Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, London Bridge Area, London Bridge [Map]

London Bridge is in London Bridge Area.

1305 Execution of William Wallace

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1461 Battle of Towton

1464 Suppressing the Northumbrian Resistance

1497 Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1537 Lincolnshire Rising

1583 Somerville Plot

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Raid on the Medway

St George's Day Jousting

On 23 May 1390, St George's Day, a Jousting Tournament was held at London Bridge [Map]. David Lindsay 1st Earl Crawford so easily unhorsed the King's Champion John Welles 5th Baron Welles as to make the crowd suspect Lindsay of foul play by fastening himself to his saddle. To prove the crowd wrong David Lindsay 1st Earl Crawford leapt from his horse in full armour, then back again. Realising John Welles 5th Baron Welles was injured he rushed to his aid. He visited Welles every day until he recovered. The two became firm friends.

Stane Street to Chichester is a 91km Roman Road from Noviomagus Reginorum [Map] aka Chichester to London crossing the land of the Atrebates in use by 70AD. Its route took it from London Bridge [Map] along Newington Causeway [Map] past Merton Priory, Surrey [Map] to Ewell [Map], through Sutton, Surrey [Map], past the boundary of Nonsuch Palace [Map] to Thirty Acre Barn, Surrey [Map], then near to Juniper Hall Field Centre, Surrey [Map] near Mickleham, then crossing the River Mole near to Burford Bridge [Map] southwards to Dorking, Surrey [Map] (although the route here is vague) to North Holmwood, Surrey [Map], Ockley, Surrey [Map], Rowhook, Surrey [Map] after which it crossed the River Arun at Alfodean Bridge, Surrey [Map] where some of the timber piles on which the bridge was built are still present in the river bed. Thereafter the road travels broadly straight to Billingshurst [Map], Pulborough [Map] where it crosses the River Arun again, then passing the Roman Villa at Bignor [Map] before entering the East Gate [Map] at Noviomagus Reginorum aka Chichester.

Execution of William Wallace

On 23 Aug 1305 William Wallace was hanged at the Elms in Smithfield [Map]. His head being displayed on London Bridge [Map].

On 08 Apr 1956 a plaque was unveiled on the wall of St Bartholomew's Hospital near to the site of his execution the text of which reads ...

To the immortal memory of Sir William Wallace Scottish patriot born at Elderslie Renfrewshire circa 1270 A.D. Who from the year 1296 fought dauntlessly in defence of his country's liberty and independence in the face of fearful odds and great hardship being eventually betrayed and captured brought to London and put to death near this spot on the 23rd August 1305.

His example heroism and devotion inspired those who came after him to win victory from defeat and his memory remains for all time a source of pride, honour and inspiration to his Countrymen.

"Dico tibi verum libertas optima rerum nunquam servili sub nexu vivito fili"

Translation: I tell you the truth, son, freedom is the best condition, never live like a slave

"Bas Agus Buaidh" aka Death and Victory, a traditional Scottish battle cry.

Chronicle of Gregory 1432. 14 Feb 1432. And yn Syn Volantynys day he come unto London; and he was worthely fette in to the cytte whythe the mayre and his aldyrmen whythe alle the worthy comyns of the cytte and every crafte in her devys.

And whenne the King (age 10) come to Londyn Brygge [Map] there was made a towre, and there yn stondynge a gy aunte welle arayde and welle be-sene, whythe a swerde holdynge uppe on hye, sayynge this reson in Latyn, Inimicos ejus induam confusione. And on every syde of him stode an antiloppe, that one holdynge the armys of Ingelond and that othyr the armys of Fraunce. Ande at the drawe brygge there was a nothyr ryalle toure, there yn stondynge iij empryssys ryally arayde, whythe crownys on her heddys, the whyche namys folowyn here: first, Nature; the secunde, Grace; the thyrde, Fortune, presentyng him whythe gyftys of grace. The first gaffe him Scyence an Cunnynge, and the secunde gaffe him Prosperyte and Eyches. And on the ryght syde of the emperyssys stode vij fayre maydyns clothide alle in whyte, i-powderyde whythe sonnys of golde, presentynge the kyng whythe vij gyftys of the Holy Goste in the lykenys of vij whyte dovys by fygure owtwarde, whythe this resonys: Impleat te Dominus spiritu1 sapiencie et intellectus, spiritu consitij etfortitudinis, sciencie et pietatys, spiritu timorys Domini. And on the lyfte syde of thes emperysse stode vi j othyr fay re maydyns in why the, powdery de why the sterrys of golde, presentyng the kyng whythe vij gyftys of worschyppe. The first was a crowne of glorye, the seconde with a cepter of clennysse, the iij whythe a swyrde of ryght and vyctorye, the iiij whythe a mantelle of prudence, the v whythe a schylde of fay the, the vj an helme of helme, the vij a gyrdylle of love and of parfyte pes. And this maydens song an hevynly songe unto the King of praysynge and of his vyctorye and welle comynge home. And whenne he come unto Cornehylle, there yn the vij scyence, and every scyence schewynge his propyr corny ng wondyrly i-wroughte.

Note 1. spiritu. spiritus, MS.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 1437. And that same year on of the gatys of Londyn Bryge [Map] and one of the g[r]ettyste arche of the same bryge, fylle a downein to Temys wondyrfully; thonkyd be God, noo man, woman, nor chylde i-hurte nor perchide.

Chronicle of Gregory 1438. 04 Jun 1438. Ande the same year the iiij day of June certayne men of Kentte were a-reste at Maydestone [Map] for rysynge, and v. of them were drawe, hanggyde, and quarteryde, and be-heddyde, and her heddys were sette on Londyn Brygge [Map]; and some of her heddys at Cauntyrbury [Map] and in othyr certayne townys in Kente a boute in the schyre, for to cause men to be ware. And that year was grete dyrthe of corne, for a buschclle of whete was worthe ij s vj d. And that year was grete pestylaunce, and namely in the northe contraye.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 31 Jan 1447. Ande in that same year there was an armyrer and his owne man fought whythe yn the lystys in Smethefylde [Map] the laste day of Januer, ande there the mayster was slayne and dyspoylyde out of his harnys, and lay stylle in the fylde alle that day and that nyght next folowynge. And thenne afty[r]ward, by the kyngys (age 25) commaundement, he was d[r]awyn, hanggyde, and be-heddyde, and his hedde sette on London Brygge [Map], and the body hynggyng a-bove erthe be-syde the towre.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 14 Jul 1447. And on Fryday the xiiij day of Juylle nexte folowynge by jugement at Westemyster, there by fore v [5] personys were dampnyd to be drawe, hanggyd and her bowellys i-brente by fore hem, and thenne her heddys to ben smetyn of, ande thenne to be quarteryde, and every parte to be sende unto dyvers placys by assygnement of the jugys. Whyche personys werethes: Arteys the bastarde of the said Duke of Glouceter, Syr Rogger Chambyrlayne knyght, Mylton squyer, Thomas Harberde squyer, Nedam yeman, whyche were the said xiiij day of Juylle i-drawe fro Syn Gorgys thoroughe out Sowthewerke and on Londyn Brygge [Map], ande so forthe thorowe the cytte of London to the Tyborne [Map], and there alle they were hanggyde, and the ropys smetyn a-sondyr, they beynge alle lyvynge, and thenne, ar any more of any markys of excecusyon were done, the Duke of Sowthefolke (age 50) brought them alle yn generalle pardon and grace from our lord and sovereign King Harry the vj (age 25)te.

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 1450. Ande at Rochester [Map] ix [11] men were be-heddyd at that same tyme, and her heddys were sende unto London by the kyngys commaundement, and sette uppon London Brygge [Map] alle at one tyme; and xij [12] heddys at a nothyr tyme were brought unto London at a sette uppe undyr the same forme, as hysa was commaundyd by the kyng. Men calle it in Kente the Harvyste of Hedys. Willb

Note a. So in MS.

Note b. The Christian name "Will." is added by a somewhat later hand. The date " 1451 " is also added in the margin in a hand decidedly more modern.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 04 Jul 1450. Ande in the morne he come yn a-gayne, that sory and sympylle and rebellyus captayne why the his mayny; that was Satyrday, and it was also a Synt Martyn is day1, the dedycacyon of Synt Martynys in the Vyntry [Map], the iiij day of Juylle. And thenne dyvers questys were i-sompnyd at the Gylhalle [Map]; and ther Robert Home beynge alderman was a-restydeand brought in to Newegate. And that same day Wylliam Crowemere (age 34), squyer, and Scheryffe of Kentt, was be-heddyde in the fylde whythe out Algate at the mylys ende be-syde Clopton is Place. And a nothyr man that was namyde John Bayle was be-heddyd at the Whytte Chapylle. And the same day aftyr-non was be-heddyd in Cheppe a-fore the Standard [Map], Syr Jamys Fynes (age 55), beyng that tyme the lord Saye and Grrette Treserer of Ingelonde, the whyche was brought oute of the Toure of London [Map] unto the Gylde Halle [Map], and there of dyvers tresons he was exampnyd, of whyche he knowlachyd of the dethe of that notabylle and famos prynce the Duke of Glouceter. And thenne they brought him unto the Standard in Cheppe [Map], and there he ressayvyd his jewys and his dethe. And so forthe alle the iij [3] heddys that day smetyn of were sette uppon the Brygge of London [Map], and the ij othyr heddys takyn downe that stode a-pon the London Brygge by-fore. And at the comyng of the camptayne yn to Sowtheworke, he lete smyte of the hedde of a strong theff that was namyd Haywardyn.

Note 1. The Translation of St. Martin of Tours.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 05 Jul 1450. And uppon the morowe the Sonday at hyghe mas tyme a lette to be heddyd a man of Hampton, a squyer, the whyche was namyd Thomas Mayne. And that same evyn Londyn dyd a rysse and cam out uppon them at x [of] a the belle, beyng that tyme her captaynys the goode olde lorde Schalys (age 53) and Mathewe Goughe. Ande from that tyme unto the morowe viij of belle they were ever fyghtynge uppon London Brygge [Map], ande many a man was slayne and caste in Temys, harnys, body, and alle; and monge the presse was slayne Mathewe Goughe and John Sutton aldyrman. And the same nyght, a-non aftyr mydnyght, the Captayneof Kentte dyde fyre the draught brygge of London; and be-fore that tyme he breke bothe Kyngys Bynche [Map] ande the Marchelsy [Map], and lete out alle the presoners that were yn them.

Battle of Towton

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 03 Apr 1461. The Erle of Devynschyre (age 29) was seke, and might not voyde a waye, and was take and be heddyd. And the Erle of Wylte schyre (age 40) was take and brought unto Newe Castell [Map] to the King. And there his hedde was smete of, and send unto London to be sette uppon London Brygge [Map]. And Docter Morton (age 41), the Prynces chaunceler, was take with him and put in the Towre, but he schapyd a way long tyme aftyr, and is by yonde the see with the Quene, &c.

Suppressing the Northumbrian Resistance

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. Around Jul 1464. Alle so the same somer my Lord of Warwycke (age 35) and his brether the Lord Mountegewe (age 33), that was made Erle of Northehumberlond by the King, they ij layde a sege unto the castelle of Anwyke [Map] a gate it by a-poyntement. And in the same wyse and forme they gate the castelle of Dunsterborowe [Map] by the same mene. And thenne they layd sege to the castelle of Bamborowe [Map], and layde grete ordynans and gonnys [Note. guns] there too. And manly they gate it by fors, and toke there yn that fals traytur Syr Raffe Gray (age 32), and brought him unto the King to the castelle of Pomfrete [Map]. And fro thens he was ladde to Dankester [Map], and there his hedde was smete of and sent to London, and it was sette a-pon Londyn Bryge [Map].

Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

On 28 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley, 4th Baron Tuchet (age 34) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Blackfriars Church Holborn. His head was placed on a spike at London Bridge [Map]. Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire and Baron Tuchet forfeit.

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Hall's Chronicle 1535. 22 Jun 1535 Also the twenty-second day of the same month John Fisher Bishop of Rochester (age 65) was beheaded, and his head set upon London bridge [Map]. This bishop was of very many men lamented, for he was reported to be a man of great learning, and a man of very good life, but therein wonderfully deceived, for he maintained the Pope to be Supreme Head of the Church, and very maliciously refused the King’s title of Supreme Head. It was said that the Pope, for that he held so manfully with him and stood so stiffly in his cause, did elect him a Cardinal, and sent the Cardinals hat as far as Calais, but the head it should have stood on, was as high as London Bridge or ever the hat could come to Bishop Fisher, and then it was too late and therefore he neither ware it nor enjoyed his office. This man as I said was accomplished learned, yea, and that very notably learned, and yet have you heard how he was deceived with Elizabeth Barton that called herself the Holy Maid of Kent, and no doubt so was he in the defence of that usurped authority, the more pity. Wonderful it is that a man being learned should be so blind in the scriptures of God that prove the supreme authority of Princes so manifestly.

Lincolnshire Rising

Around 30 May 1537 the Abbots of Fountains Abbey [Map], Marmaduke Bradley, and Gisborough Priory [Map], Robert Pursglove, were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map] for their role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their heads were displayed on London Bridge [Map].

On 02 Jun 1537 Abbot Adam Sedbar (age 35) and Prior William Wood were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map] for their role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their heads were displayed on London Bridge [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1538. 18 Feb 1538. This yeare, the 18th of Februarie being Mundaye, there was a yonge man, servante to the Ladye Pargetourd of London, drawne from Newgate to Tower Hill, and there was hanged, his members cutt of and bowells brent afore him, and his head cutt of, and his bodie divided in 4 peeces, which yonge man had clipped goulde [gold] to the value of £30; his head was sett on London Bridge [Map], and his quarters at diverse gates of the cittie.

Note d. Wife of Sir Thomas Pargitor, who was Lord Mayor in 1530.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 18 May 1554. 18 May 1554. Fridaye the xviiith of May William Thomas was drawne from the Tower of London [Map] to Tiburne [Map], and there hanged, headed, and quartered, and after his head sett on London Bridge [Map], and his quarters sett in 4 severall places, one myle out of the Cittie of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 18 Aug 1554. 18 Aug 1554. Saterdaye the 18 of August, in the after-noone, the King (age 27) and Queenes (age 38) Majesties rode throughe Sowthwerke, over the bridge [Map], and so throughe London; where they were with great provision receaved of the citizens, pageants in places accustomed, the crosse in Cheape [Map] new gilte, &c.

Memorandum: In the moneth of September the Duke of Norfolke (age 81) died at Framlingham [Map] in Norfolke, and there was honorablye buried [Map] amongst his auncestors.

Allso this moneth the Bishop of London (age 54) visited all his dioces, and had sermons in everie parishe and place where he satt, and sett owt divers goodlye articles in print for the true religion.

Allso he commaunded that the feast of everie saynte that was patrone of the churche, called Festum loci in everie parishe, should be kept holiedaye in everie parishe throughe his diocesse as a principall feast used in olde tyme, after the custome of the churche.

1583 Somerville Plot

After 20 Dec 1583 the heads of John Somerville (deceased) and Edward Arden (deceased) were set on London Bridge [Map] next to the head of the Gerald Fitzgerald 14th Earl Desmond (deceased).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1660. Up very early in the morning and landing my wife at White Friars stairs, I went to the Bridge [Map] and so to the Treasurer's of the Navy, with whom I spake about the business of my office, who put me into very good hopes of my business. At his house comes Commissioner Pett (age 49), and he and I went to view the houses in Seething Lane, belonging to the Navy1, where I find the worst very good, and had great fears in my mind that they will shuffle me out of them, which troubles me.

Note 1. The Navy Office was erected on the site of Lumley House, formerly belonging to the Fratres Sancta Crucis (or Crutched Friars [Map]), and all business connected with naval concerns was transacted there till its removal to Somerset House.-The ground was afterwards occupied by the East India Company's warehouses. The civil business of the Admiralty was removed from Somerset House to Spring Gardens in 1869.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1662. So home again, and took water with them towards Westminster; but as we put off with the boat Griffin came after me to tell me that Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and the rest were at the office, so I intended to see them through the bridge [Map] and come back again, but the tide being against us, when we were almost through we were carried back again with much danger, and Mrs. Pierce was much afeard and frightened. So I carried them to the other side and walked to the Beare [Map], and sent them away, and so back again myself to the office, but finding nobody there I went again to the Old Swan [Map], and thence by water to the New Exchange [Map], and there found them, and thence by coach carried my wife to Bowes to buy something, and while they were there went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there bought Mr. Grant's (age 41) book of observations upon the weekly bills of mortality, which appear to me upon first sight to be very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1662. So to my Lady's and dined, and so to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and so to the Chappell, where I challenged my pew as Clerk of the Privy Seal and had it, and then walked home with Mr. Blagrave to his old house in the Fishyard, and there he had a pretty kinswoman that sings, and we did sing some holy things, and afterwards others came in and so I left them, and by water through the bridge [Map] (which did trouble me) home, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock, and put my accounts with my Lord into a very good order, and so to my office, where having put many things in order I went to the Wardrobe, but found my Lord gone to Hampton Court [Map]. After discourse with Mr. Shepley we parted, and I into Thames Street, beyond the Bridge [Map], and there enquired among the shops the price of tarre and oyle, and do find great content in it, and hope to save the King (age 32) money by this practice.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1662. Thence by boat; I being hot, he put the skirt of his cloak about me; and it being rough, he told me the passage of a Frenchman through London Bridge [Map], where, when he saw the great fall, he begun to cross himself and say his prayers in the greatest fear in the world, and soon as he was over, he swore "Morbleu! c'est le plus grand plaisir du monde", being the most like a French humour in the world1. To Deptford, and there surprised the Yard, and called them to a muster, and discovered many abuses, which we shall be able to understand hereafter and amend.

Note 1. When the first editions of this Diary were printed no note was required here. Before the erection of the present London Bridge [Map] the fall of water at the ebb tide was great, and to pass at that time was called "Shooting the bridge". It was very hazardous for small boats. The ancient mode, even in Henry VIII's time, of going to the Tower and Greenwich, Kent [Map], was to land at the Three Cranes, in Upper Thames Street, suffer the barges to shoot the bridge, and to enter them again at Billingsgate. See Cavendish's "Wolsey", p. 40, ed. 1852.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1662. Thence walked to Redriffe [Map], and so to London Bridge [Map], where I parted with him, and walked home and did a little business, and to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1663. So home back as I came, to London Bridge [Map], and so home, where I find my wife in a musty humour, and tells me before Ashwell that Pembleton had been there, and she would not have him come in unless I was there, which I was ashamed of; but however, I had rather it should be so than the other way.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1663. So to White Hall and by water to the Bridge [Map], and so home to bed, weary and well pleased with my journey in all respects. Only it cost me about 20s., but it was for my health, and I hope will prove so, only I do find by my riding a little swelling to rise just by my anus. I had the same the last time I rode, and then it fell again, and now it is up again about the bigness of the bag of a silkworm, makes me fearful of a rupture. But I will speak to Mr. Hollyard (age 54) about it, and I am glad to find it now, that I may prevent it before it goes too far.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1663. So I landed them at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there to a garden, and gave them fruit and wine, and so to boat again, and finally, in the cool of the evening, to Lyon Kee1, the tide against us, and so landed and walked to the Bridge [Map], and there took a coach by chance passing by, and so I saw them home, and there eat some cold venison with them, and drunk and bade them good night, having been mighty merry with them, and I think it is not amiss to preserve, though it cost me a little, such a friend as Mrs. Turner (age 40).

Note 1. Lion Key, Lower Thames Street, where the famous Duchess of Suffolk in the time of Bishop Gardiner's persecution took boat for the continent. James, Duke of York (age 29), also left the country from this same place on the night of April 20th, 1648, when he escaped from St. James's Palace.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1664. And after dinner to cards: and about five o'clock, by water down to Greenwich, Kent [Map]; and up to the top of the hill, and there played upon the ground at cards. And so to the Cherry Garden, and then by water singing finely to the Bridge [Map], and there landed; and so took boat again, and to Somersett House [Map]. And by this time, the tide being against us, it was past ten of the clock; and such a troublesome passage, in regard of my Lady Paulina's (age 15) fearfullness, that in all my life I never did see any poor wretch in that condition.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1664. Up very betimes, and my wife also, and got us ready; and about eight o'clock, having got some bottles of wine and beer and neat's tongues, we went to our barge at the Towre, where Mr. Pierce and his wife, and a kinswoman and his sister, and Mrs. Clerke and her sister and cozen were to expect us; and so set out for the Hope, all the way down playing at cards and other sports, spending our time pretty merry. Come to the Hope about one and there showed them all the ships, and had a collacion of anchovies, gammon, &c., and after an houre's stay or more, embarked again for home; and so to cards and other sports till we came to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there Mrs. Clerke and my wife and I on shore to an alehouse, for them to do their business, and so to the barge again, having shown them the King's pleasure boat; and so home to the Bridge [Map], bringing night home with us; and it rained hard, but we got them on foot to the Beare [Map], and there put them into a boat, and I back to my wife in the barge, and so to the Tower Wharfe [Map] and home, being very well pleased today with the company, especially Mrs. Pierce, who continues her complexion as well as ever, and hath, at this day, I think, the best complexion that ever I saw on any woman, young or old, or child either, all days of my life. Also Mrs. Clerke's kinswoman sings very prettily, but is very confident in it; Mrs. Clerke herself witty, but spoils all in being so conceited and making so great a flutter with a few fine clothes and some bad tawdry things worne with them. But the charge of the barge lies heavy upon me, which troubles me, but it is but once, and I may make Pierce do me some courtesy as great. Being come home, I weary to bed with sitting. The reason of Dr. Clerke's not being here was the King's being sicke last night and let blood, and so he durst not come away to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1665. Thence away to boat again and landed her at the Three Cranes again, and I to the Bridge [Map], and so home, and after shifting myself, being dirty, I to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Mr. Povy's (age 51) and there dined, and thence with him and Creed to my Lord Bellasses' (age 50), and there debated a great while how to put things in order against his going, and so with my Lord in his coach to White Hall, and with him to my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 56), finding him at cards. After a few dull words or two, I away to White Hall again, and there delivered a letter to the Duke of Yorke (age 31) about our Navy business, and thence walked up and down in the gallery, talking with Mr. Slingsby (age 44), who is a very ingenious person, about the Mint and coynage of money. Among other things, he argues that there being £700,000 coined in the Rump time, and by all the Treasurers of that time, it being their opinion that the Rump money was in all payments, one with another, about a tenth part of all their money. Then, says he, to my question, the nearest guess we can make is, that the money passing up and down in business is £7,000,000. To another question of mine he made me fully understand that the old law of prohibiting bullion to be exported, is, and ever was a folly and an injury, rather than good. Arguing thus, that if the exportations exceed importations, then the balance must be brought home in money, which, when our merchants know cannot be carried out again, they will forbear to bring home in money, but let it lie abroad for trade, or keepe in foreign banks: or if our importations exceed our exportations, then, to keepe credit, the merchants will and must find ways of carrying out money by stealth, which is a most easy thing to do, and is every where done; and therefore the law against it signifies nothing in the world. Besides, that it is seen, that where money is free, there is great plenty; where it is restrained, as here, there is a great want, as in Spayne. These and many other fine discourses I had from him.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1665. To London to my office, and there took letters from the office, where all well, and so to the Bridge [Map], and there he and I took boat and to Deptford, Kent [Map], where mighty welcome, and brought the good newes of all being pleased to them. Mighty mirth at my giving them an account of all; but the young man could not be got to say one word before me or my Lady Sandwich (age 40) of his adventures, but, by what he afterwards related to his father and mother and sisters, he gives an account that pleases them mightily. Here Sir G. Carteret (age 55) would have me lie all night, which I did most nobly, better than ever I did in my life, Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being mighty kind to me, leading me to my chamber; and all their care now is, to have the business ended, and they have reason, because the sicknesse puts all out of order, and they cannot safely stay where they are.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1665. Lord's Day. Up very betimes, called by Mr. Cutler, by appointment, and with him in his coach and four horses over London Bridge [Map] to Kingston [Map], a very pleasant journey, and at Hampton Court [Map] by nine o'clock, and in our way very good and various discourse, as he is a man, that though I think he be a knave, as the world thinks him, yet a man of great experience and worthy to be heard discourse. When we come there, we to Sir W. Coventry's (age 37) chamber, and there discoursed long with him, he and I alone, the others being gone away, and so walked together through the garden to the house, where we parted, I observing with a little trouble that he is too great now to expect too much familiarity with, and I find he do not mind me as he used to do, but when I reflect upon him and his business I cannot think much of it, for I do not observe anything but the same great kindness from him.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Up, and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there fitted myself in several businesses to go to London, where I have not been now a pretty while. But before I went from the office newes is brought by word of mouth that letters are now just now brought from the fleete of our taking a great many more of the Dutch fleete, in which I did never more plainly see my command of my temper in my not admitting myself to receive any kind of joy from it till I had heard the certainty of it, and therefore went by water directly to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I find a letter of the Lath from Solebay [Map], from my Lord Sandwich (age 40), of the fleete's meeting with about eighteen more of the Dutch fleete, and his taking of most of them; and the messenger says, they had taken three after the letter was wrote and sealed; which being twenty-one, and the fourteen took the other day, is forty-five sail; some of which are good, and others rich ships, which is so great a cause of joy in us all that my Lord and everybody is highly joyed thereat. And having taken a copy of my Lord's letter, I away back again to the Beare [Map] at the bridge foot, being full of wind and out of order, and there called for a biscuit and a piece of cheese and gill of sacke, being forced to walk over the Bridge [Map], toward the 'Change [Map], and the plague being all thereabouts.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1665. Up before day, and Cocke (age 48) and I took a hackney coach appointed with four horses to take us up, and so carried us over London Bridge [Map]. But there, thinking of some business, I did 'light at the foot of the bridge, and by helpe of a candle at a stall, where some payers were at work, I wrote a letter to Mr. Hater, and never knew so great an instance of the usefulness of carrying pen and ink and wax about one: so we, the way being very bad, to Nonsuch [Map], and thence to Sir Robert Longs (age 65) house; a fine place, and dinner time ere we got thither; but we had breakfasted a little at Mr. Gawden's, he being out of towne though, and there borrowed Dr. Taylor's (age 52) sermons, and is a most excellent booke and worth my buying, where had a very good dinner, and curiously dressed, and here a couple of ladies, kinswomen of his, not handsome though, but rich, that knew me by report of The. Turner (age 13), and mighty merry we were.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1665. At noon home to dinner, only eating a bit, and with much kindness taking leave of Mr. Hill (age 35) who goes away to-day, and so I by water saving the tide through Bridge [Map] and to Sir G. Downing (age 40) by appointment at Charing Crosse [Map], who did at first mightily please me with informing me thoroughly the virtue and force of this Act, and indeed it is ten times better than ever I thought could have been said of it, but when he come to impose upon me that without more ado I must get by my credit people to serve in goods and lend money upon it and none could do it better than I, and the King (age 35) should give me thanks particularly in it, and I could not get him to excuse me, but I must come to him though to no purpose on Saturday, and that he is sure I will bring him some bargains or other made upon this Act, it vexed me more than all the pleasure I took before, for I find he will be troublesome to me in it, if I will let him have as much of my time as he would have. So late I took leave and in the cold (the weather setting in cold) home to the office and, after my letters being wrote, home to supper and to bed, my wife being also gone to London.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1666. Thence my Lord and I, the weather being a little fairer, by water to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) house, where W. Howe met us, and there we opened the chests, and saw the poor sorry rubys which have caused all this ado to the undoing of W. Howe; though I am not much sorry for it, because of his pride and ill nature. About 200 of these very small stones, and a cod of muske (which it is strange I was not able to smell) is all we could find; so locked them up again, and my Lord and I, the wind being again very furious, so as we durst not go by water, walked to London quite round the bridge, no boat being able to stirre; and, Lord! what a dirty walk we had, and so strong the wind, that in the fields we many times could not carry our bodies against it, but were driven backwards. We went through Horsydowne, where I never was since a little boy, that I went to enquire after my father, whom we did give over for lost coming from Holland. It was dangerous to walk the streets, the bricks and tiles falling from the houses that the whole streets were covered with them; and whole chimneys, nay, whole houses in two or three places, blowed down. But, above all, the pales on London-bridge [Map] on both sides were blown away, so that we were fain to stoop very low for fear of blowing off of the bridge. We could see no boats in the Thames afloat, but what were broke loose, and carried through the bridge, it being ebbing water. And the greatest sight of all was, among other parcels of ships driven here and there in clusters together, one was quite overset and lay with her masts all along in the water, and keel above water. So walked home, my Lord away to his house and I to dinner, Mr. Creed being come to towne and to dine with me, though now it was three o'clock.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. By and by Jane comes and tells me that she hears that above 300 houses have been burned down to-night by the fire we saw, and that it is now burning down all Fish-street [Map], by London Bridge [Map]. So I made myself ready presently, and walked to the Tower [Map], and there got up upon one of the high places, Sir J. Robinson's (age 51) little son going up with me; and there I did see the houses at that end of the bridge all on fire, and an infinite great fire on this and the other side the end of the bridge; which, among other people, did trouble me for poor little Michell and our Sarah on the bridge. So down, with my heart full of trouble, to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 51), who tells me that it begun this morning in the King's baker's' house in Pudding-lane, and that it hath burned St. Magnus's Church [Map] and most part of Fish-street [Map] already.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my wife (age 31) and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the Bridge [Map], all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside [Map], down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become of the rest.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall [Map] as far as London Bridge [Map], through the late Fleet Street [Map], Ludgate hill by St. Paul's [Map], Cheapside [Map], Exchange, Bishops-gate [Map], Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields [Map], thence through Cornhill [Map], etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (age 36) got to the Tower [Map] by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower [Map], where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1666. Up, and by coach to Westminster Hall [Map], there thinking to have met Betty Michell, who I heard yesterday staid all night at her father's, but she was gone. So I staid a little and then down to the bridge by water, and there overtook her and her father. So saluted her and walked over London Bridge [Map] with them and there parted, the weather being very foul, and so to the Tower by water, and so heme, where I find Mr. Caesar playing the treble to my boy upon the Theorbo, the first time I heard him, which pleases me mightily.

1667 Raid on the Medway

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1667. Upon which newes the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) have been below [Below London Bridge [Map].] since four o'clock in the morning, to command the sinking of ships at Barking-Creeke, and other places, to stop their coming up higher: which put me into such a fear, that I presently resolved of my father's and wife's going into the country; and, at two hours' warning, they did go by the coach this day, with about £1300 in gold in their night-bag. Pray God give them good passage, and good care to hide it when they come home! but my heart is full of fear.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and to my chamber, and there to the writing fair some of my late musique notions, and so to church, where I have not been a good while, and thence home, and dined at home, with W. Hewer (age 26) with me; and after dinner, he and I a great deal of good talk touching this Office, how it is spoiled by having so many persons in it, and so much work that is not made the work of any one man, but of all, and so is never done; and that the best way to have it well done, were to have the whole trust in one, as myself, to set whom I pleased to work in the several businesses of the Office, and me to be accountable for the whole, and that would do it, as I would find instruments: but this is not to be compassed; but something I am resolved to do about Sir J. Minnes (age 69) before it be long. Then to my chamber again, to my musique, and so to church; and then home, and thither comes Captain Silas Taylor (age 43) to me, the Storekeeper of Harwich [Map], where much talk, and most of it against Captain Deane (age 34), whom I do believe to be a high, proud fellow; but he is an active man, and able in his way, and so I love him. He gone, I to my musique again, and to read a little, and to sing with Mr. Pelling, who come to see me, and so spent the evening, and then to supper and to bed. I hear that eight of the ringleaders in the late tumults of the 'prentices at Easter are condemned to die1.

Note 1. Four were executed on May 9th, namely, Thomas Limmerick, Edward Cotton, Peter Massenger, and Richard Beasley. They were drawn, hanged, and quartered at Tyburn [Map], and two of their heads fixed upon London Bridge [Map] ("The London Gazette", No. 259). See "The Tryals of such persons as under the notion of London Apprentices were tumultuously assembled in Moore Fields [Map], under colour of pulling down bawdy-houses", 4to., London, 1668. "It is to be observed", says "The London Gazette", "to the just vindication of the City, that none of the persons apprehended upon the said tumult were found to be apprentices, as was given out, but some idle persons, many of them nursed in the late Rebellion, too readily embracing any opportunity of making their own advantages to the disturbance of the peace, and injury of others".

The London Gazette 259. 09 May 1668. London. This day Thomas Limmerick, Edward Cotton, Peter Messenger and Richard Beasly, four of the persons formerly apprehended in the Tumult during the Easter-holidays, having upon their Trial at Hicks-Hall been found guilty, and since sentenced as Traytors, were accordingly Drawn, Hang'd and Quartered at Tyburn [Map], where they shewed many signs of there Penitence, their Quarters permitted Burial, only Two of their Heads ordered to be fixt upon London-bridge [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1668. So by water, with great pleasure, down to the Bridge [Map], and there landed, and took water again on the other side; and so to the Tower, and I saw her home, I myself home to my chamber, and by and by to bed.

Putney Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames. The first bridge, slightly downstream from the current position, was opened on 29 Nov 1729 being the only bridge between, upstream, Kingston Bridge [Map] and, downstream, London Bridge [Map]. The bridge was badly damaged by the collision of a river barge in 1870 after which it was repaired but subsequently demolished for replacement.

Watling Street. From Durobrivae [Map] the road continues through Park Pale, Kent [Map], Vagniacis [Map], Dartford, Kent [Map], Noviomagus [Map], Bexley, Kent [Map], down Shooter's Hill, Greenwich [Map] past Eltham Common, Kent [Map] to Greenwich Park [Map] where the road either (or both):

1. went along the Old Kent Road [Map] and crossed the River Thames at either the London Bridge [Map] or a ford near Westminster Bridge [Map] after which it continued north past St Mary-le-Bow Church, Cheapside [Map], Newgate Gate [Map], Ludgate Hill [Map] and over the River Fleet at Fleet Bridge [Map] to Marble Arch [Map].

2. continued north-west through Camberwell, Surrey [Map] crossing the River Thames near Vauxhall Bridge [Map] after which it continued north to Marble Arch [Map].