that he do not do it of himself, for the King (age 35) expects the Parliament will call upon him for his promise of giving an account of the money, and he will be ready for it, which cannot be, I am sure, without Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) accounts be better understood than they are. He seems to have a great esteem of me and my opinion and thoughts of things.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1666. I was at it till past two o'clock on Monday morning, and then read my vowes, and to bed with great joy and content that I have brought my things to so good a settlement, and now having my mind fixed to follow my business again and sensible of Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) jealousies, I doubt, concerning me, partly my siding with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and partly that indeed I have been silent in my business of the office a great while, and given but little account of myself and least of all to him, having not made him one visitt since he came to towne from Oxford, I am resolved to fall hard to it again, and fetch up the time and interest I have lost or am in a fair way of doing it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1666. All this discourse did cheer my heart, and sets me right again, after a good deal of melancholy, out of fears of his disinclination to me, upon the differences with my Lord Sandwich (age 40) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56); but I am satisfied throughly, and so went away quite another man, and by the grace of God will never lose it again by my folly in not visiting and writing to him, as I used heretofore to do.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1666. Up betimes, and to St. James's, thinking Mr. Coventry (age 38) had lain there; but he do not, but at White Hall; so thither I went and had as good a time as heart could wish, and after an houre in his chamber about publique business he and I walked up, and the Duke being gone abroad we walked an houre in the Matted Gallery: he of himself begun to discourse of the unhappy differences between him and my Lord of Sandwich (age 40), and from the beginning to the end did run through all passages wherein my Lord hath, at any time, gathered any dissatisfaction, and cleared himself to me most honourably; and in truth, I do believe he do as he says. I did afterwards purge myself of all partiality in the business of Sir G. Carteret (age 56), (whose story Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did also run over,) that I do mind the King's interest, notwithstanding my relation to him; all which he declares he firmly believes, and assures me he hath the same kindnesse and opinion of me as ever. And when I said I was jealous of myself, that having now come to such an income as I am, by his favour, I should not be found to do as much service as might deserve it; he did assure me, he thinks it not too much for me, but thinks I deserve it as much as any man in England.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1666. Thence mightily satisfied with this good fortune of this discourse with him I home, and there walked in the darke till 10 o'clock at night in the garden with Sir W. Warren, talking of many things belonging to us particularly, and I hope to get something considerably by him before the year be over. He gives me good advice of circumspection in my place, which I am now in great mind to improve; for I think our office stands on very ticklish terms, the Parliament likely to sit shortly and likely to be asked more money, and we able to give a very bad account of the expence of what we have done with what they did give before. Besides, the turning out the prize officers may be an example for the King (age 35) giving us up to the Parliament's pleasure as easily, for we deserve it as much. Besides, Sir G. Carteret (age 56) did tell me tonight how my Lord Bruncker (age 46) himself, whose good-will I could have depended as much on as any, did himself to him take notice of the many places I have; and though I was a painful man, yet the Navy was enough for any man to go through with in his owne single place there, which much troubles me, and shall yet provoke me to more and more care and diligence than ever.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1666. Thence mightily satisfied in my curiosity I away with my Lord to see him at her house again, and so take leave and by coach home and to the office, and thence sent for to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) by and by to the Broad Streete, where he and I walked two or three hours till it was quite darke in his gallery talking of his affairs, wherein I assure him all will do well, and did give him (with great liberty, which he accepted kindly) my advice to deny the Board nothing they would aske about his accounts, but rather call upon them to know whether there was anything more they desired, or was wanting. But our great discourse and serious reflections was upon the bad state of the Kingdom in general, through want of money and good conduct, which we fear will undo all.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1666. Thence alone to Broade Street to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) by his desire to confer with him, who is I find in great pain about the business of the office, and not a little, I believe, in fear of falling there, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) having so great a pique against him, and herein I first learn an eminent instance how great a man this day, that nobody would think could be shaken, is the next overthrown, dashed out of countenance, and every small thing of irregularity in his business taken notice of, where nobody the other day durst cast an eye upon them, and next I see that he that the other day nobody durst come near is now as supple as a spaniel, and sends and speaks to me with great submission, and readily hears to advice.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1666. So to Broad Streete and there met my Lady and Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and sat and talked with them a good while and so home, and to my accounts which I cannot get through with. But at it till I grew drowsy, and so to bed mightily vexed that I can come to no better issue in my accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1666. After dinner abroad again and to the New Exchange about play books, and to White Hall, thinking to have met Sir G. Carteret (age 56), but failed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1666. Comes betimes a letter from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) are ordered presently down to the Fleete. I up and saw Sir W. Pen (age 45) gone also after them, and so I finding it a leisure day fell to making cleane my closett in my office, which I did to my content and set up my Platts again, being much taken also with Griffin's mayde, that did cleane it, being a pretty mayde.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1666. After dinner Creed and I and wife and Mercer out by coach, leaving them at the New Exchange, while I to White Hall, and there staid at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) chamber till the Council rose, and then he and I, by agreement this morning, went forth in his coach by Tiburne [Map], to the Parke; discoursing of the state of the Navy as to money, and the state of the Kingdom too, how ill able to raise more: and of our office as to the condition of the officers; he giving me caution as to myself, that there are those that are my enemies as well as his, and by name my Lord Bruncker (age 46), who hath said some odd speeches against me. So that he advises me to stand on my guard; which I shall do, and unless my too-much addiction to pleasure undo me, will be acute enough for any of them. We rode to and again in the Parke a good while, and at last home and set me down at Charing Crosse [Map], and thence I to Mrs. Pierce's to take up my wife and Mercer, where I find her new picture by Hales do not please her, nor me indeed, it making no show, nor is very like, nor no good painting.

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1666. They gone I to dinner, the others having dined. Mr. Sheply is also newly come out of the country and come to see us, whom I am glad to see. He left all well there; but I perceive under some discontent in my Lord's behalfe, thinking that he is under disgrace with the King (age 35); but he is not so at all, as Sir G. Carteret (age 56) assures me. They gone I to the office and did business, and so in the evening abroad alone with my wife to Kingsland, and so back again and to bed, my right eye continuing very ill of the rheum, which hath troubled it four or five days.

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1666. Thence to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who is at the pay of the tickets with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) this day, and here I sat with them a while, the first time I ever was there, and thence to dinner with him, a good dinner. Here come a gentleman over from France arrived here this day, Mr. Browne of St. Mellos, who, among other things, tells me the meaning of the setting out of doggs every night out of the towne walls, which are said to secure the city; but it is not so, but only to secure the anchors, cables, and ships that lie dry, which might otherwise in the night be liable to be robbed. And these doggs are set out every night, and called together in every morning by a man with a home, and they go in very orderly.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. I to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who told me there hath been great bad management in all this; that the King's orders that went on Friday for calling back the Prince (age 46), were sent but by the ordinary post on Wednesday; and come to the Prince (age 46) his hands but on Friday; and then, instead of sailing presently, he stays till four in the evening. And that which is worst of all, the Hampshire, laden with merchants' money, come from the Straights, set out with or but just before the fleete, and was in the Downes by five in the clock yesterday morning; and the Prince with his fleete come to Dover, Kent [Map] but at ten of the clock at night. This is hard to answer, if it be true. This puts great astonishment into the King (age 36), and Duke (age 32), and Court, every body being out of countenance.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1666. So to White Hall, and there when we were come all together in certain expectation of doing our business to Yeabsly's full content, and us that were his friends, my Lord Peterborough (age 44) (whether through some difference between him and my Lord Ashly (age 44), or him and me or Povy (age 52), or through the falsenesse of Creed, I know not) do bring word that the Duke of Yorke (age 32) (who did expressly bid me wait at the Committee for the dispatch of the business) would not have us go forward in this business of allowing the losse of the ships till Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) were come to towne, which was the very thing indeed which we would have avoided. This being told us, we broke up doing nothing, to my great discontent, though I said nothing, and afterwards I find by my Lord Ashly's (age 44) discourse to me that he is troubled mightily at it, and indeed it is a great abuse of him and of the whole Commissioners that nothing of that nature can be done without Sir G. Carteret (age 56) or Sir W. Coventry (age 38). No sooner was the Committee up, and I going [through] the Court homeward, but I am told Sir W. Coventry (age 38) is come to town; so I to his chamber, and there did give him an account how matters go in our office, and with some content I parted from him, after we had discoursed several things of the haste requisite to be made in getting the fleete out again and the manner of doing it. But I do not hear that he is at all pleased or satisfied with the late fight; but he tells me more newes of our suffering, by the death of one or two captains more than I knew before. But he do give over the thoughts of the safety of The Swiftsure or Essex.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1666. This evening we hear that Sir Christopher Mings (age 40) is dead of his late wounds; and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did commend him to me in a most extraordinary manner. But this day, after three days' trial in vain, and the hazard of the spoiling of the ship in lying till next spring, besides the disgrace of it, newes is brought that the Loyall London is launched at Deptford, Kent [Map]. Having talked thus much with Sir G. Carteret (age 56) we parted there, and I home by water, taking in my boat with me young Michell and my Betty his wife, meeting them accidentally going to look a boat. I set them down at the Old Swan [Map] and myself, went through bridge to the Tower, and so home, and after supper to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1666. By and by the Council broke up, and I spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about business, with whom I doubt not in a little time to be mighty well, when I shall appear to mind my business again as I used to do, which by the grace of God I will do. Gone from him I endeavoured to find out Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and at last did at Mr. Ashburnham's (age 62), in the Old Palace Yarde, and thence he and I stepped out and walked an houre in the church-yarde, under Henry the Seventh's Chappell, he being lately come from the fleete; and tells me, as I hear from every body else, that the management in the late fight was bad from top to bottom. That several said this would not have been if my Lord Sandwich (age 40) had had the ordering of it. Nay, he tells me that certainly had my Lord Sandwich (age 40) had the misfortune to have done as they have done, the King (age 36) could not have saved him. There is, too, nothing but discontent among the officers; and all the old experienced men are slighted. He tells me to my question (but as a great secret), that the dividing of the fleete did proceed first from a proposition from the fleete, though agreed to hence. But he confesses it arose from want of due intelligence, which he confesses we do want. He do, however, call the fleete's retreat on Sunday a very honourable retreat, and that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) did do well in it, and would have been well if he had done it sooner, rather than venture the loss of the fleete and crown, as he must have done if the Prince had not come. He was surprised when I told him I heard that the King (age 36) did intend to borrow some money of the City, and would know who had spoke of it to me; I told him Sir Ellis Layton this afternoon. He says it is a dangerous discourse; for that the City certainly will not be invited to do it, and then for the King (age 36) to ask it and be denied, will be the beginning of our sorrow. He seems to fear we shall all fall to pieces among ourselves.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning. At noon to dinner, and then to White Hall in hopes of a meeting of Tangier about Yeabsly's business, but it could not be obtained, Sir G. Carteret (age 56) nor Sir W. Coventry (age 38) being able to be there, which still vexes [me] to see the poor man forced still to attend, as also being desirous to see what my profit is, and get it. Walking here in the galleries I find the Ladies of Honour dressed in their riding garbs, with coats and doublets with deep skirts, just for all the world like mine, and buttoned their doublets up the breast, with perriwigs and with hats; so that, only for a long petticoat dragging under their men's coats, nobody could take them for women in any point whatever; which was an odde sight, and a sight did not please me. It was Mrs. Wells (age 24) and another fine lady that I saw thus.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1666. Up, and to my office, there to fit business against the rest meet, which they did by and by, and sat late. After the office rose (with Creed with me) to Wm. Joyce's to dinner, being invited, and there find my father (age 65) and sister (age 25), my wife and Mercer, with them, almost dined. I made myself as complaisant as I could till I had dined, but yet much against my will, and so away after dinner with Creed to Penny's, my Tailor, where I bespoke a thin stuff suit, and did spend a little time evening some little accounts with Creed and so parted, and I to Sir. G. Carteret's (age 56) by appointment; where I perceive by him the King (age 36) is going to borrow some money of the City; but I fear it will do no good, but hurt. He tells me how the Generall [The Duke of Albemarle (age 57).] is displeased, and there have been some high words between the Generall and Sir W. Coventry (age 38). And it may be so; for I do not find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) so highly commending the Duke (age 32) as he used to be, but letting fall now and then some little jerkes: as this day, speaking of newes from Holland, he says, "I find their victory begins to shrinke there, as well as ours here".

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1666. This month I end in much hurry of business, but in much more trouble in mind to thinke what will become of publique businesses, having so many enemys abroad, and neither force nor money at all, and but little courage for ourselves, it being really true that the spirits of our seamen and commanders too are really broke by the last defeate with the Dutch, and this is not my conjecture only, but the real and serious thoughts of Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), whom I have at distinct times heard the same thing come from with a great deale of grief and trouble. But, lastly, I am providing against a foule day to get as much money into my hands as I can, at least out of the publique hands, that so, if a turne, which I fear, do come, I may have a little to trust to. I pray God give me good successe in my choice how to dispose of what little I have, that I may not take it out of publique hands, and put it into worse.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1666. Up, and after doing some business at my office abroad to Lumbard Street [Map], about the getting of a good sum of money, thence home, in preparation for my having some good sum in my hands, for fear of a trouble in the State, that I may not have all I have in the world out of my hands and so be left a beggar. Having put that in a way, I home to the office, and so to the Tower; about shipping of some more pressed men, and that done, away to Broad Streete, to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who is at a pay of tickets all alone, and I believe not less than one thousand people in the streets. But it is a pretty thing to observe that both there and every where else, a man shall see many women now-a-days of mean sort in the streets, but no men; men being so afeard of the press.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1666. I dined with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and after dinner had much discourse about our publique business; and he do seem to fear every day more and more what I do; which is, a general confusion in the State; plainly answering me to the question, who is it that the weight of the warr depends [upon]? that it is only Sir W. Coventry (age 38). He tells me, too, the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is dissatisfied, and that the Duchesse (age 47) do curse Coventry (age 38) as the man that betrayed her husband to the sea: though I believe that it is not so.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1666. So to White Hall again to have met Sir G. Carteret (age 56), but he is gone, abroad, so back homewards, and seeing Mr. Spong took him up, and he and I to Reeves, the glass maker's, and did set several glasses and had pretty discourse with him, and so away, and set down Mr. Spong in London, and so home and with my wife, late, twatling at my Lady Pen's (age 42), and so home to supper and to bed. I did this afternoon call at my woman that ruled my paper to bespeak a musique card, and there did kiss Nan. No news to-night from the fleete how matters go yet.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1666. At noon dined at home: Mr. Hunt and his wife, who is very gallant, and newly come from Cambridge, because of the sicknesse, with us. Very merry at table, and the people I do love mightily, but being in haste to go to White Hall I rose, and Mr. Hunt with me, and by coach thither, where I left him in the boarded gallery, and I by appointment to attend the Duke of Yorke (age 32) at his closett, but being not come, Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and I did talke together, and (he) advises me, that, if I could, I would get the papers of examination touching the business of the last year's prizes, which concern my Lord Sandwich (age 40), out of Warcupp's hands, who being now under disgrace and poor, he believes may be brought easily to part with them. My Lord Crew (age 68), it seems, is fearfull yet that maters may be enquired into. This I will endeavour to do, though I do not thinke it signifies much.

Holme's Bonfire

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1666. This day Sir W. Batten (age 65) did show us at the table a letter from Sir T. Allen (age 54), which says that we have taken ten or twelve' ships (since the late great expedition of burning their ships and towne), laden with hempe, flax, tarr, deales, &c. This was good newes; but by and by comes in Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and he asked us with full mouth what we would give for good newes. Says Sir W. Batten (age 65), "I have better than you, for a wager". They laid sixpence, and we that were by were to give sixpence to him that told the best newes. So Sir W. Batten (age 65) told his of the ten or twelve ships Sir G. Carteret (age 56) did then tell us that upon the newes of the burning of the ships and towne the common people a Amsterdam did besiege De Witt's house, and he was force to flee to the Prince of Orange (age 15), who is gone to Cleve to the marriage of his sister (age 23) [Notee. his aunt]. This we concluded all the best newest and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and myself did give Sir G. Carteret (age 56) our sixpence a-piece, which he did give Mr. Smith to give the poor. Thus we made ourselves mighty merry.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. After dinner we parted, and I to my office, whither I sent for Mr. Lewes and instructed myself fully in the business of the Victualling, to enable me to answer in the matter; and then Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I by coach to White Hall, and there staid till the King (age 36) and Cabinet were met in the Green Chamber, and then we were called in; and there the King (age 36) begun with me, to hear how the victualls of the fleete stood. I did in a long discourse tell him and the rest (the Duke of Yorke (age 32), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), both the Secretarys, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and Sir W. Coventry (age 38),) how it stood, wherein they seemed satisfied, but press mightily for more supplies; and the letter of the Generalls, which was read, did lay their not going or too soon returning from the Dutch coast, this next bout, to the want of victuals. They then proceeded to the enquiry after the fireships; and did all very superficially, and without any severity at all.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. Thence to discourse of the times; and he tells me he believes both my Lord Arlington (age 48) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), as well as my Lord Sandwich (age 41) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56), have reason to fear, and are afeard of this Parliament now coming on. He tells me that Bristoll's (age 53) faction is getting ground apace against my Chancellor (age 57). He told me that my old Lord Coventry was a cunning, crafty man, and did make as many bad decrees in Chancery as any man; and that in one case, that occasioned many years' dispute, at last when the King (age 36) come in, it was hoped by the party grieved, to get my Chancellor (age 57) to reverse a decree of his. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) took the opportunity of the business between the Duke of Yorke (age 32) and the Duchesse (age 29), and said to my Chancellor (age 57), that he had rather be drawn up Holborne to be hanged, than live to see his father pissed upon (in these very terms) and any decree of his reversed. And so the Chancellor (age 57) did not think fit to do it, but it still stands, to the undoing of one Norton, a printer, about his right to the printing of the Bible, and Grammar, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1666. Then to the office, and thither come and walked an hour with me Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who tells me what is done about my Lord's pardon, and is not for letting the Duke of Yorke (age 32) know any thing of it beforehand, but to carry it as speedily and quietly as we can. He seems to be very apprehensive that the Parliament will be troublesome and inquisitive into faults, but seems not to value them as to himself. He gone, I to the Victualling Office, there with Lewes' and Willson setting the business of the state of the fleete's victualling even and plain, and that being done, and other good discourse about it over, Mr. Willson and I by water down the River for discourse only, about business of the office, and then back, and I home, and after a little at my office home to my new closet, and there did much business on my Tangier account and my Journall for three days.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1666. Thence down to Deptford, Kent [Map], and there with great satisfaction landed all my goods at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) safe, and nothing missed I could see, or hurt. This being done to my great content, I home, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 65), and there with Sir R. Ford (age 52), Mr. Knightly, and one Withers, a professed lying rogue, supped well, and mighty merry, and our fears over. From them to the office, and there slept with the office full of labourers, who talked, and slept, and walked all night long there. But strange it was to see Cloathworkers' Hall on fire these three days and nights in one body of flame, it being the cellar full of oyle.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1666. Up and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) by water to White Hall and they to St. James's. I stopped with Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to desire him to go with us, and to enquire after money. But the first he cannot do, and the other as little, or says, "when we can get any, or what shall we do for it?" He, it seems, is employed in the correspondence between the City and the King (age 36) every day, in settling of things. I find him full of trouble, to think how things will go. I left him, and to St. James's, where we met first at Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, and there did what business we can, without any books. Our discourse, as every thing else, was confused. The fleete is at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], there staying a wind to carry them to the Downes, or towards Bullen [Map], where they say the Dutch fleete is gone, and stays. We concluded upon private meetings for a while, not having any money to satisfy any people that may come to us. I bought two eeles upon the Thames, cost me six shillings.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1666. Lay there, and up betimes, and by water with my gold, and laid it with the rest in my office, where I find all well and safe. So with Sir W. Batten (age 65) to the New Exchange by water and to my Lord Bruncker's (age 46) house, where Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) met. Little business before us but want of money. Broke up, and I home by coach round the town.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1666. So to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) to work, and there did to my content ship off into the Bezan all the rest of my goods, saving my pictures and fine things, that I will bring home in wherrys when the house is fit to receive them: and so home, and unload them by carts and hands before night, to my exceeding satisfaction: and so after supper to bed in my house, the first time I have lain there; and lay with my wife in my old closett upon the ground, and Batty and his wife in the best chamber, upon the ground also.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Sep 1666. Thence by coach over the ruines, down Fleete Streete [Map] and Cheapside [Map] to Broad Streete (age 36) to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), where Sir W. Batten (age 65) (and Sir J. Minnes (age 67), whom I had not seen a long time before, being his first coming abroad) and Lord Bruncker (age 46) passing his accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Sep 1666. Thence home a little to look after my people at work and back to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) to dinner; and thence, after some discourse; with him upon our publique accounts, I back home, and all the day with Harman (age 29) and his people finishing the hangings and beds in my house, and the hangings will be as good as ever, and particularly in my new closet. They gone and I weary, my wife and I, and Balty (age 26) and his wife, who come hither to-day to helpe us, to a barrel of oysters I sent from the river today, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Sep 1666. Up, much troubled about my books, but cannot, imagine where they should be. Up, to the setting my closet to rights, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) takes me at it, which did not displease me. He and I to discourse about our accounts, and the bringing them to the Parliament, and with much content to see him rely so well on my part. He and I together to Broad Streete to the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), and there discoursed a while and parted. My [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 64) come to town, but I did not see her. He tells me how the fleete is come into the Downes. Nothing done, nor French fleete seen: we drove all from our anchors. But he says newes is come that De Ruyter (age 59) is dead, or very near it, of a hurt in his mouth, upon the discharge of one of his own guns; which put him into a fever, and he likely to die, if not already dead.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1666. At noon after dinner I sent for Harry, and he tells me it is so, and brought me by and by my hamper of books to my great joy, with the same books I missed, and three more great ones, and no more. I did give him 5s. for his pains, And so home with great joy, and to the setting of some off them right, but could not finish it, but away by coach to the other end of the town, leaving my wife at the 'Change [Map], but neither come time enough to the Council to speak with the Duke of Yorke (age 32), nor with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and so called my wife, and paid for some things she bought, and so home, and there after a little doing at the office about our accounts, which now draw near the time they should be ready, the House having ordered Sir G. Carteret (age 56), upon his offering them, to bring them in on Saturday next, I home, and there, with great pleasure, very late new setting all my books; and now I am in as good condition as I desire to be in all worldly respects. The Lord of Heaven make me thankfull, and continue me therein! So to bed. This day I had new stairs of main timber put my cellar going into the yard.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1666. In the afternoon comes Anthony Joyce to see me, and with tears told me his losse, but yet that he had something left that he can live well upon, and I doubt it not. But he would buy some place that he could have and yet keepe his trade where he is settled in St. Jones's. He gone, I to the office again, and then to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and there found Mr. Wayth, but, Lord! how fretfully Sir G. Carteret (age 56) do discourse with Mr. Wayth about his accounts, like a man that understands them not one word. I held my tongue and let him go on like a passionate foole. In the afternoon I paid for the two lighters that carried my goods to Deptford, Kent [Map], and they cost me £8. Till past midnight at our accounts, and have brought them to a good issue, so as to be ready to meet Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to-morrow, but must work to-morrow, which Mr. T. Hater had no mind to, it being the Lord's day, but, being told the necessity, submitted, poor man!

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1666. To the office, and there busy now for good and all about my accounts. My Lord Brunck (age 46) come thither, thinking to find an office, but we have not yet met. He do now give me a watch, a plain one, in the roome of my former watch with many motions which I did give him. If it goes well, I care not for the difference in worth, though believe there is above £5. He and I to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to discourse about his account, but Mr. Waith not being there nothing could be done, and therefore I home again, and busy all day.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1666. Soon as eat a bit Mr. Wayth and I by water to White Hall, and there at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings Sir W. Coventry (age 38) met, and we did debate the whole business of our accounts to the Parliament; where it appears to us that the charge of the war from September 1st, 1664, to this Michaelmas, will have been but £3,200,000, and we have paid in that time somewhat about £2,200,000; so that we owe above £900,000: but our method of accounting, though it cannot, I believe, be far wide from the mark, yet will not abide a strict examination if the Parliament should be troublesome. Here happened a pretty question of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), whether this account of ours will not put my Lord Treasurer (age 59) to a difficulty to tell what is become of all the money the Parliament have 'give' in this time for the war, which hath amounted to about £4,000,000, which nobody there could answer; but I perceive they did doubt what his answer could be. Having done, and taken from Sir W. Coventry (age 38) the minutes of a letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 59), Wayth and I back again to the office, and thence back down to the water with my wife and landed him in Southwarke [Map], and my wife and I for pleasure to Fox-Hall, and there eat and drank, and so back home, and I to the office till midnight drawing the letter we are to send with our accounts to my Lord Treasurer (age 59), and that being done to my mind, I home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to St. James's, and there with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) read and all approved of my letter, and then home, and after dinner, Mr. Hater and Gibson dining with me, to the office, and there very late new moulding my accounts and writing fair my letter, which I did against the evening, and then by coach left my wife at her brother's, and I to St. James's, and up and down to look [for] Sir W. Coventry (age 38); and at last found him and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) with the Lord Treasurer (age 59) at White Hall, consulting how to make up my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) general account, as well as that of the Navy particularly. Here brought the letter, but found that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) had altered his account since he did give me the abstract of it: so all my letter must be writ over again, to put in his last abstract.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1666. So to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, to speak a little about the alteration; and there looking over the book that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) intends to deliver to the Parliament of his payments since September 1st, 1664, and there I find my name the very second for flags, which I had bought for the Navy, of calico; once, about 500 and odd pounds, which vexed me mightily. At last, I concluded of scraping out my name and putting in Mr. Tooker's, which eased me; though the price was such as I should have had glory by. Here I saw my [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 64) lately come to towne, who, good lady! is mighty kind, and I must make much of her, for she is a most excellent woman.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1666. Up betimes, with all my people to get the letter writ over, and other things done, which I did, and by coach to Lord Bruncker's (age 46), and got his hand to it; and then to the Parliament House and got it signed by the rest, and then delivered it at the House-door to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 56); Sir G. Carteret (age 56) being gone into the House with his book of accounts under his arme, to present to the House. I had brought my wife to White Hall, and leaving her with Mrs. Michell, where she sat in her shop and had burnt wine sent for her, I walked in the Hall, and among others with Ned Pickering (age 48), who continues still a lying, bragging coxcombe, telling me that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) may thank himself for all his misfortune; for not suffering him and two or three good honest fellows more to take them by the throats that spoke ill of him, and told me how basely Lionell Walden hath carried himself towards my Lord; by speaking slightly of him, which I shall remember.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1666. Up, and am sent for to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and to him, and there he tells me how our lists are referred to a Sub-committee to consider and examine, and that I am ordered to be there this afternoon. So I away thence to my new bookbinder to see my books gilding in the backs, and then to White Hall to the House, and spoke to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), where he told me I must attend the Committee in the afternoon, and received some hints of more work to do. So I away to the 'Chequer, and thence to an alehouse, and found Mr. Falconbridge, and agreed for his kinswoman to come to me. He says she can dress my wife, and will do anything we would have her to do, and is of a good spirit and mighty cheerful. He is much pleased therewith, and so we shall be. So agreed for her coming the next week.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Oct 1666. Thence up to the Duke of York (age 32), by appointment, with fellow officers, to complaine, but to no purpose, of want of money, and so away. I to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), to his lodging, and here discoursed much of the want of money and our being designed for destruction. How the King (age 36) hath lost his power, by submitting himself to this way of examining his accounts, and is become but as a private man. He says the King (age 36) is troubled at it, but they talk an entry shall be made, that it is not to be brought into example; that the King (age 36) must, if they do not agree presently, make them a courageous speech, which he says he may do, the City of London being now burned, and himself master of an army, better than any prince before him, and so I believe.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1666. Up, and with my father talking awhile, then to the office, and there troubled with a message from Lord Peterborough (age 44) about money; but I did give as kind answer as I could, though I hate him. Then to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to discourse about paying of part of the great ships come in, and so home again to compare the comparison of the two Dutch wars' charges for Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and then by water (and saw old Mr. Michell digging like a painfull father for his son) to him, and find him at dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1666. So I away from him, and met with the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), and I told him when I had this evening in coming hither met with Captain Cocke (age 49), and he told me of a wild motion made in the House of Lords by the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) for all men that had cheated the King (age 36) to be declared traitors and felons, and that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) was named. This put me into a great pain, so the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), who had heard nothing of it, having been all day in the City, away with me to White Hall; and there come to me and told me that, upon Lord Ashly's (age 45) asking their direction whether, being a peere, he should bring in his accounts to the Commons, which they did give way to, the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) did move that, for the time to come, what I have written above might be declared by some fuller law than heretofore. Lord Ashly (age 45) answered, that it was not the fault of the present laws, but want of proof; and so said the Chancellor (age 57). He answered, that a better law, he thought, might be made so the House laughing, did refer it to him to bring in a Bill to that purpose, and this was all.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and after visiting my father in his chamber, to church, and then home to dinner. Little Michell and his wife come to dine with us, which they did, and then presently after dinner I with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) to White Hall, where met by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Lord Bruncker (age 46), to attend the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) at the Cabinet; but nobody had determined what to speak of, but only in general to ask for money. So I was forced immediately to prepare in my mind a method of discoursing. And anon we were called in to the Green Room, where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 32), Prince Rupert (age 46), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), Duke of Albemarle (age 57), [Sirs] G. Carteret (age 56), W. Coventry (age 38), Morrice (age 63). Nobody beginning, I did, and made a current, and I thought a good speech, laying open the ill state of the Navy: by the greatness of the debt; greatness of work to do against next yeare; the time and materials it would take; and our incapacity, through a total want of money. I had no sooner done, but Prince Rupert (age 46) rose up and told the King (age 36) in a heat, that whatever the gentleman had said, he had brought home his fleete in as good a condition as ever any fleete was brought home; that twenty boats would be as many as the fleete would want: and all the anchors and cables left in the storm might be taken up again. This arose from my saying, among other things we had to do, that the fleete was come in-the greatest fleete that ever his Majesty had yet together, and that in as bad condition as the enemy or weather could put it; and to use Sir W. Pen's (age 45) words, who is upon the place taking a survey, he dreads the reports he is to receive from the Surveyors of its defects. I therefore did only answer, that I was sorry for his Highness's offence, but that what I said was but the report we received from those entrusted in the fleete to inform us. He muttered and repeated what he had said; and so, after a long silence on all hands, nobody, not so much as the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), seconding the Prince, nor taking notice of what he said, we withdrew. I was not a little troubled at this passage, and the more when speaking with Jacke Fenn about it, he told me that the Prince (age 46) will be asking now who this Pepys is, and find him to be a creature of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41), and therefore this was done only to disparage him.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Thence, having been informed that, after all this pains, the King (age 36) hath found out how to supply us with 5 or £6000, when £100,000 were at this time but absolutely necessary, and we mentioned £50,000. This is every day a greater and greater omen of ruine. God fit us for it! Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and I home (it raining) by coach, calling only on Sir G. Carteret (age 56) at his lodging (who is I find troubled at my Lord Treasurer (age 59) and Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 56) bungling in his accounts), and come home to supper with my father, and then all to bed. I made my brother in his cassocke to say grace this day, but I like his voice so ill that I begin to be sorry he hath taken this order upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1666. Up and to my office, called up by Commissioner Middleton, newly come to town, but staid not with me; so I to my office busy all the morning. Towards noon, by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there by several hear that the Parliament do resolve to do something to retrench Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) great salary; but cannot hear of any thing bad they can lay to his charge.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1666. This done in his chamber, I with him to Westminster Hall [Map], and there took a few turns, the Hall mighty full of people, and the House likely to be very full to-day about the money business. Here I met with several people, and do find that people have a mighty mind to have a fling at the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), if they could lay hold of anything, his place being, indeed, too much for such, they think, or any single subject of no greater parts and quality than he, to enjoy. But I hope he may weather all, though it will not be by any dexterity of his, I dare say, if he do stand, but by his fate only, and people's being taken off by other things.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1666. He being ready, he and my Chancellor (age 57), and Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and Prince Rupert (age 46), Lord Bellasses (age 52), Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), Povy (age 52), and myself, met at a Committee for Tangier. My Lord Bellasses's (age 52) propositions were read and discoursed of, about reducing the garrison to less charge; and indeed I am mad in love with my Chancellor (age 57), for he do comprehend and speak out well, and with the greatest easinesse and authority that ever I saw man in my life. I did never observe how much easier a man do speak when he knows all the company to be below him, than in him; for though he spoke, indeed, excellent welt, yet his manner and freedom of doing it, as if he played with it, and was informing only all the rest of the company, was mighty pretty. He did call again and again upon Mr. Povy (age 52) for his accounts. I did think fit to make the solemn tender of my accounts that I intended. I said something that was liked, touching the want of money, and the bad credit of our tallys. My Chancellor (age 57) moved, that without any trouble to any of the rest of the Lords, I might alone attend the King (age 36), when he was with his private Council; and open the state of the garrison's want of credit; and all that could be done, should. Most things moved were referred to Committees, and so we broke up. And at the end Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come; so I away with him, and he discoursed with me something of the Parliament's business. They have voted giving the [King] for next year £1,800,000; which, were it not for his debts, were a great sum. He says, he thinks the House may say no more to us for the present, but that we must mend our manners against the next tryall, and mend them we will. But he thinks it not a fit time to be found making of trouble among ourselves, meaning about Sir J. Minnes (age 67), who most certainly must be removed, or made a Commissioner, and somebody else Comptroller. But he tells me that the House has a great envy at Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and that had he ever thought fit in all his discourse to have touched upon the point of our want of money and badness of payment, it would have been laid hold on to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) hurt; but he hath avoided it, though without much reason for it, most studiously, and in short did end thus, that he has never shewn so much of the pigeon in all his life as in his innocence to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) at this time; which I believe, and will desire Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to thank him for it.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. By and by the House rose, and then we parted, and I with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and walked in the Exchequer Court, discoursing of businesses. Among others, I observing to him how friendly Sir W. Coventry (age 38) had carried himself to him in these late inquiries, when, if he had borne him any spleen, he could have had what occasion he pleased offered him, he did confess he found the same thing, and would thanke him for it. I did give him some other advices, and so away with him to his lodgings at White Hall to dinner, where my [his wife] Baroness Carteret (age 64) is, and mighty kind, both of them, to me. Their son and my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah will be here very speedily. She tells me the ladies are to go into a new fashion shortly, and that is, to wear short coats, above their ancles; which she and I do not like, but conclude this long trayne to be mighty graceful. But she cries out of the vices of the Court, and how they are going to set up plays already; and how, the next day after the late great fast, the Duchesse of York (age 29) did give the King (age 36) and Queene (age 56) a play. Nay, she told me that they have heretofore had plays at Court the very nights before the fast for the death of the late King: She do much cry out upon these things, and that which she believes will undo the whole nation; and I fear so too.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1666. After a little more discourse, I left them, and to White Hall, where I met with Sir Robert Viner (age 35), who told me a little of what, in going home, I had seen; also a little of the disorder and mutiny among the seamen at the Treasurer's office, which did trouble me then and all day since, considering how many more seamen will come to towne every day, and no money for them. A Parliament sitting, and the Exchange [Map] close by, and an enemy to hear of, and laugh at it1. Viner (age 35) too, and Backewell, were sent for this afternoon; and was before the King (age 36) and his Cabinet about money; they declaring they would advance no more, it being discoursed of in the House of Parliament for the King (age 36) to issue out his privy-seals to them to command them to trust him, which gives them reason to decline trusting. But more money they are persuaded to lend, but so little that (with horrour I speake it), coming after the Council was up, with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), Sir W. Coventry (age 38), Lord Bruncker (age 46), and myself, I did lay the state of our condition before the Duke of York (age 33), that the fleete could not go out without several things it wanted, and we could not have without money, particularly rum and bread, which we have promised the man Swan to helpe him to £200 of his debt, and a few other small sums of £200 a piece to some others, and that I do foresee the Duke of York (age 33) would call us to an account why the fleete is not abroad, and we cannot answer otherwise than our want of money; and that indeed we do not do the King (age 36) any service now, but do rather abuse and betray his service by being there, and seeming to do something, while we do not. Sir G. Carteret (age 56) asked me (just in these words, for in this and all the rest I set down the very words for memory sake, if there should be occasion) whether £50 or £60 would do us any good; and when I told him the very rum man must have £200, he held up his eyes as if we had asked a million. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) told the Duke of York (age 33) plainly he did rather desire to have his commission called in than serve in so ill a place, where he cannot do the King (age 36) service, and I did concur in saying the same. This was all very plain, and the Duke of York (age 33) did confess that he did not see how we could do anything without a present supply of £20,000, and that he would speak to the King (age 36) next Council day, and I promised to wait on him to put him in mind of it. This I set down for my future justification, if need be, and so we broke up, and all parted, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) being not very well, but I believe made much worse by this night's sad discourse. So I home by coach, considering what the consequence of all this must be in a little time. Nothing but distraction and confusion; which makes me wish with all my heart that I were well and quietly settled with what little I have got at Brampton, where I might live peaceably, and study, and pray for the good of the King (age 36) and my country.

Note 1. The King of Denmark (age 57) was induced to conclude a treaty with the United Provinces, a secret article of which bound him to declare war against England. The order in council for the printing and publishing a declaration of war against Denmark is dated "Whitehall, Sept. 19, 1666"; annexed is "A True Declaration of all transactions between his Majesty of Great Britain and the King of Denmark, with a declaration of war against the said king, and the motives that obliged his Majesty thereunto" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 140).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1666. Thence, with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), home to dinner, with him, my Lady and Mr. Ashburnham (age 62), the Cofferer. Here they talk that the Queene (age 56) hath a great mind to alter her fashion, and to have the feet seen, which she loves mightily; and they do believe that it [will] come into it in a little time. Here I met with the King's declaration about his proceedings with the King of Denmarke (age 57), and particularly the business of Bergen; but it is so well writ, that, if it be true, the King of Denmarke (age 57) is one of the most absolute wickednesse in the world for a person of his quality.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1666. He told me other good things, which made me bless God that we have received no greater disasters this year than we have, though they have been the greatest that ever was known in England before, put all their losses of the King's ships by want of skill and seamanship together from the beginning. He being gone, comes Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and he and I walked together awhile, discoursing upon the sad condition of the times, what need we have, and how impossible it is to get money. He told me my Chancellor (age 57) the other day did ask him how it come to pass that his friend Pepys do so much magnify all things to worst, as I did on Sunday last, in the bad condition of the fleete. Sir G. Carteret (age 56) tells me that he answered him, that I was but the mouth of the rest, and spoke what they have dictated to me; which did, as he says, presently take off his displeasure. So that I am well at present with him, but I must have a care not to be over busy in the office again, and burn my fingers.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1666. Thence with my wife home and to do business at the office. Then to Sir W. Batten's (age 65), who tells me that the House of Parliament makes mighty little haste in settling the money, and that he knows not when it will be done; but they fall into faction, and libells have been found in the House. Among others, one yesterday, wherein they reckon up divers great sums to be given away by the King (age 36), among others, £10,000 to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), for weare and teare (the point he stood upon to advance that sum by, for them to give the King (age 36)); Sir G. Carteret (age 56) £50,000 for something else, I think supernumerarys; and so to Matt. Wren £5000 for passing the Canary Company's patent; and so a great many other sums to other persons.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1666. Up betimes and by water to White Hall, and there with Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who is come to his winter lodgings at White Hall, and there agreed upon a method of paying of tickets; and so I back again home and to the office, where we sate all the morning, but to little purpose but to receive clamours for money.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1666. Lord's Day. Comes my taylor's man in the morning, and brings my vest home, and coate to wear with it, and belt, and silver-hilted sword. So I rose and dressed myself, and I like myself mightily in it, and so do my wife. Then, being dressed, to church; and after church pulled my Lady Pen (age 42) and Mrs. Markham into my house to dinner, and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) he got Mrs. Pegg along with him. I had a good dinner for them, and very merry; and after dinner to the waterside, and so, it being very cold, to White Hall, and was mighty fearfull of an ague, my vest being new and thin, and the coat cut not to meet before upon my breast. Here I waited in the gallery till the Council was up, and among others did speak with Mr. Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, who tells me my Lord Generall is become mighty low in all people's opinion, and that he hath received several slurs from the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33). The people at Court do see the difference between his and the Prince's (age 46) management, and my Lord Sandwich's (age 41). That this business which he is put upon of crying out against the Catholiques and turning them out of all employment, will undo him, when he comes to turn-out the officers out of the Army, and this is a thing of his own seeking. That he is grown a drunken sot, and drinks with nobody but Troutbecke, whom nobody else will keep company with. Of whom he told me this story: That once the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) in his drink taking notice as of a wonder that Nan Hide (age 29) should ever come to be Duchesse of York (age 29), "Nay", says Troutbecke, "ne'er wonder at that; for if you will give me another bottle of wine, I will tell you as great, if not greater, a miracle". And what was that, but that our dirty Besse (meaning his Duchesse (age 47)) should come to be Duchesse of Albemarle? Here we parted, and so by and by the Council rose, and out comes Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and they and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I went to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, there to discourse about some money demanded by Sir W. Warren, and having done that broke up. And Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and I alone together a while, where he shows a long letter, all in cipher, from my Lord Sandwich (age 41) to him. The contents he hath not yet found out, but he tells me that my Lord is not sent for home, as several people have enquired after of me. He spoke something reflecting upon me in the business of pursers, that their present bad behaviour is what he did foresee, and had convinced me of, and yet when it come last year to be argued before the Duke of York (age 33) I turned and said as the rest did. I answered nothing to it, but let it go, and so to other discourse of the ill state of things, of which all people are full of sorrow and observation, and so parted, and then by water, landing in Southwarke [Map], home to the Tower, and so home, and there began to read "Potter's Discourse upon 1666", which pleases me mightily, and then broke off and to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. This noon W. Hewer (age 24) and T. Hater both tell me that it is all over the town, and Mr. Pierce tells me also, this afternoon coming to me, that for certain Sir G. Carteret (age 56) hath parted with his Treasurer's place, and that my Lord Anglesey (age 52) is in it upon agreement and change of places, though the latter part I do not think. This Povy (age 52) told me yesterday, and I think it is a wise act of Sir G. Carteret.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. Thence to my Lord Crew's (age 68), and there dined, and mightily made of, having not, to my shame, been there in 8 months before. Here my Lord and Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), Mr. John (age 38), and Dr. Crew (age 33), and two strangers. The best family in the world for goodness and sobriety. Here beyond my expectation I met my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), who is come to towne two days since from Hinchingbroke [Map], and brought his [his daughter-in-law] sister and brother [his son] Carteret (age 25) with him, who are at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. After dinner I and Sir Thomas Crew (age 42) went aside to discourse of public matters, and do find by him that all the country gentlemen are publickly jealous of the courtiers in the Parliament, and that they do doubt every thing that they propose; and that the true reason why the country gentlemen are for a land-tax and against a general excise, is, because they are fearful that if the latter be granted they shall never get it down again; whereas the land-tax will be but for so much; and when the war ceases, there will be no ground got by the Court to keep it up. He do much cry out upon our accounts, and that all that they have had from the King (age 36) hath been but estimates both from my Lord Treasurer (age 59) and us, and from all people else, so that the Parliament is weary of it. He says the House would be very glad to get something against Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and will not let their inquiries die till they have got something. He do, from what he hath heard at the Committee for examining the burning of the City, conclude it as a thing certain that it was done by plots; it being proved by many witnesses that endeavours were made in several places to encrease the fire, and that both in City and country it was bragged by several Papists that upon such a day or in such a time we should find the hottest weather that ever was in England, and words of plainer sense.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. After dinner and this discourse I took coach, and at the same time find my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) and Mr. John Crew (age 38) and the Doctor (age 33) going out to see the ruins of the City; so I took the Doctor into my Hackney coach (and he is a very fine sober gentleman), and so through the City. But, Lord! what pretty and sober observations he made of the City and its desolation; till anon we come to my house, and there I took them upon Tower Hill [Map] to shew them what houses were pulled down there since the fire; and then to my house, where I treated them with good wine of several sorts, and they took it mighty respectfully, and a fine company of gentlemen they are; but above all I was glad to see my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) drink no wine at all. Here I got them to appoint Wednesday come se'nnight to dine here at my house, and so we broke up and all took coach again, and I carried the Doctor (age 33) to Chancery Lane [Map], and thence I to White Hall, where I staid walking up and down till night, and then got almost into the play house, having much mind to go and see the play at Court this night; but fearing how I should get home, because of the bonefires and the lateness of the night to get a coach, I did not stay; but having this evening seen my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah, who is come to towne, and looks very well and fat, and heard how Mr. John Pickering (age 55) is to be married this week, and to a fortune with £5000, and seen a rich necklace of pearle and two pendants of dyamonds, which Sir G. Carteret (age 56) hath presented her with since her coming to towne, I home by coach, but met not one bonefire through the whole town in going round by the wall, which is strange, and speaks the melancholy disposition of the City at present, while never more was said of, and feared of, and done against the Papists than just at this time.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1666. After dinner I to teach her my new recitative of "It is decreed", of which she learnt a good part, and I do well like it and believe shall be well pleased when she hath it all, and that it will be found an agreeable thing. Then carried her home, and my wife and I intended to have seen my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah at White Hall, but the Exchange Streete was so full of coaches, every body, as they say, going thither to make themselves fine against tomorrow night, that, after half an hour's stay, we could not do any [thing], only my wife to see her brother, and I to go speak one word with Sir G. Carteret (age 56) about office business, and talk of the general complexion of matters, which he looks upon, as I do, with horrour, and gives us all for an undone people. That there is no such thing as a peace in hand, nor possibility of any without our begging it, they being as high, or higher, in their terms than ever, and tells me that, just now, my Lord Hollis (age 67) had been with him, and wept to think in what a condition we are fallen. He shewed me my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) letter to him, complaining of the lack of money, which Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is at a loss how in the world to get the King (age 36) to supply him with, and wishes him, for that reason, here; for that he fears he will be brought to disgrace there, for want of supplies. He says the House is yet in a bad humour; and desiring to know whence it is that the King (age 36) stirs not, he says he minds it not, nor will be brought to it, and that his servants of the House do, instead of making the Parliament better, rather play the rogue one with another, and will put all in fire. So that, upon the whole, we are in a wretched condition, and I went from him in full apprehensions of it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1666. Here we walked to and again till one dropped away after another, and so I took coach to White Hall, and there visited my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings. Here was Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), and he told me how hot words grew again to-day in the House of Lords between my Lord Ossory (age 32) and Ashly (age 45), the former saying that something said by the other was said like one of Oliver's Council. Ashly (age 45) said that he must give him reparation, or he would take it his owne way. The House therefore did bring my Lord Ossory (age 32) to confess his fault, and ask pardon for it, as he was also to my Lord Buckingham (age 38), for saying that something was not truth that my Lord Buckingham (age 38) had said. This will render my Lord Ossory (age 32) very little in a little time.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1666. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 57), and there Mr. Creed and Gawden, Cholmley (age 34), and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) walking in the Park over against the house. I walked with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who I find displeased with the letter I have drawn and sent in yesterday, finding fault with the account we give of the ill state of the Navy, but I said little, only will justify the truth of it.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1666. After dinner Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and I to another room, and he tells me more and more of our want of money and in how ill condition we are likely to be soon in, and that he believes we shall not have a fleete at sea the next year. So do I believe; but he seems to speak it as a thing expected by the King (age 36) and as if their matters were laid accordingly.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1666. At the end of the sermon an excellent anthem; but it was a pleasant thing, an idle companion in our pew, a prating, bold counsellor that hath been heretofore at the Navy Office, and noted for a great eater and drinker, not for quantity, but of the best, his name Tom Bales, said, "I know a fitter anthem for this sermon", speaking only of our duty of following the saints, and I know not what. "Cooke should have sung, 'Come, follow, follow me.'" I After sermon up into the gallery, and then to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) to dinner; where much company. Among others, Mr. Carteret and my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah, and here was also Mr. [John] Ashburnham (age 63), the great man, who is a pleasant man, and that hath seen much of the world, and more of the Court.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and here I had a letter from Mr. Brisband on another occasion, which, by the by, intimates my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18) intention to come and dine with me to-morrow. This put me into a great surprise, and therefore endeavoured all I could to hasten over our business at the office, and so home at noon and to dinner, and then away by coach, it being a very foul day, to White Hall, and there at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) find my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), who promises to dine with me to-morrow, and bring Mr. Carteret along with him. Here I staid a little while talking with him and the ladies, and then away to my Lord Crew's (age 68), and then did by the by make a visit to my Lord Crew (age 68), and had some good discourse with him, he doubting that all will break in pieces in the Kingdom; and that the taxes now coming out, which will tax the same man in three or four several capacities, as for lands, office, profession, and money at interest, will be the hardest that ever come out; and do think that we owe it, and the lateness of its being given, wholly to the unpreparedness of the King's own party, to make their demand and choice; for they have obstructed the giving it by land-tax, which had been done long since.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Dec 1666. I not sorry for it much did go to White Hall, and got my Lord Bellasses (age 52) to get me into the playhouse; and there, after all staying above an hour for the players, the King (age 36) and all waiting, which was absurd, saw "Henry the Fifth" well done by the Duke's people, and in most excellent habits, all new vests, being put on but this night. But I sat so high and far off, that I missed most of the words, and sat with a wind coming into my back and neck, which did much trouble me. The play continued till twelve at night; and then up, and a most horrid cold night it was, and frosty, and moonshine. But the worst was, I had left my cloak at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56), and they being abed I was forced to go home without it. So by chance got a coach and to the Golden Lion Taverne in the Strand, and there drank some mulled sack, and so home, where find my poor wife staying for me, and then to bed mighty cold.

In 1667 Humphrey Winch 1st Baronet (age 44) sold the Hawnes estate to George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 57) and moved to Herleyford Manor, Great Marlow.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1667. After them, I, with several people, among others Mr. George Montagu (age 44), whom I have not seen long, he mighty kind. He tells me all is like to go ill, the King (age 36) displeasing the House of Commons by evading their Bill for examining Accounts, and putting it into a Commission, though therein he hath left out Coventry (age 39) and I and named all the rest the Parliament named, and all country Lords, not one Courtier: this do not please them. He tells me he finds the enmity almost over for my Lord Sandwich (age 41), and that now all is upon the Vice-Chamberlain (age 57), who bears up well and stands upon his vindication, which he seems to like well, and the others do construe well also.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1667. He told me, that Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) declaration of giving double to any man that will prove that any of his people have demanded or taken any thing for forwarding the payment of the wages of any man (of which he sent us a copy yesterday, which we approved of) is set up, among other places, upon the House of Lords' door. I do not know how wisely this is done.

Poll Bill

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1667. This morning come Captain. Cocke (age 50) to me, and tells me that the King (age 36) comes to the House this day to pass the Poll Bill and the Irish Bill; he tells me too that, though the Faction is very froward in the House, yet all will end well there. But he says that one had got a Bill ready to present in the House against Sir W. Coventry (age 39), for selling of places, and says he is certain of it, and how he was withheld from doing it. He says, that the Vice-chamberlaine (age 57) is now one of the greatest men in England again, and was he that did prevail with the King (age 36) to let the Irish Bill go with the word "Nuisance".

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1667. This afternoon I saw the Poll Bill, now printed; wherein I do fear I shall be very deeply concerned, being to be taxed for all my offices, and then for my money that I have, and my title, as well as my head. It is a very great tax; but yet I do think it is so perplexed, it will hardly ever be collected duly. The late invention of Sir G. Downing's (age 42) is continued of bringing all the money into the Exchequer; and Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) three pence is turned for all the money of this act into but a penny per pound, which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1667. So from hence to White Hall, and in the streete Sir G. Carteret (age 57) showed me a gentleman coming by in his coach, who hath been sent for up out of Lincolneshire, I think he says he is a justice of peace there, that the Council have laid by the heels here, and here lies in a messenger's hands, for saying that a man and his wife are but one person, and so ought to pay but 12d. for both to the Poll Bill; by which others were led to do the like: and so here he lies prisoner.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1667. Lord's Day. Up betimes and down to the Old Swan [Map], there called on Michell and his wife, which in her night linen appeared as pretty almost as ever to my thinking I saw woman. Here I drank some burnt brandy. They shewed me their house, which, poor people, they have built, and is very pretty. I invited them to dine with me, and so away to White Hall to Sir W. Coventry (age 39), with whom I have not been alone a good while, and very kind he is, and tells me how the business is now ordered by order of council for my Lord Bruncker (age 47) to assist Sir J. Minnes (age 67) in all matters of accounts relating to the Treasurer, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) in all matters relating to the victuallers' and pursers' accounts, which I am very glad of, and the more for that I think it will not do me any hurt at all. Other discourse, much especially about the heat the House was in yesterday about the ill management of the Navy, which I was sorry to hear; though I think they were well answered, both by Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), as he informs me the substance of their speeches.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1667. Thence with them to Westminster Hall [Map], they setting me down at White Hall, where I missed of finding Sir G. Carteret (age 57), up to the Lords' House, and there come mighty seasonably to hear the Solicitor about my Lord Buckingham's (age 38) pretence to the title of Lord Rosse. Mr. Atturny Montagu (age 49) is also a good man, and so is old Sir P. Ball; but the Solicitor and Scroggs after him are excellent men.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1667. Thence I up to the King's closet, and there heard a good Anthem, and discoursed with several people here about business, among others with Lord Bellasses (age 52), and so from one to another after sermon till the King (age 36) had almost dined, and then home with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and dined with him, being mightily ashamed of my not having seen my [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jemimah so long, and my wife not at all yet since she come, but she shall soon do it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1667. By and by to dinner, where very good company. Among other discourse, we talked much of Nostradamus1 his prophecy of these times, and the burning of the City of London, some of whose verses are put into Booker's' Almanack this year; and Sir G. Carteret (age 57) did tell a story, how at his death he did make the town swear that he should never be dug up, or his tomb opened, after he was buried; but they did after sixty years do it, and upon his breast they found a plate of brasse, saying what a wicked and unfaithful people the people of that place were, who after so many vows should disturb and open him such a day and year and hour; which, if true, is very strange.

Note 1. Michael Nostradamus, a physician and astrologer, born in the diocese of Avignon, 1503. Amongst other predictions, one was interpreted as foreshowing the singular death of Hen. II of France, by which his reputation was increased.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1667. I to the Chapel a little, but hearing nothing did take a turn into the Park, and then back to Chapel and heard a very good Anthem to my heart's delight, and then to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) to dinner, and before dinner did walk with him alone a good while, and from him hear our case likely for all these acts to be bad for money, which troubles me, the year speeding so fast, and he tells me that he believes the Duke of York (age 33) will go to sea with the fleete, which I am sorry for in respect to his person, but yet there is no person in condition to command the fleete, now the Captains are grown so great, but him, it being impossible for anybody else but him to command any order or discipline among them. He tells me there is nothing at all in the late discourse about my Lord Sandwich (age 41) and the French Embassador meeting and contending for the way, which I wonder at, to see the confidence of report without any ground.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], thinking to see Betty Michell, she staying there all night, and had hopes to get her out alone, but missed, and so away by coach home, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), to tell him my bad news, and then to the office, and home to supper, where Mrs. Hewer was, and after supper and she gone, W. Hewer (age 25) talking with me very late of the ill manner of Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) accounts being kept, and in what a sad condition he would be if either Fenn or Wayth should break or die, and am resolved to take some time to tell Sir G. Carteret (age 57) or my Lady of it, I do love them so well and their family.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1667. So to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) chamber, and find him within, and with a letter from the Downes in his hands, telling the loss of the St. Patricke coming from Harwich [Map] in her way to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; and would needs chase two ships (she having the Malago fire-ship in company) which from English colours put up Dutch, and he would clap on board the Vice-Admirall; and after long dispute the Admirall comes on the other side of him, and both together took him. Our fire-ship (Seely) not coming in to fire all three, but come away, leaving her in their possession, and carried away by them: a ship built at Bristoll the last year, of fifty guns and upwards, and a most excellent good ship. This made him very melancholy. I to talk of our wants of money, but I do find that he is not pleased with that discourse, but grieves to hear it, and do seem to think that Sir G. Carteret (age 57) do not mind the getting of money with the same good cheer that he did heretofore, nor do I think he hath the same reason.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1667. Another thing is, the acquainting the Duke of York (age 33) with the case of Mr. Lanyon, our agent at Plymouth, Devon [Map], who has trusted us to £8000 out of purse; we are not in condition, after so many promises, to obtain him a farthing, nor though a message was carried by Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) to the Commissioners for Prizes, that he might have £3000 out of £20,000 worth of prizes to be shortly sold there, that he might buy at the candle and pay for the goods out of bills, and all would [not] do any thing, but that money must go all another way, while the King's service is undone, and those that trust him perish. These things grieve me to the heart.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. At home, by appointment, comes Captain Cocke (age 50) to me, to talk of State matters, and about the peace; who told me that the whole business is managed between Kevet, Burgomaster of Amsterdam, and my Lord Arlington (age 49), who hath, by the interest of his wife there, some interest. We have proposed the Hague, but know not yet whether the Dutch will like it; or; if they do, whether the French will. We think we shall have the help of the information of their affairs and state, and the helps of the Prince of Orange (age 16) his faction; but above all, that De Witt, who hath all this while said he cannot get peace, his mouth will now be stopped, so that he will be forced to offer fit terms for fear of the people; and, lastly, if France or Spayne do not please us, we are in a way presently to clap up a peace with the Dutch, and secure them. But we are also in treaty with France, as he says: but it must be to the excluding our alliance with the King (age 36) of Spayne or House of Austria; which we do not know presently what will be determined in. He tells me the Vice-Chamberlaine is so great with the King (age 36), that, let the Duke of York (age 33), and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and this office, do or say what they will, while the King (age 36) lives, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) will do what he will; and advises me to be often with him, and eat and drink with him.; and tells me that he doubts he is jealous of me, and was mighty mad to-day at our discourse to him before the Duke of York (age 33). But I did give him my reasons that the office is concerned to declare that, without money, the King's work cannot go on.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. Having done here we broke up; having done nothing almost though for all this, and by and by I met Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and he is stark mad at what has passed this morning, and I believe is heartily vexed with me: I said little, but I am sure the King (age 36) will suffer if some better care be not taken than he takes to look after this business of money.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1667. Then withdrew to his closett, all our business, lack of money and prospect of the effects of it, such as made Sir W. Coventry (age 39) say publickly before us all, that he do heartily wish that his Royal Highness had nothing to do in the Navy, whatever become of him; so much dishonour, he says, is likely to fall under the management of it. The Duke of York (age 33) was angry, as much as he could be, or ever I saw him, with Sir G. Carteret (age 57), for not paying the masters of some ships on Monday last, according to his promise, and I do think Sir G. Carteret (age 57) will make himself unhappy by not taking some course either to borrow more money or wholly lay aside his pretence to the charge of raising money, when he hath nothing to do to trouble himself with.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1667. By and by sent for to Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to discourse of the business of the Navy, and our wants, and the best way of bestowing the little money we have, which is about £30,000, but, God knows, we have need of ten times as much, which do make my life uncomfortable, I confess, on the King's behalf, though it is well enough as to my own particular, but the King's service is undone by it. Having done with him, back again to the office, and in the streets, in Mark Lane [Map], I do observe, it being St. David's day, the picture of a man dressed like a Welchman, hanging by the neck upon one of the poles that stand out at the top of one of the merchants' houses, in full proportion, and very handsomely done; which is one of the oddest sights I have seen a good while, for it was so like a man that one would have thought it was indeed a man1. Being returned home, I find Greeting, the flageolet-master, come, and teaching my wife; and I do think my wife will take pleasure in it, and it will be easy for her, and pleasant. So I, as I am well content with the charge it will occasion me.

Note 1. From "Poor Robin's Almanack" for 1757 it appears that, in former times in England, a Welshman was burnt in effigy on this anniversary. Mr. W. C. Hazlitt, in his edition of Brand's "Popular Antiquities", adds "The practice to which Pepys refers... was very common at one time; and till very lately bakers made gingerbread Welshmen, called taffies, on St. David's day, which were made to represent a man skewered" (vol. i., pp. 60,61).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1667. Up, and to the Old Swan [Map], where drank at Michell's, but not seeing her whom I love I by water to White Hall, and there acquainted Sir G. Carteret (age 57) betimes what I had to say this day before the Duke of York (age 33) in the business of Carcasse, which he likes well of, being a great enemy to him, and then I being too early here to go to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) chamber, having nothing to say to him, and being able to give him but a bad account of the business of the office (which is a shame to me, and that which I shall rue if I do not recover), to the Exchequer about getting a certificate of Mr. Lanyon's entered at Sir R. Longs (age 67) office, and strange it is to see what horrid delays there are at this day in the business of money, there being nothing yet come from my Lord Treasurer (age 59) to set the business of money in action since the Parliament broke off, notwithstanding the greatness and number of the King's occasions for it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1667. So to the Swan [Map], and there had three or four baisers of the little ancilla there, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where I saw Mr. Martin, the purser, come through with a picture in his hand, which he had bought, and observed how all the people of the Hall did fleer and laugh upon him, crying, "There is plenty grown upon a sudden"; and, the truth is, I was a little troubled that my favour should fall on so vain a fellow as he, and the more because, methought, the people do gaze upon me as the man that had raised him, and as if they guessed whence my kindness to him springs. So thence to White Hall, where I find all met at the Duke of York's (age 33) chamber; and, by and by, the Duke of York (age 33) comes, and Carcasse is called in, and I read the depositions and his answers, and he added with great confidence and good words, even almost to persuasion, what to say; and my Lord Bruncker (age 47), like a very silly solicitor, argued against me and us all for him; and, being asked first by the Duke of York