Biography of William Coventry 1628-1686

Paternal Family Tree: Coventry

Maternal Family Tree: Elizabeth Aldersley Baroness Coventry 1580-1653

1662 Montagu Chomeley Duel

1663 Farneley Wood Plot

1664 Great Plague of London

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Battle of Vågen

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Holme's Bonfire

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Poll Bill

1667 Raid on the Medway

1668 Bawdy House Riots

In or before 1606 [his father] Thomas Coventry 1st Baron Coventry (age 28) and Sarah Sebright (age 22) were married.

In or before 1610 [his father] Thomas Coventry 1st Baron Coventry (age 32) and [his mother] Elizabeth Aldersley Baroness Coventry (age 29) were married.

Around 1628 William Coventry was born to Thomas Coventry 1st Baron Coventry (age 50) and Elizabeth Aldersley Baroness Coventry (age 48).

On 10 Apr 1628 [his father] Thomas Coventry 1st Baron Coventry (age 50) was created 1st Baron Coventry. [his mother] Elizabeth Aldersley Baroness Coventry (age 48) by marriage Baroness Coventry.

On 14 Jan 1640 [his father] Thomas Coventry 1st Baron Coventry (age 62) died. His son [his half-brother] Thomas Coventry 2nd Baron Coventry (age 34) succeeded 2nd Baron Coventry.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Oct 1649. Came Mr. William Coventry (age 21) (afterward Sir William) and the Duke's secretary, etc., to visit me.

On 25 May 1653 [his mother] Elizabeth Aldersley Baroness Coventry (age 73) died.

Calendars. 29 May 1655. Royal Charles. 76. Sir William Coventry (age 27) to Lord Arlington (age 37). Capt. Langhorne has arrived with seven ships, and reports the taking of the Hamburg fleet, with the man-of-war their convoy; mistaking the Dutch fleet for the English, they fell into it. Will sail to-morrow for Southwold [Map] Bay, and there finish taking in victuals.

Calendars. 04 Jun 1655. 37. Sir William Coventry (age 27) and Sir William Penn (age 34) to the Navy Comrs, A good quantity of masts, yards, and all other stores must be sent immediately to the Downs. Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m.; chased them all the rest of the day and all night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (age 37), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Capt. Kirby'are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 40) wounded. [Adm. Paper.]

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Oct 1659. Came to visit me Mr. William Coventry (age 31) (since secretary to the Duke), son to the Lord Keeper, a wise and witty gentleman.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1660. Up very early, and now beginning to be settled in my wits again, I went about setting down my last four days' observations this morning. After that, was trimmed by a barber that has not trimmed me yet, my Spaniard being on shore. News brought that the two Dukes are coming on board, which, by and by, they did, in a Dutch boats the Duke of York in yellow trimmings, the Duke of Gloucester (age 19)1 in grey and red. My Lord went in a boat to meet them, the Captain, myself, and others, standing at the entering port. So soon as they were entered we shot the guns off round the fleet. After that they went to view the ship all over, and were most exceedingly pleased with it. They seem to be both very fine gentlemen. After that done, upon the quarter-deck table, under the awning, the Duke of York and my Lord, Mr. Coventry2, and I, spent an hour at allotting to every ship their service, in their return to England; which having done, they went to dinner, where the table was very full: the two Dukes at the upper end, my Lord Opdam next on one side, and my Lord on the other. Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the King's (age 29) health, and so likewise to the Duke's health. I took down Monsieur d'Esquier to the great cabin below, and dined with him in state alone with only one or two friends of his. All dinner the harper belonging to Captain Sparling played to the Dukes. After dinner, the Dukes and my Lord to see the Vice and Rear-Admirals; and I in a boat after them. After that done, they made to the shore in the Dutch boat that brought them, and I got into the boat with them; but the shore was so full of people to expect their coming, as that it was as black (which otherwise is white sand), as every one could stand by another. When we came near the shore, my Lord left them and came into his own boat, and General Pen and I with him; my Lord being very well pleased with this day's work. By the time we came on board again, news is sent us that the King is on shore; so my Lord fired all his guns round twice, and all the fleet after him, which in the end fell into disorder, which seemed very handsome. The gun over against my cabin I fired myself to the King, which was the first time that he had been saluted by his own ships since this change; but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye. Nothing in the world but going of guns almost all this day. In the evening we began to remove cabins; I to the carpenter's cabin, and Dr. Clerke with me, who came on board this afternoon, having been twice ducked in the sea to-day coming from shore, and Mr. North and John Pickering the like. Many of the King's (age 29) servants came on board to-night; and so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all. This afternoon Mr Downing (age 35) (who was knighted yesterday by the King') was here on board, and had a ship for his passage into England, with his lady and servants3. By the same token he called me to him when I was going to write the order, to tell me that I must write him Sir G. Downing (age 35). My Lord lay in the roundhouse to-night. This evening I was late writing a French letter myself by my Lord's order to Monsieur Kragh, Embassador de Denmarke a la Haye, which my Lord signed in bed. After that I to bed, and the Doctor, and sleep well.

Note 1. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (age 19), the youngest child of Charles L, born July 6th, 16-, who, with his sister Elizabeth, was allowed a meeting with his father on the night before the King's (age 29) execution. Burnet says: "He was active, and loved business; was apt to have particular friendships, and had an insinuating temper which was generally very acceptable. The King loved him much better than the Duke of York". He died of smallpox at Whitehall, September 13th, 1660, and was buried in Henry VII's Chapel.

Note 2. William Coventry (age 32), to whom Pepys became so warmly attached afterwards, was the fourth son of Thomas, first Lord Coventry, the Lord Keeper. He was born in 1628, and entered at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1642; after the Restoration he became private secretary to the Duke of York, his commission as Secretary to the Lord High Admiral not being conferred until 1664; elected M.P. for Great Yarmouth in 1661. In 1662 he was appointed an extra Commissioner of the Navy, an office he held until 1667; in 1665, knighted and sworn a Privy Councillor, and, in 1667, constituted a Commissioner of the Treasury; but, having been forbid the court on account of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham, he retired into the country, nor could he subsequently be prevailed upon to accept of any official employment. Burnet calls Sir William Coventry the best speaker in the House of Commons, and "a man of the finest and best temper that belonged to the court", and Pepys never omits an opportunity of paying a tribute to his public and private worth. He died, 1686, of gout in the stomach.

Note 3. "About midnight arrived there Mr Downing (age 35), who did the affairs of England to the Lords the Estates, in quality of Resident under Oliver Cromwell, and afterward under the pretended Parliament, which having changed the form of the government, after having cast forth the last Protector, had continued him in his imploiment, under the quality of Extraordinary Envoy. He began to have respect for the King's (age 29) person, when he knew that all England declared for a free parliament, and departed from Holland without order, as soon as he understood that there was nothing that could longer oppose the re- establishment of monarchal government, with a design to crave letters of recommendation to General Monk (age 51). This lord considered him, as well because of the birth of his wife, which is illustrious, as because Downing had expressed some respect for him in a time when that eminent person could not yet discover his intentions. He had his letters when he arrived at midnight at the house of the Spanish Embassador, as we have said. He presented them forthwith to the King (age 29), who arose from table a while after, read the letters, receiv'd the submissions of Downing, and granted him the pardon and grace which he asked for him to whom he could deny nothing. Some daies after the King (age 29) knighted him, and would it should be believed, that the strong aversions which this minister of the Protector had made appear against him on all occasions, and with all sorts of persons indifferently, even a few daies before the publick and general declaration of all England, proceeded not from any evil intention, but only from a deep dissimulation, wherewith he was constrained to cover his true sentiments, for fear to prejudice the affairs of his Majesty".-Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio, pp. 72-73.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jun 1660. With my Lord to the Duke, where he spoke to Mr. Coventry (age 32) to despatch my business of the Acts1, in which place every body gives me joy, as if I were in it, which God send.

Note 1. The letters patent, dated July 13th, 12 Charles II., recite and revoke letters patent of February 16th, 14 Charles I., whereby the office of Clerk of the Ships had been given to Dennis Fleming and Thomas Barlow, or the survivor. D. F. was then dead, but T. B. living, and Samuel Pepys was appointed in his room, at a salary of £33 6s. 8d. per annum, with 3s. 4d. for each day employed in travelling, and £6 per annum for boathire, and all fees due. This salary was only the ancient "fee out of the Exchequer", which had been attached to the office for more than a century. Pepys's salary had been previously fixed at £350 a year.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1660. My brother Tom (age 26) came to me with patterns to choose for a suit. I paid him all to this day, and did give him £10 upon account. To Mr. Coventry (age 32), who told me that he would do me all right in my business. To Sir G. Downing (age 35), the first visit I have made him since he came. He is so stingy a fellow I care not to see him; I quite cleared myself of his office, and did give him liberty to take any body in. Hawly and he are parted too, he is going to serve Sir Thos. Ingram (age 46). I went also this morning to see Mrs. Pierce, the chirurgeon's wife. I found her in bed in her house in Margaret churchyard. Her husband returned to sea. I did invite her to go to dinner with me and my wife to-day. After all this to my Lord, who lay a-bed till eleven o'clock, it being almost five before he went to bed, they supped so late last night with the King. This morning I saw poor Bishop Wren (age 74)1 going to Chappel, it being a thanksgiving-day for the King's (age 30) return. After my Lord was awake, I went up to him to the Nursery, where he do lie, and, having talked with him a little, I took leave and carried my wife and Mrs. Pierce to Clothworkers'-Hall, to dinner, where Mr. Pierce, the Purser, met us. We were invited by Mr. Chaplin (age 33), the Victualler, where Nich. Osborne was. Our entertainment very good, a brave hall, good company, and very good music. Where among other things I was pleased that I could find out a man by his voice, whom I had never seen before, to be one that sang behind the curtaine formerly at Sir W. Davenant's (age 54) opera. Here Dr. Gauden and Mr. Gauden the victualler dined with us. After dinner to Mr. Rawlinson's (age 46)3, to see him and his wife, and would have gone to my Aunt Wight, but that her only child, a daughter, died last night. Home and to my Lord, who supped within, and Mr. E. Montagu, Mr. Thos. Crew, and others with him sat up late. I home and to bed.

Note 1. Matthew Wren (age 74), born 1585, successively Bishop of Hereford, Norwich, and Ely. At the commencement of the Rebellion he was sent to the Tower, and remained a prisoner there eighteen years. Died April 24th, 1667.

Note 2. "A Proclamation for setting apart a day of Solemn and Publick Thanksgiving throughout the whole Kingdom", dated June 5th, 1660.

Note 3. Daniel Rawlinson kept the Mitre [Map] in Fenchurch Street, and there is a farthing token of his extant, "At the Mitetr in Fenchurch Streete, D. M. R". The initials stand for Daniel and Margaret Rawlinson (see "Boyne's Trade Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., 1889, p. 595) In "Reliquiae Hearnianae" (ed. Bliss, 1869, vol. ii. p. 39) is the following extract from Thomas Rawlinson's Note Book R.: "Of Daniel Rawlinson, my grandfather, who kept the Mitre tavern in Fenchurch Street, and of whose being sequestred in the Rump time I have heard much, the Whiggs tell this, that upon the King's (age 30) murder he hung his signe in mourning. He certainly judged right. The honour of the Mitre was much eclipsed through the loss of so good a parent of the church of England. These rogues say, this endeared him so much to the churchmen that he soon throve amain and got a good estate". Mrs. Rawlinson died of the plague (see August 9th, 1666), and the house was burnt in the Great Fire. Mr. Rawlinson (age 46) rebuilt the Mitre, and he had the panels of the great room painted with allegorical figures by Isaac Fuller. Daniel was father of Sir Thomas Rawlinson, of whom Thomas Hearne writes (October 1st, 1705): "Sir Thomas Rawlinson is chosen Lord Mayor of London for ye ensueing notwithstanding the great opposition of ye Whigg party" (Hearne's "Collections", ed. Doble, 1885, vol. i. p. 51). The well-known antiquaries, Thomas and Richard Rawlinson, sons of Sir Thomas, were therefore grandsons of Daniel.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1660. All the morning the Officers and Commissioners of the Navy, we met at Sir G. Carteret's (age 50)1 chamber, and agreed upon orders for the Council to supersede the old ones, and empower us to act. Dined with Mr. Stephens, the Treasurer's man of the Navy, and Mr. Turner, to whom I offered £50 out of my own purse for one year, and the benefit of a Clerk's allowance beside, which he thanked me for; but I find he hath some design yet in his head, which I could not think of. In the afternoon my heart was quite pulled down, by being told that Mr. Barlow was to enquire to-day for Mr. Coventry (age 32); but at night I met with my Lord, who told me that I need not fear, for he would get me the place against the world. And when I came to W. Howe, he told me that Dr. Petty had been with my Lord, and did tell him that Barlow was a sickly man, and did not intend to execute the place himself, which put me in great comfort again. Till 2 in the morning writing letters and things for my Lord to send to sea. So home to my wife to bed.

Note 1. Sir George Carteret (age 50), born 1599, had originally been bred to the sea service, and became Comptroller of the Navy to Charles I., and Governor of Jersey, where he obtained considerable reputation by his gallant defence of that island against the Parliament forces. At the Restoration he was made Vice-Chamberlain to the King, Treasurer of the Navy, and a Privy Councillor, and in 1661 he was elected M.P. for Portsmouth. In 1666 he exchanged the Treasurership of the Navy with the Earl of Anglesea for the Vice-Treasurership of Ireland. He became a Commissioner of the Admiralty in 1673. He continued in favour with Charles II till his death, January 14th, 1679, in his eightieth year. He married his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Philip Carteret (age 19), Knight of St. Ouen, and had issue three sons and five daughters.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1660. From thence to the Excise Office in Broad Street, where I received £500 for my Lord, by appointment of the Treasurer, and went afterwards down with Mr. Luddyard and drank my morning draft with him and other officers. Thence to Mr. Backewell's, the goldsmith, where I took my Lord's £100 in plate for Mr. Secretary Nicholas (age 67), and my own piece of plate, being a state dish and cup in chased work for Mr. Coventry (age 32), cost me above £19. Carried these and the money by coach to my Lord's at White Hall, and from thence carried Nicholas's plate to his house and left it there, intending to speak with him anon. So to Westminster Hall [Map], where meeting with M. L'Impertinent and W. Bowyer, I took them to the Sun Tavern, and gave them a lobster and some wine, and sat talking like a fool till 4 o'clock. So to my Lord's, and walking all the afternoon in White Hall Court, in expectation of what shall be done in the Council as to our business. It was strange to see how all the people flocked together bare, to see the King looking out of the Council window. At night my Lord told me how my orders that I drew last night about giving us power to act, are granted by the Council. At which he and I were very glad. Home and to bed, my boy lying in my house this night the first time.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1660. This morning my brother Tom (age 26) brought me my jackanapes coat with silver buttons. It rained this morning, which makes us fear that the glory of this great day will be lost; the King and Parliament being to be entertained by the City to-day with great pomp1. Mr. Hater' was with me to-day, and I agreed with him to be my clerk2. Being at White Hall, I saw the King, the Dukes, and all their attendants go forth in the rain to the City, and it bedraggled many a fine suit of clothes. I was forced to walk all the morning in White Hall, not knowing how to get out because of the rain. Met with Mr. Cooling, my Lord Chamberlain's (age 58) secretary, who took me to dinner among the gentlemen waiters, and after dinner into the wine-cellar. He told me how he had a project for all us Secretaries to join together, and get money by bringing all business into our hands. Thence to the Admiralty, where Mr. Blackburne and I (it beginning to hold up) went and walked an hour or two in the Park, he giving of me light in many things in my way in this office that I go about. And in the evening I got my present of plate carried to Mr. Coventry's (age 32). At my Lord's at night comes Dr. Petty to me, to tell me that Barlow had come to town, and other things, which put me into a despair, and I went to bed very sad.

Note 1. His Majesty, the two Dukes, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons, and the Privy Council, dined at the Guildhall. Every Hall appeared with their colours and streamers to attend His Majesty; the Masters in gold chains. Twelve pageants in the streets between Temple Bar and Guildhall. Forty brace of bucks were that day spent in the City of London. Rugge's Diurnal. B.

Note 2. Thomas Hayter. He remained with Pepys for some time; and by his assistance was made Petty Purveyor of Petty Missions. He succeeded Pepys as Clerk of the Acts in 1673, and in 1679 he was Secretary of the Admiralty, and Comptroller of the Navy from 1680 to 1682.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1660. In the morning with my Lord at Whitehall, got the order of the Council for us to act. From thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with the Doctor that shewed us so much kindness at the Hague, and took him to the Sun tavern, and drank with him. So to my Lord's and dined with W. Howe and Sarah, thinking it might be the last time that I might dine with them together. In the afternoon my Lord and I, and Mr. Coventry (age 32) and Sir G. Carteret (age 50), went and took possession of the Navy Office, whereby my mind was a little cheered, but my hopes not great. From thence Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and I to the Treasurer's Office, where he set some things in order. And so home, calling upon Sir Geoffry Palmer (age 62), who did give me advice about my patent, which put me to some doubt to know what to do, Barlow being alive. Afterwards called at Mr. Pim's, about getting me a coat of velvet, and he took me to the Half Moon [Map], and the house so full that we staid above half an hour before we could get anything. So to my Lord's, where in the dark W. Howe and I did sing extemporys, and I find by use that we are able to sing a bass and a treble pretty well. So home, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1660. Up early and by coach to White Hall with Commissioner Pett (age 49), where, after we had talked with my Lord, I went to the Privy Seal and got my bill perfected there, and at the Signet: and then to the House of Lords, and met with Mr. Kipps, who directed me to Mr. Beale (age 28) to get my patent engrossed; but he not having time to get it done in Chancery-hand, I was forced to run all up and down Chancery-lane, and the Six Clerks' Office1 but could find none that could write the hand, that were at leisure. And so in a despair went to the Admiralty, where we met the first time there, my Lord Montagu, my Lord Barkley (age 58), Mr. Coventry (age 32), and all the rest of the principal Officers and Commissioners, [except] only the Controller, who is not yet chosen. At night to Mr. Kipps's lodgings, but not finding him, I went to Mr. Spong's and there I found him and got him to come to me to my Lord's lodgings at 11 o'clock of night, when I got him to take my bill to write it himself (which was a great providence that he could do it) against to-morrow morning. I late writing letters to sea by the post, and so home to bed. In great trouble because I heard at Mr. Beale's (age 28) to-day that Barlow had been there and said that he would make a stop in the business.

Note 1. The Six Clerks' Office was in Chancery Lane, near the Holborn end. The business of the office was to enrol commissions, pardons, patents, warrants, &c., that had passed the Great Seal; also other business in Chancery. In the early history of the Court of Chancery, the Six Clerks and their under-clerks appear to have acted as the attorneys of the suitors. As business increased, these under-clerks became a distinct body, and were recognized by the court under the denomination of 'sworn clerks,' or 'clerks in court.' The advance of commerce, with its consequent accession of wealth, so multiplied the subjects requiring the judgment of a Court of Equity, that the limits of a public office were found wholly inadequate to supply a sufficient number of officers to conduct the business of the suitors. Hence originated the 'Solicitors' of the "Court of Chancery". See Smith's "Chancery Practice", p. 62, 3rd edit. The "Six Clerks" were abolished by act of Parliament, 5 Vict. c. 5.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1660. This morning I went to White Hall with Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water, who in our passage told me how he was bred up under Sir W. Batten (age 59). We went to Mr. Coventry's (age 32) chamber, and consulted of drawing my papers of debts of the Navy against the afternoon for the Committee. So to the Admiralty, where W. Hewer (age 18) and I did them, and after that he went to his Aunt's Blackburn (who has a kinswoman dead at her house to-day, and was to be buried to-night, by which means he staid very late out). I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Mr. Crew (age 62) and dined with him, where there dined one Mr. Hickeman, an Oxford man, who spoke very much against the height of the now old clergy, for putting out many of the religious fellows of Colleges, and inveighing against them for their being drunk, which, if true, I am sorry to hear. After that towards Westminster, where I called on Mr. Pim, and there found my velvet coat (the first that ever I had) done, and a velvet mantle, which I took to the Privy Seal Office, and there locked them up, and went to the Queen's Court, and there, after much waiting, spoke with Colonel Birch (age 44), who read my papers, and desired some addition, which done I returned to the Privy Seal, where little to do, and with Mr. Moore towards London, and in our way meeting Monsieur Eschar (Mr. Montagu's man), about the Savoy, he took us to the Brazennose Tavern, and there drank and so parted, and I home by coach, and there, it being post-night, I wrote to my Lord to give him notice that all things are well; that General Monk (age 51) is made Lieutenant of Ireland, which my Lord Roberts (age 54) (made Deputy) do not like of, to be Deputy to any man but the King himself. After that to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1660. By water to Doctors' Commons to Dr. Walker, to give him my Lord's papers to view over concerning his being empowered to be Vice-Admiral under the Duke of York. There meeting with Mr. Pinkney, he and I to a morning draft, and thence by water to White Hall, to the Parliament House, where I spoke with Colonel Birch (age 44), and so to the Admiralty chamber, where we and Mr. Coventry (age 32) had a meeting about several businesses. Amongst others, it was moved that Phineas Pett (kinsman to the Commissioner) of Chatham, Kent [Map], should be suspended his employment till he had answered some articles put in against him, as that he should formerly say that the King was a bastard and his mother a whore. Hence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with my father Bowyer, and Mr. Spicer, and them I took to the Leg in King Street, and did give them a dish or two of meat, and so away to the Privy Seal, where, the King being out of town, we have had nothing to do these two days. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with W. Symons, T. Doling, and Mr. Booth, and with them to the Dogg, where we eat a musk melon1 (the first that I have eat this year), and were very merry with W. Symons, calling him Mr. Dean, because of the Dean's lands that his uncle had left him, which are like to be lost all. Hence home by water, and very late at night writing letters to my Lord to Hinchinbroke, and also to the Vice-Admiral (age 45) in the Downs, and so to bed.

Note 1. "Melons were hardly known in England till Sir George Gardiner brought one from Spain, when they became in general estimation. The ordinary price was five or six shillings".-Quarterly Review, vol, xix.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1660. To Whitehall by water with Sir W. Batten (age 59), and in our passage told me how Commissioner Pett (age 50) did pay himself for the entertainment that he did give the King at Chatham, Kent [Map] at his coming in, and 20s. a day all the time he was in Holland, which I wonder at, and so I see there is a great deal of envy between the two. At Whitehall I met with Commissioner Pett (age 50), who told me how Mr. Coventry (age 32) and Fairbank his solicitor are falling out, one complaining of the other for taking too great fees, which is too true. I find that Commissioner Pett (age 50) is under great discontent, and is loth to give too much money for his place, and so do greatly desire me to go along with him in what we shall agree to give Mr. Coventry (age 32), which I have promised him, but am unwilling to mix my fortune with him that is going down the wind. We all met this morning and afterwards at the Admiralty, where our business is to ask provision of victuals ready for the ships in the Downs, which we did, Mr. Gauden promising to go himself thither and see it done. Dined Will and I at my Lord's upon a joint of meat that I sent Mrs. Sarah for. Afterwards to my office and sent all my books to my Lord's, in order to send them to my house that I now dwell in. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1660. To Whitehall again, where at Mr. Coventry's (age 32) chamber I met with Sir W. Pen (age 39) again, and so with him to Redriffe [Map] by water, and from thence walked over the fields to Deptford, Kent [Map] (the first pleasant walk I have had a great while), and in our way had a great deal of merry discourse, and find him to be a merry fellow and pretty good natured, and sings very bawdy songs. So we came and found our gentlemen and Mr. Prin (age 60) at the pay. About noon we dined together, and were very merry at table telling of tales. After dinner to the pay of another ship till 10 at night, and so home in our barge, a clear moonshine night, and it was 12 o'clock before we got home, where I found my wife in bed, and part of our chambers hung to-day by the upholster, but not being well done I was fretted, and so in a discontent to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1660. I was forced to go to my Lord's to get him to meet the officers of the Navy this afternoon, and so could not go along with her, but I missed my Lord, who was this day upon the bench at the Sessions house. So I dined there, and went to White Hall, where I met with Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39), who with the Comptroller, Treasurer, and Mr. Coventry (age 32) (at his chamber) made up a list of such ships as are fit to be kept out for the winter guard, and the rest to be paid off by the Parliament when they can get money, which I doubt will not be a great while.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1660. Lord's Day. Being called up early by Sir W. Batten (age 59) I rose and went to his house and he told me the ill news that he had this morning from Woolwich, Kent [Map], that the Assurance (formerly Captain Holland's ship, and now Captain Stoakes's, designed for Guiny and manned and victualled), was by a gust of wind sunk down to the bottom. Twenty men drowned. Sir Williams both went by barge thither to see how things are, and I am sent to the Duke of York (age 27) to tell him, and by boat with some other company going to Whitehall from the Old Swan [Map]. I went to the Duke. And first calling upon Mr. Coventry (age 32) at his chamber, I went to the Duke's bed-side, who had sat up late last night, and lay long this morning, who was much surprised, therewith. This being done I went to chappell, and sat in Mr. Blagrave's pew, and there did sing my part along with another before the King, and with much ease. From thence going to my Lady I met with a letter from my Lord (which Andrew had been at my house to bring me and missed me), commanding me to go to Mr. Denham, to get a man to go to him to-morrow to Hinchinbroke, to contrive with him about some alterations in his house, which I did and got Mr. Kennard. Dined with my Lady and staid all the afternoon with her, and had infinite of talk of all kind of things, especially of beauty of men and women, with which she seems to be much pleased to talk of. From thence at night to Mr. Kennard and took him to Mr. Denham, the Surveyor's. Where, while we could not speak with him, his chief man (Mr. Cooper) did give us a cup of good sack. From thence with Mr. Kennard to my Lady who is much pleased with him, and after a glass of sack there; we parted, having taken order for a horse or two for him and his servant to be gone to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1660. In the morning to the office and Commissioner Pett (age 50) (who seldom comes there) told me that he had lately presented a piece of plate (being a couple of flaggons) to Mr. Coventry (age 32), but he did not receive them, which also put me upon doing the same too; and so after dinner I went and chose a payre of candlesticks to be made ready for me at Alderman Backwell's (age 42).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1660. In the morning to Alderman Backwell's (age 42) for the candlesticks for Mr. Coventry (age 32), but they being not done I went away, and so by coach to Mr. Crew's (age 62), and there took some money of Mr. Moore's for my Lord, and so to my Lord's, where I found Sir Thomas Bond (whom I never saw before) with a message from the Queen (age 51) about vessells for the carrying over of her goods, and so with him to Mr. Coventry (age 32), and thence to the office (being soundly washed going through the bridge) to Sir Wm. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) (the last of whom took physic to-day), and so I went up to his chamber, and there having made an end of the business I returned to White Hall by water, and dined with my Lady Sandwich (age 35), who at table did tell me how much fault was laid upon Dr. Frazer and the rest of the Doctors, for the death of the Princess!

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1661. Lord's Day. My wife and I to church this morning, and so home to dinner to a boiled leg of mutton all alone. To church again, where, before sermon, a long Psalm was set that lasted an hour, while the sexton gathered his year's contribution through the whole church. After sermon home, and there I went to my chamber and wrote a letter to send to Mr. Coventry (age 33), with a piece of plate along with it, which I do preserve among my other letters. So to supper, and thence after prayers to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1661. Thence by water to Whitehall, and found my wife at Mrs. Hunt's. Leaving her to dine there, I went and dined with my Lady, and staid to talk a while with her. After dinner Will. comes to tell me that he had presented my piece of plate to Mr. Coventry (age 33), who takes it very kindly, and sends me a very kind letter, and the plate back again; of which my heart is very glad.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1661. So after a cup of burnt wine1 at the tavern there, we took barge and went to Blackwall [Map] and viewed the dock and the new Wet dock, which is newly made there, and a brave new merchantman which is to be launched shortly, and they say to be called the Royal Oak. Hence we walked to Dick-Shore, and thence to the Towre and so home. Where I found my wife and Pall abroad, so I went to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), and there found Mr. Coventry (age 33) come to see him, and now had an opportunity to thank him, and he did express much kindness to me. I sat a great while with Sir Wm. after he was gone, and had much talk with him. I perceive none of our officers care much for one another, but I do keep in with them all as much as I can. Sir W. Pen (age 39) is still very ill as when I went.

Note 1. Burnt wine was somewhat similar to mulled wine, and a favourite drink.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1661. This morning I went early to the Comptroller's (age 50) and so with him by coach to Whitehall, to wait upon Mr. Coventry (age 33) to give him an account of what we have done, which having done, I went away to wait upon my Lady; but coming to her lodgings I find that she is gone this morning to Chatham, Kent [Map] by coach, thinking to meet me there, which did trouble me exceedingly, and I did not know what to do, being loth to follow her, and yet could not imagine what she would do when she found me not there. In this trouble, I went to take a walk in Westminster Hall [Map] and by chance met with Mr. Child, who went forth with my Lady to-day, but his horse being bad, he come back again, which then did trouble me more, so that I did resolve to go to her; and so by boat home and put on my boots, and so over to Southwarke to the posthouse, and there took horse and guide to Dartford and thence to Rochester, Kent [Map] (I having good horses and good way, come thither about half-an-hour after daylight, which was before 6 o'clock and I set forth after two), where I found my Lady and her daughter Jem., and Mrs. Browne' and five servants, all at a great loss, not finding me here, but at my coming she was overjoyed. The sport was how she had intended to have kept herself unknown, and how the Captain (whom she had sent for) of the Charles had forsoothed1 her, though he knew her well and she him. In fine we supped merry and so to bed, there coming several of the Charles's men to see me before, I got to bed. The page lay with me.

Note 1. To forsooth is to address in a polite and ceremonious manner. "Your city-mannerly word forsooth, use it not too often in any case".-Ben Jonson's Poetaster, act iv., sc. 1.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1661. To church again, a good sermon of Mr. Mills, and after sermon Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I an hour in the garden talking, and he did answer me to many things, I asked Mr. Coventry's (age 33) opinion of me, and Sir W. Batten's (age 60) of my Lord Sandwich (age 35), which do both please me. Then to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), where very merry, and here I met the Comptroller (age 50) and his lady and daughter (the first time I ever saw them) and Mrs. Turner (age 38), who and her husband supped with us here (I having fetched my wife thither), and after supper we fell to oysters, and then Mr. Turner went and fetched some strong waters, and so being very merry we parted, and home to bed. This day the parson read a proclamation at church, for the keeping of Wednesday next, the 30th of January, a fast for the murther of the late King.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1661. This morning with Mr. Coventry (age 33) at Whitehall about getting a ship to carry my Lord's deals to Lynne [Map], and we have chosen the Gift. Thence at noon to my Lord's, where my Lady not well, so I eat a mouthfull of dinner there, and thence to the Theatre [Map], and there sat in the pit among the company of fine ladys, &c.; and the house was exceeding full, to see Argalus and Parthenia, the first time that it hath been acted: and indeed it is good, though wronged by my over great expectations, as all things else are.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1661. Early up to Court with Sir W. Pen (age 39), where, at Mr. Coventry's (age 33) chamber, we met with all our fellow officers, and there after a hot debate about the business of paying off the Fleet, and how far we should join with the Commissioners of Parliament, which is now the great business of this month more to determine, and about which there is a great deal of difference between us, and then how far we should be assistants to them therein.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1661. With Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Pen (age 39) to Whitehall to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) chamber, to debate upon the business we were upon the other day morning, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1661. My Lord went this morning on his journey to Hinchingbroke, Mr. Parker with him; the chief business being to look over and determine how, and in what manner, his great work of building shall be done. Before his going he did give me some jewells to keep for him, viz., that that the King of Sweden did give him, with the King's own picture in it, most excellently done; and a brave George, all of diamonds, and this with the greatest expressions of love and confidence that I could imagine or hope for, which is a very great joy to me. To the office all the forenoon. Then to dinner and so to Whitehall to Mr. Coventry (age 33) about several businesses, and then with Mr. Moore, who went with me to drink a cup of ale, and after some good discourse then home and sat late talking with Sir W. Batten (age 60). So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1661. At the office all the morning. At dinner Sir W. Batten (age 60) came and took me and my wife to his house to dinner, my Lady being in the country, where we had a good Lenten dinner. Then to Whitehall with Captn. Cuttle, and there I did some business with Mr. Coventry (age 33), and after that home, thinking to have had Sir W. Batten (age 60), &c., to have eat a wigg1 at my house at night. But my Lady being come home out of the country ill by reason of much rain that has fallen lately, and the waters being very high, we could not, and so I home and to bed.

Note 1. Wigg, a kind of north country bun or tea-cake, still so called, to my knowledge, in Staffordshire.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1661. With Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Pen (age 39) to Mr. Coventry's (age 33), and there had a dispute about my claim to the place of Purveyor of Petty-provisions, and at last to my content did conclude to have my hand to all the bills for these provisions and Mr. Turner to purvey them, because I would not have him to lose the place. Then to my Lord's, and so with Mr. Creed to an alehouse, where he told me a long story of his amours at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to one of Mrs. Boat's daughters, which was very pleasant. Dined with my Lord and Lady, and so with Mr. Creed to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "King and no King", well acted. Thence with him to the Cock alehouse at Temple Bar, where he did ask my advice about his amours, and I did give him it, which was to enquire into the condition of his competitor, who is a son of Mr. Gauden's, and that I promised to do for him, and he to make (what) use he can of it to his advantage. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1661. That done to White Hall to Mr. Coventry (age 33), where I did some business with him, and so with Sir W. Pen (age 39) (who I found with Mr. Coventry (age 33) teaching of him upon the map to understand Jamaica1). By water in the dark home, and so to my Lady Batten's where my wife was, and there we sat and eat and drank till very late, and so home to bed. The great talk of the town is the strange election that the City of London made yesterday for Parliament-men; viz. Fowke, Love, Jones, and... men that are so far from being episcopall that they are thought to be Anabaptists; and chosen with a great deal of zeal, in spite of the other party that thought themselves very strong, calling out in the Hall, "No Bishops! no Lord Bishops!" It do make people to fear it may come to worse, by being an example to the country to do the same. And indeed the Bishops are so high, that very few do love them.

Note 1. Sir William Pen (age 39) was well fitted to give this information, as it was he who took the island from the Spaniards in 1655.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1661. At the office we and Sir W. Rider to advise what sort of provisions to get ready for these ships going to the Indies. Then the Comptroller (age 50) and I by water to Mr. Coventry (age 33), and there discoursed upon the same thing.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1661. From my father's, it being a very foul morning for the King and Lords to go to Windsor, I went to the office and there met Mr. Coventry (age 33) and Sir Robt. Slingsby (age 50), but did no business, but only appoint to go to Deptford, Kent [Map] together tomorrow. Mr. Coventry (age 33) being gone, and I having at home laid up £200 which I had brought this morning home from Alderman Backwell's (age 43), I went home by coach with Sir R. Slingsby (age 50) and dined with him, and had a very good dinner. His lady' seems a good woman and very desirous they were to hear this noon by the post how the election has gone at Newcastle, wherein he is concerned, but the letters are not come yet.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Apr 1661. So soon as word was brought me that Mr. Coventry (age 33) was come with the barge to the Towre, I went to him, and found him reading of the Psalms in short hand (which he is now busy about), and had good sport about the long marks that are made there for sentences in divinity, which he is never like to make use of. Here he and I sat till the Comptroller (age 50) came and then we put off for Deptford, where we went on board the King's pleasure boat that Commissioner Pett (age 50) is making, and indeed it will be a most pretty thing.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Apr 1661. That done we went to the Globe and there had a good dinner, and by and by took barge again and so home. By the way they would have me sing, which I did to Mr. Coventry (age 33), who went up to Sir William Batten's (age 60), and there we staid and talked a good while, and then broke up and I home, and then to my father's and there lay with my wife.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1661. Here comes my boy to tell me that the Duke of York (age 27) had sent for all the principal officers, &c., to come to him to-day. So I went by water to Mr. Coventry's (age 33), and there staid and talked a good while with him till all the rest come. We went up and saw the Duke (age 27) dress himself, and in his night habitt he is a very plain man. Then he sent us to his closett, where we saw among other things two very fine chests, covered with gold and Indian varnish, given him by the East Indy Company of Holland.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1661. In the morning to Mr. Coventry (age 33), Sir G. Carteret (age 51), and my Lord's to give them an account of my return. My Lady, I find, is, since my going, gone to the Wardrobe. Then with Mr. Creed into London, to several places about his and my business, being much stopped in our way by the City traynebands, who go in much solemnity and pomp this day to muster before the King and the Duke (age 27), and shops in the City are shut up every where all this day. He carried me to an ordinary by the Old Exchange [Map], where we come a little too late, but we had very good cheer for our 18d a-piece, and an excellent droll too, my host, and his wife so fine a woman; and sung and played so well that I staid a great while and drunk a great deal of wine. Then home and staid among my workmen all day, and took order for things for the finishing of their work, and so at night to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and there supped and so home and to bed, having sent my Lord a letter to-night to excuse myself for not going with him to-morrow to the Hope, whither he is to go to see in what condition the fleet is in.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1661. I landed at Blackfriars and so to the Wardrobe and dined, and then back to Whitehall with Captain Ferrers, and there walked, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where we met with Mr. Pickering, and so all of us to the Rhenish wine house (Prior's), where the master of the house is laying out some money in making a cellar with an arch in his yard, which is very convenient for him. Here we staid a good while, and so Mr. Pickering and I to Westminster Hall [Map] again, and there walked an hour or two talking, and though he be a fool, yet he keeps much company, and will tell all he sees or hears, and so a man may understand what the common talk of the town is, and I find by him that there are endeavours to get my Lord out of play at sea, which I believe Mr. Coventry (age 33) and the Duke do think will make them more absolute; but I hope, for all this, they will not be able to do it. He tells me plainly of the vices of the Court, and how the pox is so common there, and so I hear on all hands that it is as common as eating and swearing.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1661. By coach with Sir W. Pen (age 40) to Covent Garden [Map]. By the way, upon my desire, he told me that I need not fear any reflection upon my Lord for their ill success at Argier, for more could not be done than was done. I went to my cozen, Thos. Pepys, there, and talked with him a good while about our country business, who is troubled at my uncle Thomas his folly, and so we parted; and then meeting Sir R. Slingsby (age 50) in St. Martin's Lane, he and I in his coach through the Mewes, which is the way that now all coaches are forced to go, because of a stop at Charing Cross, by reason of a drain there to clear the streets. To Whitehall, and there to Mr. Coventry (age 33), and talked with him, and thence to my Lord Crew's and dined with him, where I was used with all imaginable kindness both from him and her. And I see that he is afraid that my Lord's reputacon will a little suffer in common talk by this late success; but there is no help for it now. The Queen (age 22) of England (as she is now owned and called) I hear doth keep open Court, and distinct at Lisbon. Hence, much against my nature and will, yet such is the power of the Devil over me I could not refuse it, to the Theatre [Map], and saw "The Merry Wives of Windsor", ill done. And that ended, with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Sir G. More to the tavern, and so home with him by coach, and after supper to prayers and to bed. In full quiet of mind as to thought, though full of business, blessed be God.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 33), who sat with us all the morning, and Sir G. Carteret (age 51), Sir W. Pen (age 40), and myself, by coach to Captain Marshe's, at Limehouse [Map], to a house that hath been their ancestors for this 250 years, close by the lime-house which gives the name to the place. Here they have a design to get the King to hire a dock for the herring busses, which is now the great design on foot, to lie up in. We had a very good and handsome dinner, and excellent wine. I not being neat in clothes, which I find a great fault in me, could not be so merry as otherwise, and at all times I am and can be, when I am in good habitt, which makes me remember my father Osborne's' rule for a gentleman to spare in all things rather than in that. So by coach home, and so to write letters by post, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1661. In the morning, being very rainy, by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 40) and my wife to Whitehall, and sent her to Mrs. Bunt's, and he and I to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) about business, and so sent for her again, and all three home again, only I to the Mitre (Mr. Rawlinson's (age 47)), where Mr. Pierce, the Purser, had got us a most brave chine of beef, and a dish of marrowbones. Our company my uncle Wight, Captain Lambert, one Captain Davies, and purser Barter, Mr. Rawlinson (age 47), and ourselves; and very merry. After dinner I took coach, and called my wife at my brother's, where I left her, and to the Opera, where we saw "The Bondman", which of old we both did so doat on, and do still; though to both our thinking not so well acted here (having too great expectations), as formerly at Salisbury-court. But for Betterton (age 26) he is called by us both the best actor in the world. So home by coach, I lighting by the way at my uncle Wight's and staid there a little, and so home after my wife, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1661. I lay long in bed, till Sir Williams both sent me word that we were to wait upon the Duke of York (age 28) to-day; and that they would have me to meet them at Westminster Hall [Map], at noon: so I rose and went thither; and there I understand that they are gone to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) lodgings, in the Old Palace Yard, to dinner (the first time I knew he had any); and there I met them two and Sir G. Carteret (age 51), and had a very fine dinner, and good welcome, and discourse; and so, by water, after dinner to White Hall to the Duke, who met us in his closet; and there he did discourse to us the business of Holmes, and did desire of us to know what hath been the common practice about making of forrayne ships to strike sail to us, which they did all do as much as they could; but I could say nothing to it, which I was sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1661. So indeed I was forced to study a lie, and so after we were gone from the Duke, I told Mr. Coventry (age 33) that I had heard Mr. Selden often say, that he could prove that in Henry the 7th's time, he did give commission to his captains to make the King of Denmark's ships to strike to him in the Baltique.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1661. Lord's Day. Long in bed with my wife, and though I had determined to go to dine with my wife at my Lady's, (chiefly to put off dining with Sir W. Pen (age 40) to-day because Holmes dined there), yet I could not get a coach time enough to go thither, and so I dined at home, and my brother Tom (age 27) with me, and then a coach came and I carried my wife to Westminster, and she went to see Mrs. Hunt, and I to the Abbey, and there meeting with Mr. Hooper, he took me in among the quire, and there I sang with them their service, and so that being done, I walked up and down till night for that Mr. Coventry (age 33) was not come to Whitehall since dinner again.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1662. To Westminster, and at the Parliament door spoke with Mr. Coventry (age 34) about business, and so to the Wardrobe to dinner, and thence to several places, and so home, where I found Mrs. Pen and Mrs. Rooth and Smith, who played at cards with my wife, and I did give them a barrel of oysters, and had a pullet to supper for them, and when it was ready to come to table, the foolish girl had not the manners to stay and sup with me, but went away, which did vex me cruelly. So I saw her home, and then to supper, and so to musique practice, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1662. Dined at home, and there came Mrs. Goldsborough about her old business, but I did give her a short answer and sent away. This morning we had news from Mr. Coventry (age 34), that Sir G. Downing (age 37) (like a perfidious rogue, though the action is good and of service to the King (age 31)1, yet he cannot with any good conscience do it) hath taken Okey, Corbet, and Barkestead at Delfe, in Holland, and sent them home in the Blackmore. Sir W. Pen (age 40), talking to me this afternoon of what a strange thing it is for Downing to do this, he told me of a speech he made to the Lords States of Holland, telling them to their faces that he observed that he was not received with the respect and observance now, that he was when he came from the traitor and rebell Cromwell: by whom, I am sure, he hath got all he hath in the world,-and they know it too2.

Note 1. "And hail the treason though we hate the traitor". On the 21st Charles returned his formal thanks to the States for their assistance in the matter. B.

Note 2. Charles, when residing at Brussels, went to the Hague at night to pay a secret visit to his sister, the Princess of Orange. After his arrival, "an old reverend-like man, with a long grey beard and ordinary grey clothes", entered the inn and begged for a private interview. He then fell on his knees, and pulling off his disguise, discovered himself to be Mr Downing (age 37), then ambassador from Cromwell to the States-General. He informed Charles that the Dutch had guaranteed to the English Commonwealth to deliver him into their hands should he ever set foot in their territory. This warning probably saved Charles's liberty.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1662. This morning Mr. Coventry (age 34) and all our company met at the office about some business of the victualling, which being dispatched we parted. I to my Lord Crew's to dinner (in my way calling upon my brother Tom (age 28), with whom I staid a good while and talked, and find him a man like to do well, which contents me much), where used with much respect, and talking with him about my Lord's debts, and whether we should make use of an offer of Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) to lend my Lady 4 or £500, he told me by no means, we must not oblige my Lord to him, and by the by he made a question whether it was not my Lord's interest a little to appear to the King (age 31) in debt, and for people to clamor against him as well as others for their money, that by that means the King (age 31) and the world may see that he do lay out for the King's honour upon his own main stock, which many he tells me do, that in fine if there be occasion he and I will be bound for it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1662. By water to Whitehall and thence to Westminster, and staid at the Parliament-door long to speak with Mr. Coventry (age 34), which vexed me.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1662. After dinner to the office again. So at night by coach to Whitehall, and Mr. Coventry (age 34) not being there I brought my business of the office to him, it being almost dark, and so came away and took up my wife. By the way home and on Ludgate Hill [Map] there being a stop I bought two cakes, and they were our supper at home.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1662. After dinner to several places about business, and so home and wrote letters at my office, and one to Mr. Coventry (age 34) about business, and at the close did excuse my not waiting on him myself so often as others do for want of leisure. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. So home and to dinner, and by and by to the office, and after the rest gone (my Lady Albemarle (age 43) being this day at dinner at Sir W. Batten's (age 61)) Sir G. Carteret (age 52) comes, and he and I walked in the garden, and, among other discourse, tells me that it is Mr. Coventry (age 34) that is to come to us as a Commissioner of the Navy; at which he is much vexed, and cries out upon Sir W. Pen (age 41), and threatens him highly.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1662. To Westminster; and at the Privy Seal I saw Mr. Coventry's (age 34) seal for his being Commissioner with us, at which I know not yet whether to be glad or otherwise. So doing several things by the way, I walked home, and after dinner to the office all the afternoon. At night, all the bells of the town rung, and bonfires made for the joy of the Queen's (age 23) arrival, who came and landed at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] last night. But I do not see much thorough joy, but only an indifferent one, in the hearts of people, who are much discontented at the pride and luxury of the Court, and running in debt.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock and to my business in my chamber, to even accounts with my Lord and myself, and very fain I would become master of £1000, but I have not above £530 toward it yet. At the office all the morning, and Mr. Coventry (age 34) brought his patent and took his place with us this morning. Upon our making a contract, I went, as I use to do, to draw the heads thereof, but Sir W. Pen (age 41) most basely told me that the Comptroller (age 63) is to do it, and so begun to employ Mr. Turner about it, at which I was much vexed, and begun to dispute; and what with the letter of the Duke's orders, and Mr. Barlow's letter, and the practice of our predecessors, which Sir G. Carteret (age 52) knew best when he was Comptroller (age 63), it was ruled for me. What Sir J. Minnes (age 63) will do when he comes I know not, but Sir W. Pen (age 41) did it like a base raskall, and so I shall remember him while I live.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1662. Thence sent for to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52), and there talked with him a good while. I perceive, as he told me, were it not that Mr. Coventry (age 34) had already feathered his nest in selling of places, he do like him very well, and hopes great good from him. But he complains so of lack of money, that my heart is very sad, under the apprehension of the fall of the office.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1662. To the office, where all the morning, and I find Mr. Coventry (age 34) is resolved to do much good, and to enquire into all the miscarriages of the office.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1662. At noon with him and Sir W. Batten (age 61) to dinner at Trinity House, Deptford [Map]; where, among others, Sir J. Robinson (age 47), Lieutenant of the Tower, was, who says that yesterday Sir H. Vane (age 49) had a full hearing at the King's Bench, and is found guilty; and that he did never hear any man argue more simply than he in all his life, and so others say. My mind in great trouble whether I should go as I intended to Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow or no. At last resolved the contrary, because of the charge thereof, and I am afraid now to bring in any accounts for journeys, and so will others I suppose be, because of Mr. Coventry's (age 34) prying into them.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1662. At the office all the morning, much business; and great hopes of bringing things, by Mr. Coventry's (age 34) means, to a good condition in the office.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1662. This morning I tried on my riding cloth suit with close knees, the first that ever I had; and I think they will be very convenient, if not too hot to wear any other open knees after them. At the office all the morning, where we had a full Board, viz., Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir John Mennes, Sir W. Batten (age 61), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir W. Pen (age 41), Mr. Pett (age 51), and myself. Among many other businesses, I did get a vote signed by all, concerning my issuing of warrants, which they did not smell the use I intend to make of it; but it is to plead for my clerks to have their right of giving out all warrants, at which I am not a little pleased. But a great difference happened between Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34), about passing the Victualler's account, and whether Sir George (age 52) is to pay the Victualler his money, or the Exchequer; Sir George (age 52) claiming it to be his place to save his threepences. It ended in anger, and I believe will come to be a question before the King (age 32) and Council. I did what I could to keep myself unconcerned in it, having some things of my own to do before I would appear high in anything.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1662.By and by to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52), to talk with him about yesterday's difference at the office; and offered my service to look into any old books or papers that I have, that may make for him. He was well pleased therewith, and did much inveigh against Mr. Coventry (age 34); telling me how he had done him service in the Parliament, when Prin had drawn up things against him for taking of money for places; that he did at his desire, and upon his, letters, keep him off from doing it. And many other things he told me, as how the King (age 32) was beholden to him, and in what a miserable condition his family would be, if he should die before he hath cleared his accounts. Upon the whole, I do find that he do much esteem of me, and is my friend, and I may make good use of him.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1662. By and by, by appointment, comes Commissioner Pett (age 51); and then a messenger from Mr. Coventry (age 34), who sits in his boat expecting us, and so we down to him at the Tower, and there took water all, and to Deptford, Kent [Map] (he in our passage taking notice how much difference there is between the old Captains for obedience and order, and the King's new Captains, which I am very glad to hear him confess); and there we went into the Store-house, and viewed first the provisions there, and then his books, but Mr. Davis himself was not there, he having a kinswoman in the house dead, for which, when by and by I saw him, he do trouble himself most ridiculously, as if there was never another woman in the world; in which so much laziness, as also in the Clerkes of the Cheque and Survey (which after one another we did examine), as that I do not perceive that there is one-third of their duties performed; but I perceive, to my great content, Mr. Coventry (age 34) will have things reformed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1662. So Mr. Coventry (age 34) to London, and Pett and I to the Pay, where Sir Williams both were paying off The Royal James still, and so to dinner, and to the Pay again, where I did relieve several of my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) people, but was sorry to see them so peremptory, and at every word would, complain to my Lord, as if they shall have such a command over my Lord.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jul 1662. So to the Wardrobe, where alone with my Lord above an hour; and he do seem still to have his old confidence in me; and tells me to boot, that Mr. Coventry (age 34) hath spoke of me to him to great advantage; wherein I am much pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jul 1662. By and by comes in Mr. Coventry (age 34) to visit my Lord; and so my Lord and he and I walked together in the great chamber a good while; and I found him a most ingenuous man and good company. He being gone I also went home by water, Mr. Moore with me for discourse sake, and then parted from me, Cooper being there ready to attend me, so he and I to work till it was dark, and then eat a bit and by daylight to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1662. Up by four o'clock, and hard at my multiplicacion-table, which I am now almost master of, and so made me ready and to my office, where by and by comes Mr. Pett (age 51), and then a messenger from Mr. Coventry (age 34), who stays in his boat at the Tower for us. So we to him, and down to Deptford, Kent [Map] first, and there viewed some deals lately served in at a low price, which our officers, like knaves, would untruly value in their worth, but we found them good.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1662. So by water back again. About five in the afternoon to Whitehall, and so to St. James's; and at Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber, which is very neat and fine, we had a pretty neat dinner, and after dinner fell to discourse of business and regulation, and do think of many things that will put matters into better order, and upon the whole my heart rejoices to see Mr. Coventry (age 34) so ingenious, and able, and studious to do good, and with much frankness and respect to Mr. Pett (age 51) and myself particularly.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1662. Up by 4 o'clock, and after doing some business as to settling my papers at home, I went to my office, and there busy till sitting time. So at the office all the morning, where J. Southern, Mr. Coventry's (age 34) clerk, did offer me a warrant for an officer to sign which I desired, claiming it for my clerk's duty, which however did trouble me a little to be put upon it, but I did it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1662. At noon to my Lord's with it, but found him at dinner, and some great company with him, Mr. Edward Montagu (age 27) and his brother, and Mr. Coventry (age 34), and after dinner he went out with them, and so I lost my labour; but dined with Mr. Moore and the people below, who after dinner fell to talk of Portugall rings, and Captain Ferrers offered five or six to sell, and I seeming to like a ring made of a coco-nutt with a stone done in it, he did offer and would give it me.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1662. To my office, and by and by to our sitting; where much business. Mr. Coventry (age 34) took his leave, being to go with the Duke over for the Queen-Mother (age 52). I dined at home, and so to my Lord's, where I presented him with a true state of all his accounts to last Monday, being the 14th of July, which did please him, and to my great joy I continue in his great esteem and opinion. I this day took a general acquittance from my Lord to the same day. So that now I have but very few persons to deal withall for money in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1662. Among my workmen early: then to the office, and there I had letters from the Downs from Mr. Coventry (age 34); who tells me of the foul weather they had last Sunday, that drove them back from near Boulogne, whither they were going for the Queen (age 52), back again to the Downs, with the loss of their cables, sayles, and masts; but are all safe, only my Lord Sandwich (age 36), who went before with the yachts; they know not what is become of him, which do trouble me much; but I hope he got ashore before the storm begun; which God grant!

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1662. All the afternoon answering letters and writing letters, and at night to Mr. Coventry (age 34) an ample letter in answer to all his and the Duke's business.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1662. Early up, and brought all my money, which is near £300, out of my house into this chamber; and so to the office, and there we sat all the morning, Sir George Carteret (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34) being come from sea.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1662. At noon being invited I went with Sir George (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34) to Sir W. Batten's (age 61) to dinner, and there merry, and very friendly to Sir Wm. and he to me, and complies much with me, but I know he envies me, and I do not value him.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1662. At noon Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I by his coach to the Exchange [Map] together; and in Lumbard-street [Map] met Captain Browne of the Rosebush: at which he was cruel angry: and did threaten to go to-day to the Duke at Hampton Court [Map], and get him turned out because he was not sailed. But at the Exchange [Map] we resolved of eating a bit together, which we did at the Ship behind the Exchange [Map], and so took boat to Billingsgate, and went down on board the Rosebush at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and found all things out of order, but after frightening the officers there, we left them to make more haste, and so on shore to the yard, and did the same to the officers of the yard, that the ship was not dispatched. Here we found Sir W. Batten (age 61) going about his survey, but so poorly and unlike a survey of the Navy, that I am ashamed of it, and so is Mr. Coventry (age 34). We found fault with many things, and among others the measure of some timber now serving in which Mr. Day the assistant told us of, and so by water home again, all the way talking of the office business and other very pleasant discourse, and much proud I am of getting thus far into his books, which I think I am very much in.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1662. Thence by water to White Hall; and so to St. James's; but there found Mr. Coventry (age 34) gone to Hampton Court [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1662. At noon came Mr. Coventry (age 34) on purpose from Hampton Court [Map] to see the same, and dined with Mr. Falconer, and after dinner to several experiments of Hemp, and particularly some Milan hemp that is brought over ready dressed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1662. By and by comes Mr. Coventry (age 34), and he and I alone sat at the office all the morning upon business.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1662. Home and to my office till 9 at night doing business, and so to bed. My mind well pleased with a letter I found at home from Mr. Coventry (age 34), expressing his satisfaction in a letter I writ last night, and sent him this morning, to be corrected by him in order to its sending down to all the Yards as a charge to them.

1662 Montagu Chomeley Duel

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1662. By and by to sit at the office; and Mr. Coventry (age 34) did tell us of the duell between Mr. Jermyn (age 26), nephew to my Lord St. Albans (age 57), and Colonel Giles Rawlins, the latter of whom is killed, and the first mortally wounded, as it is thought. They fought against Captain Thomas Howard (age 31), my Lord Carlisle's (age 33) brother, and another unknown; who, they say, had armour on that they could not be hurt, so that one of their swords went up to the hilt against it. They had horses ready, and are fled. But what is most strange, Howard sent one challenge, but they could not meet, and then another, and did meet yesterday at the old Pall Mall [Map] at St. James's, and would not to the last tell Jermyn what the quarrel was; nor do any body know. The Court is much concerned in this fray, and I am glad of it; hoping that it will cause some good laws against it.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1662. By and by comes in Mr. Coventry (age 34) to us, whom my Lord tells that he is also put into the commission, and that I am there, of which he said he was glad; and did tell my Lord that I was indeed the life of this office, and much more to my commendation beyond measure. And that, whereas before he did bear me respect for his sake, he do do it now much more for my own; which is a great blessing to me. Sir G. Carteret (age 52) having told me what he did yesterday concerning his speaking to my Lord Chancellor (age 53) about me. So that on all hands, by God's blessing, I find myself a very rising man.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1662. Up early, and about my works in my house, to see what is done and design more. Then to my office, and by and by we sat till noon at the office. After sitting, Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I did walk together a great while in the Garden, where he did tell me his mind about Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) having so much the command of the money, which must be removed. And indeed it is the bane of all our business. He observed to me also how Sir W. Batten (age 61) begins to struggle and to look after his business, which he do indeed a little, but it will come to nothing. I also put him upon getting an order from the Duke for our inquiries into the Chest, which he will see done.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1662. Then we fell to talk of Navy business, and he concludes, as I do, that he needs not put himself upon any more voyages abroad to spend money, unless a war comes; and that by keeping his family awhile in the country, he shall be able to gather money. He is glad of a friendship with Mr. Coventry (age 34), and I put him upon increasing it, which he will do, but he (as Mr. Coventry (age 34) do) do much cry against the course of our payments and the Treasurer to have the whole power in his own hands of doing what he will, but I think will not meddle in himself. He told me also that in the Commission for Tangier Mr. Coventry (age 34) had advised him that Mr. Povy (age 48), who intended to be Treasurer1, and it is intended him, may not be of the Commission itself, and my Lord I think will endeavour to get him to be contented to be left out of the Commission, and it is a very good rule indeed that the Treasurer in no office ought to be of the Commission. Here we broke off, and I bid him good night, and so with much ado, the streets being at nine o'clock at night crammed with people going home to the city, for all the borders of the river had been full of people, as the King (age 32) had come, to a miracle got to the Palace Yard, and there took boat, and so to the Old Swan [Map], and so walked home, and to bed very weary.

Note 1. Thomas Povy (age 48), who had held, under Cromwell, a high situation in the Office of Plantations, was appointed in July, 1660, Treasurer and Receiver-General of the Rents and Revenues of James, Duke of York (age 34); but his royal master's affairs falling into confusion, he surrendered his patent on the 27th July, 1668, for a consideration of £2,000. He was also First Treasurer for Tangier, which office he resigned to Pepys. Povy, had apartments at Whitehall, besides his lodgings in Lincoln's Inn, and a villa near Hounslow, called the Priory, which he had inherited from Justinian Povy, who purchased it in 1625. He was one of the sons of Justinian Povy, Auditor-General to Queen (age 23) Anne of Denmark in 1614, whose father was John Povy, citizen and embroiderer of London.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1662. Then to Mr. Pett's (age 52), and there eat some fruit and drank, and so to boat again, and to Deptford, calling there about the business of my house only, and so home, where by appointment I found Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir W. Batten (age 61), and Mr. Waith met at Sir W. Batten's (age 61), and thither I met, and so agreed upon a way of answering my Lord Treasurer's letter. Here I found Mr. Coventry (age 34) had got a letter from the Duke, sent us for looking into the business of the Chest, of which I am glad.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1662. I observe that Will, whom I used to call two or three times in a morning, would now wake of himself and rise without calling. Which though angry I was glad to see. So I rose and among my workmen, in my gown, without a doublet, an hour or two or more, till I was afraid of getting an ague, and so to the office, and there we sat all the morning, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 61), where I have now dined three days together, and so in the afternoon again we sat, which we intend to do two afternoons in a week besides our other sitting.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1662. Up betimes at my lodging and to my office and among my workmen, and then with Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Sir W. Pen (age 41) by coach to St. James's, this being the first day of our meeting there by the Duke's (age 28) order; but when we come, we found him going out by coach with his Duchess (age 25), and he told us he was to go abroad with the Queen (age 23) to-day (to Durdans, it seems, to dine with my Lord Barkeley (age 34), where I have been very merry when I was a little boy); so we went and staid a little at Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who is gone to wait upon the King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) today.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1662. In our discourse in the boat Mr. Coventry (age 34) told us how the Fanatiques and the Presbyters, that did intend to rise about this time, did choose this day as the most auspicious to them in their endeavours against monarchy: it being fatal twice to the King (age 32), and the day of Oliver's death1. But, blessed be God! all is likely to be quiet, I hope.

Note 1. Cromwell had considered the 3rd of September as the most fortunate day of his life, on account of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester. It was also remarkable for the great storm that occurred at the time of his death; and as being the day on which the Fire of London, in 1666, burnt with the greatest fury. B.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1662. Up betimes, but now the days begin to shorten, and so whereas I used to rise by four o'clock, it is not broad daylight now till after five o'clock, so that it is after five before I do rise. To my office, and about 8 o'clock I went over to Redriffe [Map], and walked to Deptford, where I found Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir W. Pen (age 41) beginning the pay, it being my desire to be there to-day because it is the first pay that Mr. Coventry (age 34) has been at, and I would be thought to be as much with Mr. Coventry (age 34) as I can. Here we staid till noon, and by that time paid off the Breda, and then to dinner at the tavern, where I have obtained that our commons is not so large as they used to be, which I am glad to see.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1662. Which I did, and by water betimes to the Tower and so home, where I shifted myself, being to dine abroad, and so being also trimmed, which is a thing I have very seldom done of late, I gat to my office and then met and sit all the morning, and at noon we all to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], where we treated, very dearly, I believe, the officers of the Ordnance; where was Sir Wm. Compton (age 37) and the rest and the Lieutenant of the Tower. We had much and good music, which was my best entertainment. Sir Wm. Compton (age 37) I heard talk with great pleasure of the difference between the fleet now and in Queen Elisabeth's days; where, in 88, she had but 36 sail great and small, in the world; and ten rounds of powder was their allowance at that time against the Spaniard. After Sir Wm. Compton (age 37) and Mr. Coventry (age 34), and some of the best of the rest were gone, I grew weary of staying with Sir Williams both, and the more for that my Lady Batten and her crew, at least half a score, come into the room, and I believe we shall pay size for it; but 'tis very pleasant to see her in her hair under her hood, and how by little and little she would fain be a gallant; but, Lord! the company she keeps about her are like herself, that she may be known by them what she is.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1662. Up betimes and to my office preparing an account to give the Duke this morning of what we have of late done at the office. About 7 o'clock I went forth thinking to go along with Sir John Minnes (age 63) and the rest, and I found them gone, which did vex me, so I went directly to the Old Swan [Map] and took boat before them to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) lodgings at Whitehall, and there staying till he was dressed talking with him, he and I to St. James's, where Sir Williams both and Sir John were come, and so up with Mr. Coventry (age 34) to the Duke; who, after he was out of his bed, did send for us in; and, when he was quite ready, took us into his closet, and there told us that he do intend to renew the old custom for the Admirals to have their principal officers to meet them once a-week, to give them an account what they have done that week; which I am glad of: and so the rest did tell his Royal Highness that I could do it best for the time past.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1662. At my office betimes, and by and by we sat, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Mr. Pett (age 52), and myself by water to Deptford, where we met Sir G. C. (age 52), Sir W. B. (age 61), and Sir W. P. (age 41) at the pay of a ship, and we dined together on a haunch of good venison boiled, and after dinner returned again to the office, and there met several tradesmen by our appointment to know of them their lowest rates that they will take for their several provisions that they sell to us, for I do resolve to know that, and to buy no dearer, that so when we know the lowest rate, it shall be the Treasurer's fault, and not ours, that we pay dearer.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1662. This afternoon Sir John Minnes (age 63), Mr. Coventry (age 34), and I went into Sir John's lodgings, where he showed us how I have blinded all his lights, and stopped up his garden door, and other things he takes notice of that he resolves to abridge me of, which do vex me so much that for all this evening and all night in my bed, so great a fool I am, and little master of my passion, that I could not sleep for the thoughts of my losing the privilege of the leads, and other things which in themselves are small and not worth half the trouble. The more fool am I, and must labour against it for shame, especially I that used to preach up Epictetus's rule:1 Late at my office, troubled in mind, and then to bed, but could hardly sleep at night.

Note 1. "Some things are in our power, others are not" Pepys means, "I ought not to vex myself about what I cannot control"..

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1662. Thence to St. James's to Mr. Coventry (age 34), and there staid talking privately with him an hour in his chamber of the business of our office, and found him to admiration good and industrious, and I think my most true friend in all things that are fair. He tells me freely his mind of every man and in every thing.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1662. Thence to Sir G. Carteret's (age 52), and find him to have sprained his foot and is lame, but yet hath been at chappell, and my Lady much troubled for one of her daughters that is sick. I dined with them, and a very pretty lady, their kinswoman, with them. My joy is, that I do think I have good hold on Sir George (age 52) and Mr. Coventry (age 34). Sir George (age 52) told me of a chest of drawers that were given Sir W. B. by Hughes the rope-maker, whom he has since put out of his employment, and now the fellow do cry out upon Sir W. for his cabinet.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1662. At the office all the morning, and at noon Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Mr. Coventry (age 34), and I by invitation to dinner to Sheriff Maynell's, the great money-man; he, Alderman Backwell (age 44), and much noble and brave company, with the privilege of their rare discourse, which is great content to me above all other things in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1662. Lord's Day. Got up betimes and walked to St. James's, and there to Mr. Coventry (age 34), and sat an hour with him, talking of business of the office with great pleasure, and I do perceive he do speak his whole mind to me.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Sep 1662. Twelfth Day. This day my oaths for drinking of wine and going to plays are out, and so I do resolve to take a liberty to-day, and then to fall to them again. Up and by coach to White Hall, in my way taking up Mr. Moore, and walked with him, talking a good while about business, in St. James's Park, and there left him, and to Mr. Coventry's (age 34), and so with him and Sir W. Pen (age 41) up to the Duke, where the King (age 32) came also and staid till the Duke was ready. It being Collarday, we had no time to talk with him about any business. They went out together.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1662. My condition at present is this: I have long been building, and my house to my great content is now almost done. But yet not so but that I shall have dirt, which troubles me too, for my wife has been in the country at Brampton these two months, and is now come home a week or two before the house is ready for her. My mind is somewhat troubled about my best chamber, which I question whether I shall be able to keep or no. I am also troubled for the journey which I must needs take suddenly to the Court at Brampton, but most of all for that I am not provided to understand my business, having not minded it a great while, and at the best shall be able but to make a bad matter of it, but God, I hope, will guide all to the best, and I am resolved to-morrow to fall hard to it. I pray God help me therein, for my father and mother and all our well-doings do depend upon my care therein. My Lord Sandwich (age 37) has lately been in the country, and very civil to my wife, and hath himself spent some pains in drawing a plot of some alterations in our house there, which I shall follow as I get money. As for the office, my late industry hath been such, as I am become as high in reputation as any man there, and good hold I have of Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir G. Carteret (age 52), which I am resolved, and it is necessary for me, to maintain by all fair means. Things are all quiett, but the King poor, and no hopes almost of his being otherwise, by which things will go to rack, especially in the Navy. The late outing of the Presbyterian clergy by their not renouncing the Covenant as the Act of Parliament commands, is the greatest piece of state now in discourse. But for ought I see they are gone out very peaceably, and the people not so much concerned therein as was expected. My brother Tom (age 28) is gone out of town this day, to make a second journey to his mistress at Banbury, of which I have good expectations, and pray God to bless him therein. My mind, I hope, is settled to follow my business again, for I find that two days' neglect of business do give more discontent in mind than ten times the pleasure thereof can repair again, be it what it will.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1662. At Woolwich, Kent [Map] we mustered the yard, and then to the Hart to dinner, and then to the Rope-yard [Map], where I did vex Sir W. Pen (age 41) I know to appear so well acquainted, I thought better than he, in the business of hemp; thence to Deptford, and there looked over several businesses, and wakened the officers there; so walked to Redriffe [Map], and thence, landing Sir W. Pen (age 41) at the Tower, I to White Hall with Mr. Coventry (age 34), and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, but my Lord was not within, being at a ball this night with the King (age 32) at my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) at next door.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1662. Sir W. Pen (age 41) and I early to St. James's by water, where Mr. Coventry (age 34), finding the Duke in bed, and not very well, we did not stay to speak with him, but to White Hall, and there took boat and down to Woolwich, Kent [Map] we went. In our way Mr. Coventry (age 34) telling us how of late upon enquiry into the miscarriages of the Duke's family, Mr. Biggs, his steward, is found very faulty, and is turned out of his employment.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1662. Up and by water to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and was with him a good while in his chamber, and among other things to my extraordinary joy, he did tell me how much I was beholding to the Duke of York (age 28), who did yesterday of his own accord tell him that he did thank him for one person brought into the Navy, naming myself, and much more to my commendation, which is the greatest comfort and encouragement that ever I had in my life, and do owe it all to Mr. Coventry's (age 34) goodness and ingenuity. I was glad above measure of this.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1662. Up early about my business to get me ready for my journey. But first to the office; where we sat all the morning till noon, and then broke up; and I bid them adieu for a week, having the Duke's leave got me by Mr. Coventry (age 34). To whom I did give thanks for my newes yesterday of the Duke's words to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) concerning me, which he took well; and do tell me so freely his love and value of me, that my mind is now in as great a state of quiett as to my interest in the office, as I could ever wish to be. I should this day have dined at Sir W. Pen's (age 41) at a venison pasty with the rest of our fellows, but I could not get time, but sent for a bit home, and so between one and two o'clock got on horseback at our back gate, with my man Will with me, both well-mounted on two grey horses. We rode and got to Ware, Hertfordshire [Map] before night; and so resolved to ride on to Puckeridge, which we did, though the way was bad, and the evening dark before we got thither, by help of company riding before us; and among others, a gentleman that took up at the same inn, the Falcon, with me, his name Mr. Brian, with whom I supped, and was very good company, and a scholar. He tells me, that it is believed the Queen (age 23) is with child, for that the coaches are ordered to ride very easily through the streets.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1662. Up and in Sir J. Minnes's (age 63) coach with him and Sir W. Batten (age 61) to White Hall, where now the Duke is come again to lodge: and to Mr. Coventry's (age 34) little new chamber there.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1662. Up and to the office, and there with Mr. Coventry (age 34) sat all the morning, only we two, the rest being absent or sick.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. Up, and after giving order to the plasterer now to set upon the finishing of my house, then by water to wait upon the Duke, and walking in the matted Gallery, by and by comes Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir John Minnes (age 63), and then to the Duke, and after he was ready, to his closet, where I did give him my usual account of matters, and afterwards, upon Sir J. Minnes' (age 63) desire to have one to assist him in his employment, Sir W. Pen (age 41) is appointed to be his, and Mr. Pett (age 52) to be the Surveyor's assistant. Mr. Coventry (age 34) did desire to be excused, and so I hope (at least it is my present opinion) to have none joined with me, but only Mr. Coventry (age 34) do desire that I would find work for one of his clerks, which I did not deny, but however I will think of it, whether without prejudice to mine I can do it.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. After dinner he and I into another room over a pot of ale and talked. He showed me our commission, wherein the Duke of York (age 29), Prince Rupert (age 42), Duke of Albemarle (age 53), Lord Peterborough (age 40), Lord Sandwich (age 37), Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir William Compton (age 37), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir R. Ford (age 48), Sir William Rider, Mr. Cholmley, Mr. Povy (age 48), myself, and Captain Cuttance, in this order are joyned for the carrying on the service of Tangier, which I take for a great honour to me.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. So to my office to put down my journal, and so home and to bed. This morning, walking with Mr. Coventry (age 34) in the garden, he did tell me how Sir G. Carteret (age 52) had carried the business of the Victuallers' money to be paid by himself, contrary to old practice; at which he is angry I perceive, but I believe means no hurt, but that things maybe done as they ought. He expects Sir George (age 52) should not bespatter him privately, in revenge, but openly. Against which he prepares to bedaub him, and swears he will do it from the beginning, from Jersey to this day.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1662. All the morning sitting at the office, at noon with Mr. Coventry (age 34) to the Temple [Map] to advise about Field's, but our lawyers not being in the way we went to St. James's, and there at his chamber dined, and I am still in love more and more with him for his real worth. I broke to him my desire for my wife's brother to send him to sea as a midshipman, which he is willing to agree to, and will do it when I desire it.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1662. Up and to the office all the morning, and at noon with the rest, by Mr. Holy, the ironmonger's invitation, to the Dolphin, to a venison pasty, very good, and rare at this time of the year, and thence by coach with Mr. Coventry (age 34) as far as the Temple [Map], and thence to Greatorex's (age 37), where I staid and talked with him, and got him to mend my pocket ruler for me, and so by coach to my Lord's lodging, where I sat with Mr. Moore by appointment, making up accounts for my Lord Sandwich (age 37), which done he and I and Capt. Ferrers and W. Howe very merry a good while in the great dining room, and so it being late and my Lord not coming in, I by coach to the Temple [Map], and thence walked home, and so to my study to do some business, and then home and to bed. Great talk among people how some of the Fanatiques do say that the end of the world is at hand, and that next Tuesday is to be the day. Against which, whenever it shall be, good God fit us all.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1662. So back and to the office, and there we met and sat till seven o'clock, making a bargain with Mr. Wood for his masts of New England; and then in Mr. Coventry's (age 34) coach to the Temple [Map], but my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45) not being at leisure to speak to me about my business, I presently walked home, and to my office till very late doing business, and so home, where I found my house more and more clear and in order, and hope in a day or two now to be in very good condition there and to my full content. Which God grant! So to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1662. Before I went to the office my wife's brother did come to us, and we did instruct him to go to Gosnell's and to see what the true matter is of her not coming, and whether she do intend to come or no, and so I to the office; and this morning come Sir G. Carteret (age 52) to us (being the first time we have seen him since his coming from France): he tells us, that the silver which he received for Dunkirk did weigh 120,000 weight. Here all the morning upon business, and at noon (not going home to dinner, though word was brought me that Will. Joyce was there, whom I had not seen at my house nor any where else these three or four months) with Mr. Coventry (age 34) by his coach as far as Fleet Street, and there stepped into Madam Turner's (age 39), where was told I should find my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), and with him to the Temple [Map], but not having time to do anything I went towards my Lord Sandwich's (age 37). (In my way went into Captn. Cuttance's coach, and with him to my Lord's.) But the company not being ready I did slip down to Wilkinson's, and having not eat any thing to-day did eat a mutton pie and drank, and so to my Lord's, where my Lord and Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir Wm. Darcy, one Mr. Parham (a very knowing and well-spoken man in this business), with several others, did meet about stating the business of the fishery, and the manner of the King's giving of this £200 to every man that shall set out a new-made English Busse by the middle of June next. In which business we had many fine pretty discourses; and I did here see the great pleasure to be had in discoursing of publique matters with men that are particularly acquainted with this or that business. Having come to some issue, wherein a motion of mine was well received, about sending these invitations from the King (age 32) to all the fishing-ports in general, with limiting so many Busses to this, and that port, before we know the readiness of Members, we parted, and I walked home all the way, and having wrote a letter full of business to my father, in my way calling upon my cozen Turner and Mr. Calthrop (age 38) at the Temple [Map], for their consent to be my arbitrators, which they are willing to. My wife and I to bed pretty pleasant, for that her brother brings word that Gosnell, which my wife and I in discourse do pleasantly call our Marmotte, will certainly come next week without fail, which God grant may be for the best.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1662. Up and by coach with Sir John Minnes (age 63) and Sir W. Batten (age 61) to White Hall to the Duke's chamber, where, as is usual, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and all of us, after his being ready, to his closett, and there discoursed of matters of the Navy, and here Mr. Coventry (age 34) did do me the great kindness to take notice to the Duke (age 29) of my pains in making a collection of all contracts about masts, which have been of great use to us.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1662. Thence I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), to Mr. Moore, to talk a little about business; and then over the Parke (where I first in my life, it being a great frost, did see people sliding with their skeates1, which is a very pretty art), to Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber to St. James's, where we all met to a venison pasty, and were very merry, Major Norwood being with us, whom they did play upon for his surrendering of Dunkirk. Here we staid till three or four o'clock; and so to the Council Chamber, where there met the Duke of York (age 29), Prince Rupert (age 42), Duke of Albemarle (age 53), my Lord Sandwich (age 37), Sir Win. Compton (age 37), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir R. Ford (age 48), Sir W. Rider, myself, and Captain Cuttance, as Commissioners for Tangier. And after our Commission was read by Mr. Creed, who I perceive is to be our Secretary, we did fall to discourse of matters: as, first, the supplying them forthwith with victualls; then the reducing it to make way for the money, which upon their reduction is to go to the building of the Mole; and so to other matters, ordered as against next meeting.

Note 1. Iron skates appear to have been introduced by the Dutch, as the name certainly was; but we learn from Fitzstephen that bone skates (although not so called) were used in London in the twelfth century.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, and there sat all the morning, Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I alone, the rest being paying off of ships.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1662. So to the Duke (age 29) and Mr. Coventry (age 34), and alone, the rest being at a Pay and elsewhere, and alone with Mr. Coventry (age 34) I did read over our letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 55), which I think now is done as well as it can be.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1662. Lay long with my wife, contenting her about the business of Gosnell's going, and I perceive she will be contented as well as myself, and so to the office, and after sitting all the morning in hopes to have Mr. Coventry (age 34) dine with me, he was forced to go to White Hall, and so I dined with my own company only, taking Mr. Hater home with me, but he, poor man, was not very well, and so could not eat any thing.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1662. This morning rose, receiving a messenger from Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and a letter from Mr. Coventry (age 34), one contrary to another, about our letter to my Lord Treasurer (age 55), at which I am troubled, but I went to Sir George (age 52), and being desirous to please both, I think I have found out a way to do it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1662. By and by we sat, Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I (Sir G. Carteret (age 52) being gone), and among other things, Field and Stint did come, and received the £41 given him by the judgement against me and Harry Kem1; and we did also sign bonds in £500 to stand to the award of Mr. Porter (age 31) and Smith for the rest: which, however, I did not sign to till I got Mr. Coventry (age 34) to go up with me to Sir W. Pen (age 41); and he did promise me before him to bear his share in what should be awarded, and both concluded that Sir W. Batten (age 61) would do no less.

Note 1. Fine for the imprisonment of Field (see February 4th, 1661-62, and October 21st, 1662).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1662. So back and to his closett, whither my Lord Sandwich (age 37) comes, and there Mr. Coventry (age 34) and we three had long discourse together about the matters of the Navy; and, indeed, I find myself more and more obliged to Mr. Coventry (age 34), who studies to do me all the right he can in every thing to the Duke (age 29).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, and thither came Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and among other business was Strutt's the purser, against Captn. Browne, Sir W. Batten's (age 61) brother-in-law, but, Lord! though I believe the Captain has played the knave, though I seem to have a good opinion of him and to mean him well, what a most troublesome fellow that Strutt is, such as I never did meet with his fellow in my life. His talking and ours to make him hold his peace set my head off akeing all the afternoon with great pain.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1662. So to dinner, thinking to have had Mr. Coventry (age 34), but he could not go with me; and so I took Captn. Murford. Of whom I do hear what the world says of me; that all do conclude Mr. Coventry (age 34), and Pett, and me, to be of a knot; and that we do now carry all things before us; and much more in particular of me, and my studiousnesse, &c., to my great content.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I alone sat till two o'clock, and then he inviting himself to my house to dinner, of which I was proud; but my dinner being a legg of mutton and two capons, they were not done enough, which did vex me; but we made shift to please him, I think; but I was, when he was gone, very angry with my wife and people.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1662. So to the office, and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 34) in his coach to St. James's, with great content and pride to see him treat me so friendly; and dined with him, and so to White Hall together; where we met upon the Tangier Commission, and discoursed many things thereon; but little will be done before my Lord Rutherford comes there, as to the fortification or Mole. That done, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and I walked together a good while in the Matted Gallery, he acquainting me with his late enquiries into the Wardrobe business to his content; and tells me how things stand. And that the first year was worth about £3000 to him, and the next about as much; so that at this day, if he were paid, it will be worth about £7000 to him. But it contents me above all things to see him trust me as his confidant: so I bid him good night, he being to go into the country, to keep his Christmas, on Monday next. So by coach home and to my office, being post night, and then home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1662. Thence to my Lord's, who is getting himself ready for his journey to Hinchingbroke. And by and by, after eating something, and talking with me about many things, and telling me his mind, upon my asking about Sarah (who, it seems, only married of late, but is also said to be turned a great drunkard, which I am ashamed of), that he likes her service well, and do not love a strange face, but will not endure the fault, but hath bade me speak to her and advise her if she hath a mind to stay with him, which I will do. My Lord and his people being gone, I walked to Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber, where I found him gone out into the Park with the Duke (age 29), so the boy being there ready with my things, I shifted myself into a riding-habitt, and followed him through White Hall, and in the Park Mr. Coventry's (age 34) people having a horse ready for me (so fine a one that I was almost afeard to get upon him, but I did, and found myself more feared than hurt) and I got up and followed the Duke (age 29), who, with some of his people (among others Mr. Coventry (age 34)) was riding out. And with them to Hide Park. Where Mr. Coventry (age 34) asking leave of the Duke (age 29), he bid us go to Woolwich, Kent [Map]. So he and I to the waterside, and our horses coming by the ferry, we by oars over to Lambeth, and from thence, with brave discourse by the way, rode to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where we eat and drank at Mr. Peat's, and discoursed of many businesses, and put in practice my new way of the Call-book, which will be of great use. Here, having staid a good while, we got up again and brought night home with us and foul weather. So over to Whitehall to his chamber, whither my boy came, who had staid in St. James's Park by my mistake all day, looking for me.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1662. By and by comes James Pearce Surgeon, who among other things tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) interest at Court increases, and is more and greater than the Queen's (age 24); that she hath brought in Sir H. Bennet (age 44), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); but that the Queen (age 24) is a most good lady, and takes all with the greatest meekness that may be. He tells me too that Mr. Edward Montagu (age 27) is quite broke at Court with his repute and purse; and that he lately was engaged in a quarrell against my Lord Chesterfield (age 28): but that the King (age 32) did cause it to be taken up. He tells me, too, that the King (age 32) is much concerned in the Chancellor's (age 53) sickness, and that the Chancellor (age 53) is as great, he thinks, as ever he was with the King (age 32). He also tells me what the world says of me, "that Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I do all the business of the office almost:" at which I am highly proud. He being gone I fell to business, which was very great, but got it well over by nine at night, and so home, and after supper to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1662. So to the office, and there Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I sat till noon, and then I stept to the Exchange [Map], and so home to dinner, and after dinner with my wife to the Duke's Theatre, and saw the second part of "Rhodes", done with the new Roxalana (age 20); which do it rather better in all respects for person, voice, and judgment, then the first Roxalana (age 20).

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1662. Up and walked to Whitehall, where the Duke and Mr. Coventry (age 34) being gone forth I went to Westminster Hall [Map], where I staid reading at Mrs. Mitchell's shop, and sent for half a pint of sack for her. Here she told me what I heard not of before, the strange burning of Mr. De Laun, a merchant's house in Loathbury, and his lady (Sir Thomas Allen's (age 29) daughter) and her whole family; not one thing, dog nor cat, escaping; nor any of the neighbours almost hearing of it till the house was quite down and burnt. How this should come to pass, God knows, but a most strange thing it is!

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1662. Up and to the office, whither Sir W. Pen (age 41) came, the first time that he has come downstairs since his late great sickness of the gout. We with Mr. Coventry (age 34) sat till noon, then I to the Change [Map] ward, to see what play was there, but I liked none of them, and so homeward, and calling in at Mr. Rawlinson's (age 48), where he stopped me to dine with him and two East India officers of ships and Hovell our turner. With the officers I had good discourse, particularly of the people at the Cape of Good Hope, of whom they of their own knowledge do tell me these one or two things: viz .... that they never sleep lying, but always sitting upon the ground, that their speech is not so articulate as ours, but yet [they] understand one another well, that they paint themselves all over with the grease the Dutch sell them (who have a fort there) and soot.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. By my last year's diligence in my office, blessed be God! I am come to a good degree of knowledge therein; and am acknowledged so by all-the world, even the Duke himself, to whom I have a good access and by that, and my being Commissioner with him for Tangier, he takes much notice of me; and I doubt not but, by the continuance of the same endeavours, I shall in a little time come to be a man much taken notice of in the world, specially being come to so great an esteem with Mr. Coventry (age 34). The only weight that lies heavy upon my mind is the ending the business with my uncle Thomas about my-dead uncle's estate, which is very ill on our side, and I fear when all is done I must be forced to maintain my father myself, or spare a good deal towards it out of my own purse, which will be a very great pull back to me in my fortune. But I must be contented and bring it to an issue one way or other. Publique matters stand thus: the King (age 32) is bringing, as is said, his family, and Navy, and all other his charges, to a less expence. In the mean time, himself following his pleasures more than with good advice he would do; at least, to be seen to all the world to do so. His dalliance with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) being publique, every day, to his great reproach; and his favouring of none at Court so much as those that are the confidants of his pleasure, as Sir H. Bennet (age 44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); which, good God! put it into his heart to mend, before he makes himself too much contemned by his people for it! The Duke of Monmouth (age 13) is in so great splendour at Court, and so dandled by the King (age 32), that some doubt, if the King (age 32) should have no child by the Queen (age 24) (which there is yet no appearance of), whether he would not be acknowledged for a lawful son; and that there will be a difference follow upon it between the Duke of York (age 29) and him; which God prevent!

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1663. After dinner I and she walked, though it was dirty, to White Hall (in the way calling at the Wardrobe to see how Mr. Moore do, who is pretty well, but not cured yet), being much afeard of being seen by anybody, and was, I think, of Mr. Coventry (age 35), which so troubled me that I made her go before, and I ever after loitered behind. She to Mr. Hunt's, and I to White Hall Chappell, and then up to walk up and down the house, which now I am well known there, I shall forbear to do, because I would not be thought a lazy body by Mr. Coventry (age 35) and others by being seen, as I have lately been, to walk up and down doing nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1663. Up and to the Duke (age 29), who himself told me that Sir J. Lawson (age 48) was come home to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] from the Streights, who is now come with great renown among all men, and, I perceive, mightily esteemed at Court by all. The Duke (age 29) did not stay long in his chamber; but to the King's chamber, whither by and by the Russia Embassadors (age 18) come; who, it seems, have a custom that they will not come to have any treaty with our or any King's Commissioners, but they will themselves see at the time the face of the King (age 32) himself, be it forty days one after another; and so they did to-day only go in and see the King (age 32); and so out again to the Council-chamber. The Duke (age 29) returned to his chamber, and so to his closett, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Mr. Coventry (age 35), and myself attended him about the business of the Navy; and after much discourse and pleasant talk he went away.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1663. So to my office all the afternoon writing orders myself to have ready against to-morrow, that I might not appear negligent to Mr. Coventry (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. Thence to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and with him in his coach to White Hall, and first I to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (being come now from Hinchingbrooke), and after talking a little with him, he and I to the Duke's chamber, where Mr. Coventry (age 35) and he and I into the Duke's closett and Sir J. Lawson (age 48) discoursing upon business of the Navy, and particularly got his consent to the ending some difficulties in Mr. Creed's accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1663. Up and to my office preparing things, by and by we met and sat Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I till noon, and then I took him to dine with me, I having a wild goose roasted, and a cold chine of beef and a barrel of oysters. We dined alone in my chamber, and then he and I to fit ourselves for horseback, he having brought me a horse; and so to Deptford, the ways being very dirty. There we walked up and down the Yard and Wett Dock, and did our main business, which was to examine the proof of our new way of the call-books, which we think will be of great use.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1663. Waked early with my mind troubled about our law matters, but it came into my mind that [sayings] of Epictetus, which did put me to a great deal of ease, it being a saying of great reason. Up to the office, and there sat Mr. Coventry (age 35), Mr. Pett (age 52), new come to town, and I was sorry for signing a bill and guiding Mr. Coventry (age 35) to sign a bill to Mr. Creed for his pay as Deputy Treasurer to this day, though the service ended 5 or 6 months ago, which he perceiving did blot out his name afterwards, but I will clear myself to him from design in it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1663. That done, I singled out Mr. Coventry (age 35) into the Matted Gallery, and there I told him the complaints I meet every day about our Treasurer's or his people's paying no money, but at the goldsmith's shops, where they are forced to pay fifteen or twenty sometimes per cent. for their money, which is a most horrid shame, and that which must not be suffered. Nor is it likely that the Treasurer (at least his people) will suffer Maynell the Goldsmith to go away with £10,000 per annum, as he do now get, by making people pay after this manner for their money. We were interrupted by the Duke (age 29), who called Mr. Coventry (age 35) aside for half an hour, walking with him in the gallery, and then in the garden, and then going away I ended my discourse with Mr. Coventry (age 35). But by the way Mr. Coventry (age 35) was saying that there remained nothing now in our office to be amended but what would do of itself every day better and better, for as much as he that was slowest, Sir W. Batten (age 62), do now begin to look about him and to mind business. At which, God forgive me! I was a little moved with envy, but yet I am glad, and ought to be, though it do lessen a little my care to see that the King's service is like to be better attended than it was heretofore.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1663. Up betimes and to the office, where all the morning. Dined at home, and Mr. Deane of Woolwich (age 29) with me, talking about the abuses of the yard. Then to the office about business all the afternoon with great pleasure, seeing myself observed by every body to be the only man of business of us all, but Mr. Coventry (age 35). So till late at night, and then home to supper and bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Jan 1663. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's, of the Household, Sir Charles Berkeley's (age 33), where were the Earl of Oxford (age 35), Lord Bellassis (age 48), Lord Gerard (age 29), Sir Andrew Scrope, Sir William Coventry (age 35), Dr. Fraser, Mr. Windham, and others.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1663. So by coach home, being melancholy, overcharged with business, and methinks I fear that I have some ill offices done to Mr. Coventry (age 35), or else he observes that of late I have not despatched business so as I did use to do, which I confess I do acknowledge. But it may be it is but my fear only, he is not so fond as he used to be of me. But I do believe that Sir W. Batten (age 62) has made him believe that I do too much crow upon having his kindness, and so he may on purpose to countenance him seem a little more strange to me, but I will study hard to bring him back again to the same degree of kindness.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1663. At noon dined with Mr. Coventry (age 35) at Sir J. Minnes (age 63) his lodgings, the first time that ever I did yet, and am sorry for doing it now, because of obliging me to do the like to him again. Here dined old Captn. Marsh of the Tower with us.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1663. Thence with Mr. Coventry (age 35) down to his chamber, where among other discourse he did tell me how he did make it not only his desire, but as his greatest pleasure, to make himself an interest by doing business truly and justly, though he thwarts others greater than himself, not striving to make himself friends by addresses; and by this he thinks and observes he do live as contentedly (now he finds himself secured from fear of want), and, take one time with another, as void of fear or cares, or more, than they that (as his own termes were) have quicker pleasures and sharper agonies than he.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1663. Up and to my office, whither by agreement Mr. Coventry (age 35) came before the time of sitting to confer about preparing an account of the extraordinary charge of the Navy since the King's coming, more than is properly to be applied and called the Navy charge. So by and by we sat, and so till noon.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1663. In the morning most of my disease, that is, itching and pimples, were gone. In the morning visited by Mr. Coventry (age 35) and others, and very glad I am to see that I am so much inquired after and my sickness taken notice of as I did. I keep my bed all day and sweat again at night, by which I expect to be very well to-morrow. This evening Sir W. Warren came himself to the door and left a letter and box for me, and went his way. His letter mentions his giving me and my wife a pair of gloves; but, opening the box, we found a pair of plain white gloves for my hand, and a fair state dish of silver, and cup, with my arms, ready cut upon them, worth, I believe, about £18, which is a very noble present, and the best I ever had yet.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1663. Up and to my office, where we met and sate all the morning, only Mr. Coventry (age 35), which I think is the first or second time he has missed since he came to the office, was forced to be absent.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1663. So to my office, where by and by we sat, this afternoon being the first we have met upon a great while, our times being changed because of the parliament sitting. Being rose, I to my office till twelve at night, drawing out copies of the overcharge of the Navy, one to send to Mr. Coventry (age 35) early to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1663. Here I staid vexing, and yet pleased to see every body, man and woman, my Lady and Mr. Turner especially, for me, till 10 at night; and so home, where my people are mightily surprized to see this business, but it troubles me not very much, it being nothing touching my particular person or estate. Being in talk to-day with Sir W. Batten (age 62) he tells me that little is done yet in the Parliament-house, but only this day it was moved and ordered that all the members of the House do subscribe to the renouncing of the Covenant, which is thought will try some of them. There is also a bill brought in for the wearing of nothing but cloth or stuffs of our own manufacture, and is likely to be passed. Among other talk this evening, my lady did speak concerning Commissioner Pett's (age 52) calling the present King bastard, and other high words heretofore; and Sir W. Batten (age 62) did tell us, that he did give the Duke or Mr. Coventry (age 35) an account of that and other like matters in writing under oath, of which I was ashamed, and for which I was sorry, but I see there is an absolute hatred never to be altered there, and Sir J. Minnes (age 63), the old coxcomb, has got it by the end, which troubles me for the sake of the King's service, though I do truly hate the expressions laid to him. To my office and set down this day's journall, and so home with my mind out of order, though not very sad with it, but ashamed for myself something, and for the honour of the office much more. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1663. Lord's Day. Lay long in bed and went not out all day; but after dinner to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) and Sir W. Pen's (age 41), where discoursing much of yesterday's trouble and scandal; but that which troubled me most was Sir J. Minnes (age 63) coming from Court at night, and instead of bringing great comfort from thence (but I expected no better from him), he tells me that the Duke and Mr. Coventry (age 35) make no great matter of it. So at night discontented to prayers, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. Up by times; and not daring to go by land, did (Griffin going along with me for fear), slip to White Hall by water; where to Mr. Coventry (age 35), and, as we used to do, to the Duke (age 29); the other of my fellows being come. But we said nothing of our business, the Duke (age 29) being sent for to the King (age 32), that he could not stay to speak with us.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1663. Shrove Tuesday. Up and walked to the Temple [Map], and by promise calling Commissioner Pett (age 52), he and I to White Hall to give Mr. Coventry (age 35) an account of what we did yesterday.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1663. Up and to my office all the morning, and great pleasure it is to be doing my business betimes. About noon Sir J. Minnes (age 64) came to me and staid half an hour with me in my office talking about his business with Sir W. Pen (age 41), and (though with me an old doter) yet he told me freely how sensible he is of Sir W. Pen's (age 41) treachery in this business, and what poor ways he has taken all along to ingratiate himself by making Mr. Turner write out things for him and then he gives them to the Duke, and how he directed him to give Mr. Coventry (age 35) £100 for his place, but that Mr. Coventry (age 35) did give him £20 back again. All this I am pleased to hear that his knavery is found out. Dined upon a poor Lenten dinner at home, my wife being vexed at a fray this morning with my Lady Batten about my boy's going thither to turn the watercock with their maydes' leave, but my Lady was mighty high upon it and she would teach his mistress better manners, which my wife answered aloud that she might hear, that she could learn little manners of her.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1663. Up very betimes and to my office, where, with several Masters of the King's ships, Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I advising upon the business of Slopps, wherein the seaman is so much abused by the Pursers, and that being done, then I home to dinner, and so carried my wife to her mother's, set her down and Ashwell to my Lord's lodging, there left her, and I to the Duke (age 29), where we met of course, and talked of our Navy matters. Then to the Commission of Tangier, and there, among other things, had my Lord Peterborough's (age 41) Commission read over; and Mr. Secretary Bennet (age 45) did make his querys upon it, in order to the drawing one for my Lord Rutherford more regularly, that being a very extravagant thing. Here long discoursing upon my Lord Rutherford's despatch, and so broke up, and so going out of the Court I met with Mr. Coventry (age 35), and so he and I walked half an hour in the long Stone Gallery, where we discoursed of many things, among others how the Treasurer doth intend to come to pay in course, which is the thing of the world that will do the King (age 32) the greatest service in the Navy, and which joys my heart to hear of. He tells me of the business of Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 41), which I knew before, but took no notice or little that I did know it. But he told me it was chiefly to make Mr. Pett's (age 52) being joyned with Sir W. Batten (age 62) to go down the better, and do tell me how he well sees that neither one nor the other can do their duties without help. But however will let it fall at present without doing more in it to see whether they will do their duties themselves, which he will see, and saith they do not. We discoursed of many other things to my great content and so parted, and I to my wife at my Lord's lodgings, where I heard Ashwell play first upon the harpsicon, and I find she do play pretty well, which pleaseth me very well.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1663. Thence leaving them I made an excuse and away home, and took my wife by coach and left her at Madam Clerk's, to make a visit there, and I to the Committee of Tangier, where I found, to my great joy, my Lord Sandwich (age 37), the first time I have seen him abroad these some months, and by and by he rose and took leave, being, it seems, this night to go to Kensington or Chelsey, where he hath taken a lodging for a while to take the ayre. We staid, and after business done I got Mr. Coventry (age 35) into the Matted Gallery and told him my whole mind concerning matters of our office, all my discontent to see things of so great trust carried so neglectfully, and what pitiful service the Controller and Surveyor make of their duties, and I disburdened my mind wholly to him and he to me his own, many things, telling me that he is much discouraged by seeing things not to grow better and better as he did well hope they would have done. Upon the whole, after a full hour's private discourse, telling one another our minds, we with great content parted, and with very great satisfaction for my [having] thus cleared my conscience, went to Dr. Clerk's and thence fetched my wife, and by coach home. To my office a little to set things in order, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1663. After dinner up with my wife and Ashwell a little to the Tryangle, and so I down to Deptford, Kent [Map] by land about looking out a couple of catches fitted to be speedily set forth in answer to a letter of Mr. Coventry's (age 35) to me. Which done, I walked back again, all the way reading of my book of Timber measure, comparing it with my new Sliding Rule brought home this morning with great pleasure. Taking boat again I went to Shishe's yard, but he being newly gone out towards Deptford, Kent [Map] I followed him thither again, and there seeing him I went with him and pitched upon a couple, and so by water home, it being late, past 8 at night, the wind cold, and I a little weary. So home to my office, then to supper and bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1663. After dinner, it raining very hard, by coach to Whitehall, where, after Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I had been with the Duke, we to the Committee of Tangier and did matters there dispatching wholly my Lord Teviott, and so broke up.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, where doing business alone a good while till people came about business to me. Will Griffin tells me this morning that Captain Browne, Sir W. Batten's (age 62) brother-in-law, is dead of a blow given him two days ago by a seaman, a servant of his, being drunk, with a stone striking him on the forehead, for which I am sorry, he having a good woman and several small children. At the office all the morning, at noon dined at home with my wife, merry, and after dinner by water to White Hall; but found the Duke of York (age 29) gone to St. James's for this summer; and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 35), to whose chamber I went, and Sir W. Pen (age 42) up to the Duke's closett. And a good while with him about our Navy business; and so I to White Hall, and there alone a while with my Lord Sandwich (age 37) discoursing about his debt to the Navy, wherein he hath given me some things to resolve him in.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. The Queen (age 24), my Lord tells me, he thinks he hath incurred some displeasure with, for his kindness to his neighbour, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). My Lord tells me he hath no reason to fall for her sake, whose wit, management, nor interest, is not likely to hold up any man, and therefore he thinks it not his obligation to stand for her against his own interest. The Duke and Mr. Coventry (age 35) my Lord says he is very well with, and fears not but they will show themselves his very good friends, specially at this time, he being able to serve them, and they needing him, which he did not tell me wherein. Talking of the business of Tangier, he tells me that my Lord Tiviott is gone away without the least respect paid to him, nor indeed to any man, but without his commission; and (if it be true what he says) having laid out seven or eight thousand pounds in commodities for the place; and besides having not only disobliged all the Commissioners for Tangier, but also Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) the other day, who, speaking in behalf of Colonel Fitz-Gerald, that having been deputy-governor there already, he ought to have expected and had the governorship upon the death or removal of the former governor. And whereas it is said that he and his men are Irish, which is indeed the main thing that hath moved the King (age 32) and Council to put in Tiviott to prevent the Irish having too great and the whole command there under Fitz-Gerald; he further said that there was never an Englishman fit to command Tangier; my Lord Tiviott answered yes, that there were many more fit than himself or Fitz-Gerald either. So that Fitz-Gerald being so great with the Duke of York (age 29), and being already made deputy-governor, independent of my Lord Tiviott, and he being also left here behind him for a while, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) do think that, putting all these things together, the few friends he hath left, and the ill posture of his affairs, my Lord Tiviott is not a man of the conduct and management that either people take him to be, or is fit for the command of the place. And here, speaking of the Duke of York (age 29) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33), my Lord tells me that he do very much admire the good management, and discretion, and nobleness of the Duke, that whatever he may be led by him or Mr. Coventry (age 35) singly in private, yet he did not observe that in publique matters, but he did give as ready hearing and as good acceptance to any reasons offered by any other man against the opinions of them, as he did to them, and would concur in the prosecution of it. Then we came to discourse upon his own sea accompts, and came to a resolution what and how to proceed in them; wherein he resolved, though I offered him a way of evading the greatest part of his debt honestly, by making himself debtor to the Parliament, before the King's time, which he might justly do, yet he resolved to go openly and nakedly in it, and put himself to the kindness of the King (age 32) and Duke, which humour, I must confess, and so did tell him (with which he was not a little pleased) had thriven very well with him, being known to be a man of candid and open dealing, without any private tricks or hidden designs as other men commonly have in what they do.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1663. By and by took boat intending to have gone down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], but seeing I could not get back time enough to dinner, I returned and home. Whither by and by the dancing-master came, whom standing by, seeing him instructing my wife, when he had done with her, he would needs have me try the steps of a coranto, and what with his desire and my wife's importunity, I did begin, and then was obliged to give him entry-money 10s., and am become his scholler. The truth is, I think it a thing very useful for a gentleman, and sometimes I may have occasion of using it, and though it cost me what I am heartily sorry it should, besides that I must by my oath give half as much more to the poor, yet I am resolved to get it up some other way, and then it will not be above a month or two in a year. So though it be against my stomach yet I will try it a little while; if I see it comes to any great inconvenience or charge I will fling it off. After I had begun with the steps of half a coranto, which I think I shall learn well enough, he went away, and we to dinner, and by and by out by coach, and set my wife down at my Lord Crew's, going to see my Lady Jem. Montagu, who is lately come to town, and I to St. James's; where Mr. Coventry (age 35), Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I staid a good while for the Duke's coming in, but not coming, we walked to White Hall; and meeting the King (age 32), we followed him into the Park, where Mr. Coventry (age 35) and he talked of building a new yacht, which the King (age 32) is resolved to have built out of his privy purse, he having some contrivance of his own.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1663. Up betimes and to my office, whither sooner than ordinary comes Mr. Hater desiring to speak a word to me alone, which I was from the disorder of his countenance amused at, and so the poor man began telling me that by Providence being the last Lord's day at a meeting of some Friends upon doing of their duties, they were surprised, and he carried to the Counter, but afterwards released; however, hearing that Sir W. Batten (age 62) do hear of [it,] he thought it good to give me an account of it, lest it might tend to any prejudice to me. I was extraordinary surprised with it, and troubled for him, knowing that now it is out it is impossible for me to conceal it, or keep him in employment under me without danger to myself. I cast about all I could, and did give him the best advice I could, desiring to know if I should promise that he would not for the time to come commit the same, he told me he desired that I would rather forbear to promise that, for he durst not do it, whatever God in His providence shall do with him, and that for my part he did bless God and thank me for all the love and kindness I have shewed him hitherto. I could not without tears in my eyes discourse with him further, but at last did pitch upon telling the truth of the whole to Mr. Coventry (age 35) as soon as I could, and to that end did use means to prevent Sir W. Batten (age 62) (who came to town last night) from going to that end to-day, lest he might doe it to Sir G. Carteret (age 53) or Mr. Coventry (age 35) before me; which I did prevail and kept him at the office all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1663. Lord's Day. Up betimes, and put on a black cloth suit, with white lynings under all, as the fashion is to wear, to appear under the breeches. So being ready walked to St. James's, where I sat talking with Mr. Coventry (age 35), while he made himself ready, about several businesses of the Navy, and afterwards, the Duke being gone out, he and I walked to White Hall together over the Park, I telling him what had happened to Tom Hater, at which he seems very sorry, but tells me that if it is not made very publique, it will not be necessary to put him away at present, but give him good caution for the time to come. However, he will speak to the Duke about it and know his pleasure. Parted with him there, and I walked back to St. James's, and was there at mass, and was forced in the crowd to kneel down; and mass being done, to the King's Head ordinary, whither I sent for Mr. Creed and there we dined, where many Parliament-men; and most of their talk was about the news from Scotland, that the Bishop of Galloway was besieged in his house by some woman, and had like to have been outraged, but I know not how he was secured; which is bad news, and looks just as it did in the beginning of the late troubles. From thence they talked of rebellion; and I perceive they make it their great maxime to be sure to master the City of London, whatever comes of it or from it. After that to some other discourse, and, among other things, talking of the way of ordinaries, that it is very convenient, because a man knows what he hath to pay: one did wish that, among many bad, we could learn two good things of France, which were that we would not think it below the gentleman, or person of honour at a tavern, to bargain for his meat before he eats it; and next, to take no servant without certificate from some friend or gentleman of his good behaviour and abilities. Hence with Creed into St. James's Park, and there walked all the afternoon, and thence on foot home, and after a little while at my office walked in the garden with my wife, and so home to supper, and after prayers to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1663. After supper to bed, and going to bed received a letter from Mr. Coventry (age 35) desiring my coming to him to-morrow morning, which troubled me to think what the business should be, fearing it must be some bad news in Tom Hater's business.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. Up betimes and walked to St. James's, where Mr. Coventry (age 35) being in bed I walked in the Park, discoursing with the keeper of the Pell Mell [Map], who was sweeping of it; who told me of what the earth is mixed that do floor the Mall, and that over all there is cockle-shells powdered, and spread to keep it fast; which, however, in dry weather, turns to dust and deads the ball.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. Thence to Mr. Coventry (age 35); and sitting by his bedside, he did tell me that he sent for me to discourse upon my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) allowances for his several pays, and what his thoughts are concerning his demands; which he could not take the freedom to do face to face, it being not so proper as by me: and did give me a most friendly and ingenuous account of all; telling me how unsafe, at this juncture, while every man's, and his actions particularly, are descanted upon, it is either for him to put the Duke upon doing, or my Lord himself to desire anything extraordinary, 'specially the King (age 32) having been so bountifull already; which the world takes notice of even to some repinings. All which he did desire me to discourse with my Lord of; which I have undertook to do. We talked also of our office in general, with which he told me that he was now-a-days nothing so satisfied as he was wont to be. I confess I told him things are ordered in that way that we must of necessity break in a little time a pieces.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. Thence walked to Westminster, and there up and down in the Hall and the Parliament House all the morning; at noon by coach to my Lord Crew's, hearing that Lord Sandwich (age 37) did dine there; where I told him what had passed between Mr. Coventry (age 35) and myself; with which he was contented, though I could perceive not very well pleased. And I do believe that my Lord do find some other things go against his mind in the House; for in the motion made the other day in the House by my Lord Bruce, that none be capable of employment but such as have been loyal and constant to the King (age 32) and Church, the General [Monk] and my Lord were mentioned to be excepted; and my Lord Bruce did come since to my Lord, to clear himself that he meant nothing to his prejudice, nor could it have any such effect if he did mean it. After discourse with my Lord; to dinner with him; there dining there my Lord Montagu of Boughton, Northamptonshire, Mr. William Montagu (age 45) his brother, the Queen's Sollicitor, &c., and a fine dinner. Their talk about a ridiculous falling-out two days ago at my Lord of Oxford's (age 36) house, at an entertainment of his, there being there my Lord of Albemarle (age 54), Lynsey (age 55), two of the Porters, my Lord Bellasses (age 48), and others, where there were high words and some blows, and pulling off of perriwiggs; till my Lord Monk (age 54) took away some of their swords, and sent for some soldiers to guard the house till the fray was ended. To such a degree of madness the nobility of this age is come!

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. Having thus freely talked with him, and of many more things, I took leave, and by coach to St. James's, and there told Mr. Coventry (age 35) what I had done with my Lord with great satisfaction, and so well pleased home, where I found it almost night, and my wife and the dancing-master alone above, not dancing but talking. Now so deadly full of jealousy I am that my heart and head did so cast about and fret that I could not do any business possibly, but went out to my office, and anon late home again and ready to chide at every thing, and then suddenly to bed and could hardly sleep, yet durst not say any thing, but was forced to say that I had bad news from the Duke concerning Tom Hater as an excuse to my wife, who by my folly has too much opportunity given her with the man, who is a pretty neat black man, but married. But it is a deadly folly and plague that I bring upon myself to be so jealous and by giving myself such an occasion more than my wife desired of giving her another month's dancing. Which however shall be ended as soon as I can possibly. But I am ashamed to think what a course I did take by lying to see whether my wife did wear drawers to-day as she used to do, and other things to raise my suspicion of her, but I found no true cause of doing it.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1663. Thence to Greatorex's (age 38), and there seeing Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 42) go by coach I went in to them and to White Hall; where, in the Matted Gallery, Mr. Coventry (age 35) was, who told us how the Parliament have required of Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and him an account what money shall be necessary to be settled upon the Navy for the ordinary charge, which they intend to report £200,000 per annum. And how to allott this we met this afternoon, and took their papers for our perusal, and so we parted. Only there was walking in the gallery some of the Barbary company, and there we saw a draught of the arms of the company, which the King (age 32) is of, and so is called the Royall Company, which is, in a field argent an elephant proper, with a canton on which England and France is quartered, supported by two Moors. The crest an anchor winged, I think it is, and the motto too tedious: "Regio floret, patrocinio commercium, commercioque Regnum1".

Note 1. TT. By royal patronage commerce flourishes, by commerce the realm".

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1663. After sermon to Sir W. Pen's (age 42), with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to do a little business to answer Mr. Coventry (age 35) to-night. And so home and with my wife and Ashwell into the garden walking a great while, discoursing what this pretty wench should be by her garb and deportment; with respect to Mrs. Pen she may be her woman, but only that she sat in the pew with her, which I believe he would not let her do.

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1663. By and by, out comes my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and he and I talked a great while about his business, of his accounts for his pay, and among other things he told me that this day a vote hath passed that the King's grants of land to my Lord Monk (age 54) and him should be made good; which pleases him very well. He also tells me that things don't go right in the House with Mr. Coventry (age 35); I suppose he means in the business of selling of places; but I am sorry for it.

Pepy's Diary. 26 May 1663. By and by my mind being in great trouble I went home to see how things were, and there I found as I doubted Mr. Pembleton with my wife, and nobody else in the house, which made me almost mad, and going up to my chamber after a turn or two I went out again and called somebody on pretence of business and left him in my little room at the door (it was the Dutchman, commander of the King's pleasure boats, who having been beat by one of his men sadly, was come to the office to-day to complain) telling him I would come again to him to speak with him about his business. So in great trouble and doubt to the office, and Mr. Coventry (age 35) nor Sir G. Carteret (age 53) being there I made a quick end of our business and desired leave to be gone, pretending to go to the Temple [Map], but it was home, and so up to my chamber, and as I think if they had any intention of hurt I did prevent doing anything at that time, but I continued in my chamber vexed and angry till he went away, pretending aloud, that I might hear, that he could not stay, and Mrs. Ashwell not being within they could not dance. And, Lord! to see how my jealousy wrought so far that I went softly up to see whether any of the beds were out of order or no, which I found not, but that did not content me, but I staid all the evening walking, and though anon my wife came up to me and would have spoke of business to me, yet I construed it to be but impudence, and though my heart full yet I did say nothing, being in a great doubt what to do. So at night, suffered them to go all to bed, and late put myself to bed in great discontent, and so to sleep.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1663. So I up and by water to the Temple [Map], and thence with Commissioner Pett (age 52) to St. James's, where an hour with Mr. Coventry (age 35) talking of Mr. Pett's (age 52) proceedings lately in the forest of Sherwood, and thence with Pett to my Lord Ashley (age 41), Chancellor (age 54) of the Exchequer; where we met the auditors about settling the business of the accounts of persons to whom money is due before the King's time in the Navy, and the clearing of their imprests for what little of their debts they have received. I find my Lord, as he is reported, a very ready, quick, and diligent person.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1663. Being come from church, I to make up my month's accounts, and find myself clear worth £726, for which God be praised, but yet I might have been better by £20 almost had I forborne some layings out in dancing and other things upon my wife, and going to plays and other things merely to ease my mind as to the business of the dancing-master, which I bless God is now over and I falling to my quiet of mind and business again, which I have for a fortnight neglected too much. This month the greatest news is, the height and heat that the Parliament is in, in enquiring into the revenue, which displeases the Court, and their backwardness to give the King (age 33) any money. Their enquiring into the selling of places do trouble a great many among the chief, my Chancellor (age 54) (against whom particularly it is carried), and Mr. Coventry (age 35); for which I am sorry.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1663. So to my office, where a while and then about several businesses, in my way to my brother's, where I dined (being invited) with Mr. Peter and Dean Honiwood, where Tom did give us a very pretty dinner, and we very pleasant, but not very merry, the Dean being but a weak man, though very good. I was forced to rise, being in haste to St. James's to attend the Duke (age 29), and left them to end their dinner; but the Duke (age 29) having been a-hunting to-day, and so lately come home and gone to bed, we could not see him, and Mr. Coventry (age 35) being out of the house too, we walked away to White Hall and there took coach, and I with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to the Strand May-pole; and there 'light out of his coach, and walked to the New Theatre [Map], which, since the King's players are gone to the Royal one, is this day begun to be employed by the fencers to play prizes at. And here I came and saw the first prize I ever saw in my life: and it was between one Mathews, who did beat at all weapons, and one Westwicke, who was soundly cut several times both in the head and legs, that he was all over blood: and other deadly blows they did give and take in very good earnest, till Westwicke was in a most sad pickle. They fought at eight weapons, three bouts at each weapon. It was very well worth seeing, because I did till this day think that it has only been a cheat; but this being upon a private quarrel, they did it in good earnest; and I felt one of their swords, and found it to be very little, if at all blunter on the edge, than the common swords are. Strange to see what a deal of money is flung to them both upon the stage between every bout. But a woful rude rabble there was, and such noises, made my head ake all this evening.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1663. Up and by water to White Hall and so to St. James's, to Mr. Coventry (age 35); where I had an hour's private talk with him. Most of it was discourse concerning his own condition, at present being under the censure of the House, being concerned with others in the Bill for selling of offices. He tells me, that though he thinks himself to suffer much in his fame hereby, yet he values nothing more of evil to hang over him for that it is against no statute, as is pretended, nor more than what his predecessors time out of mind have taken; and that so soon as he found himself to be in an errour, he did desire to have his fees set, which was done; and since that he hath not taken a token more. He undertakes to prove, that he did never take a token of any captain to get him employed in his life beforehand, or demanded any thing: and for the other accusation, that the Cavaliers are not employed, he looked over the list of them now in the service, and of the twenty-seven that are employed, thirteen have been heretofore always under the King (age 33); two neutralls, and the other twelve men of great courage, and such as had either the King's particular commands, or great recommendation to put them in, and none by himself. Besides that, he says it is not the King's nor Duke's opinion that the whole party of the late officers should be rendered desperate. And lastly, he confesses that the more of the Cavaliers are put in, the less of discipline hath followed in the fleet; and that, whenever there comes occasion, it must be the old ones that must do any good, there being only, he says, but Captain Allen (age 51) good for anything of them all. He tells me, that he cannot guess whom all this should come from; but he suspects Sir G. Carteret (age 53), as I also do, at least that he is pleased with it. But he tells me that he will bring Sir G. Carteret (age 53) to be the first adviser and instructor of him what to make his place of benefit to him; telling him that Smith did make his place worth £5000 and he believed £7000 to him the first year; besides something else greater than all this, which he forbore to tell me. It seems one Sir Thomas Tomkins (age 58) of the House, that makes many mad motions, did bring it into the House, saying that a letter was left at his lodgings, subscribed by one Benson (which is a feigned name, for there is no such man in the Navy), telling him how many places in the Navy have been sold. And by another letter, left in the same manner since, nobody appearing, he writes him that there is one Hughes and another Butler (both rogues, that have for their roguery been turned out of their places), that will swear that Mr. Coventry (age 35) did sell their places and other things. I offered him my service, and will with all my heart serve him; but he tells me he do not think it convenient to meddle, or to any purpose, but is sensible of my love therein.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1663. Up betimes, and studying of my double horizontal diall against Dean Honiwood comes to me, who dotes mightily upon it, and I think I must give it him. So after talking with Sir W. Batten (age 62), who is this morning gone to Guildhall [Map] to his trial with Field, I to my office, and there read all the morning in my statute-book, consulting among others the statute against selling of offices, wherein Mr. Coventry (age 35) is so much concerned; and though he tells me that the statute do not reach him, yet I much fear that it will.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1663. Up and to my office a while, and thence by coach with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to St. James's to the Duke (age 29), where Mr. Coventry (age 35) and us two did discourse with the Duke a little about our office business, which saved our coming in the afternoon, and so to rights home again and to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jun 1663. After being trimmed, I by water to White Hall, and so over the Park, it raining hard, to Mr. Coventry's (age 35) chamber, where I spent two hours with him about business of the Navy, and how by his absence things are like to go with us, and with good content from my being with him he carried me by coach and set me down at Whitehall, and thence to right home by water. He shewed me a list, which he hath prepared for the Parliament's view, if the business of his selling of offices should be brought to further hearing, wherein he reckons up, as I remember, 236 offices of ships which have been disposed of without his taking one farthing. This, of his own accord, he opened his cabinet on purpose to shew me, meaning, I suppose, that I should discourse abroad of it, and vindicate him therein, which I shall with all my power do.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. Up before 4 o'clock, and so to my lute an hour or more, and then by water, drinking my morning draft alone at an alehouse in Thames Street, to the Temple [Map], and thence after a little discourse with my cozen Roger (age 46) about some business, away by water to St. James's, and there an hour's private discourse with Mr. Coventry (age 35), where he told me one thing to my great joy, that in the business of Captain Cocke's (age 46) hemp, disputed before him the other day, Mr. Coventry (age 35) absent, the Duke (age 29) did himself tell him since, that Mr. Pepys and he did stand up and carry it against the rest that were there, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), which do please me much to see that the Duke do take notice of me.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. We did talk highly of Sir W. Batten's (age 62) corruption, which Mr. Coventry (age 35) did very kindly say that it might be only his heaviness and unaptness for business, that he do things without advice and rashly, and to gratify people that do eat and drink and play with him, and that now and then he observes that he signs bills only in anger and fury to be rid of men. Speaking of Sir G. Carteret (age 53), of whom I perceive he speaks but slightly, and diminishing of him in his services for the King (age 33) in Jersey; that he was well rewarded, and had good lands and rents, and other profits from the King (age 33), all the time he was there; and that it was always his humour to have things done his way. He brought an example how he would not let the Castle there be victualled for more than a month, that so he might keep it at his beck, though the people of the town did offer to supply it more often themselves, which, when one did propose to the King (age 33), Sir George Carteret (age 53) being by, says Sir George (age 53), "Let me know who they are that would do it, I would with all my heart pay them". "Ah, by God", says the Commander that spoke of it, "that is it that they are afeard of, that you would hug them", meaning that he would not endure them. Another thing he told me, how the Duke of York (age 29) did give Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and the Island his profits as Admirall, and other things, toward the building of a pier there. But it was never laid out, nor like to be. So it falling out that a lady being brought to bed, the Duke (age 29) was to be desired to be one of the godfathers; and it being objected that that would not be proper, there being no peer of the land to be joyned with him, the lady replied, "Why, let him choose; and if he will not be a godfather without a peer, then let him even stay till he hath made a pier of his own1".

Note 1. In the same spirit, long after this, some question arising as to the best material to be used in building Westminster Bridge, Lord Chesterfield (age 29) remarked, that there were too many wooden piers (peers) at Westminster already. B.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. He tells me, too, that he hath lately been observed to tack about at Court, and to endeavour to strike in with the persons that are against the Chancellor (age 54); but this he says of him, that he do not say nor do anything to the prejudice of the Chancellor (age 54). But he told me that the Chancellor (age 54) was rising again, and that of late Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) business and employment hath not been so full as it used to be while the Chancellor (age 54) stood up. From that we discoursed of the evil of putting out men of experience in business as the Chancellor (age 54), and from that to speak of the condition of the King's party at present, who, as the Papists, though otherwise fine persons, yet being by law kept for these fourscore years out of employment, they are now wholly uncapable of business; and so the Cavaliers for twenty years, who, says he, for the most part have either given themselves over to look after country and family business, and those the best of them, and the rest to debauchery, &c.; and that was it that hath made him high against the late Bill brought into the House for the making all men incapable of employment that had served against the King (age 33). Why, says he, in the sea-service, it is impossible to do any thing without them, there being not more than three men of the whole King's side that are fit to command almost; and these were Captain Allen (age 51), Smith, and Beech; and it may be Holmes, and Utber, and Batts might do something. I desired him to tell me if he thought that I did speak anything that I do against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) out of ill will or design. He told me quite the contrary, and that there was reason enough. After a good deal of good and fine discourse, I took leave, and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) house, where I met my Lord, and there did discourse of our office businesses, and how the Duke do show me kindness, though I have endeavoured to displease more or less of my fellow officers, all but Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Pett; but it matters not. Yes, says my Lord, Sir J. Minnes (age 64), who is great with the Chancellor (age 54); I told him the Chancellor (age 54) I have thought was declining, and however that the esteem he has among them is nothing but for a jester or a ballad maker; at which my Lord laughs, and asks me whether I believe he ever could do that well.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1663. Thus, by God's blessing, ends this book of two years; I being in all points in good health and a good way to thrive and do well. Some money I do and can lay up, but not much, being worth now above £700, besides goods of all sorts. My wife in the country with Ashwell, her woman, with my father; myself at home with W. Hewer (age 21) and my cooke-maid Hannah, my boy Wayneman being lately run away from me. In my office, my repute and understanding good, especially with the Duke (age 29) and Mr. Coventry (age 35); only the rest of the officers do rather envy than love me, I standing in most of their lights, specially Sir W. Batten (age 62), whose cheats I do daily oppose to his great trouble, though he appears mighty kind and willing to keep friendship with me, while Sir J. Minnes (age 64), like a dotard, is led by the nose by him. My wife and I, by my late jealousy, for which I am truly to be blamed, have not the kindness between us which we used and ought to have, and I fear will be lost hereafter if I do not take course to oblige her and yet preserve my authority. Publique matters are in an ill condition; Parliament sitting and raising four subsidys for the King (age 33), which is but a little, considering his wants; and yet that parted withal with great hardness. They being offended to see so much money go, and no debts of the publique's paid, but all swallowed by a luxurious Court: which the King (age 33) it is believed and hoped will retrench in a little time, when he comes to see the utmost of the revenue which shall be settled on him: he expecting to have his £1,200,000 made good to him, which is not yet done by above £150,000, as he himself reports to the House. My differences with my uncle Thomas at a good quiett, blessed be God! and other matters. The town full of the great overthrow lately given to the Spaniards by the Portugalls, they being advanced into the very middle of Portugall. The weather wet for two or three months together beyond belief, almost not one fair day coming between till this day, which has been a very pleasant day and the first pleasant day this summer. The charge of the Navy intended to be limited to £200,000 per annum, the ordinary charge of it, and that to be settled upon the Customs. The King (age 33) yet greatly taken up with Madam Castlemaine (age 22) and Mrs. Stewart (age 15), which God of Heaven put an end to! Myself very studious to learn what I can of all things necessary for my place as an officer of the Navy, reading lately what concerns measuring of timber and knowledge of the tides. I have of late spent much time with Creed, being led to it by his business of his accounts, but I find him a fellow of those designs and tricks, that there is no degree of true friendship to be made with him, and therefore I must cast him off, though he be a very understanding man, and one that much may be learned of as to cunning and judging of other men. Besides, too, I do perceive more and more that my time of pleasure and idleness of any sort must be flung off to attend to getting of some money and the keeping of my family in order, which I fear by my wife's liberty may be otherwise lost.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1663. I to St. James's, and there discoursed a while with Mr. Coventry (age 35), between whom and myself there is very good understanding and friendship, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and being in the Parliament lobby, I there saw my Lord of Bristol (age 50) come to the Commons House to give his answer to their question, about some words he should tell the King (age 33) that were spoke by Sir Richard Temple (age 29), a member of their House. A chair was set at the bar of the House for him, which he used but little, but made an harangue of half an hour bareheaded, the House covered. His speech being done, he came out and withdrew into a little room till the House had concluded of an answer to his speech; which they staying long upon, I went away. And by and by out comes Sir W. Batten (age 62); and he told me that his Lordship had made a long and a comedian-like speech, and delivered with such action as was not becoming his Lordship. He confesses he did tell the King (age 33) such a thing of Sir Richard Temple (age 29), but that upon his honour they were not spoke by Sir Richard, he having taken a liberty of enlarging to the King (age 33) upon the discourse which had been between Sir Richard and himself lately; and so took upon himself the whole blame, and desired their pardon, it being not to do any wrong to their fellow-member, but out of zeal to the King (age 33). He told them, among many other things, that as to his religion he was a Roman Catholique, but such a one as thought no man to have right to the Crown of England but the Prince that hath it; and such a one as, if the King (age 33) should desire his counsel as to his own, he would not advise him to another religion than the old true reformed religion of this country, it being the properest of this kingdom as it now stands; and concluded with a submission to what the House shall do with him, saying, that whatever they shall do, says he, "thanks be to God, this head, this heart, and this sword (pointing to them all), will find me a being in any place in Europe". The House hath hereupon voted clearly Sir Richard Temple (age 29) to be free from the imputation of saying those words; but when Sir William Batten (age 62) came out, had not concluded what to say to my Lord, it being argued that to own any satisfaction as to my Lord from his speech, would be to lay some fault upon the King (age 33) for the message he should upon no better accounts send to the impeaching of one of their members.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. The Duke (age 29) being ready, we retired with him, and there fell upon Mr. Creed's business, where the Treasurer (age 56) did, like a mad coxcomb, without reason or method run over a great many things against the account, and so did Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), which the Duke himself and Mr. Coventry (age 35) and my Lord Barkely (age 61) and myself did remove, and Creed being called in did answer all with great method and excellently to the purpose (myself I am a little conscious did not speak so well as I purposed and do think I used to do, that is, not so intelligibly and persuasively, as I well hoped I should), not that what I said was not well taken, and did carry the business with what was urged and answered by Creed and Mr. Coventry (age 35), till the Duke himself did declare that he was satisfied, and my Lord Barkely (age 61) offered to lay £100 that the King (age 33) would receive no wrong in the account, and the two last knights held their tongues, or at least by not understanding it did say what made for Mr. Creed, and so Sir G. Carteret (age 53) was left alone, but yet persisted to say that the account was not good, but full of corruption and foul dealing. And so we broke up to his shame, but I do fear to the loss of his friendship to me a good while, which I am heartily troubled for.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1663. Thence home and to my musique. This night Mr. Turner's house being to be emptied out of my cellar, and therefore I think to sit up a little longer than ordinary. This afternoon, coming from the waterside with Mr. Coventry (age 35), I spied my boy upon Tower Hill [Map] playing with the rest of the boys; so I sent W. Griffin to take him, and he did bring him to me, and so I said nothing to him, but caused him to be stripped (for he was run away with his best suit), and so putting on his other, I sent him going, without saying one word hard to him, though I am troubled for the rogue, though he do not deserve it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1663. Thence walked alone, only part of the way Deane (age 29) walked with me, complaining of many abuses in the Yard, to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and so by water to Deptford, where I found Mr. Coventry (age 35), and with him up and down all the stores, to the great trouble of the officers, and by his help I am resolved to fall hard to work again, as I used to do. So thence he and I by water talking of many things, and I see he puts his trust most upon me in the Navy, and talks, as there is reason, slightly of the two old knights, and I should be glad by any drudgery to see the King's stores and service looked to as they ought, but I fear I shall never understand half the miscarriages and tricks that the King (age 33) suffers by. He tells me what Mr. Pett (age 52) did to-day, that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) told the King (age 33) that he will impeach the Chancellor (age 54) of High Treason: but I find that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) hath undone himself already in every body's opinion, and now he endeavours to raise dust to put out other men's eyes, as well as his own; but I hope it will not take, in consideration merely that it is hard for a Prince to spare an experienced old officer, be he never so corrupt; though I hope this man is not so, as some report him to be. He tells me that Don John (age 34) is yet alive, and not killed, as was said, in the great victory against the Spaniards in Portugall of late. So home, and late at my office.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1663. Up to the Lobby, and there sent out for Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), and told them if they thought convenient I would go to Chatham, Kent [Map] today, Sir John Minnes (age 64) being already there at a Pay, and I would do such and such business there, which they thought well of, and so I went home and prepared myself to go after, dinner with Sir W. Batten (age 62). Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Mr. Coventry (age 35) tell me that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) hath this day impeached my Chancellor (age 54) in the House of Lords of High Treason. The chief of the articles are these:

Note 1st. That he should be the occasion of the peace made with Holland lately upon such disadvantageous terms, and that he was bribed to it.

Note 2d. That Dunkirke was also sold by his advice chiefly, so much to the damage of England.

Note 3d. That he had £6000 given him for the drawing-up or promoting of the Irish declaration lately, concerning the division of the lands there.

Note 4th. He did carry on the design of the Portugall match, so much to the prejudice of the Crown of England, notwithstanding that he knew the Queen (age 24) is not capable of bearing children.

Note 5th. That the Duke's (age 29) marrying of his daughter (age 26) was a practice of his, thereby to raise his family; and that it was done by indirect courses.

Note 6th. That the breaking-off of the match with Parma, in which he was employed at the very time when the match with Portugall was made up here, which he took as a great slur to him, and so it was; and that, indeed, is the chief occasion of all this fewde.

Note 7th. That he hath endeavoured to bring in Popery, and wrote to the Pope for a cap for a subject of the King (age 33) of England's (my Lord Aubigny (age 43) ); and some say that he lays it to the Chancellor (age 54), that a good Protestant Secretary (Sir Edward Nicholas) was laid aside, and a Papist, Sir H. Bennet (age 45), put in his room: which is very strange, when the last of these two is his own creature, and such an enemy accounted to the Chancellor (age 54), that they never did nor do agree; and all the world did judge the Chancellor (age 54) to be falling from the time that Sir H. Bennet (age 45) was brought in. Besides my Lord Bristoll (age 50) being a Catholique himself, all this is very strange.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1663. Thence by water to Whitehall, and so walked to St. James's, but missed Mr. Coventry (age 35). I met the Queen-Mother (age 53) walking in the Pell Mell [Map], led by my Lord St. Alban's (age 58). And finding many coaches at the Gate, I found upon enquiry that the Duchess (age 26) is brought to bed of a boy; and hearing that the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) are rode abroad with the Ladies of Honour to the Park, and seeing a great crowd of gallants staying here to see their return, I also staid walking up and down, and among others spying a man like Mr. Pembleton (though I have little reason to think it should be he, speaking and discoursing long with my Lord D'Aubigne (age 43)), yet how my blood did rise in my face, and I fell into a sweat from my old jealousy and hate, which I pray God remove from me.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1663. Thence home to dinner, whither Captain Grove came and dined with me, he going into the country to-day; among other discourse he told me of discourse very much to my honour, both as to my care and ability, happening at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 54) table the other day, both from the Duke (age 29), and the Duchess (age 26) themselves; and how I paid so much a year to him whose place it was of right, and that Mr. Coventry (age 35) did report thus of me; which was greatly to my content, knowing how against their minds I was brought into the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1663. So to the yard, and there mustered the yard, and found many faults, and discharged several fellows that were absent from their business. I staid also at Mr. Ackworth's desire at dinner with him and his wife, and there was a simple fellow, a gentleman I believe of the Court, their kinsmen, that threatened me I could have little discourse or begin, acquaintance with Ackworth's wife, and so after dinner away, with all haste home, and there found Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) at the office, and by Sir W. Batten's (age 62) testimony and Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) concurrence was forced to consent to a business of Captain Cocke's (age 46) timber, as bad as anything we have lately disputed about, and all through Mr. Coventry's (age 35) not being with us.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1663. Thence by water to White Hall, and walked over the Park to St. James's; but missed Mr. Coventry (age 35), he not being within; and so out again, and there the Duke was coming along the Pell-Mell. It being a little darkish, I staid not to take notice of him, but we went directly back again. And in our walk over the Park, one of the Duke's footmen came running behind us, and came looking just in our faces to see who we were, and went back again. What his meaning is I know not, but was fearful that I might not go far enough with my hat off, though methinks that should not be it, besides, there were others covered nearer than myself was, but only it was my fear.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1663. So from thence home, where my house of office was emptying, and I find they will do, it with much more cleanness than I expected. I went up and down among them a good while, but knowing that Mr. Coventry (age 35) was to call me in the morning, I went to bed and left them to look after the people. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1663. By and by Mr. Coventry (age 35) only came (Sir John Minnes (age 64) and Sir William Batten (age 62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to pay some ships and the yard there), and after doing a little business he and I down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there up and down the yard, and by and by came Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and we all looked into matters, and then by water back to Deptford, where we dined with him at his house, a very good dinner and mightily tempted with wines of all sorts and brave French Syder, but I drunk none. But that which is a great wonder I find his little daughter Betty, that was in hanging sleeves but a month or two ago, and is a very little young child; married, and to whom, but to young Scott, son to Madam Catharine Scott, that was so long in law, and at whose triall I was with her husband; he pleading that it was unlawfully got and would not own it, she, it seems, being brought to bed of it, if not got by somebody else at Oxford, but it seems a little before his death he did own the child, and hath left him his estate, not long since. So Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath struck up of a sudden a match with him for his little daughter. He hath about £2000 per annum; and it seems Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath by this means over-reached Sir H. Bennet (age 45), who did endeavour to get this gentleman for a sister of his, but Sir G. Carteret (age 53) I say has over-reached him. By this means Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath married two daughters this year both very well.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1663. After dinner into Deptford, Kent [Map] yard, but our bellies being full we could do no great business, and so parted, and Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I to White Hall by water, where we also parted, and I to several places about business, and so calling for my five books of the Variorum print bound according to my common binding instead of the other which is more gaudy I went home.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1663. Thence walked home and to my office, setting papers of all sorts and writing letters and putting myself into a condition to go to Chatham, Kent [Map] with Mr. Coventry (age 35) to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1663. Being gone thence Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I did discourse about him, and conclude that he is not able to do the same in that yard that he might and can and it maybe will do in another, what with his old faults and the relations that he has to most people that act there. After an hour or two's discourse at the Hill-house before going to bed, I see him to his and he me to my chamber, he lying in the Treasurer's and I in the Controller's chambers.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1663. By and by comes Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and he and I did some business, and then Mr. Coventry (age 35) sending for me, he staying in the boat, I got myself presently ready and down to him, he and I by water to Gravesend, Kent [Map] (his man Lambert with us), and there eat a bit and so mounted, I upon one of his horses which met him there, a brave proud horse, all the way talking of businesses of the office and other matters to good purpose.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Aug 1663. Thence to the Docke and by water to view St Mary Creeke [Map], but do not find it so proper for a wet docks as we would have it, it being uneven ground and hard in the bottom and no, great depth of water in many places. Returned and walked from the Docke home, Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I very much troubled to see how backward Commissioner Pett (age 52) is to tell any of the faults of the officers, and to see nothing in better condition here for his being here than they are in other yards where there is none. After some discourse to bed. But I sat up an hour after Mr. Coventry (age 35) was gone to read my vows, it raining a wonderful hard showre about 11 at night for an hour together. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1663. After dinner they withdrew and Commissioner Pett (age 52), Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I sat close to our business all the noon in his parler, and there run through much business and answered several people. And then in the evening walked in the garden, where we conjured him to look after the yard, and for the time to come that he would take the whole faults and ill management of the yard upon himself, he having full power and our concurrence to suspend or do anything else that he thinks fit to keep people and officers to their duty. He having made good promises, though I fear his performance, we parted (though I spoke so freely that he could have been angry) good friends, and in some hopes that matters will be better for the time to come.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1663. So walked to the Hillhouse (which we did view and the yard about it, and do think to put it off as soon as we can conveniently) and there made ourselves ready and mounted and rode to Gravesend, Kent [Map] (my riding Coate not being to be found I fear it is stole) on our way being overtaken by Captain Browne that serves the office of the Ordnance at Chatham, Kent [Map]. All the way, though he was a rogue and served the late times all along, yet he kept us in discourse of the many services that he did for many of the King's party, lords and Dukes, and among others he recovered a dog that was stolne from Mr. Cary (head-keeper of the buck-hounds to the King (age 33)) and preserved several horses of the Duke of Richmond's (age 24), and his best horse he was forst to put out his eyes and keep him for a stallion to preserve him from being carried away. But he gone at last upon my enquiry to tell us how (he having been here too for survey of the Ropeyard [Map]) the day's work of the Rope-makers become settled, which pleased me very well. Being come to our Inn Mr. Coventry (age 35) and I sat, and talked till 9 or 10 a-clock and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1663. This evening came a letter about business from Mr. Coventry (age 35), and with it a silver pen he promised me to carry inke in, which is very necessary. So to prayers and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1663. So to my office, whither Mr. Coventry (age 35) came and Sir William Pen (age 42), and we sat all the morning. This day Mr. Coventry (age 35) borrowed of me my manuscript of the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1663. By and by we sat all the morning dispatching of business, and then at noon rose, and I with Mr. Coventry (age 35) down to the water-side, talking, wherein I see so much goodness and endeavours of doing the King (age 33) service, that I do more and more admire him. It being the greatest trouble to me, he says, in the world to see not only in the Navy, but in the greatest matters of State, where he can lay his finger upon the soare (meaning this man's faults, and this man's office the fault lies in), and yet dare or can not remedy matters.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1663. This day I begun to make use of the silver pen (Mr. Coventry (age 35) did give me) in writing of this sermon, taking only the heads of it in Latin, which I shall, I think, continue to do.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Aug 1663. Here in the Park I met with Mr. Coventry (age 35), where he sent for a letter he had newly writ to me, wherein he had enclosed one from Commissioner Pett (age 53) complaining of his being defeated in his attempt to suspend two pursers, wherein the manner of his doing it, and complaint of our seeing him (contrary to our promises the other day), deserted, did make us laugh mightily, and was good sport to think how awkwardly he goes about a thing that he has no courage of his own nor mind to do. Mr. Coventry (age 35) answered it very handsomely, but I perceive Pett (age 53) has left off his corresponding with me any more.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1663. After supper to prayers and to bed, having been, by a sudden letter coming to me from Mr. Coventry (age 35), been with Sir W. Pen (age 42), to discourse with him about sending 500 soldiers into Ireland. I doubt matters do not go very right there.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Aug 1663. Up very early, and my joyners came to work. I to Mr. Moore; from him came back home again, and drew up an account to my Lord, and that being done met him at my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), where I was a good while alone with my Lord; and I perceive he confides in me and loves me as he uses to do, and tells me his condition, which is now very well all I fear is that he will not live within compass, for I am told this morning of strange dotages of his upon the slut at Chelsea, even in the presence of his daughter, my Lady Jem, and Mrs. Ferrets, who took notice of it. There come to him this morning his prints of the river Tagus and the City of Lisbon, which he measured with his own hand, and printed by command of the King (age 33). My Lord pleases himself with it, but methinks it ought to have been better done than by jobing. Besides I put him upon having some took off upon white sattin, which he ordered presently. I offered my Lord my accounts, and did give him up his old bond for £500 and took a new one of him for £700, which I am by lending him more money to make up: and I am glad of it. My Lord would have had me dine with him, but I had a mind to go home to my workmen, and so took a kind good bye of him, and so with Creed to St. James's, and, missing Mr. Coventry (age 35), walked to the New Exchange, and there drank some whey, and so I by water home, and found my closett at my office made very clean and neat to my mind mightily, and home to dinner, and then to my office to brush my books, and put them and my papers in order again, and all the afternoon till late at night doing business there, and so home to supper, and then to work in my chamber, making matters of this day's accounts clear in my books, they being a little extraordinary, and so being very late I put myself to bed, the rest being long ago gone.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1663. Up very early and removed the things out of my chamber into the dining room, it being to be new floored this day. So the workmen being come and falling to work there, I to the office, and thence down to Lymehouse [Map] to Phin. Pett's about masts, and so back to the office, where we sat; and being rose, and Mr. Coventry (age 35) being gone, taking his leave, for that he is to go to the Bath, Somerset [Map] with the Duke (age 29) to-morrow, I to the 'Change [Map] and there spoke with several persons, and lastly with Sir W. Warren, and with him to a Coffee House, and there sat two hours talking of office business and Mr. Wood's knavery, which I verily believe, and lastly he tells me that he hears that Captain Cocke (age 46) is like to become a principal officer, either a Controller or a Surveyor, at which I am not sorry so either of the other may be gone, and I think it probable enough that it may be so.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1663. Thence I took him, and he and I took a pleasant walk to Deptford, Kent [Map] and back again, I doing much business there. He went home and I home also, indoors to supper, being very glad to see my house begin to look like itself again, hoping after this is over not to be in any dirt a great while again, but it is very handsome, and will be more when the floors come to be of one colour. So weary to bed. Pleased this day to see Captain Hickes come to me with a list of all the officers of Deptford, Kent [Map] Yard, wherein he, being a high old Cavalier, do give me an account of every one of them to their reproach in all respects, and discovers many of their knaverys; and tells me, and so I thank God I hear every where, that my name is up for a good husband for the King (age 33), and a good man, for which I bless God; and that he did this by particular direction of Mr. Coventry (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1663. Up, and after doing something in order to the putting of my house in order now the joynery is done, I went by water to White Hall, where the Court full of waggons and horses, the King (age 33) and Court going this day out towards the Bath, Somerset [Map], and I to St. James's, where I spent an hour or more talking of many things to my great content with Mr. Coventry (age 35) in his chamber, he being ready to set forth too with the Duke (age 29) to-day, and so left him, and I meeting Mr. Gauden, with him to our offices and in Sir W. Pen's (age 42) chamber did discourse by a meeting on purpose with Mr. Waith about the victualling business and came to some issue in it.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1663. To the office by water, where we sat doing little, now Mr. Coventry (age 35) is not here, but only vex myself to see what a sort of coxcombs we are when he is not here to undertake such a business as we do.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1663. This evening Mr. Coventry (age 35) is come to St. James's, but I did not go see him, and tomorrow the King (age 33), Queen (age 24), Duke (age 29) and his Lady (age 26), and the whole Court comes to towne from their progresse. Myself and family well, only my father sicke in the country. All the common talke for newes is the Turke's advance in Hungary, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Oct 1663. Up and betimes to my office, and then to sit, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Sir W. Pen (age 42), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Mr. Coventry (age 35) and myself, a fuller board than by the King's progresse and the late pays and my absence has been a great while. Sat late, and then home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1663. Up betimes and by water to St. James's, and there visited Mr. Coventry (age 35) as a compliment after his new coming to town, but had no great talk with him, he being full of business. So back by foot through London, doing several errands, and at the 'Change [Map] met with Mr. Cutler, and he and I to a coffee-house, and there discoursed, and he do assure me that there is great likelyhood of a war with Holland, but I hope we shall be in good condition before it comes to break out. I like his company, and will make much of his acquaintance.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1663. Up (though slept well) and made some water in the morning [as] I used to do, and a little pain returned to me, and some fears, but being forced to go to the Duke (age 29) at St. James's, I took coach and in my way called upon Mr. Hollyard (age 54) and had his advice to take a glyster. At St. James's we attended the Duke all of us. And there, after my discourse, Mr. Coventry (age 35) of his own accord begun to tell the Duke how he found that discourse abroad did run to his prejudice about the fees that he took, and how he sold places and other things; wherein he desired to appeal to his Highness, whether he did any thing more than what his predecessors did, and appealed to us all. So Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did answer that some fees were heretofore taken, but what he knows not; only that selling of places never was nor ought to be countenanced. So Mr. Coventry (age 35) very hotly answered to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and appealed to himself whether he was not one of the first that put him upon looking after this taking of fees, and that he told him that Mr. Smith should say that he made £5000 the first year, and he believed he made £7000. This Sir G. Carteret (age 53) denied, and said, that if he did say so he told a lie, for he could not, nor did know, that ever he did make that profit of his place; but that he believes he might say £2500 the first year. Mr. Coventry (age 35) instanced in another thing, particularly wherein Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did advise with him about the selling of the Auditor's place of the stores, when in the beginning there was an intention of creating such an office. This he confessed, but with some lessening of the tale Mr. Coventry (age 35) told, it being only for a respect to my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 33). In fine, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did put into the Duke's hand a list of above 250 places that he did give without receiving one farthing, so much as his ordinary fees for them, upon his life and oath; and that since the Duke's establishment of fees he had never received one token more of any man; and that in his whole life he never conditioned or discoursed of any consideration from any commanders since he came to the Navy. And afterwards, my Lord Barkeley merrily discoursing that he wished his profit greater than it was, and that he did believe that he had got £50,000 since he came in, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did openly declare that his Lordship, or any of us, should have not only all he had got, but all that he had in the world (and yet he did not come a beggar into the Navy, nor would yet be thought to speak in any contempt of his Royall Highness's bounty), and should have a year to consider of it too, for £25,000. The Duke's answer was, that he wished we all had made more profit than he had of our places, and that we had all of us got as much as one man below stayres in the Court, which he presently named, and it was Sir George Lane (age 43)! This being ended, and the list left in the Duke's hand, we parted, and I with Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to the Exchange [Map], and there a while, and so home, and whether it be the jogging, or by having my mind more employed (which I believe is a great matter) I know not, but.... I begin to be suddenly well, at least better than I was.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1663. Thence home and after dinner my wife and I, by Mr. Rawlinson's (age 49) conduct, to the Jewish Synagogue: where the men and boys in their vayles, and the women behind a lattice out of sight; and some things stand up, which I believe is their Law, in a press to which all coming in do bow; and at the putting on their vayles do say something, to which others that hear him do cry Amen, and the party do kiss his vayle. Their service all in a singing way, and in Hebrew. And anon their Laws that they take out of the press are carried by several men, four or five several burthens in all, and they do relieve one another; and whether it is that every one desires to have the carrying of it, I cannot tell, thus they carried it round about the room while such a service is singing. And in the end they had a prayer for the King (age 33), which they pronounced his name in Portugall; but the prayer, like the rest, in Hebrew. But, Lord! to see the disorder, laughing, sporting, and no attention, but confusion in all their service, more like brutes than people knowing the true God, would make a man forswear ever seeing them more and indeed I never did see so much, or could have imagined there had been any religion in the whole world so absurdly performed as this. Away thence with my mind strongly disturbed with them, by coach and set down my wife in Westminster Hall [Map], and I to White Hall, and there the Tangier Committee met, but the Duke and the Africa Committee meeting in our room, Sir G. Carteret (age 53); Sir Wm. Compton (age 38), Mr. Coventry (age 35), Sir W. Rider, Cuttance and myself met in another room, with chairs set in form but no table, and there we had very fine discourses of the business of the fitness to keep Sally, and also of the terms of our King's paying the Portugees that deserted their house at Tangier, which did much please me, and so to fetch my wife, and so to the New Exchange about her things, and called at Thomas Pepys the turner's and bought something there, an so home to supper and to bed, after I had been a good while with Sir W. Pen (age 42), railing and speaking freely our minds against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64), but no more than the folly of one and the knavery of the other do deserve.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1663. A fine French dinner, and so we after dinner broke up and to Creed's new lodgings in Axe-yard [Map], which I like very well and so with him to White Hall and walked up and down in the galleries with good discourse, and anon Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Povy (age 49), sad for the loss of one of our number we sat down as a Committee for Tangier and did some business and so broke up, and I down with Mr. Coventry (age 35) and in his chamber discoursing of business of the office and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten's (age 62) carriage, when he most ingeniously tells me how they have carried themselves to him in forbearing to speak the other day to the Duke what they know they have so largely at other times said to him, and I told him what I am put to about the bargain for masts. I perceive he thinks of it all and will remember it.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1663. Up and to my office, where busy all the morning about Mr. Gauden's account, and at noon to dinner with him at the Dolphin, where mighty merry by pleasant stories of Mr. Coventry's (age 35) and Sir J. Minnes's (age 64), which I have put down some of in my book of tales.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1663. Thence by coach with Mr. Coventry (age 35) to the Temple [Map], and thence I to the Six Clerks' office, and discoursed with my Attorney and Solicitor, and he and I to Mr. Turner, who puts me in great fear that I shall not get retayned again against Tom Trice; which troubles me.

1663 Farneley Wood Plot

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1663. It seems that, after the much talk of troubles and a plot, something is found in the North that a party was to rise, and some persons that were to command it are found, as I find in a letter that Mr. Coventry (age 35) read to-day about it from those parts1.

Note 1. This refers to a rising in the West Riding of Yorkshire, which took place on October 12th, and was known as the Farneley Wood Plot. The rising was easily put down, and several prisoners were taken. A special commission of oyer and terminer was sent down to York to try the prisoners in January, 1663-64, when twenty-one were convicted and executed. (See Whitaker's "Loidis and Elmete", 1816.).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1663. Thence to the office and there sat till noon, and then home to dinner, and after dinner (it being a foul house to-day among my maids, making up their clothes) abroad with my Will with me by coach to Dr, Williams, and with him to the Six Clerks's office, and there, by advice of his acquaintance, I find that my case, through my neglect and the neglect of my lawyers, is come to be very bad, so as that it will be very hard to get my bill retayned again. However, I got him to sign and swear an affidavit that there was treaties between T. Trice and me with as much advantage as I could for me, but I will say that for him he was most exact as ever I saw man in my life, word by word what it was that he swore to, and though, God forgive me, I could have been almost naturally willing to have let him ignorantly have sworn to something that was not of itself very certain, either or no, yet out of his own conscience and care he altered the words himself so as to make them very safe for him to swear. This I carrying to my clerk Wilkinson, and telling him how I heard matters to stand, he, like a conceited fellow, made nothing of it but advised me to offer Trice's clerks the cost of the dismission, viz., 46s. 8d., which I did, but they would not take it without his client. Immediately thereupon we parted, and met T. Trice coming into the room, and he came to me and served me with a subpoena for these very costs, so I paid it him, but Lord! to see his resolution, and indeed discretion, in the wording of his receipt, he would have it most express to my greatest disadvantage that could be, yet so as I could not deny to give it him. That being paid, my clerke, and then his began to ask why we could not think, being friends, of referring it, or stating it, first ourselves, and then put it to some good lawyer to judge in it. From one word to more we were resolved to try, and to that end to step to the Pope's Head Taverne, and there he and his Clerke and Attorney and I and my Clerke, and sent for Mr. Smallwood, and by and by comes Mr. Clerke (age 40), my Solicitor, and after I had privately discoursed with my men and seen how doubtfully they talked, and what future certain charge and trouble it would be, with a doubtful victory, I resolved to condescend very low, and after some talke all together Trice and I retired, and he came to £150 the lowest, and I bid him £80. So broke off and then went to our company, and they putting us to a second private discourse, at last I was contented to give him £100, he to spend 40s. of it among this good company that was with us. So we went to our company, both seeming well pleased that we were come to an end, and indeed I am in the respects above said, though it be a great sum for us to part with. I am to pay him by giving him leave to buy about £40 worth of Piggott's land and to strike off so much of Piggott's debt, and the other to give him bond to pay him in 12 months after without interest, only giving him a power to buy more land of Piggott and paying him that way as he did for the other, which I am well enough contented with, or at least to take the land at that price and give him the money. This last I did not tell him, but I shall order it so. Having agreed upon to-morrow come se'nnight for the spending of the 40s. at Mr. Rawlinson's (age 49), we parted, and I set T. Trice down in Paul's Churchyard and I by coach home and to my office, and there set down this day's passages, and so home to supper and to bed. Mr. Coventry (age 35) tells me to-day that the Queen (age 24) had a very good night last night; but yet it is strange that still she raves and talks of little more than of her having of children, and fancys now that she hath three children, and that the girle is very like the King (age 33). And this morning about five o'clock waked (the physician feeling her pulse, thinking to be better able to judge, she being still and asleep, waked her) and the first word she said was, "How do the children?"

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. After dinner came in Captain Grove, and he and I alone to talk of many things, and among many others of the Fishery, in which he gives the such hopes that being at this time full of projects how to get a little honestly, of which some of them I trust in God will take, I resolved this afternoon to go and consult my Lord Sandwich (age 38) about it, and so, being to carry home Mrs. Hunt, I took her and my wife by coach and set them at Axe Yard [Map], and I to my Lord's and thither sent for Creed and discoursed with him about it, and he and I to White Hall, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and my Lord met me very fortunately, and wondered first to see me in my perruque, and I am glad it is over, and then, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) being gone, I took my Lord aside, who do give me the best advice he can, and telling me how there are some projectors, by name Edward Ford (age 58), who would have the making of farthings1, and out of that give so much to the King (age 33) for the maintenance of the Fishery; but my Lord do not like that, but would have it go as they offered the last year, and so upon my desire he promises me when it is seasonable to bring me into the commission with others, if any of them take, and I perceive he and Mr. Coventry (age 35) are resolved to follow it hard.

Note 1. Edward Ford (age 58), son of Sir William Ford of Harting, born at Up Park in 1605. "After the Restoration he invented a mode of coining farthings. Each piece was to differ minutely from another to prevent forgery. He failed in procuring a patent for these in England, but obtained one for Ireland. He died in Ireland before he could carry his design into execution, on September 3rd, 1670" ("Dictionary of National Biography ").

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat, and after we had almost done, Sir W. Batten (age 62) desired to have the room cleared, and there he did acquaint the board how he was obliged to answer to something lately said which did reflect upon the Comptroller (age 64) and him, and to that purpose told how the bargain for Winter's timber did not prove so bad as I had reported to the board it would. After he had done I cleared the matter that I did not mention the business as a thing designed by me against them, but was led to it by Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and that I said nothing but what I was told by Mayers the surveyor as much as by Deane (age 29) upon whom they laid all the fault, which I must confess did and do still trouble me, for they report him to be a fellow not fit to be employed, when in my conscience he deserves better than any officer in the yard. I thought it not convenient to vindicate him much now, but time will serve when I will do it, and I am bound to do it. I offered to proceed to examine and prove what I said if they please, but Mr. Coventry (age 35) most discreetly advised not, it being to no purpose, and that he did believe that what I said did not by my manner of speaking it proceed from any design of reproaching them, and so it ended. But my great trouble is for poor Deane (age 29).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1663. Up, and being ready then abroad by coach to White Hall, and there with the Duke (age 30), where Mr. Coventry (age 35) did a second time go to vindicate himself against reports and prove by many testimonies that he brought, that he did nothing but what had been done by the Lord Admiral's secretaries heretofore, though he do not approve of it, nor since he had any rule from the Duke (age 30) hath he exceeded what he is there directed to take, and the thing I think is very clear that they always did take and that now he do take less than ever they did heretofore.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1663. Here Mr. Moore and I parted, and I up to the Speaker's chamber, and there met Mr. Coventry (age 35) by appointment to discourse about Field's business, and thence we parting I homewards and called at the Coffeehouse, and there by great accident hear that a letter is come that our ship is safe come to Newcastle [Map]. With this news I went like an asse presently to Alderman Backewell (age 45) and, told him of it, and he and I went to the African House in Broad Street to have spoke with Sir W. Rider to tell him of it, but missed him. Now what an opportunity had I to have concealed this and seemed to have made an insurance and got £100 with the least trouble and danger in the whole world. This troubles me to think I should be so oversoon.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. I left him in good humour, and I to White Hall, to the Duke of York (age 30) and Mr. Coventry (age 35), and there advised about insuring the hempe ship at 12 per cent., notwithstanding her being come to Newcastle [Map], and I do hope that in all my three places which are now my hopes and supports I may not now fear any thing, but with care, which through the Lord's blessing I will never more neglect, I don't doubt but to keep myself up with them all. For in the Duke (age 30), and Mr. Coventry (age 35), my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and Sir G. Carteret (age 53) I place my greatest hopes, and it pleased me yesterday that Mr. Coventry (age 35) in the coach (he carrying me to the Exchange [Map] at noon from the office) did, speaking of Sir W. Batten (age 62), say that though there was a difference between them, yet he would embrace any good motion of Sir W. Batten (age 62) to the King's advantage as well as of Mr. Pepys' or any friend he had. And when I talked that I would go about doing something of the Controller's work when I had time, and that I thought the Controller would not take it ill, he wittily replied that there was nothing in the world so hateful as a dog in the manger.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1663. Up and at the office sat all the morning, and at noon by Mr. Coventry's (age 35) coach to the 'Change [Map], and after a little while there where I met with Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who tells me for good newes that my Lord Sandwich (age 38) is resolved to go no more to Chelsy, and told me he believed that I had been giving my Lord some counsel, which I neither denied nor affirmed, but seemed glad with him that he went thither no more, and so I home to dinner, and thence abroad to Paul's Church Yard, and there looked upon the second part of Hudibras, which I buy not, but borrow to read, to see if it be as good as the first, which the world cry so mightily up, though it hath not a good liking in me, though I had tried by twice or three times reading to bring myself to think it witty.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where all the forenoon, and then (by Mr. Coventry's (age 35) coach) to the 'Change [Map], and so home to dinner, very pleasant with my poor wife. Somebody from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], I know not who, has this day sent me a Runlett of Tent.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1663. We staid till night, and then Mr. Coventry (age 35) away, and by and by I home to my office till 9 or 10 at night, and so home to supper and to bed after some talke and Arithmetique with my poor wife, with whom now-a-days I live with great content, out of all trouble of mind by jealousy (for which God forgive me), or any other distraction more than my fear of my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) displeasure.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and then with the whole board, viz., Sir J. Minnes (age 64), Sir W. Batten (age 62), and myself along with Captain Allen (age 51) home to dinner, where he lives hard by in Mark Lane [Map], where we had a very good plain dinner and good welcome, in a pretty little house but so smoky that it was troublesome to us all till they put out the fire, and made one of charcoale. I was much pleased with this dinner for the many excellent stories told by Mr. Coventry (age 35), which I have put down in my book of tales and so shall not mention them here.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1663. So up and to the office, where the greatest business was Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) against me for Sir W. Warren's contract for masts, to which I may go to my memorandum book to see what past, but came off with conquest, and my Lord Barkely (age 61) and Mr. Coventry (age 35) well convinced that we are well used.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1663. Up betimes and by coach to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), who I met going out, and he did aske me how his cozen, my wife; did, the first time he hath done so since his being offended, and, in my conscience, he would be glad to be free with me again, but he knows not how to begin. So he went out, and I through the garden to Mr. Coventry (age 35), where I saw Mr. Ch. Pett (age 43) bringing him a modell, and indeed it is a pretty one, for a New Year's gift; but I think the work not better done than mine. With him by coach to London, with good and friendly discourse of business and against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and his foul dealings.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1664. At noon, all of us to dinner to Sir W. Pen's (age 42), where a very handsome dinner, Sir J. Lawson (age 49) among others, and his lady and his daughter, a very pretty lady and of good deportment, with looking upon whom I was greatly pleased, the rest of the company of the women were all of our own house, of no satisfaction or pleasure at all. My wife was not there, being not well enough, nor had any great mind. But to see how Sir W. Pen (age 42) imitates me in everything, even in his having his chimney piece in his dining room the same with that in my wife's closett, and in every thing else I perceive wherein he can. But to see again how he was out in one compliment: he lets alone drinking any of the ladies' healths that were there, my Lady Batten and Lawson, till he had begun with my Baroness Carteret (age 62), who was absent, and that was well enough, and then Mr. Coventry's (age 36) mistresse, at which he was ashamed, and would not have had him have drunk it, at least before the ladies present, but his policy, as he thought, was such that he would do it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1664. After dinner I did go in further part of kindness to Luellin for his kindness about Deering's £50 which he procured me the other day of him. We spent all the afternoon together and then they to cards with my wife, who this day put on her Indian blue gowne which is very pretty, where I left them for an hour, and to my office, and then to them again, and by and by they went away at night, and so I again to my office to perfect a letter to Mr. Coventry (age 36) about Department Treasurers, wherein I please myself and hope to give him content and do the King service therein.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1664. Waked this morning by 4 o'clock by my wife to call the mayds to their wash, and what through my sleeping so long last night and vexation for the lazy sluts lying so long again and their great wash, neither my wife nor I could sleep one winke after that time till day, and then I rose and by coach (taking Captain Grove with me and three bottles of Tent, which I sent to Mrs. Lane by my promise on Saturday night last) to White Hall, and there with the rest of our company to the Duke (age 30) and did our business, and thence to the Tennis Court till noon, and there saw several great matches played, and so by invitation to St. James's; where, at Mr. Coventry's (age 36) chamber, I dined with my Lord Barkeley (age 62), Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Sir Edward Turner (age 47), Sir Ellis Layton, and one Mr. Seymour (age 31), a fine gentleman; were admirable good discourse of all sorts, pleasant and serious.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon all of us, viz., Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Sir W. Batten (age 63) at one end, and Mr. Coventry (age 36), Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I (in the middle at the other end, being taught how to sit there all three by my sitting so much the backwarder) at the other end, to Sir G. Carteret's (age 54), and there dined well. Here I saw Mr. Scott (age 26), the bastard that married his youngest daughter. Much pleasant talk at table, and then up and to the office, where we sat long upon our design of dividing the Controller's work into some of the rest of our hands for the better doing of it, but he would not yield to it, though the simple man knows in his heart that he do not do one part of it. So he taking upon him to do it all we rose, I vexed at the heart to see the King's service run after this manner, but it cannot be helped.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. By and by came by Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so we broke off; and he and I took a turn or two and so parted, and then my Lord Sandwich (age 38) came upon me, to speak with whom my business of coming again to-night to this ende of the town chiefly was, in order to the seeing in what manner he received me, in order to my inviting him to dinner to my house, but as well in the morning as now, though I did wait upon him home and there offered occasion of talk with him, yet he treated me, though with respect, yet as a stranger, without any of the intimacy or friendship which he used to do, and which I fear he will never, through his consciousness of his faults, ever do again. Which I must confess do trouble me above anything in the world almost, though I neither do need at present nor fear to need to be so troubled, nay, and more, though I do not think that he would deny me any friendship now if I did need it, but only that he has not the face to be free with me, but do look upon me as a remembrancer of his former vanity, and an espy upon his present practices, for I perceive that Pickering to-day is great with him again, and that he has done a great courtesy for Mr. Pierce, the chirurgeon, to a good value, though both these and none but these did I mention by name to my Lord in the business which has caused all this difference between my Lord and me. However, I am resolved to forbear my laying out my money upon a dinner till I see him in a better posture, and by grave and humble, though high deportment, to make him think I do not want him, and that will make him the readier to admit me to his friendship again, I believe the soonest of anything but downright impudence, and thrusting myself, as others do, upon him, which yet I cannot do, not [nor] will not endeavour.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1664. At noon by coach to the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Coventry (age 36), thence to the Coffee-house with Captain Cocke (age 47), who discoursed well of the good effects in some kind of a Dutch warr and conquest (which I did not consider before, but the contrary) that is, that the trade of the world is too little for us two, therefore one must down: 2ndly, that though our merchants will not be the better husbands by all this, yet our wool will bear a better price by vaunting of our cloths, and by that our tenants will be better able to pay rents, and our lands will be more worth, and all our owne manufactures, which now the Dutch outvie us in; that he thinks the Dutch are not in so good a condition as heretofore because of want of men always, and now from the warrs against the Turke more than ever.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1664. Up and to the office, where, though Candlemas day, Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I all the morning, the others being at a survey at Deptford, Kent [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1664. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and so at noon to the 'Change [Map], where I met Mr. Coventry (age 36), the first time I ever saw him there, and after a little talke with him and other merchants, I up and down about several businesses, and so home, whither came one Father Fogourdy, an Irish priest, of my wife's and her mother's acquaintance in France, a sober, discreet person, but one that I would not have converse with my wife for fear of meddling with her religion, but I like the man well.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Feb 1664. At noon by coach with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to the 'Change [Map], where busy with several people. Great talke of the Dutch proclaiming themselves in India, Lords of the Southern Seas, and deny traffick there to all ships but their owne, upon pain of confiscation; which makes our merchants mad. Great doubt of two ships of ours, the "Greyhound" and another, very rich, coming from the Streights, for fear of the Turkes. Matters are made up between the Pope and the King of France (age 25); so that now all the doubt is, what the French will do with their armies.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1664. Anon down to dinner to a table which Mr. Coventry (age 36) keeps here, out of his £300 per annum as one of the Assistants to the Royall Company, a very pretty dinner, and good company, and excellent discourse, and so up again to our work for an hour till the Company came to having a meeting of their own, and so we broke up and Creed and I took coach and to Reeves, the perspective glass maker, and there did indeed see very excellent microscopes, which did discover a louse or mite or sand most perfectly and largely.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1664. Up, and after I had told my wife in the morning in bed the passages yesterday with Creed my head and heart was mightily lighter than they were before, and so up and to the office, and thence, after sitting, at 11 o'clock with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to the African House, and there with Sir W. Ryder by agreement we looked over part of my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, these being by Creed and Vernaty.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1664. Thence to his closet and there did our business, and thence Mr. Coventry (age 36) and I down to his chamber and spent a little time, and so parted, and I took my wife homeward, I stopping at the Coffee-house, and thence a while to the 'Change [Map], where great newes of the arrivall of two rich ships, the Greyhound (age 30) and another, which they were mightily afeard of, and great insurance given, and so home to dinner, and after an houre with my wife at her globes, I to the office, where very busy till 11 at night, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1664. Called up to the office and much against my will I rose, my head aching mightily, and to the office, where I did argue to good purpose for the King (age 33), which I have been fitting myself for the last night against Mr. Wood about his masts, but brought it to no issue. Very full of business till noon, and then with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to the African House, and there fell to my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, and by and by to dinner, where excellent discourse, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and others of the African Company with us, and then up to the accounts again, which were by and by done, and then I straight home, my head in great pain, and drowsy, so after doing a little business at the office I wrote to my father about sending him the mastiff was given me yesterday. I home and by daylight to bed about 6 o'clock and fell to sleep, wakened about 12 when my wife came to bed, and then to sleep again and so till morning, and then:

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and thence home to dinner, after dinner by a gaily down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where with Mr. Falconer, and then at the other yard doing some business to my content, and so walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], it being a very fine evening and brought right home with me by water, and so to my office, where late doing business, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1664. Lord's Day. Up, and having many businesses at the office to-day I spent all the morning there drawing up a letter to Mr. Coventry (age 36) about preserving of masts, being collections of my own, and at noon home to dinner, whither my brother Tom (age 30) comes, and after dinner I took him up and read my letter lately of discontent to my father, and he is seemingly pleased at it, and cries out of my sister's ill nature and lazy life there.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. Thence, meeting Mr. Moore, and to the Exchange [Map] and there found my wife at pretty Doll's, and thence by coach set her at my uncle Wight's (age 62), to go with my aunt to market once more against Lent, and I to the Coffee-house, and thence to the 'Change [Map], my chief business being to enquire about the manner of other countries keeping of their masts wet or dry, and got good advice about it, and so home, and alone ate a bad, cold dinner, my people being at their washing all day, and so to the office and all the afternoon upon my letter to Mr. Coventry (age 36) about keeping of masts, and ended it very well at night and wrote it fair over.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1664. Thence home to the office, and there did business till called by Creed, and with him by coach (setting my wife at my brother's) to my Lord's, and saw the young ladies, and talked a little with them, and thence to White Hall, a while talking but doing no business, but resolved of going to meet my Lord tomorrow, having got a horse of Mr. Coventry (age 36) to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat, and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 36) by coach to the glasshouse and there dined, and both before and after did my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Feb 1664. Up, and after dressing myself handsomely for riding, I out, and by water to Westminster, to Mr. Creed's chamber, and after drinking some chocolate, and playing on the vyall, Mr. Mallard being there, upon Creed's new vyall, which proves, methinks, much worse than mine, and, looking upon his new contrivance of a desk and shelves for books, we set out from an inne hard by, whither Mr. Coventry's (age 36) horse was carried, and round about the bush through bad ways to Highgate. Good discourse in the way had between us, and it being all day a most admirable pleasant day, we, upon consultation, had stopped at the Cocke, a mile on this side Barnett, being unwilling to put ourselves to the charge or doubtful acceptance of any provision against my Lord's coming by, and there got something and dined, setting a boy to look towards Barnett Hill, against their coming; and after two or three false alarms, they come, and we met the coach very gracefully, and I had a kind receipt from both Lord and Lady as I could wish, and some kind discourse, and then rode by the coach a good way, and so fell to discoursing with several of the people, there being a dozen attending the coach, and another for the mayds and parson.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1664. At noon with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to the African House, and to my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) business again, and then to dinner, where, before dinner, we had the best oysters I have seen this year, and I think as good in all respects as ever I eat in my life. I eat a great many. Great, good company at dinner, among others Sir Martin Noell (age 64), who told us the dispute between him, as farmer of the Additional Duty, and the East India Company, whether callicos be linnen or no; which he says it is, having been ever esteemed so: they say it is made of cotton woole, and grows upon trees, not like flax or hempe. But it was carried against the Company, though they stand out against the verdict.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1664. Lord's Day. Up, and my cold continuing in great extremity I could not go out to church, but sat all day (a little time at dinner excepted) in my closet at the office till night drawing up a second letter to Mr. Coventry (age 36) about the measure of masts to my great satisfaction, and so in the evening home, and my uncle (age 62) and aunt Wight (age 45) came to us and supped with us, where pretty merry, but that my cold put me out of humour. At night with my cold, and my eye also sore still, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1664. Thence home, and I ended and sent away my letter to Mr. Coventry (age 36) (having first read it and had the opinion of Sir W. Warren in the case), and so home to supper and to bed, my cold being pretty well gone, but my eye remaining still snare and rhumey, which I wonder at, my right eye ayling nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1664. I to the office, where we sat all the morning, doing not much business through the multitude of counsellors, one hindering another. It was Mr. Coventry's (age 36) own saying to me in his coach going to the 'Change [Map], but I wonder that he did give me no thanks for my letter last night, but I believe he did only forget it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1664. Lord's Day. Lay long in bed talking with my wife, and then up in great doubt whether I should not go see Mr. Coventry (age 36) or no, who hath not been well these two or three days, but it being foul weather I staid within, and so to my office, and there all the morning reading some Common Law, to which I will allot a little time now and then, for I much want it.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1664. At last, at past 4 o'clock I heard that the Parliament was not up yet, and so walked to Westminster Hall [Map], and there found it so, and meeting with Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and being very hungry, went over with him to the Leg, and before we had cut a bit, the House rises, however we eat a bit and away to St. James's and there eat a second part of our dinner with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and his brother [his brother] Harry (age 45), Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 42). The great matter today in the House hath been, that Mr. Vaughan (age 60), the great speaker, is this day come to towne, and hath declared himself in a speech of an houre and a half, with great reason and eloquence, against the repealing of the Bill for Triennial Parliaments; but with no successe: but the House have carried it that there shall be such Parliaments, but without any coercive power upon the King (age 33), if he will bring this Act. But, Lord! to see how the best things are not done without some design; for I perceive all these gentlemen that I was with to-day were against it (though there was reason enough on their side); yet purely, I could perceive, because it was the King's mind to have it; and should he demand any thing else, I believe they would give it him. But this the discontented Presbyters, and the faction of the House will be highly displeased with; but it was carried clearly against them in the House. We had excellent good table-talke, some of which I have entered in my book of stories.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1664. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and spent till noon, it being Parliament time, and at noon walked with Creed into St. James's Parke, talking of many things, particularly of the poor parts and great unfitness for business of Mr. Povy (age 50), and yet what a show he makes in the world. Mr. Coventry (age 36) not being come to his chamber, I walked through the house with him for an hour in St. James's fields' talking of the same subject, and then parted, and back and with great impatience, sometimes reading, sometimes walking, sometimes thinking that Mr. Coventry (age 36), though he invited us to dinner with him, was gone with the rest of the office without a dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1664. I left them providing for his stay there to-night and getting a petition against tomorrow, and so away to Westminster Hall [Map], and meeting Mr. Coventry (age 36), he took me to his chamber, with Sir William Hickeman, a member of their House, and a very civill gentleman. Here we dined very plentifully, and thence to White Hall to the Duke's (age 30), where we all met, and after some discourse of the condition of the Fleete, in order to a Dutch warr, for that, I perceive, the Duke (age 30) hath a mind it should come to, we away to the office, where we sat, and I took care to rise betimes, and so by water to Halfway House, talking all the way good discourse with Mr. Wayth, and there found my wife, who was gone with her mayd Besse to have a walk. But, Lord! how my jealous mind did make me suspect that she might have some appointment to meet somebody. But I found the poor souls coming away thence, so I took them back, and eat and drank, and then home, and after at the office a while, I home to supper and to bed. It was a sad sight, me thought, to-day to see my Lord Peters (age 38) coming out of the House fall out with his lady (from whom he is parted) about this business; saying that she disgraced him. But she hath been a handsome woman, and is, it seems, not only a lewd woman, but very high-spirited.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1664. Though late, past 12, before we went to bed, yet I heard my poor father up, and so I rang up my people, and I rose and got something to eat and drink for him, and so abroad, it being a mighty foul day, by coach, setting my father down in Fleet Streete and I to St. James's, where I found Mr. Coventry (age 36) (the Duke (age 30) being now come thither for the summer) with a goldsmith, sorting out his old plate to change for new; but, Lord! what a deale he hath! I staid and had two or three hours discourse with him, talking about the disorders of our office, and I largely to tell him how things are carried by Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65) to my great grief. He seems much concerned also, and for all the King's matters that are done after the same rate every where else, and even the Duke's house hold matters too, generally with corruption, but most indeed with neglect and indifferency. I spoke very loud and clear to him my thoughts of Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and the other, and trust him with the using of them.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1664. Thence to Whitehall and W. C[oventry] (age 36) and I and Sir W. Rider resolved upon a day to meet and make an end of all the business.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1664. Up betimes, and after my father's eating something, I walked out with him as far as Milk Streete, he turning down to Cripplegate to take coach; and at the end of the streete I took leave, being much afeard I shall not see him here any more, he do decay so much every day, and so I walked on, there being never a coach to be had till I came to Charing Cross, and there Col. Froud took me up and carried me to St. James's, where with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Povy (age 50), &c., about my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, but, Lord! to see still what a puppy that Povy (age 50) is with all his show is very strange.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1664. Up and all the morning with Captain Taylor at my house talking about things of the Navy, and among other things I showed him my letters to Mr. Coventry (age 36), wherein he acknowledges that nobody to this day did ever understand so much as I have done, and I believe him, for I perceive he did very much listen to every article as things new to him, and is contented to abide by my opinion therein in his great contest with us about his and Mr. Wood's masts.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Apr 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning upon the dispute of Mr. Wood's masts, and at noon with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to the African House; and after a good and pleasant dinner, up with him, Sir W. Rider, the simple Povy (age 50), of all the most ridiculous foole that ever I knew to attend to business, and Creed and Vernaty, about my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts; but the more we look into them, the more we see of them that makes dispute, which made us break off, and so I home, and there found my wife and Besse gone over the water to Half-way house, and after them, thinking to have gone to Woolwich, Kent [Map], but it was too late, so eat a cake and home, and thence by coach to have spoke with Tom Trice about a letter I met with this afternoon from my cozen Scott, wherein he seems to deny proceeding as my father's attorney in administering for him in my brother Tom's (deceased) estate, but I find him gone out of town, and so returned vexed home and to the office, where late writing a letter to him, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1664. So I, after discoursing with the Joyces, away by coach to the 'Change [Map]; and there, among other things, do hear that a Jew hath put in a policy of four per cent. to any man, to insure him against a Dutch warr for four months; I could find in my heart to take him at this offer, but however will advise first, and to that end took coach to St. James's, but Mr. Coventry (age 36) was gone forth, and I thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where Mrs. Lane was gone forth, and so I missed of my intent to be with her this afternoon, and therefore meeting Mr. Blagrave, went home with him, and there he and his kinswoman sang, but I was not pleased with it, they singing methought very ill, or else I am grown worse to please than heretofore.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1664. Up and to St. James's, where long with Mr. Coventry (age 36), Povy (age 50), &c., in their Tangier accounts, but such the folly of that coxcomb Povy (age 50) that we could do little in it, and so parted for the time, and I to walk with Creed and Vernaty in the Physique Garden in St. James's Parke; where I first saw orange-trees, and other fine trees.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1664.Up and by coach to Westminster, and there solicited W. Joyce's business all the morning, and meeting in the Hall with Mr. Coventry (age 36), he told me how the Committee for Trade have received now all the complaints of the merchants against the Dutch, and were resolved to report very highly the wrongs they have done us (when, God knows! it is only our owne negligence and laziness that hath done us the wrong) and this to be made to the House to-morrow. I went also out of the Hall with Mrs. Lane to the Swan [Map] at Mrs. Herbert's in the Palace Yard to try a couple of bands, and did (though I had a mind to be playing the fool with her) purposely stay but a little while, and kept the door open, and called the master and mistress of the house one after another to drink and talk with me, and showed them both my old and new bands. So that as I did nothing so they are able to bear witness that I had no opportunity there to do anything.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1664. So home and to the 'Change [Map], where I met with Mr. Coventry (age 36), who himself is now full of talke of a Dutch warr; for it seems the Lords have concurred in the Commons' vote about it; and so the next week it will be presented to the King (age 33), insomuch that he do desire we would look about to see what stores we lack, and buy what we can.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1664. Thence down with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir W. Rider, who was there (going along with us from the East Indya house to-day) to discourse of my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, and then walked over the Parke, and in Mr. Cutler's coach with him and Rider as far as the Strand, and thence I walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), where by agreement I met my wife, and there dined with the young ladies; my Lady, being not well, kept her chamber. Much simple discourse at table among the young ladies.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1664. Up, and all the morning very busy with multitude of clients, till my head began to be overloaded. Towards noon I took coach and to the Parliament house door, and there staid the rising of the House, and with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) discoursed of some tarr that I have been endeavouring to buy, for the market begins apace to rise upon us, and I would be glad first to serve the King (age 33) well, and next if I could I find myself now begin to cast how to get a penny myself.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1664. Up betimes, and with Sir W. Rider and Cutler to White Hall. Rider and I to St. James's, and there with Mr. Coventry (age 36) did proceed strictly upon some fooleries of Mr. Povy's (age 50) in my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, which will touch him home, and I am glad of it, for he is the most troublesome impertinent man that ever I met with.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1664. Up, and being ready, went by agreement to Mr. Bland's and there drank my morning draft in good chocollatte, and slabbering my band sent home for another, and so he and I by water to White Hall, and walked to St. James's, where met Creed and Vernaty, and by and by Sir W. Rider, and so to Mr. Coventry's (age 36) chamber, and there upon my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, where I endeavoured to shew the folly and punish it as much as I could of Mr. Povy (age 50); for, of all the men in the world, I never knew any man of his degree so great a coxcomb in such imployments. I see I have lost him forever, but I value it not; for he is a coxcomb, and, I doubt, not over honest, by some things which I see; and yet, for all his folly, he hath the good lucke, now and then, to speak his follies in as good words, and with as good a show, as if it were reason, and to the purpose, which is really one of the wonders of my life.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1664. My uncle Wight (age 62) came to me to my office this afternoon to speak with me about Mr. Maes's business again, and from me went to my house to see my wife, and strange to think that my wife should by and by send for me after he was gone to tell me that he should begin discourse of her want of children and his also, and how he thought it would be best for him and her to have one between them, and he would give her £500 either in money or jewells beforehand, and make the child his heir. He commended her body, and discoursed that for all he knew the thing was lawful. She says she did give him a very warm answer, such as he did not excuse himself by saying that he said this in jest, but told her that since he saw what her mind was he would say no more to her of it, and desired her to make no words of it. It seemed he did say all this in a kind of counterfeit laugh, but by all words that passed, which I cannot now so well set down, it is plain to me that he was in good earnest, and that I fear all his kindness is but only his lust to her. What to think of it of a sudden I know not, but I think not to take notice yet of it to him till I have thought better of it. So with my mind and head a little troubled I received a letter from Mr. Coventry (age 36) about a mast for the Duke's yacht, which with other business makes me resolve to go betimes to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1664. My wife sick ... in bed. I was troubled with it, but, however, could not help it, but attended them till after dinner, and then to the office and there sat all the afternoon, and by a letter to me this afternoon from Mr. Coventry (age 36) I saw the first appearance of a warr with Holland.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1664. Up and within all the morning, being willing to keep as much as I could within doors, but receiving a very wakening letter from Mr. Coventry (age 36) about fitting of ships, which speaks something like to be done, I went forth to the office, there to take order in things, and after dinner to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier, but did little.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1664. Up, called by Mr. Cholmely (age 31), and walked with him in the garden till others came to another Committee of Tangier, as we did meet as we did use to do, to see more of Povy's (age 50) folly, and so broke up, and at the office sat all the morning, Mr. Coventry (age 36) with us, and very hot we are getting out some ships.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1664. Thence, after staying and seeing the throng of people to attend the King (age 33) to Chappell (but, Lord! what a company of sad, idle people they are) I walked to St. James's with Colonell Remes, where staid a good while and then walked to White Hall with Mr. Coventry (age 36), talking about business. So meeting Creed, took him with me home and to dinner, a good dinner, and thence by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where mighty kindly received by Mrs. Falconer and her husband, who is now pretty well again, this being the first time I ever carried my wife thither. I walked to the Docke, where I met Mrs. Ackworth alone at home, and God forgive me! what thoughts I had, but I had not the courage to stay, but went to Mr. Pett's (age 53) and walked up and down the yard with him and Deane (age 30) talking about the dispatch of the ships now in haste, and by and by Creed and my wife and a friend of Mr. Falconer's came with the boat and called me, and so by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I landed, and after talking with others walked to Half-way house with Mr. Wayth talking about the business of his supplying us with canvas, and he told me in discourse several instances of Sir W. Batten's (age 63) cheats.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1664. So to Half-way house, whither my wife and them were gone before, and after drinking there we walked, and by water home, sending Creed and the other with the boat home. Then wrote a letter to Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so a good supper of pease, the first I eat this year, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1664. Whitsunday. King's Birth and Restauration day. Up, and having received a letter last night desiring it from Mr. Coventry (age 36), I walked to St. James's, and there he and I did long discourse together of the business of the office, and the warr with the Dutch; and he seemed to argue mightily with the little reason that there is for all this. For first, as to the wrong we pretend they have done us: that of the East Indys, for their not delivering of Poleron, it is not yet known whether they have failed or no; that of their hindering the Leopard cannot amount to above £3,000 if true; that of the Guinny company, all they had done us did not amount to above £200 or £300 he told me truly; and that now, from what Holmes, without any commission, hath done in taking an island and two forts, hath set us much in debt to them; and he believes that Holmes will have been so puffed up with this, that he by this time hath been enforced with more strength than he had then, hath, I say, done a great deale more wrong to them. He do, as to the effect of the warr, tell me clearly that it is not any skill of the Dutch that can hinder our trade if we will, we having so many advantages over them, of winds, good ports, and men; but it is our pride, and the laziness of the merchant. He seems to think that there may be some negotiation which may hinder a warr this year, but that he speaks doubtfully as unwilling I perceive to be thought to discourse any such thing. The main thing he desired to speake with me about was, to know whether I do understand my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) intentions as to going to sea with this fleete; saying, that the Duke (age 30), if he desires it, is most willing to it; but thinking that twelve ships is not a fleete fit for my Lord to be troubled to go out with, he is not willing to offer it to him till he hath some intimations of his mind to go, or not. He spoke this with very great respect as to my Lord, though methinks it is strange they should not understand one another better at this time than to need another's mediation.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1664. So abroad with my wife by coach to St. James's, to one Lady Poultny's, where I found my Lord, I doubt, at some vain pleasure or other. I did give him a short account of what I had done with Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so left him, and to my wife again in the coach, and with her to the Parke, but the Queene (age 54) being gone by the Parke to Kensington, we staid not but straight home and to supper (the first time I have done so this summer), and so to my office doing business, and then to my monthly accounts, where to my great comfort I find myself better than I was still the last month, and now come to £930.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1664. By and by up to my Lord, and to discourse about his going to sea, and the message I had from Mr. Coventry (age 36) to him. He wonders, as he well may, that this course should be taken, and he every day with the Duke, who, nevertheless, seems most friendly to him, who hath not yet spoke one word to my Lord of his desire to have him go to sea. My Lord do tell me clearly that were it not that he, as all other men that were of the Parliament side, are obnoxious to reproach, and so is forced to bear what otherwise he would not, he would never suffer every thing to be done in the Navy, and he never be consulted; and it seems, in the naming of all these commanders for this fleete, he hath never been asked one question. But we concluded it wholly inconsistent with his honour not to go with this fleete, nor with the reputation which the world hath of his interest at Court; and so he did give me commission to tell Mr. Coventry (age 36) that he is most willing to receive any commands from the Duke in this fleete, were it less than it is, and that particularly in this service. With this message I parted, and by coach to the office, where I found Mr. Coventry (age 36), and told him this. Methinks, I confess, he did not seem so pleased with it as I expected, or at least could have wished, and asked me whether I had told my Lord that the Duke do not expect his going, which I told him I had. But now whether he means really that the Duke, as he told me the other day, do think the Fleete too small for him to take or that he would not have him go, I swear I cannot tell. But methinks other ways might have been used to put him by without going in this manner about it, and so I hope it is out of kindness indeed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and then to the 'Change [Map], where after some stay by coach with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) to St. James's, and there dined with Mr. Coventry (age 36) very finely, and so over the Parke to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier about providing provisions, money, and men for Tangier. At it all the afternoon, but it is strange to see how poorly and brokenly things are done of the greatest consequence, and how soon the memory of this great man is gone, or, at least, out of mind by the thoughts of who goes next, which is not yet knowne. My Lord of Oxford (age 37), Muskerry, and several others are discoursed of. It seems my Lord Tiviott's design was to go a mile and half out of the towne, to cut down a wood in which the enemy did use to lie in ambush. He had sent several spyes; but all brought word that the way was clear, and so might be for any body's discovery of an enemy before you are upon them. There they were all snapt, he and all his officers, and about 200 men, as they say; there being left now in the garrison but four captains. This happened the 3d of May last, being not before that day twelvemonth of his entering into his government there: but at his going out in the morning he said to some of his officers, "Gentlemen, let us look to ourselves, for it was this day three years that so many brave Englishmen were knocked on the head by the Moores, when Fines made his sally out". Here till almost night, and then home with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) by coach, and so to my office a while, and home to supper and bed, being now in constant pain in my back, but whether it be only wind or what it is the Lord knows, but I fear the worst.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1664. At the Committee for Tangier all the afternoon, where a sad consideration to see things of so great weight managed in so confused a manner as it is, so as I would not have the buying of an acre of land bought by the Duke of York (age 30) and Mr. Coventry (age 36), for ought I see, being the only two that do anything like men; Prince Rupert (age 44) do nothing but swear and laugh a little, with an oathe or two, and that's all he do.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1664. After office I with Mr. Coventry (age 36) by water to St. James's and dined with him, and had excellent discourse from him.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1664. So by coach home, and at my office late, and so to supper and to bed, my body by plenty of breaking of wind being just now pretty well again, having had a constant akeing in my back these 5 or 6 days. Mr. Coventry (age 36) discoursing this noon about Sir W. Batten (age 63) (what a sad fellow he is!) told me how the King (age 34) told him the other day how Sir W. Batten (age 63), being in the ship with him and Prince Rupert (age 44) when they expected to fight with Warwick, did walk up and down sweating with a napkin under his throat to dry up his sweat; and that Prince Rupert (age 44) being a most jealous man, and particularly of Batten, do walk up and down swearing bloodily to the King (age 34), that Batten had a mind to betray them to-day, and that the napkin was a signal; "but, by God", says he, "if things go ill, the first thing I will do is to shoot him".

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1664. Then by barge with Sir W. Batten (age 63) to Trinity House, Deptford [Map]. It seems they have with much ado carried it for Sir G. Carteret (age 54) against Captain Harrison, poor man, who by succession ought to have been it, and most hands were for him, but only they were forced to fright the younger Brethren by requiring them to set their hands (which is an ill course) and then Sir G. Carteret (age 54) carryed it. Here was at dinner my Lord Sandwich (age 38), Mr. Coventry (age 36), my Lord Craven (age 56), and others. A great dinner, and good company. Mr. Prin (age 64) also, who would not drink any health, no, not the King's, but sat down with his hat on all the while1 but nobody took notice of it to him at all; but in discourse with the Doctor he did declare himself that he ever was, and has expressed himself in all his books for mixt communion against the Presbyterian examination.

Note 1. William Prynne (age 64) had published in 1628 a small book against the drinking of healths, entitled, "Healthes, Sicknesse; or a compendious and briefe Discourse, prouing, the Drinking and Pledging of Healthes to be sinfull and utterly unlawfull unto Christians ... wherein all those ordinary objections, excuses or pretences, which are made to justifie, extenuate, or excuse the drinking or pledging of Healthes are likewise cleared and answered". The pamphlet was dedicated to Charles I as "more interessed in the theame and subject of this compendious discourse then any other that I know", and "because your Majestie of all other persons within your owne dominions, are most dishonoured, prejudiced, and abused by these Healthes"..

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jun 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, where some discourse arose from Sir G. Carteret (age 54) and Mr. Coventry (age 36), which gives me occasion to think that something like a war is expected now indeed, though upon the 'Change [Map] afterwards I hear too that an Embassador is landed from Holland, and one from their East India Company, to treat with ours about the wrongs we pretend to. Mr. Creed dined with me, and thence after dinner by coach with my wife only to take the ayre, it being very warm and pleasant, to Bowe and Old Ford; and thence to Hackney. There 'light, and played at shuffle-board, eat cream and good churies; and so with good refreshment home.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1664. Lord's Day. All the morning in my chamber consulting my lesson of ship building, and at noon Mr. Creed by appointment came and dined with us, and sat talking all the afternoon till, about church time, my wife and I began our great dispute about going to Griffin's child's christening, where I was to have been godfather, but Sir J. Minnes (age 65) refusing, he wanted an equal for me and my Lady Batten, and so sought for other. Then the question was whether my wife should go, and she having dressed herself on purpose, was very angry, and began to talk openly of my keeping her within doors before Creed, which vexed me to the guts, but I had the discretion to keep myself without passion, and so resolved at last not to go, but to go down by water, which we did by H. Russell [a waterman] to the Half-way house, and there eat and drank, and upon a very small occasion had a difference again broke out, where without any the least cause she had the cunning to cry a great while, and talk and blubber, which made me mighty angry in mind, but said nothing to provoke her because Creed was there, but walked home, being troubled in my mind also about the knavery and neglect of Captain Fudge and Taylor, who were to have had their ship for Tangier ready by Thursday last, and now the men by a mistake are come on board, and not any master or man or boy of the ship's company on board with them when we came by her side this afternoon, and also received a letter from Mr. Coventry (age 36) this day in complaint of it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1664. Thence walked with Mr. Coventry (age 36) to St. James's, and there spent by his desire the whole morning reading of some old Navy books given him of old Sir John Cooke's by the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 65) that now is; wherein the order that was observed in the Navy then, above what it is now, is very observable, and fine things we did observe in our reading.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1664. So home to supper and to bed. Strange to see how pert Sir W. Pen (age 43) is to-day newly come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] with his head full of great reports of his service and the state of the ships there. When that is over he will be just as another man again or worse. But I wonder whence Mr. Coventry (age 36) should take all this care for him, to send for him up only to look after his Irish business with my Lord Ormond (age 53) and to get the Duke's leave for him to come with so much officiousness, when I am sure he knows him as well as I do as to his little service he do.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1664. That being done, and not being able to do any thing for lacke of an oathe for the Governor and Assistants to take, we rose. Then our Committee for the Tangier victualling met and did a little, and so up, and I and Mr. Coventry (age 36) walked in the garden half an hour, talking of the business of our masts, and thence away and with Creed walked half an hour or more in the Park, and thence to the New Exchange to drink some creame, but missed it and so parted, and I home, calling by the way for my new bookes, viz., Sir H. Spillman's "Whole Glossary", "Scapula's Lexicon", and Shakespeare's plays, which I have got money out of my stationer's bills to pay for.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1664. By and by comes Mr. Coventry (age 36), and after a little stay he and I down to Blackwall [Map], he having a mind to see the yarde, which we did, and fine storehouses there are and good docks, but of no great profit to him that oweth them for ought we see1. So home by water with him, having good discourse by the way, and so I to the office a while, and late home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. For "owneth". This sense is very common in Shakespeare. In the original edition of the authorized version of the Bible we read: "So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle" (Acts xxi. I i) Nares's Glossary.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. So I left them, and I to my Chancellor's (age 55); and there coming out after dinner I accosted him, telling him that I was the unhappy Pepys that had fallen into his high displeasure, and come to desire him to give me leave to make myself better understood to his Lordship, assuring him of my duty and service. He answered me very pleasingly, that he was confident upon the score of my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) character of me, but that he had reason to think what he did, and desired me to call upon him some evening: I named to-night, and he accepted of it. So with my heart light I to White Hall, and there after understanding by a stratagem, and yet appearing wholly desirous not to understand Mr. Gauden's price when he desired to show it me, I went down and ordered matters in our tender so well that at the meeting by and by I was ready with Mr. Gauden's and his, both directed him a letter to me to give the board their two tenders, but there being none but the Generall Monk (age 55) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Povy (age 50) and I, I did not think fit to expose them to view now, but put it off till Saturday, and so with good content rose.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1664. The Duke of Yorke (age 30), as much as is possible; and in the business of late, when I was to speak to my Lord about his going to sea, he says that he finds the Duke did it with the greatest ingenuity and love in the world; "and whereas", says my Lord, "here is a wise man hard by that thinks himself so, and would be thought so, and it may be is in a degree so (naming by and by my Lord Crew (age 66)), would have had me condition with him that neither Prince Rupert (age 44) nor any body should come over his head, and I know not what". The Duke himself hath caused in his commission, that he be made Admirall of this and what other ships or fleets shall hereafter be put out after these; which is very noble. He tells me in these cases, and that of Mr. Montagu's, and all others, he finds that bearing of them patiently is his best way, without noise or trouble, and things wear out of themselves and come fair again. But, says he, take it from me, never to trust too much to any man in the world, for you put yourself into his power; and the best seeming friend and real friend as to the present may have or take occasion to fall out with you, and then out comes all. Then he told me of Sir Harry Bennet (age 46), though they were always kind, yet now it is become to an acquaintance and familiarity above ordinary, that for these months he hath done no business but with my Lord's advice in his chamber, and promises all faithfull love to him and service upon all occasions. My Lord says, that he hath the advantage of being able by his experience to helpe and advise him; and he believes that that chiefly do invite Sir Harry to this manner of treating him. "Now", says my Lord, "the only and the greatest embarras that I have in the world is, how to behave myself to Sir H. Bennet (age 46) and my Chancellor (age 55), in case that there do lie any thing under the embers about my Lord Bristoll (age 51), which nobody can tell; for then", says he, "I must appear for one or other, and I will lose all I have in the world rather than desert my Chancellor (age 55): so that", says he, "I know not for my life what to do in that case". For Sir H. Bennet's (age 46) love is come to the height, and his confidence, that he hath given my Lord a character, and will oblige my Lord to correspond with him. "This", says he, "is the whole condition of my estate and interest; which I tell you, because I know not whether I shall see you again or no". Then as to the voyage, he thinks it will be of charge to him, and no profit; but that he must not now look after nor think to encrease, but study to make good what he hath, that what is due to him from the Wardrobe or elsewhere may be paid, which otherwise would fail, and all a man hath be but small content to him. So we seemed to take leave one of another; my Lord of me, desiring me that I would write to him and give him information upon all occasions in matters that concern him; which, put together with what he preambled with yesterday, makes me think that my Lord do truly esteem me still, and desires to preserve my service to him; which I do bless God for. In the middle of our discourse my Baroness Crew came in to bring my Lord word that he hath another son, my Lady being brought to bed just now, I did not think her time had been so nigh, but she's well brought to bed, for which God be praised! and send my Lord to study the laying up of something the more! Then with Creed to St. James's, and missing Mr. Coventry (age 36), to White Hall; where, staying for him in one of the galleries, there comes out of the chayre-room Mrs. Stewart (age 17), in a most lovely form, with her hair all about her eares, having her picture taking there. There was the King (age 34) and twenty more, I think, standing by all the while, and a lovely creature she in this dress seemed to be.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. Thence walked a while with Mr. Coventry (age 36) in the gallery, and first find that he is mighty cold in his present opinion of Mr. Peter Pett (age 53) for his flagging and doing things so lazily there, and he did also surprise me with a question why Deane (age 30) did not bring in their report of the timber of Clarendon. What he means thereby I know not, but at present put him off; nor do I know how to steer myself: but I must think of it, and advise with my Lord Sandwich (age 38).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. Thence to White Hall to the Tangier Committee, and there, above my expectation, got the business of our contract for the victualling carried for my people, viz., Alsopp, Lanyon, and Yeabsly; and by their promise I do thereby get £300 per annum to myself, which do overjoy me; and the matter is left to me to draw up. Mr. Lewes was in the gallery and is mightily amazed at it, and I believe Mr. Gauden will make some stir about it, for he wrote to Mr. Coventry (age 36) to-day about it to argue why he should for the King's convenience have it, but Mr. Coventry (age 36) most justly did argue freely for them that served cheapest.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jul 1664. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, among other things making a contract with Sir W. Warren for almost 1000 Gottenburg masts, the biggest that ever was made in the Navy, and wholly of my compassing and a good one I hope it is for the King (age 34). Dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 63), where I have not eat these many months. Sir G. Carteret (age 54), Mr. Coventry (age 36), Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and myself there only, and my Lady. A good venison pasty, and very merry, and pleasant I made myself with my Lady, and she as much to me. This morning to the office comes Nicholas Osborne, Mr. Gauden's clerke, to desire of me what piece of plate I would choose to have a £100, or thereabouts, bestowed upon me in, he having order to lay out so much; and, out of his freedom with me, do of himself come to make this question. I a great while urged my unwillingnesse to take any, not knowing how I could serve Mr. Gauden, but left it wholly to himself; so at noon I find brought home in fine leather cases, a pair of the noblest flaggons that ever I saw all the days of my life; whether I shall keepe them or no I cannot tell; for it is to oblige me to him in the business of the Tangier victualling, wherein I doubt I shall not; but glad I am to see that I shall be sure to get something on one side or other, have it which will: so, with a merry heart, I looked upon them, and locked them up.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where I took occasion to break the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber to Mr. Coventry (age 36) in the best manner I could. He professed to me, that, till, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) did speake of it at the table, after our officers were gone to survey it, he did not know that my Chancellor (age 55) had any thing to do with it; but now he says that he had been told by the Duke (age 30) that Sir G. Carteret (age 54) had spoke to him about it, and that he had told the Duke that, were he in my Chancellor's (age 55) case, if he were his father, he would rather fling away the gains of two or £3,000, than have it said that the timber, which should have been the King's, if it had continued the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55), was concealed by us in favour of my Chancellor (age 55); for, says he, he is a great man, and all such as he, and he himself particularly, have a great many enemies that would be glad of such an advantage against him. When I told him it was strange that Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir G. Carteret (age 54), that knew my Chancellor's (age 55) concernment therein, should not at first inform us, he answered me that for Sir J. Minnes (age 65), he is looked upon to be an old good companion, but by nobody at the other end of the towne as any man of business, and that my Chancellor (age 55), he dares say, never did tell him of it, only Sir G. Carteret (age 54), he do believe, must needs know it, for he and Sir J. Shaw are the greatest confidants he hath in the world. So for himself, he said, he would not mince the matter, but was resolved to do what was fit, and stand upon his owne legs therein, and that he would speak to the Duke, that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 54) might be appointed to attend my Chancellor (age 55) in it. All this disturbs me mightily. I know not what to say to it, nor how to carry myself therein; for a compliance will discommend me to Mr. Coventry (age 36), and a discompliance to my Chancellor (age 55). But I think to let it alone, or at least meddle in it as little more as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1664. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir W. Batten (age 63) by coach to St. James's, but there the Duke (age 30) being gone out we to my Lord Berkeley's (age 62) chamber, Mr. Coventry (age 36) being there, and among other things there met with a printed copy of the King's commission for the repair of Paul's, which is very large, and large power for collecting money, and recovering of all people that had bought or sold formerly any thing belonging to the Church. And here I find my Lord Mayor of the City (age 48) set in order before the Archbishopp (age 66) or any nobleman, though all the greatest officers of state are there. But yet I do not hear by my Lord Berkeley (age 62), who is one of them, that any thing is like to come of it.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1664. Thence to St. James's, but Mr. Coventry (age 36) being ill and in bed I did not stay, but to White Hall a little, walked up and down, and so home to fit papers against this afternoon, and after dinner to the 'Change [Map] a little, and then to White Hall, where anon the Duke of Yorke (age 30) came, and a Committee we had of Tangier, where I read over my rough draught of the contract for Tangier victualling, and acquainted them with the death of Mr. Alsopp, which Mr. Lanyon had told me this morning, which is a sad consideration to see how uncertain a thing our lives are, and how little to be presumed of in our greatest undertakings. The words of the contract approved of, and I home and there came Mr. Lanyon to me and brought my neighbour, Mr. Andrews, to me, whom he proposes for his partner in the room of Mr. Alsopp, and I like well enough of it. We read over the contract together, and discoursed it well over and so parted, and I am glad to see it once over in this condition again, for Mr. Lanyon and I had some discourse to-day about my share in it, and I hope if it goes on to have my first hopes of £300 per ann.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. Thence Mr. Coventry (age 36) and I to the Attorney's chamber at the Temple [Map], but not being there we parted, and I home, and there with great joy told T. Hater what I had done, with which the poor wretch was very glad, though his modesty would not suffer him to say much.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 55), and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 36), who appointed to meet me there, and with him to the Attorney General, and there with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 54) consulted of a new commission to be had through the Broad Seale to enable us to make this contract for Tangier victualling.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. Up, my mind very light from my last night's accounts, and so up and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65), Sir W. Batten (age 63), and Sir W. Pen (age 43) to St. James's, where among other things having prepared with some industry every man a part this morning and no sooner (for fear they should either consider of it or discourse of it one to another) Mr. Coventry (age 36) did move the Duke (age 30) and obtain it that one of the clerkes of the Clerke of the Acts should have an addition of £30 a year, as Mr. Turner hath, which I am glad of, that I may give T. Hater £20 and keep £10 towards a boy's keeping.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1664. Thence to White Hall to meet with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) about hiring some ground to make our mast docke at Deptford, Kent [Map], but being Council morning failed, but met with Mr. Coventry (age 36), and he and I discoursed of the likeliness of a Dutch warr, which I think is very likely now, for the Dutch do prepare a fleet to oppose us at Guinny, and he do think we shall, though neither of us have a mind to it, fall into it of a sudden, and yet the plague do increase among them, and is got into their fleet, and Opdam's own ship, which makes it strange they should be so high.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, and down by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to the rope yard, and there visited Mrs. Falconer, who tells me odd stories of how Sir W. Pen (age 43) was rewarded by her husband with a gold watch (but seems not certain of what Sir W. Batten (age 63) told me, of his daughter having a life given her in £80 per ann.) for his helping him to his place, and yet cost him £150 to Mr. Coventry (age 36) besides. He did much advise it seems Mr. Falconer not to marry again, expressing that he would have him make his daughter his heire, or words to that purpose, and that that makes him, she thinks, so cold in giving her any satisfaction, and that W. Boddam hath publickly said, since he came down thither to be Clerk of the Ropeyard of Woolwich that it hath this week cost him £100, and would be glad that it would cost him but half as much more for the place, and that he was better before than now, and that if he had been to have bought it, he would not have given so much for it. Now I am sure that Mr. Coventry (age 36) hath again and again said that he would take nothing, but would give all his part in it freely to him, that so the widow might have something. What the meaning of this is I know not, but that Sir W. Pen (age 43) do get something by it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1664. Up and abroad with Sir W. Batten (age 63), by coach to St. James's, where by the way he did tell me how Sir J. Minnes (age 65) would many times arrogate to himself the doing of that that all the Board have equal share in, and more that to himself which he hath had nothing to do in, and particularly the late paper given in by him to the Duke (age 30), the translation of a Dutch print concerning the quarrel between us and them, which he did give as his own when it was Sir Richard Ford's (age 50) wholly. Also he told me how Sir W. Pen (age 43) (it falling in our discourse touching Mrs. Falconer) was at first very great for Mr. Coventry (age 36) to bring him in guests, and that at high rates for places, and very open was he to me therein.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1664. Up, and through pain, to my great grief forced to wear my gowne to keep my legs warm. At the office all the morning, and there a high dispute against Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) about the breadth of canvas again, they being for the making of it narrower, I and Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65) for the keeping it broader.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1664. Up and to the office, where Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) and I sat all the morning hiring of ships to go to Guinny, where we believe the warr with Holland will first break out.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1664. By and by came Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so we met at the office, to hire ships for Guinny, and that done broke up. I to Sir W. Batten's (age 63), there to discourse with Mrs. Falconer, who hath been with Sir W. Pen (age 43) this evening, after Mr. Coventry (age 36) had promised her half what W. Bodham had given him for his place, but Sir W. Pen (age 43), though he knows that, and that Mr. Bodham hath said that his place hath cost him £100 and would £100 more, yet is he so high against the poor woman that he will not hear to give her a farthing, but it seems do listen after a lease where he expects Mr. Falconer hath put in his daughter's life, and he is afraid that that is not done, and did tell Mrs. Falconer that he would see it and know what is done therein in spite of her, when, poor wretch, she neither do nor can hinder him the knowing it. Mr. Coventry (age 36) knows of this business of the lease, and I believe do think of it as well as I But the poor woman is gone home without any hope, but only Mr. Coventry's (age 36) own nobleness. So I to my office and wrote many letters, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1664. So home to supper, prayers, and to bed. Mr. Coventry (age 36) told us the Duke (age 30) was gone ill of a fit of an ague to bed; so we sent this morning to see how he do1. 22nd. Up and abroad, doing very many errands to my great content which lay as burdens upon my mind and memory.

Note 1. Elizabeth Falkener, wife of John Falkener, announced to Pepys the death of "her dear and loving husband" in a letter dated July 19th, 1664 "begs interest that she may be in something considered by the person succeeding her husband in his employment, which has occasioned great expenses". ("Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1663-64, p. 646).

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1664. So home, and to bed. This day Mr. Coventry (age 36) did tell us how the Duke (age 30) did receive the Dutch Embassador the other day; by telling him that, whereas they think us in jest, he believes that the Prince (age 44) (Rupert) which goes in this fleete to Guinny will soon tell them that we are in earnest, and that he himself will do the like here, in the head of the fleete here at home, and that for the meschants, which he told the Duke there were in England, which did hope to do themselves good by the King's being at warr, says he, the English have ever united all this private difference to attend foraigne, and that Cromwell, notwithstanding the meschants in his time, which were the Cavaliers, did never find them interrupt him in his foraigne businesses, and that he did not doubt but to live to see the Dutch as fearfull of provoking the English, under the government of a King, as he remembers them to have been under that of a Coquin. I writ all this story to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) tonight into the Downes, it being very good and true, word for word from Mr. Coventry (age 36) to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Sep 1664. Up and to the office, where Mr. Coventry (age 36) very angry to see things go so coldly as they do, and I must needs say it makes me fearful every day of having some change of the office, and the truth is, I am of late a little guilty of being remiss myself of what I used to be, but I hope I shall come to my old pass again, my family being now settled again.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1664. Thence with him to St. James's, and so to White Hall to a Tangier Committee, and hope I have light of another opportunity of getting a little money if Sir W. Warren will use me kindly for deales to Tangier, and with the hopes went joyfully home, and there received Captain Tayler's money, received by Will to-day, out of which (as I said above) I shall get above £30. So with great comfort to bed, after supper. By discourse this day I have great hopes from Mr. Coventry (age 36) that the Dutch and we shall not fall out.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1664. To the Tangier Committee, and there I opposed Colonell Legg's estimate of supplies of provisions to be sent to Tangier till all were ashamed of it, and he fain after all his good husbandry and seeming ignorance and joy to have the King's money saved, yet afterwards he discovered all his design to be to keep the furnishing of these things to the officers of the Ordnance, but Mr. Coventry (age 36) seconded me, and between us we shall save the King (age 34) some money in the year. In one business of deales in £520, I offer to save £172, and yet purpose getting money, to myself by it.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1664. At noon, after dinner, to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to my office again, where busy, well employed till 10 at night, and so home to supper and to bed, my mind a little troubled that I have not of late kept up myself so briske in business; but mind my ease a little too much and my family upon the coming of Mercer and Tom. So that I have not kept company, nor appeared very active with Mr. Coventry (age 36), but now I resolve to settle to it again, not that I have idled all my time, but as to my ease something. So I have looked a little too much after Tangier and the Fishery, and that in the sight of Mr. Coventry (age 36), but I have good reason to love myself for serving Tangier, for it is one of the best flowers in my garden.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1664. So after some kind discourse we parted, and I home to dinner, and after dinner down to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I found Mr. Coventry (age 36), and there we made, an experiment of Holland's and our cordage, and ours outdid it a great deale, as my book of observations tells particularly. Here we were late, and so home together by water, and I to my office, where late, putting things in order. Mr. Bland came this night to me to take his leave of me, he going to Tangier, wherein I wish him good successe.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1664. Up and, it being rainy, in Sir W. Pen's (age 43) coach to St. James's, and there did our usual business with the Duke (age 30), and more and more preparations every day appear against the Dutch, and (which I must confess do a little move my envy) Sir W. Pen (age 43) do grow every day more and more regarded by the Duke (age 30)1, because of his service heretofore in the Dutch warr which I am confident is by some strong obligations he hath laid upon Mr. Coventry (age 36); for Mr. Coventry (age 36) must needs know that he is a man of very mean parts, but only a bred seaman.

Note 1. "The duke (age 30) had decided that the English fleet should consist of three squadrons to be commanded by himself, Prince Rupert (age 44), and Lord Sandwich (age 39), from which arrangement the two last, who were land admirals; had concluded that Penn would have no concern in this fleet. Neither the duke (age 30), Rupert (age 44), nor Sandwich had ever been engaged in an encounter of fleets.... Penn alone of the four was familiar with all these things. By the duke's unexpected announcement that he should take Penn with him into his own ship, Rupert and Sandwich at once discovered that they would be really and practically under Penn's command in everything"..

Pepy's Diary. 18 Oct 1664. Thence I with Mr. Gray in his coach to White Hall, but the King (age 34) and Duke being abroad, we returned to Somersett House [Map]. In discourse I find him a very worthy and studious gentleman in the business of trade, and among-other things he observed well to me, how it is not the greatest wits, but the steady man, that is a good merchant: he instanced in Ford and Cocke, the last of whom he values above all men as his oracle, as Mr. Coventry (age 36) do Mr. Jolliffe. He says that it is concluded among merchants, that where a trade hath once been and do decay, it never recovers again, and therefore that the manufacture of cloath of England will never come to esteem again; that, among other faults, Sir Richard Ford (age 50) cannot keepe a secret, and that it is so much the part of a merchant to be guilty of that fault that the Duke of Yoke is resolved to commit no more secrets to the merchants of the Royall Company; that Sir Ellis Layton is, for a speech of forty words, the wittiest man that ever he knew in his life, but longer he is nothing, his judgment being nothing at all, but his wit most absolute. At Somersett House [Map] he carried me in, and there I saw the Queene's (age 54) new rooms, which are most stately and nobly furnished; and there I saw her, and the Duke of Yorke (age 31) and Duchesse (age 27) were there. The Duke (age 31) espied me, and came to me, and talked with me a very great while about our contract this day with Sir W. Warren, and among other things did with some contempt ask whether we did except Polliards, which Sir W. Batten (age 63) did yesterday (in spite, as the Duke I believe by my Lord Barkely (age 62) do well enough know) among other things in writing propose.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1664. Very busy all the morning, at noon Creed to me and dined with me, and then he and I to White Hall, there to a Committee of Tangier, where it is worth remembering when Mr. Coventry (age 36) proposed the retrenching some of the charge of the horse, the first word asked by the Duke of Albemarle (age 55) was, "Let us see who commands them", there being three troops. One of them he calls to mind was by Sir Toby Bridges. "Oh!" says he, "there is a very good man. If you must reform1 two of them, be sure let him command the troop that is left".

Note 1. Reform, i.e. disband. See "Memoirs of Sir John Reresby", September 2nd, 1651. "A great many younger brothers and reformed officers of the King's army depended upon him for their meat and drink". So reformado, a discharged or disbanded officer.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1664. Waked very betimes and lay long awake, my mind being so full of business. Then up and to St. James's, where I find Mr. Coventry (age 36) full of business, packing up for his going to sea with the Duke (age 31). Walked with him, talking, to White Hall, where to the Duke's lodgings, who is gone thither to lodge lately. I appeared to the Duke (age 31), and thence Mr. Coventry (age 36) and I an hour in the Long gallery, talking about the management of our office, he tells me the weight of dispatch will lie chiefly on me, and told me freely his mind touching Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), the latter of whom, he most aptly said, was like a lapwing; that all he did was to keepe a flutter, to keepe others from the nest that they would find. He told me an old story of the former about the light-houses, how just before he had certified to the Duke (age 31) against the use of them, and what a burden they are to trade, and presently after, at his being at Harwich [Map], comes to desire that he might have the setting one up there, and gets the usefulness of it certified also by the Trinity House, Deptford [Map]. After long discoursing and considering all our stores and other things, as how the King (age 34) hath resolved upon Captain Taylor1 and Colonell Middleton, the first to be Commissioner for Harwich [Map] and the latter for Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], I away to the 'Change [Map], and there did very much business, so home to dinner, and Mr. Duke, our Secretary for the Fishery, dined with me.

Note 1. Coventry (age 36), writing to Secretary Bennet (age 46) (November 14th, 1664), refers to the objections made to Taylor, and adds: "Thinks the King (age 34) will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham, Kent [Map] on the Duchess of Albemarle's (age 45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them" ("Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1664-65, p. 68).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1664. Up and to the office, where by and by Mr. Coventry (age 36) come, and after doing a little business, took his leave of us, being to go to sea with the Duke (age 31) to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1664. Up, being frighted that Mr. Coventry (age 36) was come to towne and now at the office, so I run down without eating or drinking or washing to the office and it proved my Lord Berkeley (age 62).

Calendars. 13 Nov 1664. 93. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet (age 46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes, Isle of Wight by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King's pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal, Kent [Map] should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to 'take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (age 31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King's ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (age 49) and Sir William Berkeley to his own, Mennes (age 65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert's (age 44), Sir George Aiscue (age 48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King's declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1664. And so to the 'Change [Map], where mighty busy; and so home to dinner, where Mr. Creed and Moore: and after dinner I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 57), to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) there, and then to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), about Tangier; and then homeward to the Coffee-house to hear newes. And it seems the Dutch, as I afterwards found by Mr. Coventry's (age 36) letters, have stopped a ship of masts of Sir W. Warren's, coming for us in a Swede's ship, which they will not release upon Sir G. Downing's (age 39) claiming her: which appears as the first act of hostility; and is looked upon as so by Mr. Coventry (age 36).

Calendars. 14 Nov 1664. 104. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet. (age 46)] Believes nothing short of hanging will secure the pressed men. Lord St. John's news can hardly be believed, but the report will do no harm, for if the Dutch begin so roughly, seamen will be unwilling to go on merchantmen, and so cannot live without going on men-of-war. Hears that Taylor was objected to by the Committee [for Maritime Affairs] as a [Navy] Commissioner; he was chosen without contradiction by Sir John Mennes (age 65), Sir John Lawson (age 49), and Sir William Penn (age 43), and the warrants sent for him and others to the Attorney-General, as was usual in Lord Northumberland's time. Thinks the King will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham [Map], on the Duchess of Albemarle's (age 45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them. The weather is bad; wonders the Scotchmen have not got to the Hope. The new ship is nearly ready, but has no guns; some spare ones should be sent in some man-of-war. [Two pages.]

Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1664. Thence home well pleased with this accident, and so home to my office, where late, and then to supper and to bed. This day I had a letter from Mr. Coventry (age 36), that tells me that my Lord Brunkard (age 44) is to be one of our Commissioners, of which I am very glad, if any more must be.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1664. Thence by coach to Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 54), by his desire to have conferred with him, but he being in bed, I to White Hall to the Secretaries, and there wrote to Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so home by coach again, a fine clear moonshine night, but very cold.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1664. I to the 'Change [Map] and there staid long doing business, and this day for certain newes is come that Teddiman hath brought in eighteen or twenty Dutchmen, merchants, their Bourdeaux fleete, and two men of wary to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]1.

Note 1. Captain Sir Thomas Captain Sir Thomas Teddiman (or Tyddiman) had been appointed Rear-Admiral of Lord Sandwich's (age 39) squadron of the English fleet. In a letter from Sir William Coventry (age 36) to Secretary Bennet (age 46), dated November 13th, 1664, we read, "Rear Admiral Teddeman with four or five ships has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen will teach them their duty" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664.-65, p. 66).

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1664. Thence by their order to the Attorney General's about a new warrant for Captain Taylor which I shall carry for him to be Commissioner in spite of Sir W. Batten (age 63), and yet indeed it is not I, but the ability of the man, that makes the Duke (age 31) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) stand by their choice.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1664. Thence I to White Hall, and there saw Mr. Coventry (age 36) come to towne, and, with all my heart, am glad to see him, but could have no talke with him, he being but just come.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1664. Thence to the office, where we sat and where Mr. Coventry (age 36) came the first time after his return from sea, which I was glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1664. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 63) by coach to White Hall, where all of us with the Duke (age 31); Mr. Coventry (age 36) privately did tell me the reason of his advice against our pretences to the Prize Office (in his letter from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]), because he knew that the King (age 34) and the Duke (age 31) had resolved to put in some Parliament men that have deserved well, and that would needs be obliged, by putting them in.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1664. So by and by we parted, and Mr. Coventry (age 36) did privately tell me that he did this day take this occasion to mention the business to give the Duke an opportunity of speaking his mind to Sir W. Batten (age 63) in this business, of which I was heartily glad.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1664. But I was forced to rise, and up and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) to White Hall, and there we waited on the Duke (age 31). And among other things Mr. Coventry (age 36) took occasion to vindicate himself before the Duke and us, being all there, about the choosing of Taylor for Harwich [Map]. Upon which the Duke did clear him, and did tell us that he did expect, that, after he had named a man, none of us shall then oppose or find fault with the man; but if we had anything to say, we ought to say it before he had chose him. Sir G. Carteret (age 54) thought himself concerned, and endeavoured to clear himself: and by and by Sir W. Batten (age 63) did speak, knowing himself guilty, and did confess, that being pressed by the Council he did say what he did, that he was accounted a fanatique; but did not know that at that time he had been appointed by his Royal Highness. To which the Duke [replied] that it was impossible but he must know that he had appointed him; and so it did appear that the Duke did mean all this while Sir W. Batten (age 63).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1664. Thence to Sir W. Batten's (age 63), where Mr. Coventry (age 36) and all our families here, women and all, and Sir R. Ford (age 50) and his, and a great feast and good discourse and merry, there all the afternoon and evening till late, only stepped in to see my wife, then to my office to enter my day's work, and so home to bed, where my people and wife innocently at cards very merry, and I to bed, leaving them to their sport and blindman's buff.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1664. My people came to bed, after their sporting, at four o'clock in the morning; I up at seven, and to Deptford, Kent [Map] and Woolwich, Kent [Map] in a gally; the Duke (age 31) calling to me out of the barge in which the King (age 34) was with him going down the river, to know whither I was going. I told him to Woolwich, Kent [Map], but was troubled afterward I should say no farther, being in a gally, lest he think me too profuse in my journeys. Did several businesses, and then back again by two o'clock to Sir J. Minnes's (age 65) to dinner by appointment, where all yesterday's company but Mr. Coventry (age 36), who could not come. Here merry, and after an hour's chat I down to the office, where busy late, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jan 1665. Up, and by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 55), the streete being full of footballs, it being a great frost, and found him and Mr. Coventry (age 37) walking in St. James's Parke. I did my errand to him about the felling of the King's timber in the forests, and then to my Lord of Oxford (age 37), Justice in Eyre, for his consent thereto, for want whereof my Lord Privy Seale stops the whole business. I found him in his lodgings, in but an ordinary furnished house and roome where he was, but I find him to be a man of good discreet replys.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1665. At four o'clock with Sir W. Pen (age 43) in his coach to my Chancellor's (age 55), where by and by Mr. Coventry (age 37), Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir J. Lawson (age 50), Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and myself were called in to the King (age 34), there being several of the Privy Council, and my Chancellor (age 55) lying at length upon a couch (of the goute I suppose); and there Sir W. Pen (age 43) begun, and he had prepared heads in a paper, and spoke pretty well to purpose, but with so much leisure and gravity as was tiresome; besides, the things he said were but very poor to a man in his trade after a great consideration, but it was to purpose, indeed to dissuade the King (age 34) from letting these Turkey ships to go out: saying (in short) the King (age 34) having resolved to have 130 ships out by the spring, he must have above 20 of them merchantmen. Towards which, he in the whole River could find but 12 or 14, and of them the five ships taken up by these merchants were a part, and so could not be spared. That we should need 30,000 [sailors] to man these 130 ships, and of them in service we have not above 16,000; so we shall need 14,000 more. That these ships will with their convoys carry above 2,000 men, and those the best men that could be got; it being the men used to the Southward that are the best men for warr, though those bred in the North among the colliers are good for labour. That it will not be safe for the merchants, nor honourable for the King (age 34), to expose these rich ships with his convoy of six ships to go, it not being enough to secure them against the Dutch, who, without doubt, will have a great fleete in the Straights. This, Sir J. Lawson (age 50) enlarged upon. Sir G. Ascue (age 49) he chiefly spoke that the warr and trade could not be supported together, and, therefore, that trade must stand still to give way to them. This Mr. Coventry (age 37) seconded, and showed how the medium of the men the King (age 34) hath one year with another employed in his Navy since his coming, hath not been above 3,000 men, or at most 4,000 men; and now having occasion of 30,000, the remaining 26,000 must be found out of the trade of the nation. He showed how the cloaths, sending by these merchants to Turkey, are already bought and paid for to the workmen, and are as many as they would send these twelve months or more; so the poor do not suffer by their not going, but only the merchant, upon whose hands they lit dead; and so the inconvenience is the less. And yet for them he propounded, either the King (age 34) should, if his Treasure would suffer it, buy them, and showed the losse would not be so great to him: or, dispense with the Act of Navigation, and let them be carried out by strangers; and ending that he doubted not but when the merchants saw there was no remedy, they would and could find ways of sending them abroad to their profit. All ended with a conviction (unless future discourse with the merchants should alter it) that it was not fit for them to go out, though the ships be loaded. The King (age 34) in discourse did ask me two or three questions about my newes of Allen's loss in the Streights, but I said nothing as to the business, nor am not much sorry for it, unless the King (age 34) had spoke to me as he did to them, and then I could have said something to the purpose I think. So we withdrew, and the merchants were called in.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1665. So home by coach, with my Lord Barkeley (age 63), who, by his discourse, I find do look upon Mr. Coventry (age 37) as an enemy but yet professes great justice and pains. I at home after dinner to the office, and there sat all the afternoon and evening, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1665. Up and by coach to Westminster Hall [Map] and the Parliament House, and there spoke with Mr. Coventry (age 37) and others about business and so back to the 'Change [Map], where no news more than that the Dutch have, by consent of all the Provinces, voted no trade to be suffered for eighteen months, but that they apply themselves wholly to the warr1. And they say it is very true, but very strange, for we use to believe they cannot support themselves without trade. Thence home to dinner and then to the office, where all the afternoon, and at night till very late, and then home to supper and bed, having a great cold, got on Sunday last, by sitting too long with my head bare, for Mercer to comb my hair and wash my eares.

Note 1. This statement of a total prohibition of all trade, and for so long a period as eighteen months, by a government so essentially commercial as that of the United Provinces, seems extraordinary. The fact was, that when in the beginning of the year 1665 the States General saw that the war with England was become inevitable, they took several vigorous measures, and determined to equip a formidable fleet, and with a view to obtain a sufficient number of men to man it, prohibited all navigation, especially in the great and small fisheries as they were then called, and in the whale fishery. This measure appears to have resembled the embargoes so commonly resorted to in this country on similar occasions, rather than a total prohibition of trade. B.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1665. Up, and to my office, where all the morning upon advising again with some fishermen and the water bayliffe of the City, by Mr. Coventry's (age 37) direction, touching the protections which are desired for the fishermen upon the River, and I am glad of the occasion to make me understand something of it.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1665. Thence to walk alone a good while in St. James's Parke with Mr. Coventry (age 37), who I perceive is grown a little melancholy and displeased to see things go as they do so carelessly.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1665. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and to several places, and so home to dinner and to my office, where till 12 at night writing over a discourse of mine to Mr. Coventry (age 37) touching the Fishermen of the Thames upon a reference of the business by him to me concerning their being protected from presse. Then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1665. Thence I to Mr. Coventry's (age 37) chamber, and there privately an houre with him in discourse of the office, and did deliver to him many notes of things about which he is to get the Duke's command, before he goes, for the putting of business among us in better order. He did largely owne his dependance as to the office upon my care, and received very great expressions of love from him, and so parted with great satisfaction to myself.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1665. Thence I to Creed, and walked talking in the Park an hour with him, and then to my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) to dinner, and after dinner to Mr. Povy's (age 51), who hath been with the Duke of Yorke (age 31), and, by the mediation of Mr. Coventry (age 37), the Duke (age 31) told him that the business shall go on, and he will take off Brunkerd, and my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) is quiett too. But to see the mischief, I hear that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did not seem pleased, but said nothing when he heard me proposed to come in Povy's (age 51) room, which may learn me to distinguish between that man that is a man's true and false friend.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1665. Lord's Day. Mr. Povy (age 51) sent his coach for me betimes, and I to him, and there to our great trouble do find that my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) do appear for Mr. Brunkard (age 38)1 to be Paymaster upon Povy's (age 51) going out, by a former promise of the Duke's (age 31), and offering to give as much as any for it. This put us all into a great dumpe, and so we went to Creed's new lodging in the Mewes, and there we found Creed with his parrot upon his shoulder, which struck Mr. Povy (age 51) coming by just by the eye, very deep, which, had it hit his eye, had put it out. This a while troubled us, but not proving very bad, we to our business consulting what to do; at last resolved, and I to Mr. Coventry (age 37), and there had his most friendly and ingenuous advice, advising me not to decline the thing, it being that that will bring me to be known to great persons, while now I am buried among three or four of us, says he, in the Navy; but do not make a declared opposition to my Lord FitzHarding (age 35).

Note 1. Henry Brouncker (age 38), younger brother of William, Viscount Brouncker, President of the Royal Society. He was Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York (age 31), and succeeded to the office of Cofferer on the death of William Ashburnham in 1671. His character was bad, and his conduct in the sea-fight of 1665 was impugned. He was expelled from the House of Commons, but succeeded to his brother's title in 1684. He died in January, 1687.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1665. So to Mr. Coventry (age 37), whose profession of love and esteem for me to myself was so large and free that I never could expect or wish for more, nor could have it from any man in England, that I should value it more.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1665. (2) the like from Mr. Coventry (age 37) most heartily and affectionately.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1665. Up and to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), where he shewed me Mr. Coventry's (age 37) letters, how three Dutch privateers are taken, in one whereof Everson's' son is captaine. But they have killed poor Captaine Golding in The Diamond. Two of them, one of 32 and the other of 20 odd guns, did stand stoutly up against her, which hath 46, and the Yarmouth that hath 52 guns, and as many more men as they. So that they did more than we could expect, not yielding till many of their men were killed. And Everson, when he was brought before the Duke of Yorke (age 31), and was observed to be shot through the hat, answered, that he wished it had gone through his head, rather than been taken. One thing more is written: that two of our ships the other day appearing upon the coast of Holland, they presently fired their beacons round the country to give notice. And newes is brought the King (age 34), that the Dutch Smyrna fleete is seen upon the back of Scotland; and thereupon the King (age 34) hath wrote to the Duke (age 31), that he do appoint a fleete to go to the Northward to try to meet them coming home round: which God send!

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1665. At noon dined at home, and then to the office again very busy till very late, and so home to supper and to bed. My wife making great preparation to go to Court to Chappell to-morrow. This day I have newes from Mr. Coventry (age 37) that the fleete is sailed yesterday from Harwich [Map] to the coast of Holland to see what the Dutch will do. God go along with them!

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1665. All the morning busy at the office. In the afternoon to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and there got my Lord Treasurer (age 58) to sign the warrant for my striking of tallys, and so doing many jobbs in my way home, and there late writeing letters, being troubled in my mind to hear that Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) do take notice that I am now-a-days much from the office upon no office business, which vexes me, and will make me mind my business the better, I hope in God; but what troubles me more is, that I do omit to write, as I should do, to Mr. Coventry (age 37), which I must not do, though this night I minded it so little as to sleep in the middle of my letter to him, and committed forty blotts and blurrs in my letter to him, but of this I hope never more to be guilty, if I have not already given him sufficient offence. So, late home, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1665. Up, and to White Hall, where the Committee for Tangier met, and there, though the case as to the merit of it was most plain and most of the company favourable to our business, yet it was with much ado that I got the business not carried fully against us, but put off to another day, my Lord Arlington (age 47) being the great man in it, and I was sorry to be found arguing so greatly against him. The business I believe will in the end be carried against us, and the whole business fall; I must therefore endeavour the most I can to get money another way. It vexed me to see Creed so hot against it, but I cannot much blame him, having never declared to him my being concerned in it. But that that troubles me most is my Lord Arlington (age 47) calls to me privately and asks me whether I had ever said to any body that I desired to leave this employment, having not time to look after it. I told him, No, for that the thing being settled it will not require much time to look after it. He told me then he would do me right to the King (age 34), for he had been told so, which I desired him to do, and by and by he called me to him again and asked me whether I had no friend about the Duke, asking me (I making a stand) whether Mr. Coventry (age 37) was not my friend. I told him I had received many friendships from him. He then advised me to procure that the Duke would in his next letter write to him to continue me in my place and remove any obstruction; which I told him I would, and thanked him.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1665. Up, and to my office, and to Westminster, doing business till noon, and then to the 'Change [Map], where great the noise and trouble of having our Hambrough ships lost; and that very much placed upon Mr. Coventry's (age 37) forgetting to give notice to them of the going away of our fleete from the coast of Holland. But all without reason, for he did; but the merchants not being ready, staid longer than the time ordered for the convoy to stay, which was ten days.

Battle of Lowestoft

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1665. At home to dinner, and all the afternoon at the office, where late at night, and much business done, then home to supper and to bed. All this day by all people upon the River, and almost every where else hereabout were heard the guns, our two fleets for certain being engaged; which was confirmed by letters from Harwich [Map], but nothing particular: and all our hearts full of concernment for the Duke (age 31), and I particularly for my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and Mr. Coventry (age 37) after his Royall Highnesse.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1665. Thence home to dinner, after 'Change [Map], where great talke of the Dutch being fled and we in pursuit of them, and that our ship Charity1 is lost upon our Captain's, Wilkinson, and Lieutenant's yielding, but of this there is no certainty, save the report of some of the sicke men of the Charity, turned adrift in a boat out of the Charity and taken up and brought on shore yesterday to Sole Bay [Map], and the newes hereof brought by Sir Henry Felton.

Note 1. Sir William Coventry (age 37) and Sir William Pen (age 44) to the Navy Commissioners, June 4th: "Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m. Chased them all the rest of the day and night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (deceased), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Captain Kirby are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 50) wounded" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 406).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) by appointment of Sir Thomas Ingram's (age 50), to meet the Goldsmiths; where I met with the great news at last newly come, brought by Bab May (age 37) from the Duke of Yorke (age 31), that we have totally routed the Dutch; that the Duke (age 31) himself, the Prince (age 45), my Lord Sandwich (age 39), and Mr. Coventry (age 37) are all well: which did put me into such joy, that I forgot almost all other thoughts. The particulars I shall set down by and by.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1665. Strange to hear how the Dutch do relate, as the Duke says, that they are the conquerors; and bonefires are made in Dunkirke in their behalf; though a clearer victory can never be expected. Mr. Coventry (age 37) thinks they cannot have lost less than 6000 men, and we not dead above 200, and wounded about 400; in all about 600.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. After the Committee was up, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) did take me aside, and we walked an hour alone together in the robe-chamber, the door shut, telling me how much the Duke (age 31) and Mr. Coventry (age 37) did, both in the fleete and here, make of him, and that in some opposition to the Prince (age 45); and as a more private message, he told me that he hath been with them both when they have made sport of the Prince (age 45) and laughed at him: yet that all the discourse of the towne, and the printed relation, should not give him one word of honour my Lord thinks mighty strange; he assuring me, that though by accident the Prince (age 45) was in the van the beginning of the fight for the first pass, yet all the rest of the day my Lord was in the van, and continued so. That notwithstanding all this noise of the Prince (age 45), he had hardly a shot in his side nor a man killed, whereas he hath above 30 in her hull, and not one mast whole nor yard; but the most battered ship of the fleet, and lost most men, saving Captain Smith of "The Mary". That the most the Duke (age 31) did was almost out of gun-shot; but that, indeed, the Duke (age 31) did come up to my Lord's rescue after he had a great while fought with four of them.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1665. Home to dinner, and Creed with me. Then he and I down to Deptford, Kent [Map], did some business, and back again at night. He home, and I to my office, and so to supper and to bed. This morning I had great discourse with my Lord Barkeley (age 63) about Mr. Hater, towards whom from a great passion reproaching him with being a fanatique and dangerous for me to keepe, I did bring him to be mighty calme and to ask me pardons for what he had thought of him and to desire me to ask his pardon of Hater himself for the ill words he did give him the other day alone at White Hall (which was, that he had always thought him a man that was no good friend to the King (age 35), but did never think it would breake out in a thing of this nature), and did advise him to declare his innocence to the Council and pray for his examination and vindication. Of which I shall consider and say no more, but remember one compliment that in great kindness to me he did give me, extolling my care and diligence, that he did love me heartily for my owne sake, and more that he did will me whatsoever I thought for Mr. Coventry's (age 37) sake, for though the world did think them enemies, and to have an ill aspect, one to another, yet he did love him with all his heart, which was a strange manner of noble compliment, confessing his owning me as a confidant and favourite of Mr. Coventry's (age 37).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Thence with great joy to the Cocke-pitt [Map]; where the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), like a man out of himself with content, new-told me all; and by and by comes a letter from Mr. Coventry's (age 37) own hand to him, which he never opened (which was a strange thing), but did give it me to open and read, and consider what was fit for our office to do in it, and leave the letter with Sir W. Clerke; which upon such a time and occasion was a strange piece of indifference, hardly pardonable. I copied out the letter, and did also take minutes out of Sir W. Clerke's other letters; and the sum of the newes is:

Calendars. 13 Jun 1665. Royal Charles. Southwold Bay [Map]. 7. Sir William Coventry (age 37) to Lord Arlington (age 47). The sea there causing delay in refitting the ships, some are to be sent to Ousley Bay, the Rolling Grounds, Harwich [Map], and the buoy of the Nore, to be in smoother water. The Duke (age 31) is sailing for London. Capt. Holmes asked to be rear-admiral of the white squadron, in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke (age 31) gave the place to Capt. Harman (age 40), on which Holmes delivered up his commission, which the Duke (age 31) received, and put Capt. Langhorne in his stead. [2 pages.]

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1665. By and by saw Mr. Coventry (age 37), which rejoiced my very heart. Anon he and I, from all the rest of the company, walked into the Matted Gallery; where after many expressions of love, we fell to talk of business. Among other things, how my Lord Sandwich (age 39), both in his counsells and personal service, hath done most honourably and serviceably. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) is come to Greenwich, Kent [Map]; but his wound in his knee yet very bad. Jonas Poole, in the Vantguard, did basely, so as to be, or will be, turned out of his ship. Captain Holmes (age 43)1 expecting upon Sansum's death to be made Rear-admirall to the Prince (age 45) (but Harman (age 40)2 is put in) hath delivered up to the Duke (age 31) his commission, which the Duke (age 31) took and tore. He, it seems, had bid the Prince, who first told him of Holmes's intention, that he should dissuade him from it; for that he was resolved to take it if he offered it. Yet Holmes would do it, like a rash, proud coxcombe. But he is rich, and hath, it seems, sought an occasion of leaving the service. Several of our captains have done ill. The great ships are the ships do the business, they quite deadening the enemy. They run away upon sight of "The Prince3".

Note 1. Captain Robert Holmes (age 43) (afterwards knighted). Sir William Coventry (age 37), in a letter to Lord Arlington (age 47) (dated from "The Royal Charles", Southwold Bay, June 13th), writes: "Capt. Holmes asked to be rear admiral of the white squadron in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke gave the place to Captain Harman (age 40), on which he delivered up his commission, which the Duke received, and put Captain Langhorne in his stead" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 423).

Note 2. John Harman (age 40), afterwards knighted. He had served with great reputation in several naval fights, and was desperately wounded in 1673, while.

Note 3. "The Prince" was Lord Sandwich's (age 39) ship; the captain was Roger Cuttance. It was put up at Chatham, Kent [Map] for repair at this date.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. How poorly Sir John Lawson (age 50) performed, notwithstanding all that was said of him; and how his ship turned out of the way, while Sir J. Lawson (age 50) himself was upon the deck, to the endangering of the whole fleete. It therefore troubles my Lord that Mr. Coventry (age 37) should not mention a word of him in his relation. I did, in answer, offer that I was sure the relation was not compiled by Mr. Coventry (age 37), but by L'Estrange, out of several letters, as I could witness; and that Mr. Coventry's (age 37) letter that he did give the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) did give him as much right as the Prince (age 45), for I myself read it first and then copied it out, which I promised to show my Lord, with which he was somewhat satisfied. From that discourse my Lord did begin to tell me how much he was concerned to dispose of his children, and would have my advice and help; and propounded to match my Lady Jemimah to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son, which I approved of, and did undertake the speaking with him about it as from myself, which my Lord liked. So parted, with my head full of care about this business.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. Midsummer-Day. Up very betimes, by six, and at Dr. Clerke's at Westminster by 7 of the clock, having over night by a note acquainted him with my intention of coming, and there I, in the best manner I could, broke my errand about a match between Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son and my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) eldest daughter, which he (as I knew he would) took with great content: and we both agreed that my Lord and he, being both men relating to the sea, under a kind aspect of His Majesty, already good friends, and both virtuous and good familys, their allyance might be of good use to us; and he did undertake to find out Sir George (age 55) this morning, and put the business in execution. So being both well pleased with the proposition, I saw his niece there and made her sing me two or three songs very prettily, and so home to the office, where to my great trouble I found Mr. Coventry (age 37) and the board met before I come. I excused my late coming by having been on the River about office business.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. Thence I to Sir G. Carteret (age 55) at his chamber, and in the best manner I could, and most obligingly, moved the business: he received it with great respect and content, and thanks to me, and promised that he would do what he could possibly for his son, to render him fit for my Lord's daughter, and shewed great kindness to me, and sense of my kindness to him herein. Sir William Pen (age 44) told me this day that Mr. Coventry (age 37) is to be sworn a Privy Counsellor, at which my soul is glad.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1665. Being at White Hall, I visited Mr. Coventry (age 37), who, among other talk, entered about the great question now in the House about the Duke's (age 31) going to sea again; about which the whole House is divided. He did concur with me that, for the Duke's (age 31) honour and safety, it were best, after so great a service and victory and danger, not to go again; and, above all, that the life of the Duke (age 31) cannot but be a security to the Crowne; if he were away, it being more easy to attempt anything upon the King (age 35); but how the fleete will be governed without him, the Prince (age 45) [Rupert] being a man of no government and severe in council, that no ordinary man can offer any advice against his; saying truly that it had been better he had gone to Guinny, and that were he away, it were easy to say how matters might be ordered, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) being a man of temper and judgment as much as any man he ever knew, and that upon good observation he said this, and that his temper must correct the Prince's. But I perceive he is much troubled what will be the event of the question. And so I left him.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1665. There after attending the Duke (age 31) to discourse of the navy. We did not kiss his hand, nor do I think, for all their pretence, of going away to-morrow. Yet I believe they will not go for good and all, but I did take my leave of Sir William Coventry (age 37), who, it seems, was knighted and sworn a Privy-Counsellor two days since; who with his old kindness treated me, and I believe I shall ever find (him) a noble friend.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1665. Thence to Creed, and with him up and down about Tangier business, to no purpose. Took leave again of Mr. Coventry (age 37); though I hope the Duke (age 31) has not gone to stay, and so do others too.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. Thence to newes, wherein I find that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do now take all my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) business to heart, and makes it the same with his owne. He tells me how at Chatham, Kent [Map] it was proposed to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) to be joined with the Prince (age 45) in the command of the fleete, which he was most willing to; but when it come to the Prince (age 45), he was quite against it; saying, there could be no government, but that it would be better to have two fleetes, and neither under the command of the other, which he would not agree to. So the King (age 35) was not pleased; but, without any unkindnesse, did order the fleete to be ordered as above, as to the Admirals and commands: so the Prince (age 45) is come up; and Sir G. Carteret (age 55), I remember, had this word thence, that, says he, by this means, though the King (age 35) told him that it would be but for this expedition, yet I believe we shall keepe him out for altogether. He tells me how my Lord was much troubled at Sir W. Pen's (age 44) being ordered forth (as it seems he is, to go to Solebay [Map], and with the best fleete he can, to go forth), and no notice taken of my Lord Sandwich (age 39) going after him, and having the command over him. But after some discourse Mr. Coventry (age 37) did satisfy, as he says, my Lord, so as they parted friends both in that point and upon the other wherein I know my Lord was troubled, and which Mr. Coventry (age 37) did speak to him of first thinking that my Lord might justly take offence at, his not being mentioned in the relation of the fight in the news book, and did clear all to my Lord how little he was concerned in it, and therewith my Lord also satisfied, which I am mightily glad of, because I should take it a very great misfortune to me to have them two to differ above all the persons in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. So to the office, where all the morning till noon, and so to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner. In the afternoon I abroad to St. James's, and there with Mr. Coventry (age 37) a good while, and understand how matters are ordered in the fleete: that is, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) goes Admiral; under him Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and Sir T. Teddiman; Vice-Admiral, Sir W. Pen (age 44); and under him Sir W. Barkeley (age 26), and Sir Jos. Jordan: Reere-Admiral, Sir Thomas Allen (age 32); and under him Sir Christopher Mings (age 39)1, and Captain Harman (age 40). We talked in general of business of the Navy, among others how he had lately spoken to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and professed great resolution of friendship with him and reconciliation, and resolves to make it good as well as he can, though it troubles him, he tells me, that something will come before him wherein he must give him offence, but I do find upon the whole that Mr. Coventry (age 37) do not listen to these complaints of money with the readiness and resolvedness to remedy that he used to do, and I think if he begins to draw in it is high time for me to do so too.

Note 1. The son of a shoemaker, bred to the sea-service; he rose to the rank of an admiral, and was killed in the fight with the Dutch, June, 1666. B. See post June 10th, 1666.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Jul 1665. To London, to Sir William Coventry (age 37); and so to Sion [Map], where his Majesty (age 35) sat at Council during the contagion: when business was over, I viewed that seat belonging to the Earl of Northumberland, built out of an old nunnery, of stone, and fair enough, but more celebrated for the garden than it deserves; yet there is excellent wall-fruit, and a pretty fountain; nothing else extraordinary.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jul 1665. I went to Hampton-Court [Map], where now the whole Court was, to solicit for money; to carry intercepted letters; confer again with Sir William Coventry (age 37), the Duke's secretary; and so home, having dined with Mr. Secretary Morice (age 37).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1665. There I met with Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and by and by was heard by my Chancellor (age 56) and Treasurer about our Tangier money, and my Lord Treasurer (age 58) had ordered me to forbear meddling with the £15,000 he offered me the other day, but, upon opening the case to them, they did offer it again, and so I think I shall have it, but my Lord General must give his consent in it, this money having been promised to him, and he very angry at the proposal. Here though I have not been in many years, yet I lacke time to stay, besides that it is, I perceive, an unpleasing thing to be at Court, everybody being fearful one of another, and all so sad, enquiring after the plague, so that I stole away by my horse to Kingston [Map], and there with trouble was forced, to press two sturdy rogues to carry me to London, and met at the waterside with Mr. Charnocke, Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 55) clerke, who had been in company and was quite foxed. I took him with me in my boat, and so away to Richmond, and there, by night, walked with him to Moreclacke, a very pretty walk, and there staid a good while, now and then talking and sporting with Nan the servant, who says she is a seaman's wife, and at last bade good night.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1665. I eat a bit (my Baroness Carteret (age 63) being the most kind lady in the world), and so took boat, and a fresh boat at the Tower, and so up the river, against tide all the way, I having lost it by staying prating to and with my Lady, and, from before one, made it seven ere we got to Hampton Court [Map]; and when I come there all business was over, saving my finding Mr. Coventry (age 37) at his chamber, and with him a good while about several businesses at his chamber, and so took leave, and away to my boat, and all night upon the water, staying a while with Nan at Moreclacke, very much pleased and merry with her, and so on homeward, and come home by two o'clock, shooting the bridge at that time of night, and so to bed, where I find Will is not, he staying at Woolwich, Kent [Map] to come with my wife to dinner tomorrow to my Baroness Carteret's (age 63).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1665. Lord's Day. Up very betimes, called by Mr. Cutler, by appointment, and with him in his coach and four horses over London Bridge [Map] to Kingston [Map], a very pleasant journey, and at Hampton Court [Map] by nine o'clock, and in our way very good and various discourse, as he is a man, that though I think he be a knave, as the world thinks him, yet a man of great experience and worthy to be heard discourse. When we come there, we to Sir W. Coventry's (age 37) chamber, and there discoursed long with him, he and I alone, the others being gone away, and so walked together through the garden to the house, where we parted, I observing with a little trouble that he is too great now to expect too much familiarity with, and I find he do not mind me as he used to do, but when I reflect upon him and his business I cannot think much of it, for I do not observe anything but the same great kindness from him.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. So dispatched all my business, having assurance of continuance of all hearty love from Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and so we staid and saw the King (age 35) and Queene (age 55) set out toward Salisbury, and after them the Duke (age 31) and Duchesse (age 28), whose hands I did kiss. And it was the first time I did ever, or did see any body else, kiss her hand, and it was a most fine white and fat hand. But it was pretty to see the young pretty ladies dressed like men, in velvet coats, caps with ribbands, and with laced bands, just like men. Only the Duchesse (age 28) herself it did not become.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1665. Slept till 8 o'clock, and then up and met with letters from the King (age 35) and Lord Arlington (age 47), for the removal of our office to Greenwich, Kent [Map]. I also wrote letters, and made myself ready to go to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), at Windsor; and having borrowed a horse of Mr. Blackbrough, sent him to wait for me at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) door: when, on a sudden, a letter comes to us from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to tell us that the fleete is all come back to Solebay [Map], and are presently to be dispatched back again. Whereupon I presently by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to know what news; and there I saw a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and also from Sir W. Coventry (age 37) and Teddiman; how my Lord having commanded Teddiman with twenty-two ships1.

Note 1. A news letter of August 19th (Salisbury), gives the following account of this affair:-"The Earl of Sandwich being on the Norway coast, ordered Sir Thomas Teddeman with 20 ships to attack 50 Dutch merchant ships in Bergen harbour; six convoyers had so placed themselves that only four or five of the ships could be reached at once. The Governor of Bergen fired on our ships, and placed 100 pieces of ordnance and two regiments of foot on the rocks to attack them, but they got clear without the loss of a ship, only 500 men killed or wounded, five or six captains among them. The fleet has gone to Sole Bay to repair losses and be ready to encounter the Dutch fleet, which is gone northward" (Calendar of State Papers, 1664-65, pp. 526, 527). Medals were struck in Holland, the inscription in Dutch on one of these is thus translated: "Thus we arrest the pride of the English, who extend their piracy even against their friends, and who insulting the forts of Norway, violate the rights of the harbours of King Frederick; but, for the reward of their audacity, see their vessels destroyed by the balls of the Dutch" (Hawkins's "Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland", ed. Franks and Grueber, 1885, vol. i., p. 508). Sir Gilbert Talbot's "True Narrative of the Earl of Sandwich's Attempt upon Bergen with the English Fleet on the 3rd of August, 1665, and the Cause of his Miscarriage thereupon", is in the British Museum (Harl. MS., No. 6859). It is printed in "Archaeologia", vol. xxii., p. 33. The Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map] also gave an account of the action in a letter to his mother (Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth edition, vol. iv., p. 611). Sir John Denham (age 50), in his "Advice to a Painter", gives a long satirical account of the affair. A coloured drawing of the attack upon Bergen, on vellum, showing the range of the ships engaged, is in the British Museum. Shortly after the Bergen affair forty of the Dutch merchant vessels, on their way to Holland, fell into the hands of the English, and in Penn's "Memorials of Sir William Pen (age 44)", vol. ii., p. 364, is a list of the prizes taken on the 3rd and 4th September. The troubles connected with these prizes and the disgrace into which Lord Sandwich (age 40) fell are fully set forth in subsequent pages of the Diary. Evelyn writes in his Diary (November 27th, 1665): "There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders who were at ye taking of ye East India prizes to break bulk and take to themselves jewels, silkes, &c., tho' I believe some whom I could name fill'd their pockets, my Lo. Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossess'd ye Lo. Generall (Duke of Albemarle (age 56)), for he spake to me of it with much zeale and concerne, and I believe laid load enough on Lo. Sandwich at Oxford". (of which but fifteen could get thither, and of those fifteen but eight or nine could come up to play) to go to Bergen; where, after several messages to and fro from the Governor of the Castle, urging that Teddiman ought not to come thither with more than five ships, and desiring time to think of it, all the while he suffering the Dutch ships to land their guns to their best advantage; Teddiman on the second pretence, began to play at the Dutch ships, (wherof ten East India-men,) and in three hours' time (the town and castle, without any provocation, playing on our ships,) they did cut all our cables, so as the wind being off the land, did force us to go out, and rendered our fire-ships useless; without doing any thing, but what hurt of course our guns must have done them: we having lost five commanders, besides Mr. Edward Montagu, and Mr. Windham. This Mr. Windham had entered into a formal engagement with the Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map], "not without ceremonies of religion, that if either of them died, he should appear, and give the other notice of the future state, if there was any". He was probably one of the brothers of Sir William Wyndham, Bart. See Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth. edition, vol. iv., p. 615. B.

1665 Battle of Vågen

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1665. But before I come out there happened newes to come to the by an expresse from Mr. Coventry (age 37), telling me the most happy news of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) meeting with part of the Dutch; his taking two of their East India ships, and six or seven others, and very good prizes and that he is in search of the rest of the fleet, which he hopes to find upon the Wellbancke, with the loss only of the Hector, poor Captain Cuttle. This newes do so overjoy me that I know not what to say enough to express it, but the better to do it I did walk to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there sending away Mr. Andrews (age 33), I to Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and his mistress, and Sir J. Minnes (age 66). Where we supped (there was also Sir W. Doyly (age 51) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44)); but the receipt of this newes did put us all into such an extacy of joy, that it inspired into Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44) such a spirit of mirth, that in all my life I never met with so merry a two hours as our company this night was. Among other humours, Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) repeating of some verses made up of nothing but the various acceptations of may and can, and doing it so aptly upon occasion of something of that nature, and so fast, did make us all die almost with laughing, and did so stop the mouth of Sir J. Minnes (age 66) in the middle of all his mirth (and in a thing agreeing with his own manner of genius), that I never saw any man so out-done in all my life; and Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) mirth too to see himself out-done, was the crown of all our mirth. In this humour we sat till about ten at night, and so my Lord (age 45) and his mistress home, and we to bed, it being one of the times of my life wherein I was the fullest of true sense of joy.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1665. By and by my Lord took me aside to discourse of his private matters, who was very free with me touching the ill condition of the fleete that it hath been in, and the good fortune that he hath had, and nothing else that these prizes are to be imputed to. He also talked with me about Mr. Coventry's (age 37) dealing with him in sending Sir W. Pen (age 44) away before him, which was not fair nor kind; but that he hath mastered and cajoled Sir W. Pen (age 44), that he hath been able to do, nothing in the fleete, but been obedient to him; but withal tells me he is a man that is but of very mean parts, and a fellow not to be lived with, so false and base he is; which I know well enough to be very true, and did, as I had formerly done, give my Lord my knowledge of him.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1665. Thence in his coach to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there to my office, all the way having fine discourse of trees and the nature of vegetables. And so to write letters, I very late to Sir W. Coventry (age 37) of great concernment, and so to my last night's lodging, but my wife is gone home to Woolwich, Kent [Map]. The Bill, blessed be God! is less this week by 740 of what it was the last week. Being come to my lodging I got something to eat, having eat little all the day, and so to bed, having this night renewed my promises of observing my vowes as I used to do; for I find that, since I left them off, my mind is run a'wool-gathering and my business neglected.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1665. There after dinner an houre or two, and so to the office, where ended my business with the Captains; and I think of twenty-two ships we shall make shift to get out seven. (God helpe us! men being sick, or provisions lacking.) And so to write letters to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55), Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to Court about the last six months' accounts, and sent away by an express to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1665. But my heart and head to-night is full of the Victualling business, being overjoyed and proud at my success in my proposal about it, it being read before the King (age 35), Duke (age 32), and the Caball with complete applause and satisfaction. This Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and Sir W. Coventry (age 37) both writ me, besides Sir W. Coventry's (age 37) letter to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which I read yesterday, and I hope to find my profit in it also. So late home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1665. After dinner I did give them my accounts and letters to write against I went to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) this evening, which I did; and among other things, spoke to him for my wife's brother, Balty (age 25), to be of his guard, which he kindly answered that he should. My business of the Victualling goes on as I would have it; and now my head is full how to make some profit of it to myself or people. To that end, when I came home, I wrote a letter to Mr. Coventry (age 37), offering myself to be the Surveyor Generall, and am apt to think he will assist me in it, but I do not set my heart much on it, though it would be a good helpe. So back to my office, and there till past one before I could get all these letters and papers copied out, which vexed me, but so sent them away without hopes of saving the post, and so to my lodging to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1665. Up, and had my last night's letters brought back to me, which troubles me, because of my accounts, lest they should be asked for before they come, which I abhorr, being more ready to give than they can be to demand them: so I sent away an expresse to Oxford with them, and another to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], with a copy of my letter to Mr. Coventry (age 37) about my victualling business, for fear he should be gone from Oxford, as he intended, thither. So busy all the morning and at noon to Cocke (age 48), and dined there. He and I alone, vexed that we are not rid of all our trouble about our goods, but it is almost over, and in the afternoon to my lodging, and there spent the whole afternoon and evening with Mr. Hater, discoursing of the business of the office, where he tells me that among others Thomas Willson do now and then seem to hint that I do take too much business upon me, more than I can do, and that therefore some do lie undone. This I confess to my trouble is true, but it arises from my being forced to take so much on me, more than is my proper task to undertake. But for this at last I did advise to him to take another clerk if he thinks fit, I will take care to have him paid. I discoursed also much with him about persons fit to be put into the victualling business, and such as I could spare something out of their salaries for them, but without trouble I cannot, I see, well do it, because Thomas Willson must have the refusal of the best place which is London of £200 per annum, which I did intend for Tooker, and to get £50 out of it as a help to Mr. Hater. How[ever], I will try to do something of this kind for them. Having done discourse with him late, I to enter my Tangier accounts fair, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. By and by comes down my Lord, and then he and I an houre together alone upon private discourse. He tells me that Mr. Coventry (age 37) and he are not reconciled, but declared enemies: the only occasion of it being, he tells me, his ill usage from him about the first fight, wherein he had no right done him, which, methinks, is a poor occasion, for, in my conscience, that was no design of Coventry's. But, however, when I asked my Lord whether it were not best, though with some condescension, to be friends with him, he told me it was not possible, and so I stopped. He tells me, as very private, that there are great factions at the Court between the King's party and the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and that the King (age 35), which is a strange difficulty, do favour my Lord in opposition to the Duke's party; that my Chancellor (age 56), being, to be sure, the patron of the Duke's, it is a mystery whence it should be that Mr. Coventry (age 37) is looked upon by him [Clarendon] as an enemy to him; that if he had a mind himself to be out of this employment, as Mr. Coventry (age 37), he believes, wishes, and himself and I do incline to wish it also, in many respects, yet he believes he shall not be able, because of the King (age 35), who will keepe him in on purpose, in opposition to the other party; that Prince Rupert (age 45) and he are all possible friends in the world; that Coventry (age 37) hath aggravated this business of the prizes, though never so great plundering in the world as while the Duke and he were at sea; and in Sir John Lawson's time he could take and pillage, and then sink a whole ship in the Streights, and Coventry (age 37) say nothing to it; that my Lord Arlington (age 47) is his fast friend; that the Chancellor (age 56) is cold to him, and though I told him that I and the world do take my Chancellor (age 56), in his speech the other day, to have said as much as could be wished, yet he thinks he did not.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. That my Chancellor (age 56) do from hence begin to be cold to him, because of his seeing him and Arlington (age 47) so great: that nothing at Court is minded but faction and pleasure, and nothing intended of general good to the Kingdom by anybody heartily; so that he believes with me, in a little time confusion will certainly come over all the nation. He told me how a design was carried on a while ago, for the Duke of Yorke (age 32) to raise an army in the North, and to be the Generall of it, and all this without the knowledge or advice of the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which when he come to know, he was so vexed, they were fain to let it fall to content him: that his matching with the family of Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do make the difference greater between Coventry (age 37) and him, they being enemies; that the Chancellor (age 56) did, as every body else, speak well of me the other day, but yet was, at the Committee for Tangier, angry that I should offer to suffer a bill of exchange to be protested.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], and thence I by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and there much company, but I staid and dined, and he makes mighty much of me; and here he tells us the Dutch are gone, and have lost above 160 cables and anchors, through the last foule weather. Here he proposed to me from Mr. Coventry (age 37), as I had desired of Mr. Coventry (age 37), that I should be Surveyor-Generall of the Victualling business, which I accepted. But, indeed, the terms in which Mr. Coventry (age 37) proposes it for me are the most obliging that ever I could expect from any man, and more; it saying me to be the fittest man in England, and that he is sure, if I will undertake, I will perform it; and that it will be also a very desirable thing that I might have this encouragement, my encouragement in the Navy alone being in no wise proportionable to my pains or deserts.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1665. Carrying good victuals and Tom with me I to breakfast about 9 o'clock, and then to read again and come to the Fleete about twelve, where I found my Lord (the Prince (age 45) being gone in) on board the Royall James, Sir Thomas Allen (age 32) commander, and with my Lord an houre alone discoursing what was my chief and only errand about what was adviseable for his Lordship to do in this state of things, himself being under the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) and Mr. Coventry's (age 37) envy, and a great many more and likely never to do anything honourably but he shall be envied and the honour taken as much as can be from it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. The Prince (age 45), in appearance, kind; the Duke of Yorke (age 32) silent, says no hurt; but admits others to say it in his hearing. Sir W. Pen (age 44), the falsest rascal that ever was in the world; and that this afternoon the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) did tell him that Pen (age 44) was a very cowardly rogue, and one that hath brought all these rogueish fanatick Captains into the fleete, and swears he should never go out with the fleete again. That Sir W. Coventry (age 37) is most kind to Pen (age 44) still; and says nothing nor do any thing openly to the prejudice of my Lord. He agrees with me, that it is impossible for the King (age 35) [to] set out a fleete again the next year; and that he fears all will come to ruine, there being no money in prospect but these prizes, which will bring, it may be, £20,000, but that will signify nothing in the world for it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. That this late Act of Parliament for bringing the money into the Exchequer, and making of it payable out there, intended as a prejudice to him and will be his convenience hereafter and ruine the King's business, and so I fear it will and do wonder Sir W. Coventry (age 37) would be led by Sir G. Downing (age 40) to persuade the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) to have it so, before they had thoroughly weighed all circumstances; that for my Lord, the King (age 35) has said to him lately that I was an excellent officer, and that my Chancellor (age 56) do, he thinks, love and esteem of me as well as he do of any man in England that he hath no more acquaintance with.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1665. That being done, I got my Lord to be alone, and so I fell to acquaint him with W. Howe's business, which he had before heard a little of from Captain Cocke (age 48), but made no great matter of it, but now he do, and resolves nothing less than to lay him by the heels, and seize on all he hath, saying that for this yeare or two he hath observed him so proud and conceited he could not endure him. But though I was not at all displeased with it, yet I prayed him to forbear doing anything therein till he heard from me again about it, and I had made more enquiry into the truth of it, which he agreed to. Then we fell to publique discourse, wherein was principally this: he cleared it to me beyond all doubt that Coventry (age 37) is his enemy, and has been long so. So that I am over that, and my Lord told it me upon my proposal of a friendship between them, which he says is impossible, and methinks that my Lord's displeasure about the report in print of the first fight was not of his making, but I perceive my Lord cannot forget it, nor the other think he can. I shewed him how advisable it were upon almost any terms for him to get quite off the sea employment. He answers me again that he agrees to it, but thinks the King (age 35) will not let him go off. He tells me he lacks now my Lord Orrery (age 44) to solicit it for him, who is very great with the King (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1665. Up, and to the office, where all the morning doing business, and at noon home to dinner and quickly back again to the office, where very busy all the evening and late sent a long discourse to Mr. Coventry (age 37) by his desire about the regulating of the method of our payment of bills in the Navy, which will be very good, though, it may be, he did ayme principally at striking at Sir G. Carteret (age 55). So weary but pleased with this business being over I home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1665. Up, and busy at the office all day long, saving dinner time, and in the afternoon also very late at my office, and so home to bed. All our business is now about our Hambro fleete, whether it can go or no this yeare, the weather being set in frosty, and the whole stay being for want of Pilotts now, which I have wrote to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] about, but have so poor an account from them, that I did acquaint Sir W. Coventry (age 37) with it this post.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1665. This morning to the office, full of resolution to spend the whole day at business, and there, among other things, I did agree with Poynter to be my clerke for my Victualling business, and so all alone all the day long shut up in my little closett at my office, drawing up instructions, which I should long since have done for my Surveyours of the Ports, Sir W. Coventry (age 37) desiring much to have them, and he might well have expected them long since.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1665. At noon to dinner, Sir W. Warren with me on boat, and thence I by water, it being a fearfull cold, snowing day to Westminster to White Hall stairs and thence to Sir G. Downing (age 40), to whom I brought the happy newes of my having contracted, as we did this day with Sir W. Warren, for a ship's lading of Norway goods here and another at Harwich [Map] to the value of above £3,000, which is the first that hath been got upon the New Act, and he is overjoyed with it and tells me he will do me all the right to Court about it in the world, and I am glad I have it to write to Sir W. Coventry (age 37) to-night. He would fain have me come in £200 to lend upon the Act, but I desire to be excused in doing that, it being to little purpose for us that relate to the King (age 35) to do it, for the sum gets the King (age 35) no courtesy nor credit.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1666. Up betimes and by water to the Cockepitt [Map], there met Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and, after discourse with the Duke (age 32), all together, and there saw a letter wherein Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did take notice to the Duke with a commendation of my paper about Pursers, I to walke in the Parke with the Vice-Chamberlain, and received his advice about my deportment about the advancing the credit of the Act; giving me caution to see that we do not misguide the King (age 35) by making them believe greater matters from it than will be found. But I see that this arises from his great trouble to see the Act succeede, and to hear my name so much used and my letters shown at Court about goods served us in upon the credit of it. But I do make him believe that I do it with all respect to him and on his behalfe too, as indeed I do, as well as my owne, that it may not be said that he or I do not assist therein. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) do proceed on his journey with the greatest kindnesse that can be imagined from the King (age 35) and Chancellor (age 56), which was joyfull newes to me.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1666. Up, and by coach to Sir G. Downing (age 41), where Mr. Gawden met me by agreement to talke upon the Act. I do find Sir G. Downing (age 41) to be a mighty talker, more than is true, which I now know to be so, and suspected it before, but for all that I have good grounds to think it will succeed for goods and in time for money too, but not presently. Having done with him, I to my Lord Bruncker's (age 46) house in Covent-Garden [Map], and, among other things, it was to acquaint him with my paper of Pursers, and read it to him, and had his good liking of it. Shewed him Mr. Coventry's (age 38) sense of it, which he sent me last post much to my satisfaction.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1666. So I to the office and anon to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), by coach at night, taking, for saving time, Sir W. Warren with me, talking of our businesses all the way going and coming, and there got his reference of my pursers' paper to the Board to consider of it before he reads it, for he will never understand it I am sure. Here I saw Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) kind letter to him concerning my paper, and among others of his letters, which I saw all, and that is a strange thing, that whatever is writ to this Duke of Albemarle (age 57), all the world may see; for this very night he did give me Mr. Coventry's (age 38) letter to read, soon as it come to his hand, before he had read it himself, and bid me take out of it what concerned the Navy, and many things there was in it, which I should not have thought fit for him to have let any body so suddenly see; but, among other things, find him profess himself to the Duke a friend into the inquiring further into the business of Prizes, and advises that it may be publique, for the righting the King (age 35), and satisfying the people and getting the blame to be rightly laid where it should be, which strikes very hard upon my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and troubles me to read it. Besides, which vexes me more, I heard the damned Duchesse again say to twenty gentlemen publiquely in the room, that she would have Montagu sent once more to sea, before he goes his Embassy, that we may see whether he will make amends for his cowardice, and repeated the answer she did give the other day in my hearing to Sir G. Downing (age 41), wishing her Lord had been a coward, for then perhaps he might have been made an Embassador, and not been sent now to sea. But one good thing she said, she cried mightily out against the having of gentlemen Captains with feathers and ribbands, and wished the King (age 35) would send her husband to sea with the old plain sea Captains, that he served with formerly, that would make their ships swim with blood, though they could not make legs1 as Captains nowadays can. It grieved me to see how slightly the Duke do every thing in the world, and how the King (age 35) and every body suffers whatever he will to be done in the Navy, though never so much against reason, as in the business of recalling tickets, which will be done notwithstanding all the arguments against it. So back again to my office, and there to business and so to bed.

Note 1. Make bows, play the courtier. The reading, "make leagues", appeared in former editions till Mr. Mynors Bright corrected it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1666. Thence to the 'Change [Map] and there met Mr. Moore, newly come to towne, and took him home to dinner with me and after dinner to talke, and he and I do conclude my Lord's case to be very bad and may be worse, if he do not get a pardon for his doings about the prizes and his business at Bergen, and other things done by him at sea, before he goes for Spayne. I do use all the art I can to get him to get my Lord to pay my cozen Pepys, for it is a great burden to my mind my being bound for my Lord in £1000 to him. Having done discourse with him and directed him to go with my advice to my Lord expresse to-morrow to get his pardon perfected before his going, because of what I read the other night in Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) letter, I to the office, and there had an extraordinary meeting of Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Sir W. Batten (age 65), and Sir W. Pen (age 44), and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I to hear my paper read about pursers, which they did all of them with great good will and great approbation of my method and pains in all, only Sir W. Pen (age 44), who must except against every thing and remedy nothing, did except against my proposal for some reasons, which I could not understand, I confess, nor my Lord Bruncker (age 46) neither, but he did detect indeed a failure or two of mine in my report about the ill condition of the present pursers, which I did magnify in one or two little things, to which, I think, he did with reason except, but at last with all respect did declare the best thing he ever heard of this kind, but when Sir W. Batten (age 65) did say, "Let us that do know the practical part of the Victualling meet Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 44) and I and see what we can do to mend all", he was so far from offering or furthering it, that he declined it and said, he must be out of towne. So as I ever knew him never did in his life ever attempt to mend any thing, but suffer all things to go on in the way they are, though never so bad, rather than improve his experience to the King's advantage.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1666. At noon after a bit of dinner back to the office and there fitting myself in all points to give an account to the Duke (age 32) and Mr. Coventry (age 38) in all things, and in my Tangier business, till three o'clock in the morning, and so to bed,

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. After changing a few words with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who assures me of his respect and love to me, and his concernment for my health in all this sickness, I went down into one of the Courts, and there met the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32); and the Duke called me to him. And the King (age 35) come to me of himself, and told me, "Mr. Pepys", says he, "I do give you thanks for your good service all this year, and I assure you I am very sensible of it". And the Duke of Yorke (age 32) did tell me with pleasure, that he had read over my discourse about pursers, and would have it ordered in my way, and so fell from one discourse to another.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. The Council being up, out comes the King (age 35), and I kissed his hand, and he grasped me very kindly by the hand. The Duke (age 32) also, I kissed his, and he mighty kind, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38). I found my Lord Sandwich (age 40) there, poor man! I see with a melancholy face, and suffers his beard to grow on his upper lip more than usual. I took him a little aside to know when I should wait on him, and where: he told me, and that it would be best to meet at his lodgings, without being seen to walk together. Which I liked very well; and, Lord! to see in what difficulty I stand, that I dare not walk with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), for fear my Lord or Sir G. Carteret (age 56) should see me; nor with either of them, for fear Sir W. Coventry (age 38) should.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. As we were going further, in comes my Lord Mandeville (age 31), so we were forced to breake off and I away, and to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, where he not come in but I find Sir W. Pen (age 44), and he and I to discourse. I find him very much out of humour, so that I do not think matters go very well with him, and I am glad of it. He and I staying till late, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) not coming in (being shut up close all the afternoon with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57)), we took boat, and by water to Kingston [Map], and so to our lodgings, where a good supper and merry, only I sleepy, and therefore after supper I slunk away from the rest to bed, and lay very well and slept soundly, my mind being in a great delirium between joy for what the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) have said to me and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and trouble for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) concernments, and how hard it will be for me to preserve myself from feeling thereof.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. Up, and to Court by coach, where to Council before the Duke of Yorke (age 32), the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) with us, and after Sir W. Coventry (age 38) had gone over his notes that he had provided with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), I went over all mine with good successe, only I fear I did once offend the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), but I was much joyed to find the Duke of Yorke (age 32) so much contending for my discourse about the pursers against Sir W. Pen (age 44), who opposes it like a foole; my Lord Sandwich (age 40) come in in the middle of the business, and, poor man, very melancholy, methought, and said little at all, or to the business, and sat at the lower end, just as he come, no roome being made for him, only I did give him my stoole, and another was reached me.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. So to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) to dinner with him, whom I took occasion to thanke for his favour and good thoughts of what little service I did, desiring he would do the last act of friendship in telling me of my faults also. He told me he would be sure he would do that also, if there were any occasion for it. So that as much as it is possible under so great a fall of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), and difference between them, I may conclude that I am thoroughly right with Sir W. Coventry (age 38). I dined with him with a great deale of company, and much merry discourse. I was called away before dinner ended to go to my company who dined at our lodgings.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. I went to wait on his Majesty (age 35), now returned from Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] to Hampton-Court [Map], where the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) presented me to him; he ran toward me, and in a most gracious manner gave me his hand to kiss, with many thanks for my care and faithfulness in his service in a time of such great danger, when everybody fled their employments; he told me he was much obliged to me, and said he was several times concerned for me, and the peril I underwent, and did receive my service most acceptably (though in truth I did but do my duty, and O that I had performed it as I ought!). After this, his Majesty (age 35) was pleased to talk with me alone, near an hour, of several particulars of my employment, and ordered me to attend him again on the Thursday following at Whitehall [Map]. Then the Duke (age 57) came toward me, and embraced me with much kindness, telling me if he had thought my danger would have been so great, he would not have suffered his Majesty (age 35) to employ me in that station. Then came to salute me my Lord of St. Albans (age 60), Lord Arlington (age 48), Sir William Coventry (age 38), and several great persons; after which, I got home, not being very well in health.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1666. Thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who tells me Mr. Coventry (age 38) is come to town and directs me to go to him about some business in hand, whether out of displeasure or desire of ease I know not; but I asked him not the reason of it but went to White Hall, but could not find him there, though to my great joy people begin to bustle up and down there, the King (age 35) holding his resolution to be in towne to-morrow, and hath good encouragement, blessed be God! to do so, the plague being decreased this week to 56, and the total to 227. So after going to the Swan [Map] in the Palace, and sent for Spicer to discourse about my last Tangier tallys that have some of the words washed out with the rain, to have them new writ, I home, and there did some business and at the office, and so home to supper, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1666. Up and to the office, where all the morning till late, and Mr. Coventry (age 38) with us, the first time since before the plague, then hearing my wife was gone abroad to buy things and see her mother and father, whom she hath not seen since before the plague, and no dinner provided for me ready, I walked to Captain Cocke's (age 49), knowing my Lord Bruncker (age 46) dined there, and there very merry, and a good dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and knowing that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is come to towne with the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32), I to wait upon him, which I did, and find him in very good humour, which I am glad to see with all my heart. Having received his commands, and discoursed with some of his people about my Lord's going, and with Sir Roger Cuttance, who was there, and finds himself slighted by Sir W. Coventry (age 38), I advised him however to look after employment lest it should be said that my Lord's friends do forsake the service after he hath made them rich with the prizes. I to London, and there among other things did look over some pictures at Cade's for my house, and did carry home a silver drudger1 for my cupboard of plate, and did call for my silver chafing dishes, but they are sent home, and the man would not be paid for them, saying that he was paid for them already, and with much ado got him to tell me by Mr. Wayth, but I would not accept of that, but will send him his money, not knowing any courtesy I have yet done him to deserve it.

Note 1. The dredger was probably the drageoir of France; in low Latin, dragerium, or drageria, in which comfits (dragdes) were kept. Roquefort says, "The ladies wore a little spice-box, in shape like a watch, to carry dragles, and it was called a drageoir". The custom continued certainly till the middle of the last century. Old Palsgrave, in his "Eclaircissement de la Langue Francaise", gives "dradge" as spice, rendering it by the French word dragde. Chaucer says, of his Doctor of Physic, "Full ready hadde he his Apothecaries To send him dragges, and his lattuaries". The word sometimes may have signified the pounded condiments in which our forefathers delighted. It is worth notice, that "dragge" was applied to a grain in the eastern counties, though not exclusively there, appearing to denote mixed grain. Bishop Kennett tells us that "dredge mault is mault made up of oats, mixed with barley, of which they make an excellent, freshe, quiete sort of drinke, in Staffordshire". The dredger is still commonly used in our kitchen. B.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Feb 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and put on a new black cloth suit to an old coate that I make to be in mourning at Court, where they are all, for the King of Spayne1. To church I, and at noon dined well, and then by water to White Hall, carrying a captain of the Tower (who desired his freight thither); there I to the Parke, and walked two or three turns of the Pell Mell [Map] with the company about the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32); the Duke speaking to me a good deal. There met Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Mr. Coventry (age 38), and discoursed about the Navy business; and all of us much at a loss that we yet can hear nothing of Sir Jeremy Smith's fleete, that went away to the Streights the middle of December, through all the storms that we have had since, that have driven back three or four of them with their masts by the board. Yesterday come out the King's Declaration of War against the French, but with such mild invitations of both them and the Dutch to come over hither with promise of their protection, that every body wonders at it.

Note 1. Philip IV., who died September 17th, 1665.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1666. Up, and very busy to perform an oathe in finishing my Journall this morning for 7 or 8 days past. Then to several people attending upon business, among others Mr. Grant (age 45) and the executors of Barlow for the £25 due for the quarter before he died, which I scrupled to pay, being obliged but to pay every half year. Then comes Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute-master, whom I have not seen since the plague before, but he hath been in Westminster all this while very well; and tells me in the height of it, how bold people there were, to go in sport to one another's burials; and in spite too, ill people would breathe in the faces (out of their windows) of well people going by. Then to dinner before the 'Change [Map], and so to the 'Change [Map], and then to the taverne to talk with Sir William Warren, and so by coach to several places, among others to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there to meet my Lord Sandwich (age 40), but missed, and met him at [my] Chancellor's (age 56), and there talked with him about his accounts, and then about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and I find by him that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) has a worse game to play than my Lord Sandwich (age 40), for people are jeering at him, and he cries out of the business of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who strikes at all and do all.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. St. Valentine's Day. This morning called up by Mr. Hill (age 36), who, my wife thought, had been come to be her Valentine; she, it seems, having drawne him last night, but it proved not. However, calling him up to our bed-side, my wife challenged him. I up, and made myself ready, and so with him by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) by appointment to deliver Mr. Howe's accounts to my Lord. Which done, my Lord did give me hearty and large studied thanks for all my kindnesse to him and care of him and his business. I after profession of all duty to his Lordship took occasion to bemoane myself that I should fall into such a difficulty about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), as not to be for him, but I must be against Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and therefore desired to be neutrall, which my Lord approved and confessed reasonable, but desired me to befriend him privately.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. The meeting done I away, my wife and they being come back and staying for me at the gate. But, Lord! to see how afeard I was that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) should have spyed me once whispering with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), though not intended by me, but only Sir G. Carteret (age 56) come to me and I could not avoyde it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. Thence with him to his paynter, Mr. Hales (age 66), who is drawing his picture, which will be mighty like him, and pleased me so, that I am resolved presently to have my wife's and mine done by him, he having a very masterly hand. So with mighty satisfaction to the 'Change [Map] and thence home, and after dinner abroad, taking Mrs. Mary Batelier with us, who was just come to see my wife, and they set me down at my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and themselves went with the coach into the fields to take the ayre. I staid a meeting of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and the officers of the Navy and Ordnance. My Lord Treasurer (age 58) lying in bed of the gowte. Our business was discourse of the straits of the Navy for want of money, but after long discourse as much out of order as ordinary people's, we come to no issue, nor any money promised, or like to be had, and yet the worke must be done. Here I perceive Sir G. Carteret (age 56) had prepared himself to answer a choque of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), by offering of himself to shew all he had paid, and what is unpaid, and what moneys and assignments he hath in his hands, which, if he makes good, was the best thing he ever did say in his life, and the best timed, for else it must have fallen very foule on him.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1666. Then to the office, and out with Sir W. Warren for discourse by coach to White Hall, thinking to have spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), but did not, and to see the Queene (age 56), but she comes but to Hampton Court [Map] to-night. Back to my office and there late, and so home to supper and bed. I walked a good while to-night with Mr. Hater in the garden, talking about a husband for my sister, and reckoning up all our clerks about us, none of which he thinks fit for her and her portion. At last I thought of young Gawden, and will thinke of it again.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and out of doors by 6 of the clock, and walked (W. Howe with me) to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), who did lie the last night at his house in Lincoln's Inne Fields. It being fine walking in the morning, and the streets full of people again. There I staid, and the house full of people come to take leave of my Lord, who this day goes out of towne upon his embassy towards Spayne. And I was glad to find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to come, though I know it is only a piece of courtshipp. I had much discourse with my Lord, he telling me how fully he leaves the King (age 35) his friend and the large discourse he had with him the other day, and how he desired to have the business of the prizes examined before he went, and that he yielded to it, and it is done as far as it concerns himself to the full, and the Lords Commissioners for prizes did reprehend all the informers in what related to his Lordship, which I am glad of in many respects. But we could not make an end of discourse, so I promised to waite upon (him) on Sunday at Cranborne, and took leave and away hence to Mr. Hales's (age 66) with Mr. Hill (age 36) and two of the Houblons, who come thither to speak with me, and saw my wife's picture, which pleases me well, but Mr. Hill's (age 36) picture never a whit so well as it did before it was finished, which troubled me, and I begin to doubt the picture of my Lady Peters my wife takes her posture from, and which is an excellent picture, is not of his making, it is so master-like. I set them down at the 'Change [Map] and I home to the office, and at noon dined at home and to the office again.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. The Duke of Albemarle's (age 57) post is so great, having had the name of bringing in the King (age 35), that he is like to stand, or, if it were not for him, God knows in what troubles we might be from some private faction, if an army could be got into another hand, which God forbid! It is believed that though Mr. Coventry (age 38) be in appearance so great against the Chancellor (age 57), yet that there is a good understanding between the Duke and him. He dreads the issue of this year, and fears there will be some very great revolutions before his coming back again. He doubts it is needful for him to have a pardon for his last year's actions, all which he did without commission, and at most but the King's private single word for that of Bergen; but he dares not ask it at this time, lest it should make them think that there is something more in it than yet they know; and if it should be denied, it would be of very ill consequence. He says also, if it should in Parliament be enquired into the selling of Dunkirke (though the Chancellor (age 57) was the man that would have it sold to France, saying the King of Spayne had no money to give for it); yet he will be found to have been the greatest adviser of it; which he is a little apprehensive may be called upon this Parliament. He told me it would not be necessary for him to tell me his debts, because he thinks I know them so well. He tells me, that for the match propounded of Mrs. Mallett (age 15) for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), it hath been lately off, and now her friends bring it on again, and an overture hath been made to him by a servant of hers, to compass the thing without consent of friends, she herself having a respect to my Lord's family, but my Lord will not listen to it but in a way of honour. The Duke hath for this weeke or two been very kind to him, more than lately; and so others, which he thinks is a good sign of faire weather again. He says the Archbishopp of Canterbury (age 67) hath been very kind to him, and hath plainly said to him that he and all the world knows the difference between his judgment and brains and the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57), and then calls my Lady Duchesse (age 46) the veryst slut and drudge and the foulest worde that can be spoke of a woman almost.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1666. I was at it till past two o'clock on Monday morning, and then read my vowes, and to bed with great joy and content that I have brought my things to so good a settlement, and now having my mind fixed to follow my business again and sensible of Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) jealousies, I doubt, concerning me, partly my siding with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and partly that indeed I have been silent in my business of the office a great while, and given but little account of myself and least of all to him, having not made him one visitt since he came to towne from Oxford, I am resolved to fall hard to it again, and fetch up the time and interest I have lost or am in a fair way of doing it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1666. They gone I to the office and did some business, and then home to supper and to bed. My mind troubled through a doubtfulness of my having incurred Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) displeasure by not having waited on him since his coming to towne, which is a mighty faulte and that I can bear the fear of the bad effects of till I have been with him, which shall be to-morrow, God willing. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1666. Up betimes, and to St. James's, thinking Mr. Coventry (age 38) had lain there; but he do not, but at White Hall; so thither I went and had as good a time as heart could wish, and after an houre in his chamber about publique business he and I walked up, and the Duke being gone abroad we walked an houre in the Matted Gallery: he of himself begun to discourse of the unhappy differences between him and my Lord of Sandwich (age 40), and from the beginning to the end did run through all passages wherein my Lord hath, at any time, gathered any dissatisfaction, and cleared himself to me most honourably; and in truth, I do believe he do as he says. I did afterwards purge myself of all partiality in the business of Sir G. Carteret (age 56), (whose story Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did also run over,) that I do mind the King's interest, notwithstanding my relation to him; all which he declares he firmly believes, and assures me he hath the same kindnesse and opinion of me as ever. And when I said I was jealous of myself, that having now come to such an income as I am, by his favour, I should not be found to do as much service as might deserve it; he did assure me, he thinks it not too much for me, but thinks I deserve it as much as any man in England.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1666. Up, and being ready, to the Cockpitt [Map] to make a visit to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and to my great joy find him the same man to me that [he has been] heretofore, which I was in great doubt of, through my negligence in not visiting of him a great while; and having now set all to rights there, I am in mighty ease in my mind and I think shall never suffer matters to run so far backward again as I have done of late, with reference to my neglecting him and Sir W. Coventry (age 38).

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, there met Mr. Coventry (age 38) coming out, going along with the Commissioners of the Ordnance to the water side to take barge, they being to go down to the Hope. I returned with them as far as the Tower [Map] in their barge speaking with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and so home and to church, and at noon dined and then to my chamber, where with great pleasure about one business or other till late, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1666. Up betimes and upon a meeting extraordinary at the office most of the morning with Lord Bruncker (age 46), Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and Sir W. Pen (age 44), upon the business of the accounts. Where now we have got almost as much as we would have we begin to lay all on the Controller, and I fear he will be run down with it, for he is every day less and less capable of doing business.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1666. Thence to Sir Robert Long's (age 66), absent. About much the same business, but have not the satisfaction we would have there neither. So Sir W. Coventry (age 38) parted, and my Lord and I to Mrs. Williams's, and there I saw her closett, where indeed a great many fine things there are, but the woman I hate. Here we dined, and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) come to us, and after dinner we walked to the King's play-house, all in dirt, they being altering of the stage to make it wider. But God knows when they will begin to act again; but my business here was to see the inside of the stage and all the tiring-rooms and machines; and, indeed, it was a sight worthy seeing. But to see their clothes, and the various sorts, and what a mixture of things there was; here a wooden-leg, there a ruff, here a hobbyhorse, there a crown, would make a man split himself to see with laughing; and particularly Lacy's (age 51) wardrobe, and Shotrell's. But then again, to think how fine they show on the stage by candle-light, and how poor things they are to look now too near hand, is not pleasant at all. The machines are fine, and the paintings very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1666. Thence with my Lord Bruncker (age 46), Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to the ticket office, to see in what little order things are there, and there it is a shame to see how the King (age 35) is served.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1666. Thence home, and there met Sir W. Warren, and after I had eat a bit of victuals (he staying in the office) he and I to White Hall. He to look after the business of the prize ships which we are endeavouring to buy, and hope to get money by them. So I to London by coach and to Gresham College, where I staid half an houre, and so away home to my office, and there walking late alone in the darke in the garden with Sir W. Warren, who tells me that at the Committee of the Lords for the prizes to-day, there passed very high words between my Lord Ashly (age 44) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), about our business of the prize ships. And that my Lord Ashly (age 44) did snuff and talk as high to him, as he used to do to any ordinary seaman. And that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did take it very quietly, but yet for all did speak his mind soberly and with reason, and went away, saying, he had done his duty therein, and so left it to them, whether they would let so many ships go for masts or not: Here he and I talked of 1,000 businesses, all profitable discourse, and late parted, and I home to supper and to bed, troubled a little at a letter from my father, telling me how (he) is like to be sued for a debt of Tom's, by Smith, the mercer.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1666. Up betimes, and first by coach to my Lord Generall to visitt him, and then to the Duke of Yorke (age 32), where we all met and did our usual business with him; but, Lord! how everything is yielded to presently, even by Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that is propounded by the Duke, as now to have Troutbecke, his old surgeon, and intended to go Surgeon-General of the fleete, to go Physician-General of the fleete, of which there never was any precedent in the world, and he for that to have £20 per month.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1666. So with my Lord to the Pope's Head Taverne in Lombard Street [Map] to dine by appointment with Captain Taylor, whither Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come to us, and were mighty merry, and I find reason to honour him every day more and more.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1666. Thence alone to Broade Street to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) by his desire to confer with him, who is I find in great pain about the business of the office, and not a little, I believe, in fear of falling there, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) having so great a pique against him, and herein I first learn an eminent instance how great a man this day, that nobody would think could be shaken, is the next overthrown, dashed out of countenance, and every small thing of irregularity in his business taken notice of, where nobody the other day durst cast an eye upon them, and next I see that he that the other day nobody durst come near is now as supple as a spaniel, and sends and speaks to me with great submission, and readily hears to advice.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1666. Up, and a meeting extraordinary there was of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), Lord Bruncker (age 46), and myself, about the business of settling the ticket office, where infinite room is left for abusing the King (age 35) in the wages of seamen.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and put on my new black coate, long down to my knees, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) to White Hall, where all in deep mourning for the Queene's (age 27) mother. There had great discourse, before the Duke (age 32) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) begun the discourse of the day about the purser's business, which I seconded, and with great liking to the Duke (age 32), whom however afterward my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Sir W. Pen (age 44) did stop by some thing they said, though not much to the purpose, yet because our proposition had some appearance of certain charge to the King (age 35) it was ruled that for this year we should try another the same in every respect with ours, leaving out one circumstance of allowing the pursers the victuals of all men short of the complement. I was very well satisfied with it and am contented to try it, wishing it may prove effectual.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1666. Up, and to White Hall to the Duke (age 32) as usual, and did our business there. So I away to Westminster (Balty (age 26) with me, whom I had presented to Sir W. Coventry (age 38)) and there told Mrs. Michell of her kinswoman's running away, which troubled her.

Pepy's Diary. 05 May 1666. At the office all the morning. After dinner upon a letter from the fleete from Sir W. Coventry (age 38) I did do a great deale of worke for the sending away of the victuallers that are in the river, &c., too much to remember. Till 10 at night busy about letters and other necessary matter of the office. About 11 home, it being a fine moonshine and so my wife and Mercer come into the garden, and, my business being done, we sang till about twelve at night, with mighty pleasure to ourselves and neighbours, by their casements opening, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1666. Lord's Day. To church. Home, and after dinner walked to White Hall, thinking to have seen Mr. Coventry (age 38), but failed, and therefore walked clear on foot back again. Busy till night in fitting my Victualling papers in order, which I through my multitude of business and pleasure have not examined these several months. Walked back again home, and so to the Victualling Office, where I met Mr. Gawden, and have received some satisfaction, though it be short of what I expected, and what might be expected from me. So after evened I have gone, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1666. So home again, where I find Mrs. Pierce and Mrs. Ferrers come to see my wife. I staid a little with them, being full of business, and so to the office, where busy till late at night and so weary and a little conscious of my failures to-day, yet proud that the day is over without more observation on Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) part, and so to bed and to sleepe soundly.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1666. Up betimes to set my Victualling papers in order against Sir W. Coventry (age 38) comes, which indeed makes me very melancholy, being conscious that I am much to seeke in giving a good answer to his queries about the Victualling business. At the office mighty busy, and brought myself into a pretty plausible condition before Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come, and did give him a pretty tolerable account of every thing and went with him into the Victualling Office, where we sat and examined his businesses and state of the victualling of the fleete, which made me in my heart blushe that I could say no more to it than I did or could. But I trust in God I shall never be in that condition again. We parted, and I with pretty good grace, and so home to dinner, where my wife troubled more and more with her swollen cheek.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1666. After dinner to the office again and thither comes Mr Downing, the anchor-smith, who had given me 50 pieces in gold the last month to speake for him to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), for his being smith at Deptford, Kent [Map]; but after I had got it granted to him, he finds himself not fit to go on with it, so lets it fall. So has no benefit of my motion. I therefore in honour and conscience took him home the money, and, though much to my grief, did yet willingly and forcibly force him to take it again, the poor man having no mind to have it. However, I made him take it, and away he went, and I glad to have given him so much cause to speake well of me.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1666. Comes betimes a letter from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) are ordered presently down to the Fleete. I up and saw Sir W. Pen (age 45) gone also after them, and so I finding it a leisure day fell to making cleane my closett in my office, which I did to my content and set up my Platts again, being much taken also with Griffin's mayde, that did cleane it, being a pretty mayde.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1666. Up very betimes, and so down the river to Deptford, Kent [Map] to look after some business, being by and by to attend the Duke (age 32) and Mr. Coventry (age 38), and so I was wiling to carry something fresh that I may look as a man minding business, which I have done too much for a great while to forfeit, and is now so great a burden upon my mind night and day that I do not enjoy myself in the world almost. I walked thither, and come back again by water, and so to White Hall, and did our usual business before the Duke (age 32), and so to the Exchequer, where the lazy rogues have not yet done my tallys, which vexes me.

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1666. Up very betimes, and did much business in my chamber. Then to the office, where busy all the morning. At noon rose in the pleasantest humour I have seen Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and the whole board in this twelvemonth from a pleasant crossing humour Sir W. Batten (age 65) was in, he being hungry, and desirous to be gone.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1666. After dinner broke up, I to the office and they abroad. All the afternoon I busy at the office, and down by water to Deptford, Kent [Map]. Walked back to Redriffe [Map], and so home to the office again, being thoughtfull how to answer Sir W. Coventry (age 38) against to-morrow in the business of the Victualling, but that I do trust to Tom Wilson, that he will be ready with a book for me to-morrow morning.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1666. King's Birth-day and Restauration Day. Waked with the ringing of the bells all over the towne; so up before five o'clock, and to the office, where we met, and I all the morning with great trouble upon my spirit to think how I should come off in the afternoon when Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did go to the Victualling Office to see the state of matters there, and methinks by his doing of it without speaking to me, and only with Sir W. Pen (age 45), it must be of design to find my negligence. However, at noon I did, upon a small invitation of Sir W. Pen's (age 45), go and dine with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) at his office, where great good cheer and many pleasant stories of Sir W. Coventry (age 38); but I had no pleasure in them. However, I had last night and this morning made myself a little able to report how matters were, and did readily go with them after dinner to the Victualling Office; and there, beyond belief, did acquit myself very well to full content; so that, beyond expectation, I got over this second rub in this business; and if ever I fall on it again, I deserve to be undone.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1666. Up and to my office, there to settle some business in order.to our waiting on the Duke (age 32) to-day. That done to White Hall to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, where I find the Duke (age 32) gone out with the King (age 36) to-day on hunting.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1666. Homewood, and I took him home in the evening to my chamber, and discoursed with him about my business of the Victualling, which I have a mind to employ him in, and he is desirous of also, but do very ingenuously declare he understands it not so well as other things, and desires to be informed in the nature of it before he attempts it, which I like well, and so I carried him to Mr. Gibson to discourse with him about it, and so home again to my accounts. Thus ends this month, with my mind oppressed by my defect in my duty of the Victualling, which lies upon me as a burden, till I get myself into a better posture therein, and hinders me and casts down my courage in every thing else that belongs to me, and the jealousy I have of Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) being displeased with me about it; but I hope in a little time to remedy all. As to publique business; by late tidings of the French fleete being come to Rochelle (how true, though, I know not) our fleete is divided; Prince Rupert (age 46) being gone with about thirty ships to the Westward as is conceived to meet the French, to hinder their coming to join with the Dutch. My Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 57) lies in the Downes with the rest, and intends presently to sail to the Gunfleete.

Four Days' Battle

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. Lord's-day; Whit-sunday. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there met with Mr. Coventry (age 38), who tells me the only news from the fleete is brought by Captain Elliott, of The Portland, which, by being run on board by The Guernsey, was disabled from staying abroad; so is come in to Aldbrough [Map]. That he saw one of the Dutch great ships blown up, and three on fire. That they begun to fight on Friday; and at his coming into port, he could make another ship of the King's coming in, which he judged to be the Rupert: that he knows of no other hurt to our ships. With this good newes I home by water again, and to church in the sermon-time, and with great joy told it my fellows in the pew.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1666. Up betimes, and to my office about business (Sir W. Coventry (age 38) having sent me word that he is gone down to the fleete to see ho