Biography of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester 1607-1667

Paternal Family Tree: Wriothesley

Maternal Family Tree: Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton 1572-1655

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Poll Bill

On 04 Oct 1581 [his grandfather] Henry Wriothesley 2nd Earl of Southampton (age 36) died. His son [his father] Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 7) succeeded 3rd Earl of Southampton. His wardship was sold by the Queen to her kinsman, Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham (age 45), for £1000. Howard then transferred his wardship to William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 61).

On 30 Aug 1598 [his father] Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 24) and [his mother] Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton (age 26) were married. She by marriage Countess of Southampton. He the son of Henry Wriothesley 2nd Earl of Southampton and Mary Browne Countess Southampton (age 46).

On 10 Mar 1607 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester was born to Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 33) and Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton (age 35).

On 10 Nov 1624 [his father] Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 51) died. He was buried at Titchfield, Hampshire [Map]. His son Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 17) succeeded 4th Earl of Southampton.

In or before 1636 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 28) and Rachel Massue Countess Southampton (age 32) were married. She by marriage Countess of Southampton. He the son of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton and Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton (age 63).

Around 1636 [his daughter] Rachel Wriothesley was born to Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 28) and [his wife] Rachel Massue Countess Southampton (age 33).

Around 1637 Richard Molyneux 2nd Viscount Molyneux (age 18) and [his future wife] Frances Seymour Countess Southampton (age 19) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Molyneux. She the daughter of William Seymour 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 49) and Frances Devereux Duchess of Somerset (age 37). She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 16 Feb 1640 [his wife] Rachel Massue Countess Southampton (age 37) died.

In 1644 [his future father-in-law] Francis Leigh 1st Earl Chichester (age 45) was created 1st Earl Chichester with special remainder to Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 36) who was the husband of his daughter [his future wife] Elizabeth Leigh Countess Southampton (age 23). [his future mother-in-law] Audrey Boteler Countess Chichester by marriage Countess Chichester.

Before 1646 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 38) and Elizabeth Leigh Countess Southampton (age 25) were married. She by marriage Countess of Southampton. She the daughter of Francis Leigh 1st Earl Chichester (age 47) and Audrey Boteler Countess Chichester. He the son of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton and Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton (age 73).

In 1646 [his daughter] Elizabeth Wriothesley Countess Gainsborough was born to Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 38) and [his wife] Elizabeth Leigh Countess Southampton (age 25).

In 1646 [his daughter] Elizabeth Wriothesley Countess Northumberland was born to Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 38) and [his wife] Elizabeth Leigh Countess Southampton (age 25).

In 1650 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 42) was appointed 448th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19).

On 21 Dec 1653 [his father-in-law] Francis Leigh 1st Earl Chichester (age 55) died. Baronet Leigh of Newnham in Warwickshire, Baron Dunsmore of Dunsmore in Warwickshire extinct.

His son-in-law Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 46) succeeded 2nd Earl Chichester.

On 23 Sep 1655 [his mother] Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton (age 83) died at Hodnet, Shropshire.

On 23 Nov 1655 [his wife] Elizabeth Leigh Countess Southampton (age 35) died.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 May 1656. The Earl of Southampton (age 49) (since Treasurer) and Mr. Spencer (age 27), brother to the Earl of Sunderland, came to see my garden.

On 07 May 1659 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 52) and Frances Seymour Countess Southampton (age 41) were married. She by marriage Countess of Southampton. She the daughter of William Seymour 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 71) and Frances Devereux Duchess of Somerset (age 59). He the son of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton and Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Around 1660 Peter Lely (age 41). Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 52) holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Around 1660 Southampton Square was developed on behalf of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 52). The Earl's house Southampton House, subsequently Bedford House, occupied the north side.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1660. My letters tell me, that Mr. Calamy1 had preached before the King in a surplice (this I heard afterwards to be false); that my Lord, Gen. Monk (age 51), and three more Lords, are made Commissioners for the Treasury2; that my Lord had some great place conferred on him, and they say Master of the Wardrobe3; that the two Dukes [Duke of York and Duke of Gloucester.] do haunt the Park much, and that they were at a play, Madam Epicene,-["Epicene, or the Silent Woman", a comedy, by Ben Jonson.] the other day; that Sir. Ant. Cooper (age 38), Mr. Hollis (age 60), and Mr. Annesly (age 45), & late President of the Council of State, are made Privy Councillors to the King. At night very busy sending Mr. Donne away to London, and wrote to my father for a coat to be made me against I come to London, which I think will not be long. At night Mr. Edward Montagu came on board and staid long up with my Lord. I to bed and about one in the morning,

Note 1. Edmund Calamy, D.D., the celebrated Nonconformist divine, born February, 1600, appointed Chaplain to Charles II., 1660. He refused the bishopric of Lichfield which was offered to him. Died October 29th, 1666.

Note 2. The names of the Commissioners were Sir Edward Hyde (age 51), afterwards Earl of Clarendon, General Monk (age 51), Thomas, Earl of Southampton (age 53), John, Lord Robartes (age 54), Thomas, Lord Colepeper (age 60), Sir Edward Montagu, with Sir Edward Nicholas (age 67) and Sir William Morrice (age 57) as principal Secretaries of State. The patents are dated June 19th, 1660.

Note 3. The duty of the Master of the Wardrobe was to provide "proper furniture for coronations, marriages, and funerals" of the sovereign and royal family, "cloaths of state, beds, hangings, and other necessaries for the houses of foreign ambassadors, cloaths of state for Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Prince of Wales, and ambassadors abroad", as also to provide robes for Ministers of State, Knights of the Garter, &c. The last Master of the Wardrobe was Ralph, Duke of Montague (age 21), who died 1709.

Around 1661 [his son-in-law] Edward Noel 1st Earl Gainsborough (age 20) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Wriothesley Countess Gainsborough (age 15) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 53) and Elizabeth Leigh Countess Southampton. They were third cousin once removed.

On 07 May 1661 Charles Boyle 3rd Baron Clifford (age 21) and [his sister-in-law] Jane Seymour Baroness Clifford (age 24) were married. She the daughter of William Seymour 2nd Duke of Somerset and Frances Devereux Duchess of Somerset (age 61). He the son of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington (age 48) and Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington (age 47). She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1662. Sir George (age 52) and I, and his clerk Mr. Stephens, and Mr. Holt our guide, over to Gosport; and so rode to Southampton. In our way, besides my Lord Southampton's' (age 55) parks and lands, which in one view we could see £6,000 per annum, we observed a little church-yard, where the graves are accustomed to be all sowed with sage1.

Note 1. Gough says, "It is the custom at this day all over Wales to strew the graves, both within and without the church, with green herbs, branches of box, flowers, rushes, and flags, for one year, after which such as can afford it lay down a stone".-Brand's Popular Antiquities, edited W. C. Hazlitt, vol. ii., p. 218.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1662. At the office forenoon and afternoon till late at night, very busy answering my Lord Treasurer's (age 55) letter, and my mind troubled till we come to some end with Sir J. Minnes (age 63) about our lodgings, and so home. And after some pleasant discourse and supper to bed, and in my dream much troubled by being with Will. Swan, a great fanatic, my old acquaintance, and, methought, taken and led up with him for a plotter, all our discourse being at present about the late plots.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1662. So to my office, where we met this afternoon about answering a great letter of my Lord Treasurer's (age 55), and that done to my office drawing up a letter to him, and so home to supper.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1662. Thence walked home, and my wife came home, having been abroad to-day, laying out above £12 in linen, and a copper, and a pot, and bedstead, and other household stuff, which troubles me also, so that my mind to-night is very heavy and divided. Late at my office, drawing up a letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 55), which we have been long about, and so home, and, my mind troubled, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1662. Thence to the office, where I sat all the morning, then dined; Mr. Moore with me, at home, my wife busy putting her furniture in order. Then he and I out, and he home and I to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45) to advise about treating with my uncle Thomas, and thence called at the Wardrobe on Mr. Moore again, and so home, and after doing much business at my office I went home and caused a new fashion knocker to be put on my door, and did other things to the putting my house in order, and getting my outward door painted, and the arch. This day I bought the book of country dances against my wife's woman Gosnell comes, who dances finely; and there meeting Mr. Playford (age 39) he did give me his Latin songs of Mr. Deering's, which he lately printed. This day Mr. Moore told me that for certain the Queen-Mother (age 52) is married to my Lord St. Albans (age 57), and he is like to be made Lord Treasurer (age 55). Newes that Sir J. Lawson (age 47) hath made up a peace now with Tunis and Tripoli, as well as Argiers, by which he will come home very highly honoured.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1662. So to the Duke (age 29) and Mr. Coventry (age 34), and alone, the rest being at a Pay and elsewhere, and alone with Mr. Coventry (age 34) I did read over our letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 55), which I think now is done as well as it can be.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1662. After dinner staid within all the afternoon, being vexed in my mind about the going away of Sarah this afternoon, who cried mightily, and so was I ready to do, and Jane did also, and then anon went Gosnell away, which did trouble me too; though upon many considerations, it is better that I am rid of the charge. All together makes my house appear to me very lonely, which troubles me much, and in a melancholy humour I went to the office, and there about business sat till I was called to Sir G. Carteret (age 52) at the Treasury office about my Lord Treasurer's (age 55) letter, wherein he puts me to a new trouble to write it over again.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1662. This morning rose, receiving a messenger from Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and a letter from Mr. Coventry (age 34), one contrary to another, about our letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 55), at which I am troubled, but I went to Sir George (age 52), and being desirous to please both, I think I have found out a way to do it.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Dec 1662. At noon he dined with me, and we sat all the afternoon together, discoursing of ways to get money, which I am now giving myself wholly up to, and in the evening he went away and I to my office, concluding all matters concerning our great letter so long in doing to my Lord Treasurer (age 55), till almost one in the morning, and then home with my mind much eased, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1662. Hither came Jack Spicer to me, and I took him to the Swan [Map], where Mr. Herbert did give me my breakfast of cold chine of pork; and here Spicer and I talked of Exchequer matters, and how the Lord Treasurer (age 55) hath now ordered all monies to be brought into the Exchequer, and hath settled the King's revenue, and given to every general expence proper assignments; to the Navy £200,000 and odd. He also told me of the great vast trade of the goldsmiths in supplying the King (age 32) with money at dear rates.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1663. Here dined with me Dr. Whore and Mr. Scawen. Therewith him and Mr. Bland, whom we met by the way, to my Chancellor's (age 53), where the King (age 32) was to meet my Lord Treasurer (age 55), &c., many great men, to settle the revenue of Tangier. I staid talking awhile there, but the King (age 32) not coming I walked to my brother's, where I met my cozen Scotts (Tom not being at home) and sent for a glass of wine for them, and having drunk we parted, and I to the Wardrobe talking with Mr. Moore about my law businesses, which I doubt will go ill for want of time for me to attend them.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1663. Up betimes and to my office, where busy all the morning, and at noon, after a very little dinner, to it again, and by and by, by appointment, our full board met, and Sir Philip Warwick (age 53) and Sir Robert Long (age 63) came from my Lord Treasurer (age 56) to speak with us about the state of the debts of the Navy; and how to settle it, so as to begin upon the new foundation of £200,000 per annum, which the King (age 32) is now resolved not to exceed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1663. With Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir John Minnes (age 64) by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 56), thinking to have spoken about getting money for paying the Yards; but we found him with some ladies at cards: and so, it being a bad time to speak, we parted, and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I home, and after walking with my wife in the garden late, to supper and to bed, being somewhat troubled at Ashwell's desiring and insisting over eagerly upon her going to a ball to meet some of her old companions at a dancing school here in town next Friday, but I am resolved she shall not go.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1663. So to the Exchange [Map] and then home to dinner, and very merry and well pleased with my wife, and so to the office again, where we met extraordinary upon drawing up the debts of the Navy to my Lord Treasurer (age 56). So rose and up to Sir W. Pen (age 42) to drink a glass of bad syder in his new far low dining room, which is very noble, and so home, where Captain Ferrers and his lady are come to see my wife, he being to go the beginning of next week to France to sea and I think to fetch over my young Lord Hinchinbroke. They being gone I to my office to write letters by the post, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1663. About this all the morning, only Mr. Bland came to me about some business of his, and told me the news, which holds to be true, that the Portuguese did let in the Spaniard by a plot, and they being in the midst of the country and we believing that they would have taken the whole country, they did all rise and kill the whole body, near 8,000 men, and Don John of Austria (age 34) having two horses killed under him, was forced with one man to flee away. Sir George Carteret (age 53) at the office (after dinner, and Creed being gone, for both now and yesterday I was afraid to have him seen by Sir G. Carteret (age 53) with me, for fear that he should increase his doubt that I am of a plot with Creed in the business of his accounts) did tell us that upon Tuesday last, being with my Lord Treasurer (age 56), he showed him a letter from Portugall speaking of the advance of the Spaniards into their country, and yet that the Portuguese were never more courageous than now; for by an old prophecy, from France, sent thither some years, though not many since, from the French King, it is foretold that the Spaniards should come into their country, and in such a valley they should be all killed, and then their country should be wholly delivered from the Spaniards. This was on Tuesday last, and yesterday came the very first news that in this very valley they had thus routed and killed the Spaniards, which is very strange but true.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1663. Lord's Day. Early in the morning my last night's physic worked and did give me a good stool, and then I rose and had three or four stools, and walked up and down my chamber. Then up, my maid rose and made me a posset, and by and by comes Mr. Creed, and he and I spent all the morning discoursing against to-morrow before the Duke the business of his pieces of eight, in which the Treasurer (age 56) makes so many queries.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1663. So he and I to the Park, where we understand that the King (age 33) and Duke (age 29) are gone out betimes this morning on board the East India ships lately come in, and so our meeting appointed is lost. But he and I walked at the further end of the Park, not to be observed, whither by and by comes my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and he and we walked two hours and more in the Park and then in White Hall Gallery, and lastly in White Hall garden, discoursing of Mr. Creed's accounts, and how to answer the Treasurer's (age 56) objections. I find that the business is £500 deep, the advantage of Creed, and why my Lord and I should be concerned to promote his profit with so much dishonour and trouble to us I know not, but however we shall do what we can, though he deserves it not, for there is nothing even to his own advantage that can be got out of him, but by mere force. So full of policy he is in the smallest matters, that I perceive him to be made up of nothing but design.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. The Duke (age 29) being ready, we retired with him, and there fell upon Mr. Creed's business, where the Treasurer (age 56) did, like a mad coxcomb, without reason or method run over a great many things against the account, and so did Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), which the Duke himself and Mr. Coventry (age 35) and my Lord Barkely (age 61) and myself did remove, and Creed being called in did answer all with great method and excellently to the purpose (myself I am a little conscious did not speak so well as I purposed and do think I used to do, that is, not so intelligibly and persuasively, as I well hoped I should), not that what I said was not well taken, and did carry the business with what was urged and answered by Creed and Mr. Coventry (age 35), till the Duke himself did declare that he was satisfied, and my Lord Barkely (age 61) offered to lay £100 that the King (age 33) would receive no wrong in the account, and the two last knights held their tongues, or at least by not understanding it did say what made for Mr. Creed, and so Sir G. Carteret (age 53) was left alone, but yet persisted to say that the account was not good, but full of corruption and foul dealing. And so we broke up to his shame, but I do fear to the loss of his friendship to me a good while, which I am heartily troubled for.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1663. Thence, it raining as hard as it could pour down, home to the Hillhouse, and anon to supper, and after supper, Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I had great discourse with Captain Cox and Mr. Hempson about business of the yard, and particularly of pursers' accounts with Hempson, who is a cunning knave in that point. So late to bed and, Mr. Wayth being gone, I lay above in the Treasurer's (age 56) bed and slept well. About one or two in the morning the curtains of my bed being drawn waked me, and I saw a man stand there by the inside of my bed calling me French dogg 20 times, one after another, and I starting, as if I would get out of the bed, he fell a-laughing as hard as he could drive, still calling me French dogg, and laid his hand on my shoulder. At last, whether I said anything or no I cannot tell, but I perceived the man, after he had looked wistly upon me, and found that I did not answer him to the names that he called me by, which was Salmon, Sir Carteret's clerk, and Robt. Maddox, another of the clerks, he put off his hat on a suddaine, and forebore laughing, and asked who I was, saying, "Are you Mr. Pepys?" I told him yes, and now being come a little better to myself, I found him to be Tom Willson, Sir W. Batten's (age 62) clerk, and fearing he might be in some melancholy fit, I was at a loss what to do or say. At last I asked him what he meant. He desired my pardon for that he was mistaken, for he thought verily, not knowing of my coming to lie there, that it had been Salmon, the Frenchman, with whom he intended to have made some sport. So I made nothing of it, but bade him good night, and I, after a little pause, to sleep again, being well pleased that it ended no worse, and being a little the better pleased with it, because it was the Surveyor's clerk, which will make sport when I come to tell Sir W. Batten (age 62) of it, it being a report that old Edgeborough, the former Surveyor, who died here, do now and then walk.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Aug 1663. Dined at Sir Philip Warwick's (age 53), Secretary to my Lord Treasurer (age 56), who showed me the accounts and other private matters relating to the revenue. Thence, to the Commissioners of the Mint, particularly about coinage, and bringing his Majesty's (age 33) rate from fifteen to ten shillings for every pound weight of gold.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1663. Up and to my viall a while, and then to my office on Phillips having brought me a draught of the Katherine yacht, prettily well done for the common way of doing it. At the office all the morning making up our last half year's account to my Lord Treasurer (age 56), which comes to £160,000 or there abouts, the proper expense of this half year, only with an addition of £13,000 for the third due of the last account to the Treasurer for his disbursements, and £1100 for this half year's; so that in three years and a half his thirds come to £14,100.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1663. After dinner, and long discourse, he went away to meet on Monday morning, and I to my office, and thence by water to White Hall and Westminster Hall [Map] about several businesses, and so home, and to my office writing a laborious letter about our last account to my Lord Treasurer (age 56), which took me to one o'clock in the morning,

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. Thence, after walking a good while in the Long gallery, home to my Lord's lodging, my Lord telling me how my father did desire him to speak to me about my giving of my sister something, which do vex me to see that he should trouble my Lord in it, but however it is a good occasion for me to tell my Lord my condition, and so I was glad of it. After that we begun to talk of the Court, and he tells me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) begins to show respect to him again after his endeavouring to bespatter him all was, possible; but he is resolved never to admit him into his friendship again. He tells me how he and Sir H. Bennet (age 45), the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) and his Duchesse (age 25), was of a committee with somebody else for the getting of Mrs. Stewart (age 16) for the King (age 33); but that she proves a cunning slut, and is advised at Somerset House [Map] by the Queene-Mother (age 24), and by her mother (age 53), and so all the plot is spoiled and the whole committee broke. Mr. Montagu (age 28) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) fallen a-pieces, the Duchesse (age 25) going to a nunnery; and so Montagu begins to enter friendship with my Lord, and to attend the Chancellor (age 54) whom he had deserted. My Lord tells me that Mr. Montagu (age 28), among other things, did endeavour to represent him to the Chancellor's (age 54) sons as one that did desert their father in the business of my Lord of Bristol (age 51); which is most false, being the only man that hath several times dined with him when no soul hath come to him, and went with him that very day home when the Earl impeached him in the Parliament House, and hath refused ever to pay a visit to my Lord of Bristol (age 51), not so much as in return to a visit of his. So that the Chancellor (age 54) and my Lord are well known and trusted one by another. But yet my Lord blames the Chancellor (age 54) for desiring to have it put off to the next Session of Parliament, contrary to my Lord Treasurer's (age 56) advice, to whom he swore he would not do it: and, perhaps, my Chancellor (age 54), for aught I see by my Lord's discourse, may suffer by it when the Parliament comes to sit. My Lord tells me that he observes the Duke of York (age 30) do follow and understand business very well, and is mightily improved thereby.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1663. Up, and to the office, where (Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]) the rest of us met, and rode at noon. So I to the 'Change [Map], where little business, and so home to dinner, and being at dinner Mr. Creed in and dined with us, and after dinner Mr. Gentleman, my Jane's father, to see us and her. And after a little stay with them, I was sent for by Sir G. Carteret (age 53) by agreement, and so left them, and to him and with him by coach to my Lord Treasurer (age 56), to discourse with him about Mr. Gauden's having of money, and to offer to him whether it would not be necessary, Mr. Gauden's credit being so low as it is, to take security of him if he demands any great sum, such as £20,000, which now ought to be paid him upon his next year's declaration. Which is a sad thing, that being reduced to this by us, we should be the first to doubt his credit; but so it is. However, it will be managed with great tenderness to him. My Lord Treasurer (age 56) we found in his bed-chamber, being laid up of the goute. I find him a very ready man, and certainly a brave servant to the King (age 33): he spoke so quick and sensibly of the King's charge. Nothing displeased me in him but his long nails, which he lets grow upon a pretty thick white short hand, that it troubled me to see them.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1663. Lord's Day. Up and to Alderman Backwell's (age 45), where Sir W. Rider, by appointment, met us to consult about the insuring of our hempe ship from Archangell, in which we are all much concerned, by my Lord Treasurer's (age 56) command.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1663. Thence to the Temple [Map], but being there too soon and meeting Mr. Moore I took him up and to my Lord Treasurer's (age 56), and thence to Sir Ph. Warwick's (age 53), where I found him and did desire his advice, who left me to do what I thought fit in this business of the insurance, and so back again to the Temple [Map] all the way telling Mr. Moore what had passed between my Lord and me yesterday, and indeed my fears do grow that my Lord will not reform as I hoped he would nor have the ingenuity to take my advice as he ought kindly. But however I am satisfied that the one person whom he said he would take leave to except is not Mr. Moore, and so W. Howe I am sure could tell him nothing of my letter that ever he saw it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1664. Up, and by coach called upon Mr. Phillips, and after a little talk with him away to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), but he being gone abroad, I staid a little and talked with Mr. Howe, and so to Westminster in term time, and there met Mr. Pierce, who told me largely how the King (age 33) still do doat upon his women, even beyond all shame; and that the good Queen (age 25) will of herself stop before she goes sometimes into her dressing-room, till she knows whether the King (age 33) be there, for fear he should be, as she hath sometimes taken him, with Mrs. Stewart (age 16); and that some of the best parts of the Queen's (age 25) joynture are, contrary to faith, and against the opinion of my Lord Treasurer (age 56) and his Council, bestowed or rented, I know not how, to my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 34) and Mrs. Stewart (age 16), and others of that crew that the King (age 33) do doat infinitely upon the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), apparently as one that he intends to have succeed him. God knows what will be the end of it!

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Feb 1664. I presented my "Sylva" to the Society; and next day to his Majesty (age 33), to whom it was dedicated; also to the Lord Treasurer (age 56) and the Lord Chancellor (age 54).

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. He showed me how many ways the Lord Treasurer (age 56) did take before he moved the King (age 33) to farme the Customes in the manner he do, and the reasons that moved him to do it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. And in my Lord Treasurer's (age 56) excellent letter to the King (age 33) upon this subject, he tells the King (age 33) how it was the spending more than the revenue that did give the first occasion of his father's ruine, and did since to the rebels; who, he says, just like Henry the Eighth, had great and sudden increase of wealth, but yet, by overspending, both died poor; and further tells the King (age 33) how much of this £1,200,000 depends upon the life of the Prince, and so must be renewed by Parliament again to his successor; which is seldom done without parting with some of the prerogatives of the Crowne; or if denied and he persists to take it of the people, it gives occasion to a civill war, which may, as it did in the late business of tonnage and poundage, prove fatal to the Crowne.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1664. Thence to White Hall; and in the Duke's (age 30) chamber, while he was dressing, two persons of quality that were there did tell his Royal Highness how the other night, in Holborne, about midnight, being at cards, a link-boy come by and run into the house, and told the people the house was a-falling. Upon this the whole family was frighted, concluding that the boy had said that the house was a-fire: so they deft their cards above, and one would have got out of the balcone, but it was not open; the other went up to fetch down his children, that were in bed; so all got clear out of the house. And no sooner so, but the house fell down indeed, from top to bottom. It seems my Lord Southampton's (age 57) canaille [sewer] did come too near their foundation, and so weakened the house, and down it came; which, in every respect, is a most extraordinary passage.

After Jun 1664 [his former brother-in-law] Stephen Anderson (age 56) died.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. Thence to my Lord's again, and my Lord being up, was sent for up, and he and I alone. He did begin with a most solemn profession of the same confidence in and love for me that he ever had, and then told me what a misfortune was fallen upon me and him: in me, by a displeasure which my Chancellor (age 55) did show to him last night against me, in the highest and most passionate manner that ever any man did speak, even to the not hearing of any thing to be said to him: but he told me, that he did say all that could be said for a man as to my faithfullnesse and duty to his Lordship, and did me the greatest right imaginable. And what should the business be, but that I should be forward to have the trees in Clarendon Park marked and cut down, which he, it seems, hath bought of my Lord Albemarle (age 55); when, God knows! I am the most innocent man in the world in it, and did nothing of myself, nor knew of his concernment therein, but barely obeyed my Lord Treasurer's (age 57) warrant for the doing thereof. And said that I did most ungentlemanlike with him, and had justified the rogues in cutting down a tree of his; and that I had sent the veriest Fanatique [Deane (age 30)] that is in England to mark them, on purpose to nose [provoke] him. All which, I did assure my Lord, was most properly false, and nothing like it true; and told my Lord the whole passage. My Lord do seem most nearly affected; he is partly, I believe, for me, and partly for himself. So he advised me to wait presently upon my Lord, and clear myself in the most perfect manner I could, with all submission and assurance that I am his creature both in this and all other things; and that I do owne that all I have, is derived through my Lord Sandwich (age 38) from his Lordship. So, full of horror, I went, and found him busy in tryals of law in his great room; and it being Sitting-day, durst not stay, but went to my Lord and told him so: whereupon he directed me to take him after dinner; and so away I home, leaving my Lord mightily concerned for me. I to the office, and there sat busy all the morning.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Jul 1664. I dined with my Lord Treasurer (age 57) at Southampton House, where his Lordship used me with singular humanity. I went in the afternoon to Chelsea, to wait on the Duke of Ormond (age 53), and returned to London.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1664. After church I walked to my Lady Sandwich's (age 39), through my Lord Southampton's (age 57) new buildings in the fields behind Gray's Inn; and, indeed, they are a very great and a noble work. So I dined with my Lady, and the same innocent discourse that we used to have, only after dinner, being alone, she asked me my opinion about Creed, whether he would have a wife or no, and what he was worth, and proposed Mrs. Wright for him, which, she says, she heard he was once inquiring after. She desired I would take a good time and manner of proposing it, and I said I would, though I believed he would love nothing but money, and much was not to be expected there, she said.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall [Map] at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (age 46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (age 57), the Dukes of Ormond (age 54) and Albemarle (age 55), Earl of Manchester (age 62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (age 34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1664. Home and eat something, and then shifted myself, and to White Hall, and there the King (age 34) being in his Cabinet Council (I desiring to speak with Sir G. Carteret (age 54)), I was called in, and demanded by the King (age 34) himself many questions, to which I did give him full answers. There were at this Council my Chancellor (age 55), Archbishop of Canterbury (age 66), Lord Treasurer (age 57), the two Secretarys, and Sir G. Carteret (age 54). Not a little contented at this chance of being made known to these persons, and called often by my name by the King (age 34), I to Mr. Pierces to take leave of him, but he not within, but saw her and made very little stay, but straight home to my office, where I did business, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1664. And so to the 'Change [Map], where mighty busy; and so home to dinner, where Mr. Creed and Moore: and after dinner I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 57), to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) there, and then to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), about Tangier; and then homeward to the Coffee-house to hear newes. And it seems the Dutch, as I afterwards found by Mr. Coventry's (age 36) letters, have stopped a ship of masts of Sir W. Warren's, coming for us in a Swede's ship, which they will not release upon Sir G. Downing's (age 39) claiming her: which appears as the first act of hostility; and is looked upon as so by Mr. Coventry (age 36).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1664. They gone, in the evening comes Mr. Andrews and sings with us, and he gone, I to Sir W. Batten's (age 63), where Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and he and I to talk about our letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 57), where his folly and simple confidence so great in a report so ridiculous that he hath drawn up to present to my Lord, nothing of it being true, that I was ashamed, and did roundly and in many words for an houre together talk boldly to him, which pleased Sir W. Batten (age 63) and my Lady, but I was in the right, and was the willinger to do so before them, that they might see that I am somebody, and shall serve him so in his way another time.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1664. And I had letters this afternoon, that three are brought into the Downes and Dover; so that the warr is begun: God give a good end to it! After dinner at home all the afternoon busy, and at night with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65) looking over the business of stating the accounts of the navy charge to my Lord Treasurer (age 57), where Sir J. Minnes's (age 65) paper served us in no stead almost, but was all false, and after I had done it with great pains, he being by, I am confident he understands not one word in it. At it till 10 at night almost.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1664. I wrote a letter to my mind and, after eating a bit at home (Mr. Sheply dining and taking his leave of me), abroad and to Sir G. Carteret (age 54) with the letter and thence to my Lord Treasurer's (age 57); wherewith Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) long studying all we could to make the last year swell as high as we could. And it is much to see how he do study for the King (age 34), to do it to get all the money from the Parliament all he can: and I shall be serviceable to him therein, to help him to heads upon which to enlarge the report of the expense. He did observe to me how obedient this Parliament was for awhile, and the last sitting how they begun to differ, and to carp at the King's officers; and what they will do now, he says, is to make agreement for the money, for there is no guess to be made of it. He told me he was prepared to convince the Parliament that the Subsidys are a most ridiculous tax (the four last not rising to £40,000), and unequall. He talks of a tax of Assessment of £70,000 for five years; the people to be secured that it shall continue no longer than there is really a warr; and the charges thereof to be paid. He told me, that one year of the late Dutch warr cost £1,623,000.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1664. Up and to my office, where close all the morning about my Lord Treasurer's (age 57) accounts, and at noon home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon very busy till very late at night, and then to supper and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Feb 1665. Dined at my Lord Treasurer's, the Earl of Southampton (age 57), in Bloomsbury, where he was building a noble square or piazza, a little town; his own house stands too low, some noble rooms, a pretty cedar chapel, a naked garden to the north, but good air. I had much discourse with his Lordship (age 57), whom I found to be a person of extraordinary parts, but a valetudinarian.-I went to St James' Park [Map], where I saw various animals, and examined the throat of the Onocrotylus, or pelican, a fowl between a stork and a swan; a melancholy water-fowl, brought from Astrakhan by the Russian Ambassador; it was diverting to see how he would toss up and turn a flat fish, plaice, or flounder, to get it right into his gullet at its lower beak, which, being filmy, stretches to a prodigious wideness when it devours a great fish. Here was also a small water-fowl, not bigger than a moorhen, that went almost quite erect, like the penguin of America; it would eat as much fish as its whole body weighed; I never saw so unsatiable a devourer, yet the body did not appear to swell the bigger. The solan geese here are also great devourers, and are said soon to exhaust all the fish in a pond. Here was a curious sort of poultry not much exceeding the size of a tame pigeon, with legs so short as their crops seemed to touch the earth; a milk-white raven; a stork, which was a rarity at this season, seeing he was loose, and could fly loftily; two Balearian cranes, one of which having had one of his legs broken and cut off above the knee, had a wooden or boxen leg and thigh, with a joint so accurately made that the creature could walk and use it as well as if it had been natural; it was made by a soldier. The park was at this time stored with numerous flocks of several sorts of ordinary and extraordinary wild fowl, breeding about the Decoy, which for being near so great a city, and among such a concourse of soldiers and people, is a singular and diverting thing. There were also deer of several countries, white; spotted like leopards; antelopes, an elk, red deer, roebucks, stags, Guinea goats, Arabian sheep, etc. There were withy-pots, or nests, for the wild fowl to lay their eggs in, a little above the surface of the water.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1665. Thence with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to my Lord Treasurer (age 58), and by and by come Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and anon we come to my Lord, and there did lay open the expence for the six months past, and an estimate of the seven months to come, to November next: the first arising to above £500,000, and the latter will, as we judge, come to above £1,000,000. But to see how my Lord Treasurer (age 58) did bless himself, crying he could do no more than he could, nor give more money than he had, if the occasion and expence were never so great, which is but a sad story. And then to hear how like a passionate and ignorant asse Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did harangue upon the abuse of Tickets did make me mad almost and yet was fain to hold my tongue.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1665. At noon eat a bit and stepped to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55), by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and after some private conference and examining of my papers with him I did return into the City and to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), whom I found with the Commissioners of Prizes dining at Captain Cocke's (age 48), in Broad Streete, very merry. Among other tricks, there did come a blind fiddler to the doore, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did go to the doore and lead the blind fiddler by the hand in.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1665. All the morning very busy at the office preparing a last half-year's account for my Lord Treasurer (age 58).

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1665. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and up and down, doing not much; then to London, but to prevent Povy's (age 51) dining with me (who I see is at the 'Change [Map]) I went back again and to Herbert's at Westminster, there sent for a bit of meat and dined, and then to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and there with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55), and thence to White Hall in my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) till dark night, about fower hours talking of the business of the Navy Charge, and how Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do order business, keeping us in ignorance what he do with his money, and also Sir Philip did shew me nakedly the King's condition for money for the Navy; and he do assure me, unless the King (age 34) can get some noblemen or rich money-gentlemen to lend him money, or to get the City to do it, it is impossible to find money: we having already, as he says, spent one year's share of the three-years' tax, which comes to £2,500,000. Being very glad of this day's discourse in all but that I fear I shall quite lose Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who knows that I have been privately here all this day with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55). However, I will order it so as to give him as little offence as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1665. Dined at home and thence to White Hall again (where I lose most of my time now-a-days to my great trouble, charge, and loss of time and benefit), and there, after the Council rose, Sir G. Carteret (age 55), my Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir Thomas Harvy (age 39), and myself, down to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber to him and the Chancellor (age 56), and the Duke of Albemarle (age 56); and there I did give them a large account of the charge of the Navy, and want of money. But strange to see how they held up their hands crying, "What shall we do?" Says my Lord Treasurer (age 58), "Why, what means all this, Mr. Pepys? This is true, you say; but what would you have me to do? I have given all I can for my life. Why will not people lend their money? Why will they not trust the King (age 34) as well as Oliver? Why do our prizes come to nothing, that yielded so much heretofore?" And this was all we could get, and went away without other answer, which is one of the saddest things that, at such a time as this, with the greatest action on foot that ever was in England, nothing should be minded, but let things go on of themselves do as well as they can.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1665. At noon with my wife and Mr. Moore by water to Chelsey about my Privy Seale (age 59) for Tangier, but my Lord Privy Seale (age 59) was gone abroad, and so we, without going out of the boat, forced to return, and found him not at White Hall. So I to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) and with him to my Lord Treasurer (age 58), who signed my commission for Tangier-Treasurer and the docquet of my Privy Seale, for the monies to be paid to me.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1665. Thence very much joyed to London back again, and found out Mr. Povy (age 51); told him this; and then went and left my Privy Seale at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58); and so to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Trinity-House; where a great dinner of Captain Crisp, who is made an Elder Brother.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1665. Thence to the Chappell and heard the famous young Stillingfleete (age 30), whom I knew at Cambridge, and is now newly admitted one of the King's chaplains; and was presented, they say, to my Lord Treasurer (age 58) for St. Andrew's, Holborne [Map], where he is now minister, with these words: that they (the Bishops of Canterbury, London, and another) believed he is the ablest young man to preach the Gospel of any since the Apostles. He did make the most plain, honest, good, grave sermon, in the most unconcerned and easy yet substantial manner, that ever I heard in my life, upon the words of Samuell to the people, "Fear the Lord in truth with all your heart, and remember the great things that he hath done for you". It being proper to this day, the day of the King's Coronation.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1665. Thence by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), but could not speak with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55). So by coach with my wife and Mercer to the Parke; but the King (age 34) being there, and I now-a-days being doubtfull of being seen in any pleasure, did part from the tour, and away out of the Parke to Knightsbridge, and there eat and drank in the coach, and so home, and after a while at my office, home to supper and to bed, having got a great cold I think by my pulling off my periwigg so often.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1665. Up, and to my office, where all the morning, at noon Creed dined with me; and, after dinner, walked in the garden, he telling me that my Lord Treasurer (age 58) now begins to be scrupulous, and will know what becomes of the £26,000 saved by my Lord Peterborough (age 43), before he parts with any more money, which puts us into new doubts, and me into a great fear, that all my cake will be doe still1. But I am well prepared for it to bear it, being not clear whether it will be more for my profit to have it, or go without it, as my profits of the Navy are likely now to be.

Note 1. An obsolete proverb, signifying to lose one's hopes, a cake coming out of the oven in a state of dough being considered spoiled. "My cake is dough; but I'll in among the rest; Out of hope of all, but my share in the feast". Shakespeare, Taming of the Shrew, act v., sc. i.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1665. Thence he and I out to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 55), but being not up we took a turn in the garden hard by, and thither comes Povy (age 51) to us. After some discourse of the reason of the difficulty that Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) makes in issuing a warrant for my striking of tallys, namely, the having a clear account of the £26,000 saved by my Lord of Peterborough (age 43), we parted, and I to Sir P. Warwicke (age 55), who did give me an account of his demurr, which I applied myself to remove by taking Creed with me to my Lord Ashly (age 43), from whom, contrary to all expectation, I received a very kind answer, just as we could have wished it, that he would satisfy my Lord Treasurer (age 58).

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1665. Thence got my Lord Ashly (age 43) to my Lord Treasurer (age 58) below in his chamber, and there removed the scruple, and by and by brought Mr. Sherwin to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) and did the like, and so home, and after a while at my office, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1665. All the morning busy at the office. In the afternoon to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and there got my Lord Treasurer (age 58) to sign the warrant for my striking of tallys, and so doing many jobbs in my way home, and there late writeing letters, being troubled in my mind to hear that Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) do take notice that I am now-a-days much from the office upon no office business, which vexes me, and will make me mind my business the better, I hope in God; but what troubles me more is, that I do omit to write, as I should do, to Mr. Coventry (age 37), which I must not do, though this night I minded it so little as to sleep in the middle of my letter to him, and committed forty blotts and blurrs in my letter to him, but of this I hope never more to be guilty, if I have not already given him sufficient offence. So, late home, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1665. Thence to my Lord Ashly (age 43) to a Committee of Tangier for my Lord Rutherford's accounts, and that done we to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), where I did receive my Lord's warrant to Sir R. Long (age 65) for drawing a warrant for my striking of tallys.

Pepy's Diary. 05 May 1665. Up betimes, and by water to Westminster, there to speak the first time with Sir Robert Long (age 65), to give him my Privy Seal and my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) order for Tangier Tallys; he received me kindly enough.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1665. Thence with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) in his coach to my Lord Treasurer (age 58), and there was before the King (age 34) (who ever now calls me by my name) and Chancellor (age 56), and many other great Lords, discoursing about insuring of some of the King's goods, wherein the King (age 34) accepted of my motion that we should; and so away, well pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1665. Thence to the office, and meeting Creed away with him to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there thinking to have met the goldsmiths, at White Hall, but did not, and so appointed another time for my Lord to speak to them to advance us some money.

Battle of Lowestoft

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) by appointment of Sir Thomas Ingram's (age 50), to meet the Goldsmiths; where I met with the great news at last newly come, brought by Bab May (age 37) from the Duke of Yorke (age 31), that we have totally routed the Dutch; that the Duke (age 31) himself, the Prince (age 45), my Lord Sandwich (age 39), and Mr. Coventry (age 37) are all well: which did put me into such joy, that I forgot almost all other thoughts. The particulars I shall set down by and by.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. By and by comes Alderman Maynell and Mr. Viner (age 34), and there my Lord Treasurer (age 58) did intreat them to furnish me with money upon my tallys, Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) before my Lord declaring the King's changing of the hand from Mr. Povy (age 51) to me, whom he called a very sober person, and one whom the Lord Treasurer (age 58) would owne in all things that I should concern myself with them in the business of money. They did at present declare they could not part with money at present. My Lord did press them very hard, and I hope upon their considering we shall get some of them.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1665. Lay long in bed, my head akeing with too much thoughts I think last night. Up and to White Hall, and my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55), about Tangier business, and in my way met with Mr. Moore, who eases me in one point wherein I was troubled; which was, that I heard of nothing said or done by my Lord Sandwich (age 39): but he tells me that Mr. Cowling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, did hear the King (age 35) say that my Lord Sandwich (age 39) had done nobly and worthily. The King (age 35), it seems, is much troubled at the fall of my Lord of Falmouth (deceased); but I do not meet with any man else that so much as wishes him alive again, the world conceiving him a man of too much pleasure to do the King (age 35) any good, or offer any good office to him. But I hear of all hands he is confessed to have been a man of great honour, that did show it in this his going with the Duke, the most that ever any man did.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1665. So home to dinner, and then to the office, and down the River to Deptford, Kent [Map], and then back again and to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and up and down to look after my Tangier business, and so home to my office, then to supper and to bed. The Duke of Yorke (age 31) is sent for last night and expected to be here to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1665. Up, and to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 55) and other places, about Tangier business, but to little purpose. Among others to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there to speak with him, and waited in the lobby three long hours for to speake with him, to the trial of my utmost patience, but missed him at last, and forced to go home without it, which may teach me how I make others wait.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1665. To the office late, and then home to bed. It struck me very deep this afternoon going with a hackney coach from my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) down Holborne, the coachman I found to drive easily and easily, at last stood still, and come down hardly able to stand, and told me that he was suddenly struck very sicke, and almost blind, he could not see; so I 'light and went into another coach, with a sad heart for the poor man and trouble for myself, lest he should have been struck with the plague, being at the end of the towne that I took him up; but God have mercy upon us all! Sir John Lawson (age 50), I hear, is worse than yesterday: the King (age 35) went to see him to-day most kindly. It seems his wound is not very bad; but he hath a fever, a thrush, and a hickup, all three together, which are, it seems, very bad symptoms.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1665. My wife come to bed about one in the morning. I up and abroad about Tangier business, then back to the office, where we sat, and at noon home to dinner, and then abroad to Mr. Povy's (age 51), after I and Mr. Andrews had been with Mr. Ball and one Major Strange, who looks after the getting of money for tallys and is helping Mr. Andrews. I had much discourse with Ball, and it may be he may prove a necessary man for our turns. With Mr. Povy (age 51) I spoke very freely my indifference as to my place of Treasurer, being so much troubled in it, which he took with much seeming trouble, that I should think of letting go so lightly the place, but if the place can't be held I will. So hearing that my Lord Treasurer (age 58) was gone out of town with his family because of the sicknesse, I returned home without staying there, and at the office find Sir W. Pen (age 44) come home, who looks very well; and I am gladder to see him than otherwise I should be because of my hearing so well of him for his serviceablenesse in this late great action.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1666. Thence to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 56) and my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), but failed in my business; so home and in Fenchurch-streete [Map] met with Mr. Battersby; says he, "Do you see Dan Rawlinson's (age 52) door shut up?" (which I did, and wondered). "Why", says he, "after all the sickness, and himself spending all the last year in the country, one of his men is now dead of the plague, and his wife and one of his mayds sicke, and himself shut up"; which troubles me mightily.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jun 1665. To London, and represented the state of the sick and wounded to His Majesty (age 35) in Council, for want of money, he ordered I should apply to My Lord Treasurer (age 58) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (age 43), upon what funds to raise the money promised. We also presented to his Majesty (age 35) divers expedients for retrenchment of the charge.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. After dinner they parted. So I to White Hall, where I with Creed and Povy (age 51) attended my Lord Treasurer (age 58), and did prevail with him to let us have an assignment for 15 or £20,000, which, I hope, will do our business for Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1665. Up and to White Hall with Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and to the Committee of Tangier, where my Lord Treasurer (age 58) was, the first and only time he ever was there, and did promise us £15,000 for Tangier and no more, which will be short. But if I can pay Mr. Andrews all his money I care for no more, and the Bills of Exchange.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1665. There I met with Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and by and by was heard by my Chancellor (age 56) and Treasurer about our Tangier money, and my Lord Treasurer (age 58) had ordered me to forbear meddling with the £15,000 he offered me the other day, but, upon opening the case to them, they did offer it again, and so I think I shall have it, but my Lord General must give his consent in it, this money having been promised to him, and he very angry at the proposal. Here though I have not been in many years, yet I lacke time to stay, besides that it is, I perceive, an unpleasing thing to be at Court, everybody being fearful one of another, and all so sad, enquiring after the plague, so that I stole away by my horse to Kingston [Map], and there with trouble was forced, to press two sturdy rogues to carry me to London, and met at the waterside with Mr. Charnocke, Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 55) clerke, who had been in company and was quite foxed. I took him with me in my boat, and so away to Richmond, and there, by night, walked with him to Moreclacke, a very pretty walk, and there staid a good while, now and then talking and sporting with Nan the servant, who says she is a seaman's wife, and at last bade good night.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1665. Up, and my mind being at mighty ease from the dispatch of my business so much yesterday, I down to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), where with him a great while, and a great deale of private talke concerning my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) and his matters, and chiefly of the latter, I giving him great deale of advice about the necessity of his having caution concerning Fenn, and the many ways there are of his being abused by any man in his place, and why he should not bring his son in to look after his business, and more, to be a Commissioner of the Navy, which he listened to and liked, and told me how much the King (age 35) was his good Master, and was sure not to deny him that or any thing else greater than that, and I find him a very cunning man, whatever at other times he seems to be, and among other things he told me he was not for the fanfaroone1 to make a show with a great title, as he might have had long since, but the main thing to get an estate; and another thing, speaking of minding of business, "By God", says he, "I will and have already almost brought it to that pass, that the King (age 35) shall not be able to whip a cat, but I must be at the tayle of it". Meaning so necessary he is, and the King (age 35) and my Lord Treasurer (age 58) and all do confess it; which, while I mind my business, is my own case in this office of the Navy, and I hope shall be more, if God give me life and health.

Note 1. Fanfaron, French, from fanfare, a sounding of trumpets; hence, a swaggerer, or empty boaster.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1665. After dinner left them and I by water to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where much ado to be suffered to come into the towne because of the sicknesse, for fear I should come from London, till I told them who I was. So up to the church, where at the door I find Captain Cocke (age 48) in my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach, and he come out and walked with me in the church-yarde till the church was done, talking of the ill government of our Kingdom, nobody setting to heart the business of the Kingdom, but every body minding their particular profit or pleasures, the King (age 35) himself minding nothing but his ease, and so we let things go to wracke. This arose upon considering what we shall do for money when the fleete comes in, and more if the fleete should not meet with the Dutch, which will put a disgrace upon the King's actions, so as the Parliament and Kingdom will have the less mind to give more money, besides so bad an account of the last money, we fear, will be given, not half of it being spent, as it ought to be, upon the Navy. Besides, it is said that at this day our Lord Treasurer (age 58) cannot tell what the profit of Chimney money is, what it comes to per annum, nor looks whether that or any other part of the revenue be duly gathered as it ought; the very money that should pay the City the £200,000 they lent the King (age 35), being all gathered and in the hands of the Receiver and hath been long and yet not brought up to pay the City, whereas we are coming to borrow 4 or £500,000 more of the City, which will never be lent as is to be feared.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1665. After dinner, my Lord (age 45) and his mistress would see her home again, it being a most cursed rainy afternoon, having had none a great while before, and I, forced to go to the office on foot through all the rain, was almost wet to my skin, and spoiled my silke breeches almost. Rained all the afternoon and evening, so as my letters being done, I was forced to get a bed at Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find Sir W. Doyly (age 51), and he, and Evelyn (age 44) at supper; and I with them full of discourse of the neglect of our masters, the great officers of State, about all business, and especially that of money: having now some thousands prisoners, kept to no purpose at a great charge, and no money provided almost for the doing of it. We fell to talk largely of the want of some persons understanding to look after businesses, but all goes to rack. "For", says Captain Cocke (age 48), "my Lord Treasurer (age 58), he minds his ease, and lets things go how they will: if he can have his £8000 per annum, and a game at l'ombre, [Spanish card game] he is well. My Chancellor (age 56) he minds getting of money and nothing else; and my Lord Ashly (age 44) will rob the Devil and the Alter, but he will get money if it be to be got".

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1666. After dinner, being full of care and multitude of business, I took coach and my wife with me. I set her down at her mother's (having first called at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) and there spoke with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 56)), and I to the Exchequer about Tangier orders, and so to the Swan [Map] and there staid a little, and so by coach took up my wife, and at the Old Exchange [Map] bought a muffe, and so home and late at my letters, and so to supper and to bed, being now-a-days, for these four or five months, mightily troubled with my snoring in my sleep, and know not how to remedy it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1666. Up, and very busy to perform an oathe in finishing my Journall this morning for 7 or 8 days past. Then to several people attending upon business, among others Mr. Grant (age 45) and the executors of Barlow for the £25 due for the quarter before he died, which I scrupled to pay, being obliged but to pay every half year. Then comes Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute-master, whom I have not seen since the plague before, but he hath been in Westminster all this while very well; and tells me in the height of it, how bold people there were, to go in sport to one another's burials; and in spite too, ill people would breathe in the faces (out of their windows) of well people going by. Then to dinner before the 'Change [Map], and so to the 'Change [Map], and then to the taverne to talk with Sir William Warren, and so by coach to several places, among others to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there to meet my Lord Sandwich (age 40), but missed, and met him at [my] Chancellor's (age 56), and there talked with him about his accounts, and then about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and I find by him that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) has a worse game to play than my Lord Sandwich (age 40), for people are jeering at him, and he cries out of the business of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who strikes at all and do all.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. Thence with him to his paynter, Mr. Hales (age 66), who is drawing his picture, which will be mighty like him, and pleased me so, that I am resolved presently to have my wife's and mine done by him, he having a very masterly hand. So with mighty satisfaction to the 'Change [Map] and thence home, and after dinner abroad, taking Mrs. Mary Batelier with us, who was just come to see my wife, and they set me down at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and themselves went with the coach into the fields to take the ayre. I staid a meeting of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and the officers of the Navy and Ordnance. My Lord Treasurer (age 58) lying in bed of the gowte. Our business was discourse of the straits of the Navy for want of money, but after long discourse as much out of order as ordinary people's, we come to no issue, nor any money promised, or like to be had, and yet the worke must be done. Here I perceive Sir G. Carteret (age 56) had prepared himself to answer a choque of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), by offering of himself to shew all he had paid, and what is unpaid, and what moneys and assignments he hath in his hands, which, if he makes good, was the best thing he ever did say in his life, and the best timed, for else it must have fallen very foule on him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. So home. I find my wife gone out to Hales, her Paynter's (age 57), and I after a little dinner do follow her, and there do find him at worke, and with great content I do see it will be a very brave picture. Left her there, and I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), where Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) met me, and before my Lord Treasurer (age 58) and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) the state of our Navy debts were laid open, being very great, and their want of money to answer them openly professed, there being but £1,500,000 to answer a certaine expense and debt of £2,300,000.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1666. Went to my Lord Treasurer (age 58) for an assignment of £40,000 upon the last two quarters for support of the next year's charge. Next day, to Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Secretary of State, to desire them to propose it to the Council.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. He tells me my Lord of Suffolke (age 47), Lord Arlington (age 48), Archbishop of Canterbury (age 67), Lord Treasurer (age 58), Mr. Atturny Montagu (age 48), Sir Thomas Clifford (age 35) in the House of Commons, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and some others I cannot presently remember, are friends that I may rely on for him. He tells me my Chancellor (age 57) seems his very good friend, but doubts that he may not think him so much a servant of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) as he would have him, and indeed my Lord tells me he hath lately made it his business to be seen studious of the King's favour, and not of the Duke's, and by the King (age 35) will stand or fall, for factions there are, as he tells me, and God knows how high they may come.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1666. At noon dined and to the office again, and about 4 o'clock took coach and to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) and thence to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 56) new house by appointment, there to spend an houre in talking and we were together above an hour, and very good discourse about the state of the King (age 35) as to money, and particularly in the point of the Navy. He endeavours hard to come to a good understanding of Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) accounts, and by his discourse I find Sir G. Carteret (age 56) must be brought to it, and what a madman he is that he do not do it of himself, for the King (age 35) expects the Parliament will call upon him for his promise of giving an account of the money, and he will be ready for it, which cannot be, I am sure, without Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) accounts be better understood than they are. He seems to have a great esteem of me and my opinion and thoughts of things.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1666. Up (taking Balty (age 26) with me, who lay at my house last [night] in order to his going away to-day to sea with the pursers of the Henery, whom I appointed to call him), abroad to many several places about several businesses, to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), Westminster, and I know not where.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1666. Up and by water to Westminster to Charing Cross [Map] (Mr. Gregory for company with me) to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 56), who was not within. So I took Gregory to White Hall, and there spoke with Joseph Williamson to have leave in the next Gazette to have a general pay for the Chest at Chatham declared upon such a day in June. Here I left Gregory, and I by coach back again to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 56), and in the Park met him walking, so discoursed about the business of striking a quarter's tallys for Tangier, due this day, which he hath promised to get my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) warrant for, and so away hence, and to Mr. Hales (age 66), to see what he had done to Mrs. Pierce's picture, and whatever he pretends, I do not think it will ever be so good a picture as my wife's.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1666. So to dinner, my sister-in-law with us, who I find more and more a witty woman; and then I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) and the Exchequer about my Tangier businesses, and with my content passed by all things and persons without so much as desiring any stay or loss of time with them, being by strong vowe obliged on no occasion to stay abroad but my publique offices.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1666. So away to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), and thence to Pierces, where I find Knipp, and I took them to Hales's (age 66) to see our pictures finished, which are very pretty, but I like not hers half so well as I thought at first, it being not so like, nor so well painted as I expected, or as mine and my wife's are.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1666. Up and to the office, where we met and sat all the morning. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner by coach to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 56), he having sent for me, but was not within, so I to my Lord Crew's (age 68), who is very lately come to towne, and with him talking half an houre of the business of the warr, wherein he is very doubtful, from our want of money, that we shall fail. And I do concur with him therein. After some little discourse of ordinary matters, I away to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 56) again, and was come in, and gone out to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59); whither I followed him, and there my business was, to be told that my Lord Treasurer (age 59) hath got £10,000 for us in the Navy, to answer our great necessities, which I did thank him for; but the sum is not considerable.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1666. Thence to White Hall, and there staid till the Council was up, with Creed expecting a meeting of Tangier to end Yeabsly's business, but we could not procure it. So I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) and got my warrant, and then to Lovett's, but find nothing done there.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1666. So after some discourse with him, I by water to Westminster, and there drew a draught of an order for my Lord Treasurer (age 59) to sign for my having some little tallys made me in lieu of two great ones, of £2000 each, to enable me to pay small sums therewith. I shewed it to Sir R. Long (age 66) and had his approbation, and so to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 56), and did give it him to get signed. So home to my office, and there did business.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1666. After dinner to the Excise Office by appointment, and there find my Lord Bellasses (age 51) and the Commissioners, and by and by the whole company come to dispute the business of our running so far behindhand there, and did come to a good issue in it, that is to say, to resolve upon having the debt due to us, and the Household and the Guards from the Excise stated, and so we shall come to know the worst of our condition and endeavour for some helpe from my Lord Treasurer (age 59).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1666. Thence to Westminster to the Exchequer, but could not persuade the blockheaded fellows to do what I desire, of breaking my great tallys into less, notwithstanding my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) order, which vexed [me] so much that I would not bestow more time and trouble among a company of dunces, and so back again home, and to dinner, whither Creed come and dined with me and after dinner Mr. Moore, and he and I abroad, thinking to go down the river together, but the tide being against me would not, but returned and walked an houre in the garden, but, Lord! to hear how he pleases himself in behalf of my Lord Sandwich (age 40), in the miscarriage of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and do inveigh against Sir W. Coventry (age 38) as a cunning knave, but I thinke that without any manner of reason at all, but only his passion. He being gone I to my chamber at home to set my Journall right and so to settle my Tangier accounts, which I did in very good order, and then in the evening comes Mr. Yeabsly to reckon with me, which I did also, and have above £200 profit therein to myself, which is a great blessing, the God of heaven make me thankfull for it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1666. At noon dined at home, Balty's (age 26) wife with us, and in very good humour I was and merry at dinner, and after dinner a song or two, and so I abroad to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) (sending my sister home by the coach), while I staid there by appointment to have met my Lord Bellasses (age 52) and Commissioners of Excise, but they did not meet me, he being abroad. However Mr. Finch, one of the Commissioners, I met there, and he and I walked two houres together in the garden, talking of many things; sometimes of Mr. Povy (age 52), whose vanity, prodigality, neglect of his business, and committing it to unfit hands hath undone him and outed him of all his publique employments, and the thing set on foot by an accidental revivall of a business, wherein he had three or fours years ago, by surprize, got the Duke of Yorke (age 32) to sign to the having a sum of money paid out of the Excise, before some that was due to him, and now the money is fallen short, and the Duke never likely to be paid. This being revived hath undone Povy (age 52). Then we fell to discourse of the Parliament, and the great men there: and among others, Mr. Vaughan (age 62), whom he reports as a man of excellent judgement and learning, but most passionate and 'opiniastre'. He had done himself the most wrong (though he values it not), that is, the displeasure of the King (age 36) in his standing so long against the breaking of the Act for a trienniall parliament; but yet do believe him to be a most loyall gentleman. He told me Mr. Prin's (age 66) character; that he is a man of mighty labour and reading and memory, but the worst judge of matters, or layer together of what he hath read, in the world; which I do not, however, believe him in; that he believes him very true to the King (age 36) in his heart, but can never be reconciled to episcopacy; that the House do not lay much weight upon him, or any thing he says. He told me many fine things, and so we parted, and I home and hard to work a while at the office and then home and till midnight about settling my last month's accounts wherein I have been interrupted by public business, that I did not state them two or three days ago, but I do now to my great joy find myself worth above £5600, for which the Lord's name be praised!

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1666. And I to Mrs. Martin's, but she abroad, so I sauntered to or again to the Abbey, and then to the parish church, fearfull of being seen to do so, and so after the parish church was ended, I to the Swan [Map] and there dined upon a rabbit, and after dinner to Mrs. Martin's, and there find Mrs. Burroughs, and by and by comes a pretty widow, one Mrs. Eastwood, and one Mrs. Fenton, a maid; and here merry kissing and looking on their breasts, and all the innocent pleasure in the world. But, Lord! to see the dissembling of this widow, how upon the singing of a certain jigg by Doll, Mrs. Martin's sister, she seemed to be sick and fainted and God knows what, because the jigg, which her husband (who died this last sickness) loved. But by and by I made her as merry as is possible, and towzed and tumbled her as I pleased, and then carried her and her sober pretty kinswoman Mrs. Fenton home to their lodgings in the new market of my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), and there left them. Mightily pleased with this afternoon's mirth, but in great pain to ride in a coach with them, for fear of being seen.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1666. At noon home to dinner, and then abroad to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 56) at White Hall about Tangier one quarter tallys, and there had some serious discourse touching money, and the case of the Navy, wherein all I could get of him was that we had the full understanding of the treasure as much as my Lord Treasurer (age 59) himself, and knew what he can do, and that whatever our case is, more money cannot be got till the Parliament. So talked of getting an account ready as soon as we could to give the Parliament, and so very melancholy parted. So I back again, calling my wife (age 25) at her sister's, from whose husband (age 26) we do now hear that he was safe this week, and going in a ship to the fleete from the buoy of the Nore, where he has been all this while, the fleete being gone before he got down.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1666. There I left them, and myself by coach to St. James's, where we attended with the rest of my fellows on the Duke (age 32), whom I found with two or three patches upon his nose and about his right eye, which come from his being struck with the bough of a tree the other day in his hunting; and it is a wonder it did not strike out his eye. After we had done our business with him, which is now but little, the want of money being such as leaves us little to do but to answer complaints of the want thereof, and nothing to offer to the Duke (age 32), the representing of our want of money being now become uselesse, I into the Park, and there I met with Mrs. Burroughs by appointment, and did agree (after discoursing of some business of her's) for her to meet me at New Exchange, while I by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), and then called at the New Exchange, and thence carried her by water to Parliament stayres, and I to the Exchequer about my Tangier quarter tallys, and that done I took coach and to the west door of the Abby, where she come to me, and I with her by coach to Lissen-greene where we were last, and staid an hour or two before dinner could be got for us, I in the meantime having much pleasure with her, but all honest.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. After dinner we parted, and I to my office, whither I sent for Mr. Lewes and instructed myself fully in the business of the Victualling, to enable me to answer in the matter; and then Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I by coach to White Hall, and there staid till the King (age 36) and Cabinet were met in the Green Chamber, and then we were called in; and there the King (age 36) begun with me, to hear how the victualls of the fleete stood. I did in a long discourse tell him and the rest (the Duke of Yorke (age 32), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), both the Secretarys, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and Sir W. Coventry (age 38),) how it stood, wherein they seemed satisfied, but press mightily for more supplies; and the letter of the Generalls, which was read, did lay their not going or too soon returning from the Dutch coast, this next bout, to the want of victuals. They then proceeded to the enquiry after the fireships; and did all very superficially, and without any severity at all.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. So home, and did give orders for my house to be made clean; and then down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there find all well: Dined, and Mrs. Markham come to see my wife. So I up again, and calling at Deptford, Kent [Map] for some things of W. Hewer's (age 24), he being with me, and then home and spent the evening with Sir R. Ford (age 52), Mr. Knightly, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) at Sir W. Batten's (age 65): This day our Merchants first met at Gresham College, which, by proclamation, is to be their Exchange [Map]. Strange to hear what is bid for houses all up and down here; a friend of Sir W. Rider's: having £150 for what he used to let for £40 per annum. Much dispute where the Custome-house shall be thereby the growth of the City again to be foreseen. My Lord Treasurer (age 59), they say, and others; would have it at the other end of the towne. I home late to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), who did give me a bed; but without curtains or hangings, all being down. So here I went the first time into a naked bed, only my drawers on; and did sleep pretty well: but still hath sleeping and waking had a fear of fire in my heart, that I took little rest. People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity of my Lord Mayor in generall; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon' him. A proclamation1 is come out for markets to be kept at Leadenhall [Map] and Mileendgreene [Map], and several other places about the towne; and Tower-hill [Map], and all churches to be set open to receive poor people.

Note 1. On September 5th proclamation was made "ordering that for supply of the distressed people left destitute by the late dreadful and dismal fire.... great proportions of bread be brought daily, not only to the former markets, but to those lately ordained; that all churches, chapels, schools, and public buildings are to be open to receive the goods of those who know not how to dispose of them". On September 6th, proclamation ordered "that as the markets are burned down, markets be held in Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill [Map], Smithfield [Map], and Leadenhall Street [Map]" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 100, 104).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1666. Soon as eat a bit Mr. Wayth and I by water to White Hall, and there at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings Sir W. Coventry (age 38) met, and we did debate the whole business of our accounts to the Parliament; where it appears to us that the charge of the war from September 1st, 1664, to this Michaelmas, will have been but £3,200,000, and we have paid in that time somewhat about £2,200,000; so that we owe above £900,000: but our method of accounting, though it cannot, I believe, be far wide from the mark, yet will not abide a strict examination if the Parliament should be troublesome. Here happened a pretty question of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), whether this account of ours will not put my Lord Treasurer (age 59) to a difficulty to tell what is become of all the money the Parliament have 'give' in this time for the war, which hath amounted to about £4,000,000, which nobody there could answer; but I perceive they did doubt what his answer could be. Having done, and taken from Sir W. Coventry (age 38) the minutes of a letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 59), Wayth and I back again to the office, and thence back down to the water with my wife and landed him in Southwarke [Map], and my wife and I for pleasure to Fox-Hall, and there eat and drank, and so back home, and I to the office till midnight drawing the letter we are to send with our accounts to my Lord Treasurer (age 59), and that being done to my mind, I home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to St. James's, and there with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) read and all approved of my letter, and then home, and after dinner, Mr. Hater and Gibson dining with me, to the office, and there very late new moulding my accounts and writing fair my letter, which I did against the evening, and then by coach left my wife at her brother's, and I to St. James's, and up and down to look [for] Sir W. Coventry (age 38); and at last found him and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) with the Lord Treasurer (age 59) at White Hall, consulting how to make up my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) general account, as well as that of the Navy particularly. Here brought the letter, but found that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) had altered his account since he did give me the abstract of it: so all my letter must be writ over again, to put in his last abstract.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Thence, having been informed that, after all this pains, the King (age 36) hath found out how to supply us with 5 or £6000, when £100,000 were at this time but absolutely necessary, and we mentioned £50,000. This is every day a greater and greater omen of ruine. God fit us for it! Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and I home (it raining) by coach, calling only on Sir G. Carteret (age 56) at his lodging (who is I find troubled at my Lord Treasurer (age 59) and Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 56) bungling in his accounts), and come home to supper with my father, and then all to bed. I made my brother in his cassocke to say grace this day, but I like his voice so ill that I begin to be sorry he hath taken this order upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and after visiting my father in his chamber, to church, and then home to dinner. Little Michell and his wife come to dine with us, which they did, and then presently after dinner I with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) to White Hall, where met by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Lord Bruncker (age 46), to attend the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) at the Cabinet; but nobody had determined what to speak of, but only in general to ask for money. So I was forced immediately to prepare in my mind a method of discoursing. And anon we were called in to the Green Room, where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 32), Prince Rupert (age 46), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), Duke of Albemarle (age 57), [Sirs] G. Carteret (age 56), W. Coventry (age 38), Morrice (age 63). Nobody beginning, I did, and made a current, and I thought a good speech, laying open the ill state of the Navy: by the greatness of the debt; greatness of work to do against next yeare; the time and materials it would take; and our incapacity, through a total want of money. I had no sooner done, but Prince Rupert (age 46) rose up and told the King (age 36) in a heat, that whatever the gentleman had said, he had brought home his fleete in as good a condition as ever any fleete was brought home; that twenty boats would be as many as the fleete would want: and all the anchors and cables left in the storm might be taken up again. This arose from my saying, among other things we had to do, that the fleete was come in-the greatest fleete that ever his Majesty had yet together, and that in as bad condition as the enemy or weather could put it; and to use Sir W. Pen's (age 45) words, who is upon the place taking a survey, he dreads the reports he is to receive from the Surveyors of its defects. I therefore did only answer, that I was sorry for his Highness's offence, but that what I said was but the report we received from those entrusted in the fleete to inform us. He muttered and repeated what he had said; and so, after a long silence on all hands, nobody, not so much as the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), seconding the Prince, nor taking notice of what he said, we withdrew. I was not a little troubled at this passage, and the more when speaking with Jacke Fenn about it, he told me that the Prince (age 46) will be asking now who this Pepys is, and find him to be a creature of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41), and therefore this was done only to disparage him.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and with my wife to church, and her new woman Barker with her the first time. The girle will, I think, do very well. Here a lazy sermon, and so home to dinner, and took in my Lady Pen (age 42) and Peg (age 15) (Sir William being below with the fleete), and mighty merry we were, and then after dinner presently (it being a mighty cool day) I by coach to White Hall, and there attended the Cabinet, and was called in before the King (age 36) and them to give an account of our want of money for Tangier, which troubles me that it should be my place so often and so soon after one another to come to speak there of their wants-the thing of the world that they love least to hear of, and that which is no welcome thing to be the solicitor for-and to see how like an image the King (age 36) sat and could not speak one word when I had delivered myself was very strange; only my Chancellor (age 57) did ask me, whether I thought it was in nature at this time to help us to anything. So I was referred to another meeting of the Lords Commissioners for Tangier and my Lord Treasurer (age 59), and so went away, and by coach home, where I spent the evening in reading Stillingfleet's (age 31) defence of the Archbishopp, the part about Purgatory, a point I had never considered before, what was said for it or against it, and though I do believe we are in the right, yet I do not see any great matter in this book.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. After dinner I and Sir Thomas Crew (age 42) went aside to discourse of public matters, and do find by him that all the country gentlemen are publickly jealous of the courtiers in the Parliament, and that they do doubt every thing that they propose; and that the true reason why the country gentlemen are for a land-tax and against a general excise, is, because they are fearful that if the latter be granted they shall never get it down again; whereas the land-tax will be but for so much; and when the war ceases, there will be no ground got by the Court to keep it up. He do much cry out upon our accounts, and that all that they have had from the King (age 36) hath been but estimates both from my Lord Treasurer (age 59) and us, and from all people else, so that the Parliament is weary of it. He says the House would be very glad to get something against Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and will not let their inquiries die till they have got something. He do, from what he hath heard at the Committee for examining the burning of the City, conclude it as a thing certain that it was done by plots; it being proved by many witnesses that endeavours were made in several places to encrease the fire, and that both in City and country it was bragged by several Papists that upon such a day or in such a time we should find the hottest weather that ever was in England, and words of plainer sense.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1666. Thence home, and after dinner to my chamber with Creed, who come and dined with me, and he and I to reckon for his salary, and by and by comes in Colonel Atkins, and I did the like with him, and it was Creed's design to bring him only for his own ends, to seem to do him a courtesy, and it is no great matter. The fellow I hate, and so I think all the world else do. Then to talk of my report I am to make of the state of our wants of money to the Lord Treasurer (age 59), but our discourse come to little. However, in the evening, to be rid of him, I took coach and saw him to the Temple [Map] and there 'light, and he being gone, with all the haste back again and to my chamber late to enter all this day's matters of account, and to draw up my report to my Lord Treasurer (age 59), and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning. At noon rose and to my closet, and finished my report to my Lord Treasurer (age 59) of our Tangier wants, and then with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) by coach to Stepney [Map] to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], where it is kept again now since the burning of their other house in London. And here a great many met at Sir Thomas Allen's (age 33) feast, of his being made an Elder Brother; but he is sick, and so could not be there. Here was much good company, and very merry; but the discourse of Scotland, it seems, is confirmed, and that they are 4000 of them in armes, and do declare for King and Covenant, which is very ill news. I pray God deliver us from the ill consequences we may justly fear from it. Here was a good venison pasty or two and other good victuals; but towards the latter end of the dinner I rose, and without taking leave went away from the table, and got Sir J. Minnes' (age 67) coach and away home, and thence with my report to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), where I did deliver it to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 56) for my Lord, who was busy, my report for him to consider against to-morrow's council.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1666. Thence into the Court and there delivered copies of my report to my Lord Treasurer (age 59), to the Duke of York (age 33), Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and others, and attended there till the Council met, and then was called in, and I read my letter. My Lord Treasurer (age 59) declared that the King (age 36) had nothing to give till the Parliament did give him some money. So the King (age 36) did of himself bid me to declare to all that would take our tallys for payment, that he should, soon as the Parliament's money do come in, take back their tallys, and give them money: which I giving him occasion to repeat to me, it coming from him against the 'gre'1 I perceive, of my Lord Treasurer (age 59), I was content therewith, and went out, and glad that I have got so much.

Note 1. Apparently a translation of the French 'contre le gre', and presumably an expression in common use. "Against the grain" is generally supposed to have its origin in the use of a plane against the grain of the wood.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1666. Thence at noon home, and there find Kate Joyce, who dined with me: Her husband and she are weary of their new life of being an Innkeeper, and will leave it, and would fain get some office; but I know none the foole is fit for, but would be glad to help them, if I could, though they have enough to live on, God be thanked! though their loss hath been to the value of £3000 W. Joyce now has all the trade, she says, the trade being come to that end of the towne. She dined with me, my wife being ill of her months in bed. I left her with my wife, and away myself to Westminster Hall [Map] by appointment and there found out Burroughs, and I took her by coach as far as the Lord Treasurer's (age 59) and called at the cake house by Hales's (age 66), and there in the coach eat and drank and then carried her home.... So having set her down in the palace I to the Swan [Map], and there did the first time 'baiser' the little sister of Sarah that is come into her place, and so away by coach home, where to my vyall and supper and then to bed, being weary of the following of my pleasure and sorry for my omitting (though with a true salvo to my vowes) the stating my last month's accounts in time, as I should, but resolve to settle, and clear all my business before me this month, that I may begin afresh the next yeare, and enjoy some little pleasure freely at Christmasse.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1667. So home to dinner, and found Balty (age 27), told him the good news, and then after dinner away, I presently to White Hall, and did give the Duke of York (age 33) a memorial of the salt business, against the Council, and did wait all the Council for answer, walking a good while with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39), who, among other things, told me his whole mystery in the business of the interest he pays as Treasurer for the Army. They give him 12d. per pound quite through the Army, with condition to be paid weekly. This he undertakes upon his own private credit, and to be paid by the King (age 36) at the end of every four months. If the King (age 36) pay him not at the end of the four months, then, for all the time he stays longer, my Lord Treasurer (age 59), by agreement, allows him eight per cent. per annum for the forbearance. So that, in fine, he hath about twelve per cent. from the King (age 36) and the Army, for fifteen or sixteen months' interest; out of which he gains soundly, his expense being about £130,000 per annum; and hath no trouble in it, compared, as I told him, to the trouble I must have to bring in an account of interest. I was, however, glad of being thus enlightened, and so away to the other council door, and there got in and hear a piece of a cause, heard before the King (age 36), about a ship deserted by her fellows (who were bound mutually to defend each other), in their way to Virginy, and taken by the enemy, but it was but meanly pleaded.

Poll Bill

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and called at Michell's, and took him and his wife and carried them to Westminster, I landing at White Hall, and having no pleasure in the way 'con elle'; and so to the Duke's (age 33), where we all met and had a hot encounter before the Duke of York (age 33) about the business of our payments at the Ticket Office, where we urged that we had nothing to do to be troubled with the pay, having examined the tickets. Besides, we are neglected, having not money sent us in time, but to see the baseness of my brethren, not a man almost put in a word but Sir W. Coventry (age 39), though at the office like very devils in this point. But I did plainly declare that, without money, no fleete could be expected, and desired the Duke of York (age 33) to take notice of it, and notice was taken of it, but I doubt will do no good. But I desire to remember it as a most prodigious thing that to this day my Lord Treasurer (age 59) hath not consulted counsel, which Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and I and others do think is necessary, about the late Poll act, enough to put the same into such order as that any body dare lend money upon it, though we have from this office under our hands related the necessity thereof to the Duke of York (age 33), nor is like to be determined in, for ought I see, a good while had not Sir W. Coventry (age 39) plainly said that he did believe it would be a better work for the King (age 36) than going to church this morning, to send for the Atturney Generall (age 69) to meet at the Lord Treasurer's (age 59) this afternoon and to bring the thing to an issue, saying that himself, were he going to the Sacrament, would not think he should offend God to leave it and go to the ending this work, so much it is of moment to the King (age 36) and Kingdom. Hereupon the Duke of York (age 33) said he would presently speak to the King (age 36), and cause it to be done this afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. They gone, by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), as the Duke of York (age 33) told me, to settle the business of money for the navy, I walked into the Court to and again till night, and there met Colonell Reames (age 53), and he and I walked together a great while complaining of the ill-management of things, whereof he is as full as I am. We ran over many persons and things, and see nothing done like men like to do well while the King (age 36) minds his pleasures so much. We did bemoan it that nobody would or had authority enough with the King (age 36) to tell him how all things go to rack and will be lost.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1667. In the afternoon away to White Hall by water, and took a turn or two in the Park, and then back to White Hall, and there meeting my Lord Arlington (age 49), he, by I know not what kindness, offered to carry me along with him to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), whither, I told him, I was going. I believe he had a mind to discourse of some Navy businesses, but Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36) coming into the coach to us, we were prevented; which I was sorry for, for I had a mind to begin an acquaintance with him. He speaks well, and hath pretty slight superficial parts, I believe.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1667. At my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) 'light and parted with them, they going into Council, and I walked with Captain Cocke (age 50), who takes mighty notice of the differences growing in our office between Lord Bruncker (age 47) and Sir W. Batten (age 66), and among others also, and I fear it may do us hurt, but I will keep out of them.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1667. Up, and to the Old Swan [Map], where drank at Michell's, but not seeing her whom I love I by water to White Hall, and there acquainted Sir G. Carteret (age 57) betimes what I had to say this day before the Duke of York (age 33) in the business of Carcasse, which he likes well of, being a great enemy to him, and then I being too early here to go to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) chamber, having nothing to say to him, and being able to give him but a bad account of the business of the office (which is a shame to me, and that which I shall rue if I do not recover), to the Exchequer about getting a certificate of Mr. Lanyon's entered at Sir R. Longs (age 67) office, and strange it is to see what horrid delays there are at this day in the business of money, there being nothing yet come from my Lord Treasurer (age 59) to set the business of money in action since the Parliament broke off, notwithstanding the greatness and number of the King's occasions for it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1667. So home with Sir W. Batten (age 66), and Sir W. Pen (age 45), by coach, and there met at the office, and my Lord Bruncker (age 47) presently after us, and there did give order to Mr. Stevens for securing the tickets in Carcasses hands, which my Lord against his will could not refuse to sign, and then home to dinner, and so away with my wife by coach, she to Mrs. Pierce's and I to my Lord Bellasses (age 52), and with him to [my] Lord Treasurer's (age 59), where by agreement we met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and there sat and talked all the afternoon almost about one thing or other, expecting Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 57) coming, but he come not, so we away towards night, Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) and I to the Temple [Map], and there parted, telling me of my Lord Bellasses's (age 52) want of generosity, and that he [Bellasses] will certainly be turned out of his government, and he thinks himself stands fair for it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1667. Late at my office preparing a speech against to-morrow morning, before the King (age 36), at my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), and the truth is it run in my head all night.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1667. By and by by coach, set down Mr. Holliard (age 58) near his house at Hatton Garden [Map] and myself to Lord Treasurer's (age 60), and sent my wife to the New Exchange. I staid not here, but to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence to Martin's, where he and she both within, and with them the little widow that was once there with her when I was there, that dissembled so well to be grieved at hearing a tune that her, late husband liked, but there being so much company, I had no pleasure here, and so away to the Hall again, and there met Doll Lane coming out, and 'par contrat did hazer bargain para aller to the cabaret de vin', called the Rose, and 'ibi' I staid two hours, 'sed' she did not 'venir', 'lequel' troubled me, and so away by coach and took up my wife, and away home, and so to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where I am told that it is intended by Mr. Carcasse to pray me to be godfather with Lord Bruncker (age 47) to-morrow to his child, which I suppose they tell me in mirth, but if he should ask me I know not whether I should refuse it or no.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where we met with my Lord Bruncker (age 47) an hour before the King (age 36) come, and had time to talk a little of our business. Then come much company, among others Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that undoubtedly my Lord Bellasses (age 52) will go no more as Governor to Tangier, and that he do put in fair for it, and believes he shall have it, and proposes how it may conduce to his account and mine in the business of money. Here we fell into talk with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39), and, among other things, of the Spanish manner of walking, when three together, and shewed me how, which was pretty, to prevent differences.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1667. By and by comes the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33), and presently the officers of the Ordnance were called; my Lord Berkeley (age 65), Sir John Duncomb (age 44), and Mr. Chichly (age 52); then we, my Lord Bruncker (age 47), Sir W. Batten (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 45), and myself; where we find only the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33), and my Lord Treasurer (age 60), and Sir G. Carteret (age 57); where I only did speak, laying down the state of our wants, which the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) seemed very well pleased with, and we did get what we asked, £500,000, assigned upon the eleven months' tax: but that is not so much ready money, or what will raise £40,000 per week, which we desired, and the business will want. Yet are we fain to come away answered, when, God knows, it will undo the King's business to have matters of this moment put off in this manner. The King (age 36) did prevent my offering anything by and by as Treasurer for Tangier, telling me that he had ordered us £30,000 on the same tax; but that is not what we would have to bring our payments to come within a year. So we gone out, in went others; viz., one after another, Sir Stephen Fox (age 39) for the army, Captain Cocke (age 50) for sick and wounded, Mr. Ashburnham (age 63) for the household.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1667. This evening, having done my letters, I did write out the heads of what I had prepared to speak to the King (age 36) the other day at my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), which I do think convenient to keep by me for future use. The weather is now grown warm again, after much cold; and it is observable that within these eight days I did see smoke remaining, coming out of some cellars, from the late great fire, now above six months since. There was this day at the office (as he is most days) Sir W. Warren, against whom I did manifestly plead, and heartily too, God forgive me! But the reason is because I do find that he do now wholly rely almost upon my Lord Bruncker (age 47), though I confess I have no greater ground of my leaving him than the confidence which I perceive he hath got in my Lord Bruncker (age 47), whose seeming favours only do obtain of him as much compensation as, I believe (for he do know well the way of using his bounties), as mine more real. Besides, my Lord and I being become antagonistic, I do not think it safe for me to trust myself in the hands of one whom I know to be a knave, and using all means to become gracious there.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1667. Thence away, and got a Hackney coach and carried my wife home, and there only drank, and myself back again to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), and Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and Lord Arlington (age 49) were and none else, so I staid not, but to White Hall, and there meeting nobody I would speak with, walked into the Park and took two or three turns all alone, and then took coach and home, where I find Mercer, who I was glad to see, but durst [not] shew so, my wife being displeased with her, and indeed I fear she is grown a very gossip. I to my chamber, and there fitted my arguments which I had promised Mr. Gawden in his behalf in some pretences to allowance of the King (age 36), and then to supper, and so to my chamber a little again, and then to bed. Duke of Buckingham (age 39) not heard of yet.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1667. After dinner Balty (age 27) (who dined also with us) and I with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) in his coach to White Hall, but did nothing, but by water to Strand Bridge and thence walked to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), and the Caball, and much company without; and a fine day.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1667. Anon come out from the Caball my Lord Hollis (age 67) and Mr. H. Coventry (age 48), who, it is conceived, have received their instructions from the King (age 36) this day; they being to begin their journey towards their treaty at Bredagh speedily, their passes being come. Here I saw the Baroness Northumberland (age 44) and her [his daughter] daughter-in-law (age 21), my Lord Treasurer's (age 60) daughter, my Lady Piercy, a beautiful lady indeed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) in his coach, set him down at the Treasurer's Office in Broad-streete, and I in his coach to White Hall, and there had the good fortune to walk with Sir W. Coventry (age 39) into the garden, and there read our melancholy letter to the Duke of York (age 33), which he likes. And so to talk: and he flatly owns that we must have a peace, for we cannot set out a fleete; and, to use his own words, he fears that we shall soon have enough of fighting in this new way, which we have thought on for this year. He bemoans the want of money, and discovers himself jealous that Sir G. Carteret (age 57) do not look after, or concern himself for getting, money as he used to do, and did say it is true if Sir G. Carteret (age 57) would only do his work, and my Lord Treasurer (age 60) would do his own, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) hath nothing to do to look after money, but if he will undertake my Lord Treasurer's (age 60) work to raise money of the Bankers, then people must expect that he will do it, and did further say, that he [Carteret] and my Chancellor (age 58) do at this very day labour all they can to villify this new way of raising money, and making it payable, as it now is, into the Exchequer; and expressly said that in pursuance hereof, my Chancellor (age 58) hath prevailed with the King (age 36), in the close of his last speech to the House, to say, that he did hope to see them come to give money as it used to be given, without so many provisos, meaning, as Sir W. Coventry (age 39) says, this new method of the Act.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Apr 1667. By and by up to the Duke of York (age 33), where our usual business, and among other things I read two most dismal letters of the straits we are in (from Collonell Middleton and Commissioner Taylor) that ever were writ in the world, so as the Duke of York (age 33) would have them to shew the King (age 36), and to every demand of money, whereof we proposed many and very pressing ones, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) could make no answer but no money, which I confess made me almost ready to cry for sorrow and vexation, but that which was the most considerable was when Sir G. Carteret (age 57) did say that he had no funds to raise money on; and being asked by Sir W. Coventry (age 39) whether the eleven months' tax was not a fund, and he answered, "No, that the bankers would not lend money upon it". Then Sir W. Coventry (age 39) burst out and said he did supplicate his Royal Highness, and would do the same to the King (age 36), that he would remember who they were that did persuade the King (age 36) from parting with the Chimney-money to the Parliament, and taking that in lieu which they would certainly have given, and which would have raised infallibly ready money; meaning the bankers and the farmers of the Chimney-money, whereof Sir, G. Carteret, I think, is one; saying plainly, that whoever did advise the King (age 36) to that, did, as much as in them lay, cut the King's throat, and did wholly betray him; to which the Duke of York (age 33) did assent; and remembered that the King (age 36) did say again and again at the time, that he was assured, and did fully believe, the money would be raised presently upon a land-tax. This put as all into a stound; and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) went on to declare, that he was glad he was come to have so lately concern in the Navy as he hath, for he cannot now give any good account of the Navy business; and that all his work now was to be able to provide such orders as would justify his Royal Highness in the business, when it shall be called to account; and that he do do, not concerning himself whether they are or can be performed, or no; and that when it comes to be examined, and falls on my Lord Treasurer (age 60), he cannot help it, whatever the issue of it shall be. Hereupon Sir W. Batten (age 66) did pray him to keep also by him all our letters that come from the office that may justify us, which he says he do do, and, God knows, it is an ill sign when we are once to come to study how to excuse ourselves. It is a sad consideration, and therewith we broke up, all in a sad posture, the most that ever I saw in my life. One thing more Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did say to the Duke of York (age 33), when I moved again, that of about £9000 debt to Lanyon, at Plymouth, Devon [Map], he might pay £3700 worth of prize-goods, that he bought lately at the candle, out of this debt due to him from the King (age 36); and the Duke of York (age 33), and Sir G: Carteret, and Lord Barkeley (age 65), saying, all of them, that my Lord Ashly (age 45) would not be got to yield to it, who is Treasurer of the Prizes, Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did plainly desire that it might be declared whether the proceeds of the prizes were to go to the helping on of the war, or no; and, if it were, how then could this be denied? which put them all into another stound; and it is true, God forgive us! Thence to the chappell, and there, by chance, hear that Dr. Crew (age 34) is to preach; and so into the organ-loft, where I met Mr. Carteret, and my Lady Jemimah, and Sir Thomas Crew's (age 43) two daughters, and Dr. Childe (age 61) played; and Dr. Crew (age 34) did make a very pretty, neat, sober, honest sermon; and delivered it very readily, decently, and gravely, beyond his years: so as I was exceedingly taken with it, and I believe the whole chappell, he being but young; but his manner of his delivery I do like exceedingly. His text was, "But seeke ye first the Kingdom of God, and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you". Thence with my Lady to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) lodgings, and so up into the house, and there do hear that the Dutch letters are come, and say that the Dutch have ordered a passe to be sent for our Commissioners, and that it is now upon the way, coming with a trumpeter blinded, as is usual. But I perceive every body begins to doubt the success of the treaty, all their hopes being only that if it can be had on any terms, the Chancellor (age 58) will have it; for he dare not come before a Parliament, nor a great many more of the courtiers, and the King (age 36) himself do declare he do not desire it, nor intend it but on a strait; which God defend him from! Here I hear how the King (age 36) is not so well pleased of this marriage between the Duke of Richmond and Mrs. Stewart (age 19), as is talked; and that he [the Duke] by a wile did fetch her to the Beare [Map], at the bridge foot, where a coach was ready, and they are stole away into Kent, without the King's leave; and that the King (age 36) hath said he will never see her more; but people do think that it is only a trick. This day I saw Prince Rupert (age 47) abroad in the Vane-room, pretty well as he used to be, and looks as well, only something appears to be under his periwigg on the crown of his head.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1667. Thence with him to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), and there walked during Council sitting with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40), talking of the sad condition of the King's purse, and affairs thereby; and how sad the King's life must be, to pass by his officers every hour, that are four years behind-hand unpaid. My Lord Barkeley (age 65) [of Stratton] I met with there, and fell into talk with him on the same thing, wishing to God that it might be remedied, to which he answered, with an oath, that it was as easy to remedy it as anything in the world; saying, that there is himself and three more would venture their carcasses upon it to pay all the King's debts in three years, had they the managing his revenue, and putting £300,000 in his purse, as a stock. But, Lord! what a thing is this to me, that do know how likely a man my Lord Barkeley (age 65) of all the world is, to do such a thing as this. Here I spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 39), who tells me plainly that to all future complaints of lack of money he will answer but with the shrug of his shoulder; which methought did come to my heart, to see him to begin to abandon the King's affairs, and let them sink or swim, so he do his owne part, which I confess I believe he do beyond any officer the King (age 36) hath, but unless he do endeavour to make others do theirs, nothing will be done. The consideration here do make me go away very sad, and so home by coach, and there took up my wife and Mercer, who had been to-day at White Hall to the Maundy1, it being Maundy Thursday; but the King (age 36) did not wash the poor people's feet himself, but the Bishop of London did it for him, but I did not see it, and with them took up Mrs. Anne Jones at her mother's door, and so to take the ayre to Hackney, where good neat's tongue, and things to eat and drink, and very merry, the weather being mighty pleasant; and here I was told that at their church they have a fair pair of organs, which play while the people sing, which I am mighty glad of, wishing the like at our church at London, and would give £50 towards it. So very pleasant, and hugging of Mercer in our going home, we home, and then to the office to do a little business, and so to supper at home and to bed.

Note 1. The practice of giving alms on Maundy Thursday to poor men and women equal in number to the years of the sovereign's age is a curious survival in an altered form of an old custom. The original custom was for the King (age 36) to wash the feet of twelve poor persons, and to give them a supper in imitation of Christ's last supper and his washing of the Apostles' feet. James II was the last sovereign to perform the ceremony in person, but it was performed by deputy so late as 1731. The Archbishop of York was the King's deputy on that occasion. The institution has passed through the various stages of feet washing with a supper, the discontinuance of the feet washing, the substitution of a gift of provisions for the supper, and finally the substitution of a gift of money for the provisions. The ceremony took place at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall; but it is now held at Westminster Abbey. Maundy is derived from the Latin word 'maudatum', which commences the original anthem sung during the ceremony, in reference to Christ's command.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1667. He told me to my face that I was a very good clerk, and did understand the business and do it very well, and that he would never desire a better. He do believe that the Parliament, if ever they meet, will offer some alterations to the King (age 36), and will turn some of us out, and I protest I think he is in the right that either they or the King (age 36) will be advised to some regulations, and therefore I ought to beware, as it is easy for me to keep myself up if I will. He thinks that much of our misfortune hath been for want of an active Lord Treasurer (age 60), and that such a man as Sir W. Coventry (age 39) would do the business thoroughly.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1667. By and by comes my Lord Ashly (age 45) and tells us my Lord Treasurer (age 60) is ill and cannot speak with us now.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1667. Thence by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), and there being come too soon to the New Exchange, but did nothing, and back again, and there found my Lord Bruncker (age 47) and T. Harvy, and walked in a room very merrily discoursing.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] to hear our cause, but [it] did not come before them to-day, so went down and walked below in the Hall, and there met with Ned Pickering (age 49), who tells me the ill newes of his nephew Gilbert (age 15), who is turned a very rogue, and then I took a turn with Mr. Evelyn (age 46), with whom I walked two hours, till almost one of the clock: talking of the badness of the Government, where nothing but wickedness, and wicked men and women command the King (age 36): that it is not in his nature to gainsay any thing that relates to his pleasures; that much of it arises from the sickliness of our Ministers of State, who cannot be about him as the idle companions are, and therefore he gives way to the young rogues; and then, from the negligence of the Clergy, that a Bishop shall never be seen about him, as the King of France (age 28) hath always: that the King (age 36) would fain have some of the same gang to be Lord Treasurer (age 60), which would be yet worse, for now some delays are put to the getting gifts of the King (age 36), as that whore my Baroness Byron1, who had been, as he called it, the King's seventeenth whore abroad, did not leave him till she had got him to give her an order for £4000 worth of plate to be made for her; but by delays, thanks be to God! she died before she had it. He tells me mighty stories of the King of France (age 28), how great a Prince he is. He hath made a code to shorten the law; he hath put out all the ancient commanders of castles that were become hereditary; he hath made all the Fryers subject to the bishops, which before were only subject to Rome, and so were hardly the King's subjects, and that none shall become 'religieux' but at such an age, which he thinks will in a few, years ruin the Pope, and bring France into a patriarchate. He confirmed to me the business of the want of paper at the Council-table the other day, which I have observed; Wooly being to have found it, and did, being called, tell the King (age 36) to his face the reason of it; and Mr. Evelyn (age 46) tells me several of the menial servants of the Court lacking bread, that have not received a farthing wages since the King's coming in. He tells me the King of France (age 28) hath his mistresses, but laughs at the foolery of our King, that makes his bastards Princes2, and loses his revenue upon them, and makes his mistresses his masters and the King of France (age 28) did never grant Lavalliere (age 22)3 any thing to bestow on others, and gives a little subsistence, but no more, to his bastards.

Note 1. Eleanor, daughter of Robert Needham, Viscount Kilmurrey, and widow of Peter Warburton, became in 1644 the second wife of John Byron, first Lord Byron. Died 1663. B.

Note 2. Louis made his own bastards dukes and Princes, and legitimatized them as much as he could, connecting them also by marriage with the real blood-royal. B.

Note 3. Louise Francoise de la Baume le Blanc de la Valliere (age 22) had four children by Louis XIV., of whom only two survived - Marie Anne Bourbon, called Mademoiselle de Blois, born in 1666, afterwards married to the Prince de Conti (age 6), and the Comte de Vermandois, born in 1667. In that year (the very year in which Evelyn was giving this account to Pepys), the Duchy of Vaujour and two baronies were created in favour of La Valliere, and her daughter, who, in the deed of creation, was legitimatized, and styled Princess. B.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1667. After dinner Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone in his closet an hour or more talking of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) coming home, which, the peace being likely to be made here, he expects, both for my Lord's sake and his own (whose interest he wants) it will be best for him to be at home, where he will be well received by the King (age 36); he is sure of his service well accepted, though the business of Spain do fall by this peace. He tells me my Lord Arlington (age 49) hath done like a gentleman by him in all things. He says, if my Lord [Sandwich] were here, he were the fittest man to be Lord Treasurer (age 60) of any man in England; and he thinks it might be compassed; for he confesses that the King's matters do suffer through the inability of this man, who is likely to die, and he will propound him to the King (age 36). It will remove him from his place at sea, and the King (age 36) will have a good place to bestow. He says to me, that he could wish, when my Lord comes, that he would think fit to forbear playing, as a thing below him, and which will lessen him, as it do my Lord St. Albans (age 62), in the King's esteem: and as a great secret tells me that he hath made a match for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) to a daughter (age 22) of my Lord Burlington's (age 54), where there is a great alliance, £10,000 portion; a civil family, and relation to my Chancellor (age 58), whose son (age 5) hath married one of the daughters (age 4); and that my Chancellor (age 58) do take it with very great kindness, so that he do hold himself obliged by it. My Lord Sandwich (age 41) hath referred it to my Lord Crew (age 69), Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and Mr. Montagu (age 49), to end it. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and the lady know nothing yet of it. It will, I think, be very happy. Very glad of this discourse, I away mightily pleased with the confidence I have in this family, and so away, took up my wife, who was at her mother's, and so home, where I settled to my chamber about my accounts, both Tangier and private, and up at it till twelve at night, with good success, when news is brought me that there is a great fire in Southwarke [Map]: so we up to the leads, and then I and the boy down to the end of our, lane, and there saw it, it seeming pretty great, but nothing to the fire of London, that it made me think little of it. We could at that distance see an engine play-that is, the water go out, it being moonlight.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1667. Thence to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and there talked a little while about office business, and thence by coach home, in several places paying my debts in order to my evening my accounts this month, and thence by and by to White Hall again to Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to dinner, where very good company and discourse, and I think it my part to keep in there now more than ordinary because of the probability of my Lord's coming soon home. Our Commissioners for the treaty set out this morning betimes down the river. Here I hear that the Duke of Cambridge (age 3), the Duke of York's (age 33) son, is very sick; and my Lord Treasurer (age 60) very bad of the stone, and hath been so some days.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1667. Up, and Mr. Madden come to speak with me, whom my people not knowing have made to wait long without doors, which vexed me. Then comes Sir John Winter (age 67) to discourse with me about the forest of Deane, and then about my Lord Treasurer (age 60), and asking me whether, as he had heard, I had not been cut for the stone, I took him to my closet, and there shewed it to him, of which he took the dimensions and had some discourse of it, and I believe will shew my Lord Treasurer (age 60) it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1667. Then to talk of my Lord Sandwich (age 41), whom my Lord Crew (age 69) hath a great desire might get to be Lord Treasurer (age 60) if the present Lord should die, as it is believed he will, in a little time; and thinks he can have no competitor but my Lord Arlington (age 49), who, it is given out, desires it: but my Lord thinks it is not so, for that the being Secretary do keep him a greater interest with the King (age 36) than the other would do at least, do believe, that if my Lord would surrender him his Wardrobe place, it would be a temptation to Arlington (age 49) to assist my Lord in getting the Treasurer's. I did object to my Lord [Crew] (age 69) that it would be no place of content, nor safety, nor honour for my Lord, the State being so indigent as it is, and the [King] so irregular, and those about him, that my Lord must be forced to part with anything to answer his warrants; and that, therefore, I do believe the King (age 36) had rather have a man that may be one of his vicious caball, than a sober man that will mind the publick, that so they may sit at cards and dispose of the revenue of the Kingdom. This my Lord was moved at, and said he did not indeed know how to answer it, and bid me think of it; and so said he himself would also do. He do mightily cry out of the bad management of our monies, the King (age 36) having had so much given him; and yet, when the Parliament do find that the King (age 36) should have £900,000 in his purse by the best account of issues they have yet seen, yet we should report in the Navy a debt due from the King (age 36) of £900,000; which, I did confess, I doubted was true in the first, and knew to be true in the last, and did believe that there was some great miscarriages in it: which he owned to believe also, saying, that at this rate it is not in the power of the Kingdom to make a war, nor answer the King's wants.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1667. Up, it being a fine day, and after doing a little business in my chamber I left my wife to go abroad with W. Hewer (age 25) and his mother in a Hackney coach incognito to the Park, while I abroad to the Excise Office first, and there met the Cofferer (age 63) and Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about our money matters there, wherein we agreed, and so to discourse of my Lord Treasurer (age 60), who is a little better than he was of the stone, having rested a little this night. I there did acquaint them of my knowledge of that disease, which I believe will be told my Lord Treasurer (age 60).

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1667. To the office, where all the morning. At noon home to dinner, and then abroad to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), who continues so ill as not to be troubled with business. So Mr. Gawden and I to my Lord Ashly's (age 45) and spoke with him, and then straight home, and there I did much business at the office, and then to my own chamber and did the like there, to my great content, but to the pain of my eyes, and then to supper and to bed, having a song with my wife with great pleasure, she doing it well.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1667. Thence I presently to the Excise Office, and there met the Cofferer (age 63) and Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) by agreement, and agreed upon a method for our future payments, and then we three to my Lord Treasurer (age 60), who continues still very ill. I had taken my stone with me on purpose, and Sir Philip Warwicke (age 57) carried it in to him to see, but was not in a condition to talk with me about it, poor man.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1667. Up and angry with my mayds for letting in watermen, and I know not who, anybody that they are acquainted with, into my kitchen to talk and prate with them, which I will not endure. Then out and by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), who continues still very ill, then to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57) house, and there did a little business about my Tangier tallies, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there to the Exchequer to consult about some way of getting our poor Creditors of the Navy (who served in their goods before the late Session of Parliament) paid out of the 11 months tax, which seems to relate only for goods to be then served in, and I think I have found out a way to bring them into the Act, which, if it do, I shall think a good service done.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1667. Up pretty betimes and out of doors, and in Fen Church street [Map] met Mr. Lovett going with a picture to me, but I could not stand to discourse or see it, but on to the next Hackney coach and so to Sir W. Coventry (age 39), where he and I alone a while discoursing of some businesses of the office, and then up to the Duke of York (age 33) to his chamber with my fellow brethren who are come, and so did our usual weekly business, which was but little to-day, and I was glad that the business of Carcasse was not mentioned because our report was not ready, but I am resolved it shall against the next coming to the Duke of York (age 33). Here was discourse about a way of paying our old creditors which did please me, there being hopes of getting them comprehended within the 11 months Tax, and this did give occasion for Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) and my going to Sir Robert Long (age 67) to discourse it, who do agree that now the King's Council do say that they may be included in the Act, which do make me very glad, not so much for the sake of the poor men as for the King (age 36), for it would have been a ruin to him and his service not to have had a way to have paid the debt. There parted with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and into Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and he and I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57) to speak a little about our Tangier business, but to little purpose, my Lord Treasurer (age 60) being so ill that no business can be done.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1667. Then to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), but missed Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 57), and so back again, and drove hard towards Clerkenwell1, thinking to have overtaken my Lady Newcastle (age 44), whom I saw before us in her coach, with 100 boys and girls running looking upon her but I could not: and so she got home before I could come up to her. But I will get a time to see her. So to the office and did more business, and then home and sang with pleasure with my wife, and to supper and so to bed.

Note 1. At Newcastle House, Clerkenwell Close, the duke (age 74) and duchess (age 44) lived in great state. The house was divided, and let in tenements in the eighteenth century.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1667. Then abroad with my wife to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), and she to her tailor's. I find Sir Philip Warwicke (age 57), who I perceive do give over my Lord Treasurer (age 60) for a man of this world, his pain being grown great again upon him, and all the rest he hath is by narcotiques, and now Sir Philip Warwicke (age 57) do please himself, like a good man, to tell some of the good ejaculations of my Lord Treasurer (age 60) concerning the little worth of this world, to buy it with so much pain, and other things fit for a dying man.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1667. At his accounts, wherein I very high against him, till late, and then we broke up with little done, and so broke up, and I to my office, where late doing of business, and then home to supper and to bed. News still that my Lord Treasurer (age 60) is so ill as not to be any man of this world; and it is said that the Treasury shall be managed by Commission. I would to God Sir G. Carteret (age 57), or my Lord Sandwich (age 41), be in it! But the latter is the more fit for it.

On 16 May 1667 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 60) died. Earl of Southampton, Earl Chichester extinct.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1667. Thence home, and to my office, where busy; anon at 7 at night I and my wife and Sir W. Pen (age 46) in his coach to Unthanke's, my wife's tailor, for her to speak one word, and then we to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where I find the porter crying, and suspected it was that my Lord is dead; and, poor Lord! we did find that he was dead just now; and the crying of the fellow did so trouble me, that considering I was not likely to trouble him any more, nor have occasion to give any more anything, I did give him 3s.; but it may be, poor man, he hath lost a considerable hope by the death of his Lord, whose house will be no more frequented as before, and perhaps I may never come thither again about any business. There is a good man gone: and I pray God that the Treasury may not be worse managed by the hand or hands it shall now be put into; though, for certain, the slowness, though he was of great integrity, of this man, and remissness, have gone as far to undo the nation, as anything else that hath happened; and yet, if I knew all the difficulties that he hath lain under, and his instrument Sir Philip Warwicke (age 57), I might be brought to another mind.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1667. After church to White Hall, and there find Sir G. Carteret (age 57) just set down to dinner, and I dined with them, as I intended, and good company, the best people and family in the world I think. Here was great talk of the good end that my Lord Treasurer (deceased) made; closing his owne eyes and setting his mouth, and bidding adieu with the greatest content and freedom in the world; and is said to die with the cleanest hands that ever any Lord Treasurer (deceased) did.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), who tells me now for certain how the Commission for the Treasury is disposed of: viz., to Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Lord Ashly (age 45), Sir W. Coventry (age 39), Sir John Duncomb (age 44), and Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36): at which, he says, all the whole Court is disturbed; it having been once concluded otherwise into the other hands formerly mentioned in yesterday's notes, but all of a sudden the King's choice was changed, and these are to be the men; the first of which is only for a puppet to give honour to the rest. He do presage that these men will make it their business to find faults in the management of the late Lord Treasurer (deceased), and in discouraging the bankers: but I am, whatever I in compliance do say to him, of another mind, and my heart is very glad of it, for I do expect they will do much good, and that it is the happiest thing that hath appeared to me for the good of the nation since the King (age 36) come in.

In 1673 Ralph Montagu 1st Duke Montagu (age 34) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Wriothesley Countess Northumberland (age 27) were married. She the wealthy daughter of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester who had died six years previously. She the daughter of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester and Elizabeth Leigh Countess Southampton. They were third cousin once removed.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (age 43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge [Map], and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War", with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (age 55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (age 55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His Majesty (age 43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (age 43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (age 55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (age 43) that Lord Arlington (age 55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (age 55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (age 43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (age 43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (age 43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (age 55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (age 39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (age 43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.

In 1676 Conyers Darcy 2nd Earl Holderness (age 54) and [his former wife] Frances Seymour Countess Southampton (age 58) were married. She the daughter of William Seymour 2nd Duke of Somerset and Frances Devereux Duchess of Somerset. He the son of Conyers Darcy 1st Earl Holderness (age 76) and Grace Rokeby Countess Holderness. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In Jan 1681 [his former wife] Frances Seymour Countess Southampton (age 63) died. She was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Royal Ancestors of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester 1607-1667

Kings Wessex: Great x 18 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 14 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 20 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 15 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 7 Grand Son of King Henry IV of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 13 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 10 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester 1607-1667

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 2

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 2

Ancestors of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester 1607-1667

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Writhe

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Wriothesley

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton

Great x 2 Grandmother: Agnes Drayton of London

GrandFather: Henry Wriothesley 2nd Earl of Southampton

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Cheney

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Cheney

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Cheney of Chesham Blois in Buckinghamshire

Great x 1 Grandmother: Jane Cheney Countess Southampton

Father: Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Browne

Great x 3 Grandfather: Anthony Browne 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Fitzalan 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Anthony Browne 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Lucy Neville 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabel Ingaldsthorpe 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montagu 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Gage

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Gage

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Gage

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Guildford

Great x 3 Grandmother: Philippa Guildford

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ann Pympe

GrandMother: Mary Browne Countess Southampton 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter 9 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Fitzwalter Baroness Dinham 8th Baroness Fitzwalter 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Whetehill

Great x 1 Grandmother: Jane Radclyffe 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Stanley 2nd Earl of Derby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Strange 9th Baroness Strange of Knockin 5th Baroness Dunster 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Stanley Countess Sussex 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux, Hungerford and Moleyns 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Hastings Countess Derby 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford, 5th Baroness Botreaux and 2nd Baroness Moleyns 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry IV of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Vernon 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Vernon 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Humphrey Vernon 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Talbot 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Talbot 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Butler Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: George Vernon 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry IV of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Ludlow 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Ludlow 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Ludlow 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry IV of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville Great Grand Son of King Henry IV of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Grey 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry IV of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Tuchet Countess Tankerville 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: John Vernon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry IV of England

Mother: Elizabeth Vernon Countess Southampton 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry IV of England