Europe, British Isles, England, London, Westminster Palace, Westminster Hall [Map]

Westminster Hall is in Westminster Palace [Map].

1460 Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1536 Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1559 Coronation of Elizabeth I

1641 Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

1649 Trial of Charles I

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Poll Bill

1668 Hamilton-Mohun Duel

1680 Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

1685 Popish Plot

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

1761 Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

On 26 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) was tried at Westminster Hall [Map].

On 15 Feb 1382 William Ufford 2nd Earl Suffolk (age 43) died at Westminster Hall [Map]. Earl Suffolk, Baron Ufford extinct.

Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall [Map] witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 42).

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 14 May 1517. The 14 day of May the Kinge satt in the Kinges Benche in Westminster Hall [Map], and there was brought before him all the prisoners which came from the Tower of London [Map],f in their shirtes with halters aboute their neckes, and there the King pardoned them, and the Major and citizens also which were there present in their liveries.

Note f. This event is more fully related by Arnold, who says, that, on the 16th May, 330 men and 11 women were bound in ropes, and led with cords from Guildhall to Westminster, the Sheriffs waiting on them, and every prisoner "a peyr of bedys [beads] in ther handys," and in the King's Street in Westminster were stripped to their shirts and halters placed about their necks.

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 01 Jun 1533. Memorandum, the first dale of June,d Queene Anne (age 32) was brought from Westminster Hall to the Abbey of Sainct Peeter's [Map] with procession, all the monkes of Westminster going in rytch copes of golde with 13 abbotts mitred; and after them all the Kinges Chappell in rych copes with fower bushopps and tow archbishopps mittred, and all the Lordes going in their Perliament roabes,e and the crowne borne afore her by the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and her tow scepters by tow Earles, and she herself going under a rytch canapie of cloath of golde, apparailed in a kirtell of crymson velvett powdred with ermyns, and a robe of purple velvett furred with powdred ermines over that, and a rich cronett with a calla of pearles and stones on her hedde, and the olde Dutches of Norfolke (age 56)b bearing upp her traine in a robe of scarlett with a cronett of golde on her bonett, and the Lorde Boroughe,c the Queenes Chamberlaine, staying the traine in the middes; and after her tenne ladies following in robes of scarlett furred with ermins and rounde cronettes of golde on their heades; and next after theim all the Queenes maides in gownes of scarlett edged with white lettushe furre; and so was shee brought to Sainct Peeters Church [Map] at Westminster, and their sett in her seate riall, which was made on a high scaffolde before the highe aulter; and their shee was anoynted and crowned Queene of Englande by the Archbishopp of Canterberied1 and the Archbishoppe of Yorke, and so sate crowned in her seate riall all the masse, and offred also at the said masse; and the masse donne, they departed everie man in their degrees to Westminster Hall [Map], she going still under the cannapie crowned with towe septers in hir handes, my Lorde of Wilshire, her father,e1 and the Lorde Talbottf leadinge her, and so theire dynned; wheras was made the most honorable feast that hath beene seene.

The great hall at Westminster was rytchlie hanged with rych cloath of Arras, and a table sett at the upper ende of the hall, going upp twelve greeses,a2 where the Queene dyned; and a rytch cloath of estate hanged over her heade; and also fower other tables alongest the hall; and it was rayled on everie side, from the highe deasse in Westminster Hall to the scaffold in the church in the Abbaj.

And when she went to church to her coronation their was a raye cloath,b2 blew, spreed from the highe dessesc of the Kinges Benche unto the high alter of Westminster, wheron she wente.

Note B. the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 23), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

And when the Queenes grace had washed her handes, then came the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), High Constable that daie and stewarde of the feast, ryding on horsebacke rytchlie apparailed and trapped, and with him, also ridinge on horsebacke, the Lorde William (age 23) Howarde as deputie for the Duke of Norfolke (age 60) in the romthd2 of the Marshall of Englande, and the Queenes servicee2 following them with the Archbishopps, a certaine space betwene which was bornef2 all by knightes, the Archbishopp sitting at the Queenes borde, at the ende, on her left hande.g2 The Earle of Sussex (age 50) was sewer, the Earle of Essex carver, the Earle of Darbie (age 24) cuppbearer, the Earle of Arrondell (age 57) butler, the Viscount Lisle (age 69) pantler, the Lord Gray almoner.

Att one of the fower tables sate all the noble ladies all on one side of the hall, at the second table the noble men, at the thirde table the Major of Londonh2 with the Aldermen, att the fowerth table the Barons of the Fortes with the Masters of the Chauncerie. The goodlie dishes with the delicate meates and the settles which were all gilt, with the noble service that daie done by great men of the realme, the goodlie sweete armonie of minstrells with other thinges were to long to expresse, which was a goodlie sight to see and beholde.

And when shee had dined and washed her handes she stoode a while under the canopie of estate, and behelde throwghe the hall, and then were spices brought with other delicates, which were borne all in great high plates of gold, wherof shee tooke a litle refection, and the residue geavinge among the lordes and ladies; and that donne she departed up to the White Hall, and their changed her apparell, and so departed secreetlie by water to Yorke Place [Map], which is called White Hall, and their laie all night.

Note d. Whitsanday. Compare this with the account of the receiving and coronation of Anne Boleyn in MS. Harleian. Cod. 41, arts. 2-5, and MS. Harleian. 543, fol. 119.

Note e. Henry's (age 41) first wife, Katharine of Aragon (age 47), was crowned with him, and a magnificent ceremony was ordained for her successful rival Anne Boleyn, but none of the other wives of Henry were honoured with a coronation.

Note a. A caul was a kind of net in which women inclosed their hair.

Note b. Grandmother (age 56) of Anne Boleyn, being widow of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, whose daughter Elizabeth (age 53) married Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 56), afterwards Earl of Wiltshire, the father of Anne.

Note. b, immediately above, appears to be a mistake? The grandmother of Anne Boleyn was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey, first wife of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He, Thomas, married secondly his first wife's first cousin Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) who must be the old Duchess of Norfolk referred to since Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey died in Apr 1497.

Note c. Thomas, Lord Bnrgh of Gainsboroogh (age 45).

d1. In Sir Henry Ellis's Collection of Original Letters occurs a very interesting letter written by Cranmer to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, giving his own account of the pronouncing of sentence on Katharine and of the coronation of Anne Boleyn (age 32).

e1. Anne Boleyn's father (age 56) had been created Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond on the 8th December, 1529.

a2. Steps or stain, Latin gressus.

b2. Striped cloth.

Note c. Desks.

d2. Room.

e2. Suite.

f2. Occupied.

g2. Stow expressly states that Archbishop Cranmer sat on the right hand of the Queen at the table's end. Ed. 1631, p. 567.

h2. Sir Stephen Pecocke.

Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster [Map]g Sir Frances Weston (age 25), knight, Henrie Norrisy (age 54) esquier, Brerton, and Markes (age 24), being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamberh, and their condemned of high treason against the Kinge (age 44) for using fornication with Queene Anne (age 35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent [burned] before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (age 48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme..

Note g. They were tried by a Commission of Oyer and Terminer in Westminster Hall, after having been twice indicted. True bills were found by the two grand juries of the counties of Kent and Middlesex, the crimes they were charged with being said to be done in both counties.

Note h. Sir Francis Western and William Brereton, esq. of the King's Privy Chamber. Henry Norris, Groom of the Stole, and one Mark Smeton, a musician.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 01 Dec 1551. The first daye of December, beinge Tuesday, the Duke of Somersett (age 51) was had from the Tower of London [Map] by water and shott London bridge at v of the clocke in the morninge, and so went to Westminster, where was made ready a great scaffold in Westminster Hall [Map], and there the sayd Duke appeared, afore the Lordes and Peeres of the Realme, the Lord William Pawlet (age 68), Marques of Winchester and Lord High Treasurer of England, that daye sittinge under the cloath of estate as High Stuard of England; the indytement of the sayd duke beinge read, he was imedyately arraigned on the same for felony and treason, and after tryed by his peeres the nobles there presenta, which did quitt him of the treason but found him guilty of the felonyb, whereupon after their verdite giuen he had iudgment giuen to be had [thence to] the place [he came from] and from thence to the place of execution, there to be hanged till he were dead; but the people in the hall, supposinge that he had bene clerely quitt, when they see the axe of the Tower put downe, made such a shryke and castinge up of caps, that it was hard into the Longe Acre beyonde Charinge Crosse, and allso made the Lordes astonyed, and word likewise sent to London, which the people reioysed at; and about v of the clocke at night the sayd Duke landed at the Crane in the Vintre, and so [was] had thorough Can[dle]wyke Streete to the Tower, the people cryinge God saue him all the way as he wentj thinkinge that he had clerely bene quitt, but they were deceyued, but hoopinge he should haue the Kinges pardon.

Note a. His judges were Northumberland (age 47), Northampton (age 39), Pembroke (age 50), and the other leading members of the government, - the very parties against whom he was said to have conspired, - and the witnesses against him were not produced, bnt only their written depositions read, as was frequently the custom in those days.

Note b. For having designed the killing of the Duke of Northumberland (age 47) and the others, although on consideration he had determined to abandon it; "yet," adds Edward VI. in his Journal, "he seemed to confess he went about their death."

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 18 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26) were tried at Westminster Hall [Map].

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) presided at the trial.

On 19 Aug 1553 Andrew Dudley (age 46) was tried at Westminster Hall [Map].

Coronation of Elizabeth I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1559. The xv day was the crounasyon of quen Elsabeth (age 25) at Westmynster abbay [Map], and theyr all the trumpettes, and knyghtes, and lordes, and haroldes of armes in ther cotte armurs; and after all they in ther skarlett, and all the bysshopes in skarlett, and the Quen, and all the fottmen waytyng a-pone the quene, to Westmynster hall; ther mett all the byshoppes, and all the chapell with iij crosses, and in ther copes, the byshoppes mytered, and syngyng Salve festa dyes; and all the strett led with gravell, and bluw cloth unto the abbay, and raylled on evere syd, and so to the abbay to masse, and ther her grasse was crounyd; and evere offeser rede against she shuld go to dener to Westmynster hall [Map], and evere offeser to take ys offes at serves a-pone ther landes; and my lord mare (age 50) and the althermen.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 May 1560. The xiiij day of May was the sam men cared to Westmynster hall [Map] how they shuld do theyre, and ther they wher cast and cared to the masselsay [Map]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Oct 1561. The xiiij day they wher a-for the consell at Westmynster hall [Map] the ij lordes [Note. Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montagu (age 32) and William West 1st Baron De La Warr (age 35)].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Jun 1562. The sam day was raynyd at Westmynster hall [Map] on master Brutun gentyllman for (blank)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Sep 1562. The sam day the nuw shreyffes of London toke ther barges, and yed to Westmynster halle [Map], and toke ther othe in the checker, master Allen and master Chamburlayn shreyffes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. After 20 Apr 1599. The (blank) day of Aprell was browth from the Towre [Map] unto Westmynster Hall [Map] to be reynyd, my lord Wentworth, last depute of Calles, for the lossyng of Calles; and ther wher serten of ys a-cussars; but he quytt hym-seylff, thanke be God, and clen delevered, and whent in-to Wytyngtun colege, and ther he lys.

Gunpowder Plot The Effect Of the Indictment. On 27 Jan 1606 the trial of the conspirators took place at Westminster Hall [Map].

The Commissioners were:.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 70).

Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk (age 44).

Edward Somerset 4th Earl of Worcester (age 56).

Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire (age 43).

Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton (age 65).

Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury (age 42).

John Popham (age 75).

Thomas Fleming (age 61).

Peter Warburton (age 66).


The Effect of the Indictment.

Note. We have broken this very lengthy paragraph up into more manageable chunks..

THAT whereas our Sovereign Lord the King (age 39) had, by the Advice and Assent of his Council, for divers weighty and urgent Occasions concerning, his Majesty, the State, and Defence of the Church and Kingdom of England, appointed a Parliament to be holden at his City of Westminster; That Henry Garnet (age 50), Superior of the Jesuits within the Realm of England, (called also by the several names of Wally, Darcy, Roberts, Farmer, and Henry Philips), Oswald Tesmond Jesuit (age 43), otherwise called Oswald Greenwell, John Gerrard Jesuit (age 41), (called also by the several names of Lee and Brooke), Robert Winter (age 38), Thomas Winter (age 35), Gentlemen, Guy Fawkes (age 35) Gent. otherwise called Guy Johnson, Robert Keyes Gent. and Thomas Bates Yeoman, late Servant to Robert Catesby Esquire; together with the said Robert Catesby and Thomas Percy Esquires, John Wright and Christopher Wright Gentlemen, in open Rebellion and Insurrection against his Majesty, lately slain, and Francis Tresham Esq; lately dead; as false Traitors against our said Sovereign Lord the King, did traitorously meet and assemble themselves together; and being so met, the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), and other Jesuits, did maliciously, falsly, and traitorously move and persuade as well the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, That our said Sovereign Lord the King, the Nobility, Clergy, and whole Commonalty of the Realm of England, (Papists excepted) were Hereticks; and that all Hereticks were accursed and excommunicate; and that none Heretick could be a King; but that it was lawful and meritorious to kill our said Sovereign Lord the King, and all other Hereticks within this Realm of England, for the Advancing and Enlargement of the pretended and usurped Authority and Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, and for the restoring of the superstitious Romish Religion within this Realm of England.


To which traitorous Persuasions, the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously did yield their Assents: And that thereupon the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), and divers other Jesuits; Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as also the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright and Francis Tresham, traitorously amongst themselves did conclude and agree, with Gunpowder, as it were with one Blast, suddenly, traitorously and barbarously to blow up and tear in pieces our said Sovereign Lord the King, the excellent, virtuous and gracious Queen Anne, his dearest Wife, the most noble Prince Henry, their eldest Son, and future Hope and Joy of England; and the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, the Reverend Judges of the Realm, the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of Parliament, and divers other faithful Subjects and Servants of the King in the said Parliament, for the Causes aforesaid, to be assembled in the House of Parliament; and all them, without any respect of Majesty, Dignity, Degree, Sex, Age or Place, most barbarously, and more than beastly, traitorously and suddenly to destroy and swallow up.


And further did most traitorously conspire and conclude among themselves, That not only the whole Royal Issue-Male of our said Sovereign Lord the King should be destroyed and rooted out; but that the Persons aforesaid, together with divers other false Traitors, traitorously with them to be assembled, should surprize the Persons of the most noble Ladies Elizabeth and Mary, Daughters of our said Sovereign Lord the King, and falsly and traitorously should proclaim the said Lady Elizabeth to be Queen of this Realm: And thereupon should publish a Proclamation in the name of the said Lady Elizabeth; wherein, as it was especially agreed by and between the said Conspirators, That no mention should be made at the first, of the alteration of Religion established within within this Realm of England; neither would the said false Traitors therein acknowledge themselves to be Authors, or Actors, or Devisers of the aforesaid most wicked and horrible Treasons, until they had got sufficient Power and Strength for the assured Execution and Accomplishment of their said Conspiracy and Treason; and that then they would avow and justify the said most wicked and horrible Treasons, as Actions that were in the number of those, Quae non laudantur, nisi peracta, which be not to be commended before they be done: but by the said feign'd and traitorous Proclamation they would publish, That all and singular Abuses and Grievances within this Realm of England, should, for satisfying of the People, be reform'd.


And that as well for the better concealing, as for the more effectual accomplishing of the said horrible Treasons, as well the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the traitorous Advice and Procurement of the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), and other Jesuits, traitorously did further conclude and agree, that as well the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, thereupon severally and traitorously should receive several corporal Oaths upon the holy Evangelists, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, That they the Treasons aforesaid would traitorously conceal and keep secret, and would not reveal them, directly or indirectly, by Words or Circumstances, nor ever would desist from the Execution and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, without the consent of some three of the aforesaid false Traitors first in that behalf traitorously had: And that thereupon as well the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christ. Wright, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously take the said several corporal Oaths severally, and did receive the Sacrament of the Eucharist aforesaid, by the Hands of the said Henry Garnet (age 50), John Gerrard (age 41), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), and other Jesuits.


And further, that the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35),Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright,Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the like traitorous Advice and Counsel of the said Henry Garnet (age 50), John Gerrard (age 41), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), and other Jesuits, for the more effectual compassing and final execution of the said Treasons, did traitorously among themselves conclude and agree to dig a certain Mine under the said House of Parliament, and there secretly, under the said House, to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder; and that according to the said traitorous Conclusion, the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomes Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, afterwards secretly, not without great labour and difficulty, did dig and make the said Mine unto the midst of the Foundation of the Wall of the said House of Parliament, the said Foundation being of the thickness of three yards, with a traitorous Intent to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder in the Mine aforesaid, so as aforesaid traitorously to be made for the traitorous accomplishing of their traitorous Purposes aforesaid.


And that the said Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, finding and perceiving the said Work to be of great difficulty, by reason of the Hardness and thickness of the said Wall; and understanding a certain Cellar under the said House of Parliament, and adjoining to a certain House of the said Thomas Percy, then to be letten to farm for a yearly Rent, the said Thomas Percy, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as of the said Robert Catesby, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did hire the Cellar aforesaid for a certain yearly Rent and Term: and then those Traitors did remove twenty Barrels full of Gunpowder out of the said House of the said Thomas Percy, and secretly and traitorously did bestow and place them in the Cellar aforesaid, under the said House of Parliament, for the traitorous effecting of the Treason, and traitorous Purposes aforesaid.


And that afterwards the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright traitorously did meet with Robert Winter (age 38), John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, Esquires; and traitorously did impart to the said Robert Winter (age 38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid; and did require the said Robert Winter (age 38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, to join themselves as well with the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, in the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid; and traitorously to provide Horse, Armour, and other Necessaries, for the better Accomplishment and effecting of the said Treasons.


To which traitorous Motion and Request, the said Robert Winter (age 38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously yield their Assents, and as well with the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), Robert Winter (age 38), Thomas Winter (age 35), Guy Fawkes (age 35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, in the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, traitorously did adhere and unite themselves: And thereupon several corporal Oaths, in form abovesaid, traitorously did take, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, by the hands of the said Jesuits did receive, to such intent and Purpose, as is aforesaid; and Horses, Armour, and other Necessaries for the better effecting of the said Treasons, according to their traitorous Assents aforesaid, traitorously did provide.


And that afterwards all the said false Traitors did traitorously provide, and bring into the Cellar aforesaid ten other Barrels full of Gunpowder, newly bought, fearing lest the former Gunpowder, so as aforesaid bestow'd and placed there, was become dankish; and the said several Quantities of: Gunpowder aforesaid, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be spy'd, secretly and traitorously did cover.


And that afterwards the said false Traitors traitorously provided, and brought into the Cellar aforesaid, four Hogsheads full of Gunpowder, and laid divers great Iron Bars and Stones upon the said four Hogsheads, and the aforesaid other Quantities of Gunpowder: And the said Quantities of Gunpowder, Bars, and Stones, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be espy'd, secretly and traitorously did likewise cover.


And that the said Guy Fawkes (age 35), afterwards, for a full and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), and other Jesuits, Robert Winter (age 38), Thomas Winter (age 35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as of the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously had prepared, and had upon his Person Touchwood and Match, therewith traitorously to give fire to the several Barrels, Hogsheads, and Quantities of Gunpowder aforesaid, at the time appointed for the Execution of the said horrible Treasons.


And further, that after the said horrible Treasons were, by the great Favour and Mercy of God, in a wonderful manner discover'd, not many hours before it should have been executed, as well the said Henry Garnet (age 50), Oswald Tesmond (age 43), John Gerrard (age 41), Robert Winter (age 38), Thomas Winter (age 35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did fly and withdraw themselves, to the intent traitorously to stir up and procure such Popish Persons, as they could, to join with them in actual, publick and open Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King; and to that end did publish divers feigned and false Rumours, that the Papists Throats should have been cut; and that thereupon divers Papists were in Arms, and in open, publick, and actual Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King, in divers Parts of this Realm of England.

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Apr 1641 I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland (age 48), who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster Hall [Map], which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the King (age 40), Queen (age 31), Prince (age 10), and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey (age 55), Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Aug 1641. We returned to the Hague, and went to visit the Hoff, or Prince's Court, with the adjoining gardens full of ornament, close walks, statues, marbles, grots, fountains, and artificial music. There is to this palace a stately hall, not much inferior to ours of Westminster [Map], hung round with colours and other trophies taken from the Spaniards; and the sides below are furnished with shops.

Trial of Charles I

On 23 Jan 1649 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 48) was tried at Westminster Hall [Map] by Henry Mildmay (age 56). The fifty-nine signatories of his Death Warrant were:

1 Judge John Bradshaw

2 Thomas Grey

3 Oliver Cromwell

4 Edward Whalley

7 John Danvers

9 Henry Ireton

11 Hardress Waller

14 Major-General William Goffe

17 General Thomas Harrison

21 Admiral Richard Deane

27 Adrian Scrope

34 Richard Ingoldsby

42 John Jones

45 Major General Charles Fleetwood

54 Gregory Clement

55 John Downes

57 Thomas Scot

58 John Carew


The commissioners who sat at the trial but did not sign the Death Warrant included:

William Monson 1st Viscount Monson (age 50)

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 41)


The Captain of the Guard was Daniel Axtell (age 27). The guards included Francis Hacker, Matthew Tomlinson (age 31).

The Solicitor-General was John Cook (age 41).

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jul 1652. One of the men who robbed me was taken; I was accordingly summoned to appear against him; and, on the 12th, was in Westminster Hall [Map], but not being bound over, nor willing to hang the fellow, I did not appear, coming only to save a friend's bail; but the bill being found, he was turned over to the Old Bailey. In the meantime, I received a petition from the prisoner, whose father I understood was an honest old farmer in Kent. He was charged, with other crimes, and condemned, but reprieved. I heard afterward that, had it not been for his companion, a younger man, he would probably have killed me. He was afterward charged with some other crime, but, refusing to plead, was pressed to death.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1660. Thence I went to the Temple [Map] to speak with Mr. Calthropp (age 36) about the 60l. due to my Lord, but missed of him, he being abroad. Then I went to Mr. Crew's (age 62) and borrowed 10l. of Mr. Andrewes (NOTE. Possibly John Andrews Timber Merchant) for my own use, and so went to my office, where there was nothing to do. Then I walked a great while in Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard that Lambert (age 40) was coming up to London; that my Lord Fairfax (age 47) was in the head of the Irish brigade, but it was not certain what he would declare for. The House was to-day upon finishing the act for the Council of State, which they did; and for the indemnity to the soldiers; and were to sit again thereupon in the afternoon. Great talk that many places have declared for a free Parliament; and it is believed that they will be forced to fill up the House with the old members. From the Hall [Map] I called at home, and so went to Mr. Crew's (age 62) (my wife (age 19) she was to go to her father's), thinking to have dined, but I came too late, so Mr. Moore and I and another gentleman went out and drank a cup of ale together in the new market, and there I eat some bread and cheese for my dinner. After that Mr. Moore and I went as far as Fleet-street [Map] together and parted, he going into the City, I to find Mr. Calthrop (age 36), but failed again of finding him, so returned to Mr. Crew's (age 62) again, and from thence went along with Mrs. Jemimah home, and there she taught me how to play at cribbage. Then I went home, and finding my wife (age 19) gone to see Mrs. Hunt, I went to Will's, and there sat with Mr. Ashwell talking and singing till nine o'clock, and so home, there, having not eaten anything but bread and cheese, my wife (age 19) cut me a slice of brawn which I received from my Lady; which proves as good as ever I had any. So to bed, and my wife (age 19) had a very bad night of it through wind and cold.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1660. Wednesday Early came Mr. Vanly to me for his half-year's rent, which I had not in the house, but took his man to the office and there paid him. Then I went down into the Hall [Map] and to Will's, where Hawly brought a piece of his Cheshire cheese, and we were merry with it. Then into the Hall [Map] again, where I met with the Clerk and Quarter Master of my Lord's (age 34) troop, and took them to the Swan [Map] and gave them their morning's draft, they being just come to town. Mr. Jenkins shewed me two bills of exchange for money to receive upon my Lord's and my pay. It snowed hard all this morning, and was very cold, and my nose was much swelled with cold. Strange the difference of men's talk! Some say that Lambert must of necessity yield up; others, that he is very strong, and that the Fifth-monarchy-men [will] stick to him, if he declares for a free Parliament. Chillington was sent yesterday to him with the vote of pardon and indemnity from the Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1660. Monday. For these two or three days I have been much troubled with thoughts how to get money to pay them that I have borrowed money of, by reason of my money being in my uncle's hands. I rose early this morning, and looked over and corrected my brother John's (age 19) speech, which he is to make the next apposition,-[Note. Declamations at St. Paul's School, in which there were opponents and respondents.]-and after that I went towards my office, and in my way met with W. Simons, Muddiman, and Jack Price, and went with them to Harper's and in many sorts of talk I staid till two of the clock in the afternoon. I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. Simons told me how his uncle Scobel was on Saturday last called to the bar, for entering in the journal of the House, for the year 1653, these words: "This day his Excellence the Lord General Cromwell dissolved this House;" which words the Parliament voted a forgery, and demanded of him how they came to be entered. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to-let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King, or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr. Scobell's did come within the act of indemnity or no. Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee-House, and gave 18d. to be entered of the Club. Thence into the Hall, where I heard for certain that Monk (age 51) was coming to London, and that Bradshaw's lodgings were preparing for him. Thence to Mrs. Jem's, and found her in bed, and she was afraid that it would prove the smallpox. Thence back to Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard how Sir H. Vane (age 46) was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby [Map], as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Here I met with the Quarter Master of my Lord's (age 34) troop, and his clerk Mr. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night. After that came in Mr. Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that to-morrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1660. Friday. In the morning I went to Mr Downing's (age 35) bedside and gave him an account what I had done as to his guests, land I went thence to my Lord Widdrington (age 60) who I met in the street, going to seal the patents for the judges to-day, and so could not come to dinner. I called upon Mr. Calthrop (age 36) about the money due to my Lord. Here I met with Mr. Woodfine and drank with him at Sun in Chancery Lane and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where at the lobby I spoke with the rest of my guests and so to my office. At noon went by water with Mr. Maylard and Hales to Swan in Fish Street at our Goal Feast, where we were very merry at our Jole of Ling, and from thence after a great and good dinner Mr. Falconberge would go drink a cup of ale at a place where I had like to have shot at a scholar that lay over the house of office. Thence calling on Mr. Stephens and Wootton (with whom I drank) about business of my Lord's (age 34) I went to the Coffee Club where there was nothing done but choosing of a Committee for orders. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] where Mrs. Lane and the rest of the maids had their white scarfs, all having been at the burial of a young bookseller in the Hall1.

Note 1. These stationers and booksellers, whose shops disfigured Westminster Hall down to a late period, were a privileged class. In the statutes for appointing licensers and regulating the press, there is a clause exempting them from the pains and penalties of these obnoxious laws.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1660. Monday. In the morning called out to carry £20 to Mr Downing (age 35), which I did and came back, and finding Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, I took him to the Axe and gave him his morning draft. Thence to my office and there did nothing but make up my balance. Came home and found my wife dressing of the girl's head, by which she was made to look very pretty. I went out and paid Wilkinson [Note. Landlord of the Crown Tavern] what I did owe him, and brought a piece of beef home for dinner. Thence I went out and paid Waters [Note. Landlord of The Sun, King Street], the vintner, and went to see Mrs. Jem, where I found my Lady Wright, but Scott was so drunk that he could not be seen. Here I staid and made up Mrs. Ann's bills, and played a game or two at cards, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], it being very dark. I paid Mrs. Michell, my bookseller, and back to Whitehall, and in the garden, going through to the Stone Gallery [Note. The Stone Gallery was a long passage between the Privy Garden and the river. It led from the Bowling Green to the Court of the Palace] I fell into a ditch, it being very dark. At the Clerk's chamber I met with Simons and Luellin, and went with them to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cock Pit [Map], where we had some rare pot venison, and ale to abundance till almost twelve at night, and after a song round we went home. This day the Parliament sat late, and resolved of the declaration to be printed for the people's satisfaction, promising them a great many good things.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1660. Saturday. I went to Mr Downing (age 35) and carried him three characters, and then to my office and wrote another, while Mr. Frost staid telling money. And after I had done it Mr. Hawly came into the office and I left him and carried it to Mr Downing (age 35), who then told me that he was resolved to be gone for Holland this morning. So I to my office again, and dispatch my business there, and came with Mr. Hawly to Mr Downing's (age 35) lodging, and took Mr. Squib from White Hall in a coach thither with me, and there we waited in his chamber a great while, till he came in; and in the mean time, sent all his things to the barge that lay at Charing-Cross Stairs. Then came he in, and took a very civil leave of me, beyond my expectation, for I was afraid that he would have told me something of removing me from my office; but he did not, but that he would do me any service that lay in his power. So I went down and sent a porter to my house for my best fur cap, but he coming too late with it I did not present it to him. Thence I went to Westminster Hall [Map], and bound up my cap at Mrs. Michell's, who was much taken with my cap, and endeavoured to overtake the coach at the Exchange [Map] and to give it him there, but I met with one that told me that he was gone, and so I returned and went to Heaven1, where Luellin and I dined on a breast of mutton all alone, discoursing of the changes that we have seen and the happiness of them that have estates of their own, and so parted, and I went by appointment to my office and paid young Mr. Walton £500; it being very dark he took £300 by content. He gave me half a piece and carried me in his coach to St. Clement's [Map], from whence I went to Mr. Crew's (age 62) and made even with Mr. Andrews, and took in all my notes and gave him one for all. Then to my Lady Wright and gave her Lord's (age 34) letter which he bade me give her privately. So home and then to Will's for a little news, then came home again and wrote to Lord, and so to Whitehall and gave them to the post-boy. Back again home and to bed.

Note 1. A place of entertainment within or adjoining Westminster Hall [Map]. It is called in "Hudibras", "False Heaven, at the end of the Hall". There were two other alehouses near Westminster Hall, called Hell and Purgatory. "Nor break his fast In Heaven and Hell". Ben Jonson's Alchemist, act V. SC. 2.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1660. In the morning I fell to my lute till 9 o'clock. Then to my Lord's (age 34) lodgings and set out a barrel of soap to be carried to Mrs. Ann. Here I met with Nick Bartlet, one that had been a servant of my Lord's at sea and at Harper's gave him his morning draft. So to my office where I paid; 1200l. to Mr. Frost and at noon went to Will's to give one of the Excise office a pot of ale that came to-day to tell over a bag of his that wanted; 7l. in it, which he found over in another bag. Then home and dined with my wife (age 19) when in came Mr. Hawly newly come from shipboard from his master, and brought me a letter of direction what to do in his lawsuit with Squib about his house and office. After dinner to Westminster Hall [Map], where all we clerks had orders to wait upon the Committee, at the Star Chamber that is to try Colonel Jones, and were to give an account what money we had paid him; but the Committee did not sit to-day. Hence to Will's, where I sat an hour or two with Mr. Godfrey Austin, a scrivener in King Street.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1660. Wednesday. In the morning went to my office where afterwards the old man brought me my letters from the carrier. At noon I went home and dined with my wife on pease porridge and nothing else. After that I went to the Hall [Map] and there met with Mr. Swan and went with him to Mr Downing's (age 35) Counsellor, who did put me in very little hopes about the business between Mr Downing (age 35) and Squib, and told me that Squib would carry it against him, at which I was much troubled, and with him went to Lincoln's Inn and there spoke with his attorney, who told me the day that was appointed for the trial. From thence I went to Sir Harry Wright's (age 23) and got him to give me his hand for the £60 which I am to-morrow to receive from Mr. Calthrop (age 36) and from thence to Mrs. Jem and spoke with Madam Scott and her husband who did promise to have the thing for her neck done this week. Thence home and took Gammer East, and James the porter, a soldier, to my Lord's lodgings, who told me how they were drawn into the field to-day, and that they were ordered to march away to-morrow to make room for General Monk (age 51); but they did shut their Colonel Fitch, and the rest of the officers out of the field, and swore they would not go without their money, and if they would not give it them, they would go where they might have it, and that was the City. So the Colonel went to the Parliament, and commanded what money could be got, to be got against to-morrow for them, and all the rest of the soldiers in town, who in all places made a mutiny this day, and do agree together. Here I took some bedding to send to Mrs. Ann for her to lie in now she hath her fits of the ague. Thence I went to Will's and staid like a fool there and played at cards till 9 o'clock and so came home, where I found Mr. Hunt's and his wife who staid and sat with me till 10 and so good night.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1660. At noon I went home and so to Mr. Crew's (age 62), but they had dined, and so I went to see Mrs. Jem where I stayed a while, and home again where I stayed an hour or two at my lute, and so forth to Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard that the Parliament hath now changed the oath so much talked of to a promise; and that among other qualifications for the members that are to be chosen, one is, that no man, nor the son of any man that hath been in arms during the life of the father, shall be capable of being chosen to sit in Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1660. Friday. In the morning Tom that was my Lord's footboy came to see me and had 10s. of me of the money which I have to keep of his. So that now I have but 35s. more of his. Then came Mr. Hills the instrument maker, and I consulted with him about the altering my lute and my viall. After that I went into my study and did up my accounts, and found that I am about; £40 beforehand in the world, and that is all. So to my office and from thence brought Mr. Hawly home with me to dinner, and after dinner wrote a letter to Mr Downing (age 35) about his business and gave it Hawly, and so went to Mr. Gunning's (age 46) to his weekly fast, and after sermon, meeting there with Monsieur L'Impertinent, we went and walked in the park till it was dark. I played on my pipe at the Echo, and then drank a cup of ale at Jacob's. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and he with me, where I heard that some of the members of the House were gone to meet with some of the secluded members and General Monk (age 51) in the City. Hence we went to White Hall, thinking to hear more news, where I met with Mr. Hunt, who told me how Monk (age 51) had sent for all his goods that he had here into the City; and yet again he told me, that some of the members of the House had this day laid in firing into their lodgings at White Hall for a good while, so that we are at a great stand to think what will become of things, whether Monk (age 51) will stand to the Parliament or no. Hence Mons L'Impertinent and I to Harper's, and there drank a cup or two to the King (age 29), and to his fair sister Frances good health, of whom we had much discourse of her not being much the worse for the smallpox, which she had this last summer.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1660. Monday. In the morning at my lute. Then to my office, where my partner and I made even our balance. Took him home to dinner with me, where my brother John (age 19) came to dine with me. After dinner I took him to my study at home and at my Lord's, and gave him some books and other things against his going to Cambridge. After he was gone I went forth to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Chetwind, Simons, and Gregory. And with them to Marsh's at Whitehall to drink, and staid there a pretty while reading a pamphlet1 well writ and directed to General Monk (age 51), in praise of the form of monarchy which was settled here before the wars. They told me how the Speaker Lenthall (age 68) do refuse to sign the writs for choice of new members in the place of the excluded; and by that means the writs could not go out to-day. In the evening Simons and I to the Coffee Club, where nothing to do only I heard Mr. Harrington (age 49), and my Lord of Dorset (age 37) and another Lord, talking of getting another place as the Cockpit [Map], and they did believe it would come to something. After a small debate upon the question whether learned or unlearned subjects are the best the Club broke up very poorly, and I do not think they will meet any more. Hence with Vines, &c. to Will's, and after a pot or two home, and so to bed.

Note 1. This pamphlet is among the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts (British Museum), and dated in MS. this same day, February 20th- "A Plea for Limited Monarchy as it was established in this Nation before the late War. In an Humble Address to his Excellency General Monck. By a Zealot for the good old Laws of his Country, before any Faction or Caprice, with additions". "An Eccho to the Plea for Limited Monarchy, &c"., was published soon afterwards.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1660. Tuesday. In the morning going out I saw many soldiers going towards Westminster, and was told that they were going to admit the secluded members again. So I to Westminster Hall [Map], and in Chancery Row I saw about twenty of them who had been at White Hall with General Monk (age 51), who came thither this morning, and made a speech to them, and recommended to them a Commonwealth, and against Charles Stuart. They came to the House and went in one after another, and at last the Speaker (age 68) came. But it is very strange that this could be carried so private, that the other members of the House heard nothing of all this, till they found them in the House, insomuch that the soldiers that stood there to let in the secluded members, they took for such as they had ordered to stand there to hinder their coming in. Mr. Prin (age 60) came with an old basket-hilt sword on, and had a great many great shouts upon his going into the Hall. They sat till noon, and at their coming out Mr. Crew (age 62) saw me, and bid me come to his house, which I did, and he would have me dine with him, which I did; and he very joyful told me that the House had made General Monk (age 51), General of all the Forces in England, Scotland, and Ireland; and that upon Monk's (age 51) desire, for the service that Lawson (age 45) had lately done in pulling down the Committee of Safety, he had the command of the Sea for the time being. He advised me to send for my Lord forthwith, and told me that there is no question that, if he will, he may now be employed again; and that the House do intend to do nothing more than to issue writs, and to settle a foundation for a free Parliament. After dinner I back to Westminster Hall with him in his coach. Here I met with Mr. Lock (age 39) and Pursell, Masters of Music, [Note. Henry Purcell, father of the celebrated composer, was gentleman of the Chapel Royal.] and with them to the Coffee House, into a room next the water, by ourselves, where we spent an hour or two till Captain Taylor (age 35) came to us, who told us, that the House had voted the gates of the City to be made up again, and the members of the City that are in prison to be set at liberty; and that Sir G. Booth's' (age 37) case be brought into the House to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1660. Thursday, my birthday, now twenty-seven years. A pretty fair morning, I rose and after writing a while in my study I went forth. To my office, where I told Mr. Hawly of my thoughts to go out of town to-morrow. Hither Mr. Fuller comes to me and my Uncle Thomas too, thence I took them to drink, and so put off my uncle. So with Mr. Fuller (age 52) home to my house, where he dined with me, and he told my wife and me a great many stories of his adversities, since these troubles, in being forced to travel in the Catholic countries, &c. He shewed me his bills, but I had not money to pay him. We parted, and I to Whitehall, where I was to see my horse which Mr. Garthwayt lends me to-morrow. So home, where Mr. Pierce comes to me about appointing time and place where and when to meet tomorrow. !So to Westminster Hall [Map], where, after the House rose, I met with Mr. Crew (age 62), who told me that my Lord was chosen by 73 voices, to be one of the Council of State. Mr. Pierpoint (age 52) had the most, 101, and himself the next, too. He brought me in the coach home. He and Mr. Anslow (age 45) being in it. I back to the Hall, and at Mrs. Michell's shop staid talking a great while with her and my Chaplain, Mr. Mumford, and drank a pot or two of ale on a wager that Mr. Prin (age 60) is not of the Council. Home and wrote to my Lord the news of the choice of the Council by the post, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1660. This morning I went early to my Lord at Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I spoke to him. Here were a great many come to see him, as Secretary Thurlow (age 43) who is now by this Parliament chosen again Secretary of State. There were also General Monk's (age 51) trumpeters to give my Lord a sound of their trumpets this morning. Thence I went to my office, and wrote a letter to Mr Downing (age 35) about the business of his house. Then going home, I met with Mr. Eglin, Chetwind, and Thomas, who took me to the Leg in King's street, where we had two brave dishes of meat, one of fish, a carp and some other fishes, as well done as ever I ate any. After that to the Swan [Map] tavern, where we drank a quart or two of wine, and so parted. So I to Mrs. Jem and took Mr. Moore with me (who I met in the street), and there I met W. Howe and Sheply. After that to Westminster Hall [Map], where I saw Sir G. Booth (age 37) at liberty. This day I hear the City militia is put into good posture, and it is thought that Monk (age 51) will not be able to do any great matter against them now, if he have a mind. I understand that my Lord Lambert (age 40) did yesterday send a letter to the Council, and that to-night he is to come and appear to the Council in person. Sir Arthur Haselrigge (age 59) do not yet appear in the House. Great is the talk of a single person, and that it would now be Charles (age 29), George (age 51), or Richard (age 33)-For the last of which, my Lord St. John (age 61) is said to speak high. Great also is the dispute now in the House, in whose name the writs shall run for the next Parliament; and it is said that Mr. Prin (age 60), in open House, said, "In King Charles's". From Westminster Hall [Map] home. Spent the evening in my study, and so after some talk with my wife, then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1660. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I found that my Lord was last night voted one of the Generals at Sea, and Monk (age 51) the other. I met my Lord in the Hall, who bid me come to him at noon. I met with Mr. Pierce the purser, Lieut. Lambert (age 40), Mr. Creed, and Will. Howe, and went with them to the Swan [Map] tavern. Up to my office, but did nothing. At noon home to dinner to a sheep's head. My brother Tom (age 26) came and dined with me, and told me that my mother was not very well, and that my Aunt Fenner was very ill too. After dinner I to Warwick House, in Holborn, to my Lord, where he dined with my Lord of Manchester (age 58), Sir Dudley North (age 77), my Lord Fiennes (age 52), and my Lord Barkly. I staid in the great hall, talking with some gentlemen there, till they all come out. Then I, by coach with my Lord, to Mr. Crew's (age 62), in our way talking of publick things, and how I should look after getting of his Commissioner's despatch. He told me he feared there was new design hatching, as if Monk (age 51) had a mind to get into the saddle. Here I left him, and went by appointment to Hering, the merchant, but missed of my money, at which I was much troubled, but could not help myself. Returning, met Mr. Gifford, who took me and gave me half a pint of wine, and told me, as I hear this day from many, that things are in a very doubtful posture, some of the Parliament being willing to keep the power in their hands. After I had left him, I met with Tom Harper, who took me into a place in Drury Lane, where we drank a great deal of strong water, more than ever I did in my life at onetime before. He talked huge high that my Lord Protector (age 33) would come in place again, which indeed is much discoursed of again, though I do not see it possible. Hence home and wrote to my father at Brampton by the post. So to bed. This day I was told that my Lord General Fleetwood (age 42) told my lord that he feared the King of Sweden is dead of a fever at Gottenburg.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1660. To Whitehall to bespeak some firing for my father at Short's, and likewise to speak to Mr. Blackburne about Batters being gunner in the "Wexford". Then to Westminster Hall [Map], where there was a general damp over men's minds and faces upon some of the Officers of the Army being about making a remonstrance against Charles Stuart (age 29) or any single person; but at noon it was told, that the General (age 51) had put a stop to it, so all was well again. Here I met with Jasper, who was to look for me to bring me to my Lord at the lobby; whither sending a note to my Lord, he comes out to me and gives me direction to look after getting some money for him from the Admiralty, seeing that things are so unsafe, that he would not lay out a farthing for the State, till he had received some money of theirs. Home about two o'clock, and took my wife by land to Paternoster Row [Map], to buy some Paragon for a petticoat and so home again. In my way meeting Mr. Moore, who went home with me while I ate a bit and so back to Whitehall again, both of us. He waited at the Council for Mr. Crew (age 62). I to the Admiralty, where I got the order for the money, and have taken care for the getting of it assigned upon Mr. Hutchinson, Treasurer for the Navy, against tomorrow. Hence going home I met with Mr. King that belonged to the Treasurers at War and took him to Harper's, who told me that he and the rest of his fellows are cast out of office by the new Treasurers. This afternoon, some of the Officers of the Army, and some of the Parliament, had a conference at White Hall to make all right again, but I know not what is done. This noon I met at the Dog tavern [Map] Captain Philip Holland, with whom I advised how to make some advantage of my Lord's going to sea, which he told me might be by having of five or six servants entered on board, and I to give them what wages I pleased, and so their pay to be mine; he was also very urgent to have me take the Secretary's place, that my Lord did proffer me.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1660. Early packing up my things to be sent by cart with the rest of my Lord's. So to Will's, where I took leave of some of my friends. Here I met Tom Alcock, one that went to school with me at Huntingdon, but I had not seen him these sixteen years. So in the Hall paid and made even with Mrs. Michell; afterwards met with old Beale, and at the Axe paid him this quarter to Ladyday next. In the afternoon Dick Mathews comes to dine, and I went and drank with him at Harper's. So into London by water, and in Fish Street [Map] my wife and I bought a bit of Salmon for 8d. and went to the Sun Tavern [Map] and ate it, where I did promise to give her all that I have in the world but my books, in case I should die at sea. From thence homewards; in the way my wife bought linen for three smocks and other things. I went to my Lord's and spoke with him. So home with Mrs. Jem by coach and then home to my own house. From thence to the Fox in King-street to supper on a brave turkey of Mr. Hawly's, with some friends of his there, Will Bowyer, &c. After supper I went to Westminster Hall [Map], and the Parliament sat till ten at night, thinking and being expected to dissolve themselves to-day, but they did not. Great talk to-night that the discontented officers did think this night to make a stir, but prevented. To the Fox again. Home with my wife, and to bed extraordinary sleepy.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1660. No sooner out of bed but troubled with abundance of clients, seamen. My landlord Vanly's man came to me by my direction yesterday, for I was there at his house as I was going to London by water, and I paid him rent for my house for this quarter ending at Lady day, and took an acquittance that he wrote me from his master. Then to Mr. Sheply, to the Rhenish Tavern House, where Mr. Pim, the tailor, was, and gave us a morning draft and a neat's tongue. Home and with my wife to London, we dined at my father's (age 59), where Joyce Norton and Mr. Armiger dined also. After dinner my wife took leave of them in order to her going to-morrow to Huntsmore. In my way home I went to the Chapel in Chancery Lane to bespeak papers of all sorts and other things belonging to writing against my voyage. So home, where I spent an hour or two about my business in my study. Thence to the Admiralty, and staid a while, so home again, where Will Bowyer came to tell us that he would bear my wife company in the coach to-morrow. Then to Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard how the Parliament had this day dissolved themselves, and did pass very cheerfully through the Hall, and the Speaker without his mace. The whole Hall was joyful thereat, as well as themselves, and now they begin to talk loud of the King (age 29). To-night I am told, that yesterday, about five o'clock in the afternoon, one came with a ladder to the Great Exchange [Map], and wiped with a brush the inscription that was upon King Charles, and that there was a great bonfire made in the Exchange, and people called out "God bless. King Charles the Second!"

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1660. We lay till past three o'clock, then up and down the town, to see it by daylight, where we saw the soldiers of the Prince's guard, all very fine, and the burghers of the town with their arms and muskets as bright as silver. And meeting this morning a schoolmaster that spoke good English and French, he went along with us and shewed us the whole town, and indeed I cannot speak enough of the gallantry of the town. Every body of fashion speaks French or Latin, or both. The women many of them very pretty and in good habits, fashionable and black spots. He went with me to buy a couple of baskets, one of them for Mrs. Pierce, the other for my wife. After he was gone, we having first drank with him at our lodging, the judge and I to the Grande Salle where we were shewed the place where the States General sit in council. The hall is a great place, where the flags that they take from their enemies are all hung up; and things to be sold, as in Westminster Hall [Map], and not much unlike it, but that not so big, but much neater. After that to a bookseller's and bought for the love of the binding three books: the French Psalms in four parts, Bacon's Organon, and Farnab. Rhetor1.

Note 1. "Index Rhetoricus" of Thomas Farnaby was a book which went through several editions. The first was published at London by R. Allot in 1633.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1660. From thence to the Excise Office in Broad Street, where I received £500 for my Lord, by appointment of the Treasurer, and went afterwards down with Mr. Luddyard and drank my morning draft with him and other officers. Thence to Mr. Backewell's, the goldsmith, where I took my Lord's £100 in plate for Mr. Secretary Nicholas (age 67), and my own piece of plate, being a state dish and cup in chased work for Mr. Coventry (age 32), cost me above £19. Carried these and the money by coach to my Lord's at White Hall, and from thence carried Nicholas's plate to his house and left it there, intending to speak with him anon. So to Westminster Hall [Map], where meeting with M. L'Impertinent and W. Bowyer, I took them to the Sun Tavern, and gave them a lobster and some wine, and sat talking like a fool till 4 o'clock. So to my Lord's, and walking all the afternoon in White Hall Court, in expectation of what shall be done in the Council as to our business. It was strange to see how all the people flocked together bare, to see the King looking out of the Council window. At night my Lord told me how my orders that I drew last night about giving us power to act, are granted by the Council. At which he and I were very glad. Home and to bed, my boy lying in my house this night the first time.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1660. In the morning with my Lord at Whitehall, got the order of the Council for us to act. From thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with the Doctor that shewed us so much kindness at the Hague, and took him to the Sun tavern, and drank with him. So to my Lord's and dined with W. Howe and Sarah, thinking it might be the last time that I might dine with them together. In the afternoon my Lord and I, and Mr. Coventry (age 32) and Sir G. Carteret (age 50), went and took possession of the Navy Office, whereby my mind was a little cheered, but my hopes not great. From thence Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and I to the Treasurer's Office, where he set some things in order. And so home, calling upon Sir Geoffry Palmer (age 62), who did give me advice about my patent, which put me to some doubt to know what to do, Barlow being alive. Afterwards called at Mr. Pim's, about getting me a coat of velvet, and he took me to the Half Moon [Map], and the house so full that we staid above half an hour before we could get anything. So to my Lord's, where in the dark W. Howe and I did sing extemporys, and I find by use that we are able to sing a bass and a treble pretty well. So home, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1660. Up early and advised with my wife for the putting of all our things in a readiness to be sent to our new house. To my Lord's, where he was in bed very late. So with Major Tollhurst and others to Harper's, and I sent for my barrel of pickled oysters and there ate them; while we were doing so, comes in Mr. Pagan Fisher; the poet, and promises me what he had long ago done, a book in praise of the King of France, with my armes, and a dedication to me very handsome. After him comes Mr. Sheply come from sea yesterday, whom I was glad to see that he may ease me of the trouble of my Lord's business. So to my Lord's, where I staid doing his business and taking his commands. After that to Westminster Hall [Map], where I paid all my debts in order to my going away from hence. Here I met with Mr. Eglin, who would needs take me to the Leg in King Street and gave me a dish of meat to dinner; and so I sent for Mons. L'Impertinent, where we sat long and were merry. After that parted, and I took Mr. Butler [Mons. L'Impertinent] with me into London by coach and shewed him my house at the Navy Office, and did give order for the laying in coals. So into Fenchurch Street [Map], and did give him a glass of wine at Rawlinson's (age 46), and was trimmed in the street. So to my Lord's late writing letters, and so home, where I found my wife had packed up all her goods in the house fit for a removal. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jul 1660. I did lie late a-bed. I and my wife by water, landed her at Whitefriars with her boy with an iron of our new range which is already broke and my wife will have changed, and many other things she has to buy with the help of my father to-day. I to my Lord and found him in bed. This day I received my commission to swear people the oath of allegiance and supremacy delivered me by my Lord. After talk with my Lord I went to Westminster Hall [Map], where I took Mr. Michell and his wife, and Mrs. Murford we sent for afterwards, to the Dog tavern [Map], where I did give them a dish of anchovies and olives and paid for all, and did talk of our old discourse when we did use to talk of the King, in the time of the Rump, privately; after that to the Admiralty Office, in White Hall, where I staid and writ my last observations for these four days last past. Great talk of the difference between the Episcopal and Presbyterian Clergy, but I believe it will come to nothing. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1660.To the office, and after dinner by water to White Hall, where I found the King gone this morning by 5 of the clock to see a Dutch pleasure-boat below bridge1, where he dines, and my Lord with him. The King do tire all his people that are about him with early rising since he came. To the office, all the afternoon I staid there, and in the evening went to Westminster Hall [Map], where I staid at Mrs. Michell's, and with her and her husband sent for some drink, and drank with them. By the same token she and Mrs. Murford and another old woman of the Hall were going a gossiping tonight. From thence to my Lord's, where I found him within, and he did give me direction about his business in his absence, he intending to go into the country to-morrow morning. Here I lay all night in the old chamber which I had now given up to W. Howe, with whom I did intend to lie, but he and I fell to play with one another, so that I made him to go lie with Mr. Sheply. So I lay alone all night.

Note 1;. A yacht which was greatly admired, and was imitated and improved by Commissioner Pett (age 50), who built a yacht for the King in 1661, which was called the "Jenny". Queen Elizabeth had a yacht, and one was built by Phineas Pett in 1604.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1660. This morning I went to White Hall with Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water, who in our passage told me how he was bred up under Sir W. Batten (age 59). We went to Mr. Coventry's (age 32) chamber, and consulted of drawing my papers of debts of the Navy against the afternoon for the Committee. So to the Admiralty, where W. Hewer (age 18) and I did them, and after that he went to his Aunt's Blackburn (who has a kinswoman dead at her house to-day, and was to be buried to-night, by which means he staid very late out). I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Mr. Crew (age 62) and dined with him, where there dined one Mr. Hickeman, an Oxford man, who spoke very much against the height of the now old clergy, for putting out many of the religious fellows of Colleges, and inveighing against them for their being drunk, which, if true, I am sorry to hear. After that towards Westminster, where I called on Mr. Pim, and there found my velvet coat (the first that ever I had) done, and a velvet mantle, which I took to the Privy Seal Office, and there locked them up, and went to the Queen's Court, and there, after much waiting, spoke with Colonel Birch (age 44), who read my papers, and desired some addition, which done I returned to the Privy Seal, where little to do, and with Mr. Moore towards London, and in our way meeting Monsieur Eschar (Mr. Montagu's man), about the Savoy, he took us to the Brazennose Tavern, and there drank and so parted, and I home by coach, and there, it being post-night, I wrote to my Lord to give him notice that all things are well; that General Monk (age 51) is made Lieutenant of Ireland, which my Lord Roberts (age 54) (made Deputy) do not like of, to be Deputy to any man but the King himself. After that to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1660. Office, which done, Sir W. Pen (age 39) took me into the garden, and there told me how Mr. Turner do intend to petition the Duke for an allowance extra as one of the Clerks of the Navy, which he desired me to join with him in the furthering of, which I promised to do so that it did not reflect upon me or to my damage to have any other added, as if I was not able to perform my place; which he did wholly disown to be any of his intention, but far from it. I took Mr. Hater home with me to dinner, with whom I did advise, who did give me the same counsel. After dinner he and I to the office about doing something more as to the debts of the Navy than I had done yesterday, and so to Whitehall to the Privy Seal, and having done there, with my father (who came to see me) to Westminster Hall [Map] and the Parliament House to look for Col. Birch (age 44), but found him not. In the House, after the Committee was up, I met with Mr. G. Montagu (age 38), and joyed him in his entrance (this being his 3d day) for Dover. Here he made me sit all alone in the House, none but he and I, half an hour, discoursing how things stand, and in short he told me how there was like to be many factions at Court between Marquis Ormond, General Monk (age 51), and the Lord Roberts (age 54), about the business of Ireland; as there is already between the two Houses about the Act of Indemnity; and in the House of Commons, between the Episcopalian and Presbyterian men. Hence to my father's (age 59) (walking with Mr. Herring, the minister of St. Bride's), and took them to the Sun Tavern, where I found George, my old drawer, come again. From thence by water, landed them at Blackfriars, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1660. By water to Doctors' Commons to Dr. Walker, to give him my Lord's papers to view over concerning his being empowered to be Vice-Admiral under the Duke of York. There meeting with Mr. Pinkney, he and I to a morning draft, and thence by water to White Hall, to the Parliament House, where I spoke with Colonel Birch (age 44), and so to the Admiralty chamber, where we and Mr. Coventry (age 32) had a meeting about several businesses. Amongst others, it was moved that Phineas Pett (kinsman to the Commissioner) of Chatham, Kent [Map], should be suspended his employment till he had answered some articles put in against him, as that he should formerly say that the King was a bastard and his mother a whore. Hence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with my father Bowyer, and Mr. Spicer, and them I took to the Leg in King Street, and did give them a dish or two of meat, and so away to the Privy Seal, where, the King being out of town, we have had nothing to do these two days. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with W. Symons, T. Doling, and Mr. Booth, and with them to the Dogg, where we eat a musk melon1 (the first that I have eat this year), and were very merry with W. Symons, calling him Mr. Dean, because of the Dean's lands that his uncle had left him, which are like to be lost all. Hence home by water, and very late at night writing letters to my Lord to Hinchinbroke, and also to the Vice-Admiral (age 45) in the Downs, and so to bed.

Note 1. "Melons were hardly known in England till Sir George Gardiner brought one from Spain, when they became in general estimation. The ordinary price was five or six shillings".-Quarterly Review, vol, xix.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1660. This morning Mr. Turner and I by coach from our office to Whitehall (in our way I calling on Dr. Walker for the papers I did give him the other day, which he had perused and found that the Duke's counsel had abated something of the former draught which Dr. Walker drew for my Lord) to Sir G. Carteret (age 50), where we there made up an estimate of the debts of the Navy for the Council. At noon I took Mr. Turner and Mr. Moore to the Leg in King Street, and did give them a dinner, and afterward to the Sun Tavern, and did give Mr. Turner a glass of wine, there coming to us Mr. Fowler the apothecary (the judge's son) with a book of lute lessons which his father had left there for me, such as he formerly did use to play when a young man, and had the use of his hand. To the Privy Seal, and found some business now again to do there. To Westminster Hall [Map] for a new half-shirt Mrs. Lane, and so home by water. Wrote letters by the post to my Lord and to sea. This night W. Hewer (age 18) brought me home from Mr. Pim's my velvet coat and cap, the first that ever I had. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1660. We found all well in the morning below stairs, but the boy in a sad plight of seeming sorrow; but he is the most cunning rogue that ever I met with of his age. To White Hall, where I met with the Act of Indemnity1 (so long talked of and hoped for), with the Act of Rate for Pole-money, an for judicial proceedings. At Westminster Hall [Map] I met with Mr. Paget the lawyer, and dined with him at Heaven. This afternoon my wife went to Mr. Pierce's wife's child's christening, and was urged to be godmother, but I advised her before-hand not to do it, so she did not, but as proxy for my Lady Jemimah. This the first day that ever I saw my wife wear black patches since we were married2! My Lord came to town to-day, but coming not home till very late I staid till 10 at night, and so home on foot. Mr. Sheply and Mr. Childe this night at the tavern.

Note 1. 12 Car. II cap. II, an act of free and general pardon, indemnity, and oblivion.

Note 2. The fashion of placing black patches on the face was introduced towards the close of the reign of Charles I., and the practice is ridiculed in the "Spectator".

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1660. At home all the morning looking over my workmen in my house. After dinner Sir W. Batten (age 59), Pen, and myself by coach to Westminster Hall [Map], where we met Mr. Wayte the lawyer to the Treasurer, and so we went up to the Committee of Parliament, which are to consider of the debts of the Army and Navy, and did give in our account of the twenty-five ships. Col. Birch (age 45) was very impertinent and troublesome. But at last we did agree to fit the accounts of our ships more perfectly for their view within a few days, that they might see what a trouble it is to do what they desire. From thence Sir Williams both going by water home, I took Mr. Wayte to the Rhenish Winehouse, and drank with him and so parted. Thence to Mr. Crew's (age 62) and spoke with Mr. Moore about the business of paying off Baron our share of the dividend. So on foot home, by the way buying a hat band and other things for my mourning to-morrow. So home and to bed. This day I heard that the Duke of York, upon the news of the death of his brother (deceased) yesterday, came hither by post last night.

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn [Map] ...

Daniel Axtell (age 38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall [Map].

Francis Hacker was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1660. Lord's Day. To the Parish church in the morning, where a good sermon by Mr. Mills. After dinner to my Lord's, and from thence to the Abbey, where I met Spicer and D. Vines and others of the old crew. So leaving my boy at the Abbey against I came back, we went to Prior's by the Hall back door, but there being no drink to be had we went away, and so to the Crown [Map] in the Palace Yard, I and George Vines by the way calling at their house, where he carried me up to the top of his turret, where there is Cooke's (deceased) head set up for a traytor, and Harrison's (deceased) set up on the other side of Westminster Hall [Map]. Here I could see them plainly, as also a very fair prospect about London. From the Crown to the Abbey to look for my boy, but he was gone thence, and so he being a novice I was at a loss what was become of him. I called at my Lord's (where I found Mr. Adams, Mr. Sheply's friend) and at my father's (age 59), but found him not. So home, where I found him, but he had found the way home well enough, of which I was glad. So after supper, and reading of some chapters, I went to bed. This day or two my wife has been troubled with her boils in the old place, which do much trouble her. Today at noon (God forgive me) I strung my lute, which I had not touched a great while before.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1660. We rose early in the morning to get things ready for My Lord, and Mr. Sheply going to put up his pistols (which were charged with bullets) into the holsters, one of them flew off, and it pleased God that, the mouth of the gun being downwards, it did us no hurt, but I think I never was in more danger in my life, which put me into a great fright. About eight o'clock my Lord went; and going through the garden my Lord met with Mr. William Montagu (age 42), who told him of an estate of land lately come into the King's (age 30) hands, that he had a mind my Lord should beg. To which end my Lord writ a letter presently to my Lord Chancellor (age 51) to do it for him, which (after leave taken of my Lord at White Hall bridge) I did carry to Warwick House to him; and had a fair promise of him, that he would do it this day for my Lord. In my way thither I met the Lord Chancellor (age 51) and all the judges riding on horseback and going to Westminster Hall [Map], it being the first day of the term, which was the first time I ever saw any such solemnity. Having done there I returned to Whitehall, where meeting with my brother Ashwell and his cozen Sam. Ashwell and Mr. Mallard, I took them to the Leg in King Street and gave them a dish of meat for dinner and paid for it. From thence going to Whitehall I met with Catan Stirpin in mourning, who told me that her mistress was lately dead of the small pox, and that herself was now married to Monsieur Petit, as also what her mistress had left her, which was very well. She also took me to her lodging at an Ironmonger's in King Street, which was but very poor, and I found by a letter that she shewed me of her husband's to the King, that he is a right Frenchman, and full of their own projects, he having a design to reform the universities, and to institute schools for the learning of all languages, to speak them naturally and not by rule, which I know will come to nothing. From thence to my Lord's, where I went forth by coach to Mrs. Parker's with my Lady, and so to her house again. From thence I took my Lord's picture, and carried it to Mr. de Cretz to be copied. So to White Hall, where I met Mr. Spong, and went home with him and played, and sang, and eat with him and his mother. After supper we looked over many books, and instruments of his, especially his wooden jack in his chimney, which goes with the smoke, which indeed is very pretty. I found him to be as ingenious and good-natured a man as ever I met with in my life, and cannot admire him enough, he being so plain and illiterate a man as he is. From thence by coach home and to bed, which was welcome to me after a night's absence.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1660. Office. My father and Dr. Thomas Pepys (age 39) dined at my house, the last of whom I did almost fox with Margate ale. My father is mightily pleased with my ordering of my house. I did give him money to pay several bills. After that I to Westminster to White Hall, where I saw the Duke de Soissons go from his audience with a very great deal of state: his own coach all red velvet covered with gold lace, and drawn by six barbes, and attended by twenty pages very rich in clothes. To Westminster Hall [Map], and bought, among, other books, one of the Life of our Queen, which I read at home to my wife; but it was so sillily writ, that we did nothing but laugh at it: among other things it is dedicated to that paragon of virtue and beauty, the Duchess of Albemarle (age 41). Great talk as if the Duke of York do now own the marriage between him and the Chancellor's daughter.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1660. Office day. Much troubled all this morning in my mind about the business of my walk on the leads. I spoke of it to the Comptroller and the rest of the principal officers, who are all unwilling to meddle in anything that may anger my Lady Davis. And so I am fain to give over for the time that she do continue therein. Dined at home, and after dinner to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Billing (age 37) the quaker at Mrs. Michell's shop, who is still of the former opinion he was of against the clergymen of all sorts, and a cunning fellow I find him to be. Home, and there I had news that Sir W. Pen (age 39) is resolved to ride to Sir W. Batten's (age 59) country house to-morrow, and would have me go with him, so I sat up late, getting together my things to ride in, and was fain to cut an old pair of boots to make leathers for those I was to wear. This month I conclude with my mind very heavy for the loss of the leads, as also for the greatness of my late expenses, insomuch that I do not think that I have above £150 clear money in the world, but I have, I believe, got a great deal of good household stuff: I hear to-day that the Queen (age 50) is landed at Dover, and will be here on Friday next, November 2nd. my wife has been so ill of late of her old pain that I have not known her this fortnight almost, which is a pain to me.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1660. Saturday. At home all the morning. In the afternoon to White Hall, where my Lord and Lady were gone to kiss the Queene's (age 50) hand. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Tom Doling, and we two took Mrs. Lane to the alehouse, where I made her angry with commending of Tom Newton and her new sweetheart to be both too good for her, so that we parted with much anger, which made Tom and me good sport. So home to write letters by the post, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1660. In the morning with Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) by water to Westminster, where at my Lord's I met with Mr. Creed. With him to see my Lord's picture (now almost done), and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where we found the Parliament met to-day, and thence meeting with Mr. Chetwind, I took them to the Sun, and did give them a barrel of oysters, and had good discourse; among other things Mr. Chetwind told me how he did fear that this late business of the Duke of York's (age 27) would prove fatal to my Lord Chancellor (age 51). From thence Mr. Creed and I to Wilkinson's, and dined together, and in great haste thence to our office, where we met all, for the sale of two ships by an inch of candle1 (the first time that ever I saw any of this kind), where I observed how they do invite one another, and at last how they all do cry, [To cry was to bid.] and we have much to do to tell who did cry last. The ships were the Indian, sold for £1,300, and the Half-moon, sold for £830. Home, and fell a-reading of the tryalls of the late men that were hanged for the King's death, and found good satisfaction in reading thereof.

Note 1. The old-fashioned custom of sale by auction by inch of candle was continued in sales by the Admiralty to a somewhat late date. See September 3rd, 1662.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1660. Lay long in bed to-day. Sir Wm. Batten (age 59) went this morning to Deptford, Kent [Map] to pay off the Wolf. Mr. Comptroller and I sat a while at the office to do business, and thence I went with him to his house in Lime Street, a fine house, and where I never was before, and from thence by coach (setting down his sister at the new Exchange) to Westminster Hall [Map], where first I met with Jack Spicer and agreed with him to help me to tell money this afternoon. Hence to De Cretz, where I saw my Lord's picture finished, which do please me very well. So back to the Hall, where by appointment I met the Comptroller, and with him and three or four Parliament men I dined at Heaven, and after dinner called at Will's on Jack Spicer, and took him to Mr. Fox's (age 33), who saved me the labour of telling me the money by giving me; £3000 by consent (the other £1000 I am to have on Thursday next), which I carried by coach to the Exchequer, and put it up in a chest in Spicer's office. From thence walked to my father's (age 59), where I found my wife, who had been with my father to-day, buying of a tablecloth and a dozen of napkins of diaper the first that ever I bought in my life. My father and I took occasion to go forth, and went and drank at Mr. Standing's, and there discoursed seriously about my sister's coming to live with me, which I have much mind for her good to have, and yet I am much afeard of her ill-nature. Coming home again, he and I, and my wife, my mother and Pall, went all together into the little room, and there I told her plainly what my mind was, to have her come not as a sister in any respect, but as a servant, which she promised me that she would, and with many thanks did weep for joy, which did give me and my wife some content and satisfaction. So by coach home and to bed. The last night I should have mentioned how my wife and I were troubled all night with the sound of drums in our ears, which in the morning we found to be Mr. Davys's jack1, but not knowing the cause of its going all night, I understand to-day that they have had a great feast to-day.

Note 1. The date of the origin of smoke jacks does not appear to be known, but the first patent taken out for an improved smoke-jack by Peter Clare is dated December 24th, 1770. The smoke jack consists of a wind-wheel fixed in the chimney, which communicates motion by means of an endless band to a pulley, whence the motion is transmitted to the spit by gearing. In the valuable introduction to the volume of "Abridgments of Specifications relating to Cooking, 1634-1866" (Patent Office), mention is made of an Italian work by Bartolomeo Scappi, published first at Rome in 1572, and afterwards reprinted at Venice in 1622, which gives a complete account of the kitchens of the time and the utensils used in them. In the plates several roasting-jacks are represented, one worked by smoke or hot air and one by a spring.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1660. Up early to my father's (age 59), where by appointment Mr. Moore came to me, and he and I to the Temple [Map], and thence to Westminster Hall [Map] to speak with Mr. Wm. Montagu about his looking upon the title of those lands which I do take as security for £3000 of my Lord's money. That being done Mr. Moore and I parted, and in the Hall I met with Mr. Fontleroy (my old acquaintance, whom I had not seen a long time), and he and I to the Swan [Map], and in discourse he seems to be wise and say little, though I know things are changed against his mind. Thence home by water, where my father, Mr. Snow, and Mr. Moore did dine with me. After dinner Mr. Snow and I went up together to discourse about the putting out of £80 to a man who lacks the money and would give me £15 per annum for 8 years for it, which I did not think profit enough, and so he seemed to be disappointed by my refusal of it, but I would not now part with my money easily. He seems to do it as a great favour to me to offer to come in upon a way of getting of money, which they call Bottomry1, which I do not yet understand, but do believe there may be something in it of great profit. After we were parted I went to the office, and there we sat all the afternoon, and at night we went to a barrel of oysters at Sir W. Batten's (age 59), and so home, and I to the setting of my papers in order, which did keep me up late. So to bed.

Note 1. "The contract of bottomry is a negotiable instrument, which may be put in suit by the person to whom it is transferred; it is in use in all countries of maritime commerce and interests. A contract in the nature of a mortgage of a ship, when the owner of it borrows money to enable him to carry on the voyage, and pledges the keel or bottom of the ship as a security for the repayment. If the ship be lost the lender loses his whole money; but if it returns in safety, then he shall receive back his principal, and also the premium stipulated to be paid, however it may exceed the usual or legal rate of interest".-Smyth's "Sailor's Word Book".

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1660. And so to see my Lord's picture at De Cretz, and he says it is very like him, and I say so too. After that to Westminster Hall [Map], and there hearing that Sir W. Batten (age 59) was at the Leg in the Palace, I went thither, and there dined with him and some of the Trinity House men who had obtained something to-day at the House of Lords concerning the Ballast Office. After dinner I went by water to London to the Globe in Cornhill [Map], and there did choose two pictures to hang up in my house, which my wife did not like when I came home, and so I sent the picture of Paris back again. To the office, where we sat all the afternoon till night. So home, and there came Mr. Beauchamp to me with the gilt tankard, and I did pay him for it £20. So to my musique and sat up late at it, and so to bed, leaving my wife to sit up till 2 o'clock that she may call the wench up to wash.

Note 1. Muscadine or muscadel, a rich sort of wine. 'Vinum muscatum quod moschi odorem referat.' "Quaffed off the muscadel, and threw the sops All in the sexton's face". Shakespeare, Taming of the Shrew, act iii. SC. 2.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1660. To my Lord's, where after I had done talking with him Mr. Townsend, Rumball, Blackburn, Creed and Shepley and I to the Rhenish Winehouse, and there I did give them two quarts of wormwood wine1, and so we broke up. So we parted, and I and Mr. Creed to Westminster Hall [Map] and looked over a book or two, and so to my Lord's, where I dined with my lady, there being Mr. Child and Mrs. Borfett, who are never absent at dinner there, under pretence of a wooing. From thence I to Mr. De Cretz and did take away my Lord's picture, which is now finished for me, and I paid £3 10s. for it and the frame, and am well pleased with it and the price. So carried it home by water, Will being with me. At home, and had a fire made in my closet, and put my papers and books and things in order, and that being done I fell to entering these two good songs of Mr. Lawes, "Helpe, helpe, O helpe", and "O God of Heaven and Hell" in my song book, to which I have got Mr. Child to set the base to the Theorbo, and that done to bed.

Note 1. wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) is celebrated for its intensely bitter, tonic, and stimulating qualities, which have caused it to be used in various medicinal preparations, and also in the making of liqueurs, as wormwood wine and creme d'absinthe.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1660. To Whitehall, where I found my Lord gone abroad to the Wardrobe, whither he do now go every other morning, and do seem to resolve to understand and look after the business himself. From thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and in King Street there being a great stop of coaches, there was a falling out between a drayman and my Lord Chesterfield's coachman, and one of his footmen killed. At the Hall I met with Mr. Creed, and he and I to Hell to drink our morning draught, and so to my Lord's again, where I found my wife, and she and I dined with him and my Lady, and great company of my Lord's friends, and my Lord did show us great respect.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1660. To Whitehall to the Privy Seal, and thence to Mr. Pierces the Surgeon to tell them that I would call by and by to go to dinner. But I going into Westminster Hall [Map] met with Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) (who were in a great fear that we had committed a great error of £100,000 in our late account gone into the Parliament in making it too little), and so I was fain to send order to Mr. Pierces to come to my house; and also to leave the key of the chest with Mr. Spicer; wherein my Lord's money is, and went along with Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water to the office, and there with Mr. Huchinson we did find that we were in no mistake. And so I went to dinner with my wife and Mr. and Mrs. Pierce the Surgeon to Mr. Pierce, the Purser (the first time that ever I was at his house) who does live very plentifully and finely. We had a lovely chine of beef and other good things very complete and drank a great deal of wine, and her daughter played after dinner upon the virginals1, and at night by lanthorn home again, and Mr. Pierce and his wife being gone home I went to bed, having drunk so much wine that my head was troubled and was not very well all night, and the wind I observed was rose exceedingly before I went to bed.

Note 1. All instruments of the harpsichord and spinet kind were styled virginals.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1661. Home all the morning. Several people came to me about business, among others the great Tom Fuller (age 52), who came to desire a kindness for a friend of his, who hath a mind to go to Jamaica with these two ships that are going, which I promised to do. So to Whitehall to my Lady, whom I found at dinner and dined with her, and staid with her talking all the afternoon, and thence walked to Westminster Hall [Map]. So to Will's, and drank with Spicer, and thence by coach home, staying a little in Paul's Churchyard, to bespeak Ogilby's AEsop's Fables and Tully's Officys to be bound for me. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1661. This morning I went early to the Comptroller's (age 50) and so with him by coach to Whitehall, to wait upon Mr. Coventry (age 33) to give him an account of what we have done, which having done, I went away to wait upon my Lady; but coming to her lodgings I find that she is gone this morning to Chatham, Kent [Map] by coach, thinking to meet me there, which did trouble me exceedingly, and I did not know what to do, being loth to follow her, and yet could not imagine what she would do when she found me not there. In this trouble, I went to take a walk in Westminster Hall [Map] and by chance met with Mr. Child, who went forth with my Lady to-day, but his horse being bad, he come back again, which then did trouble me more, so that I did resolve to go to her; and so by boat home and put on my boots, and so over to Southwarke to the posthouse, and there took horse and guide to Dartford and thence to Rochester, Kent [Map] (I having good horses and good way, come thither about half-an-hour after daylight, which was before 6 o'clock and I set forth after two), where I found my Lady and her daughter Jem., and Mrs. Browne' and five servants, all at a great loss, not finding me here, but at my coming she was overjoyed. The sport was how she had intended to have kept herself unknown, and how the Captain (whom she had sent for) of the Charles had forsoothed1 her, though he knew her well and she him. In fine we supped merry and so to bed, there coming several of the Charles's men to see me before, I got to bed. The page lay with me.

Note 1. To forsooth is to address in a polite and ceremonious manner. "Your city-mannerly word forsooth, use it not too often in any case".-Ben Jonson's Poetaster, act iv., sc. 1.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1661. Washing-day. My wife and I by water to Westminster. She to her mother's and I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I found a full term, and here I went to Will's, and there found Shaw and Ashwell and another Bragrave (who knew my mother wash-maid to my Lady Veere), who by cursing and swearing made me weary of his company and so I went away. Into the Hall and there saw my Lord Treasurer (who was sworn to-day at the Exchequer, with a great company of Lords and persons of honour to attend him) go up to the Treasury Offices, and take possession thereof; and also saw the heads of Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton, set up upon the further end of the Hall. Then at Mrs. Michell's in the Hall met my wife and Shaw, and she and I and Captain Murford to the Dog [Map], and there I gave them some wine, and after some mirth and talk (Mr. Langley coming in afterwards) I went by coach to the play-house at the Theatre [Map], our coach in King Street breaking, and so took another. Here we saw Argalus and Parthenia, which I lately saw, but though pleasant for the dancing and singing, I do not find good for any wit or design therein. That done home by coach and to supper, being very hungry for want of dinner, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1661. With Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Pen (age 39) to Whitehall to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) chamber, to debate upon the business we were upon the other day morning, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1661. With Mr. Pierce, purser, to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with Captain Cuttance, Lieut. Lambert (age 41), and Pierce, surgeon, thinking to have met with the Commissioners of Parliament, but they not sitting, we went to the Swan [Map], where I did give them a barrel of oysters; and so I to my Lady's and there dined, and had very much talk and pleasant discourse with my Lady, my esteem growing every day higher% and Higher in her and my Lord.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. About six at night they had dined, and I went up to my wife, and there met with a pretty lady (Mrs. Frankleyn, a Doctor's wife, a friend of Mr. Bowyer's), and kissed them both, and by and by took them down to Mr. Bowyer's. And strange it is to think, that these two days have held up fair till now that all is done, and the King gone out of the Hall; and then it fell a-raining and thundering and lightening as I have not seen it do for some years: which people did take great notice of; God's blessing of the work of these two days, which is a foolery to take too much notice of such things. I observed little disorder in all this, but only the King's footmen had got hold of the canopy, and would keep it from the Barons of the Cinque Ports1, which they endeavoured to force from them again, but could not do it till my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 52) caused it to be put into Sir R. Pye's' (age 76) hand till tomorrow to be decided.

Note 1. Bishop Kennett gives a somewhat fuller account of this unseemly broil: "No sooner had the aforesaid Barons brought up the King to the foot of the stairs in Westminster Hall [Map], ascending to his throne, and turned on the left hand (towards their own table) out of the way, but the King's footmen most insolently and violently seized upon the canopy, which the Barons endeavouring to keep and defend, were by their number and strength dragged clown to the lower end of the Hall, nevertheless still keeping their hold; and had not Mr. Owen York Herald, being accidentally near the Hall door, and seeing the contest, caused the same to be shut, the footmen had certainly carried it away by force. But in the interim also (speedy notice hereof having been given the King) one of the Querries were sent from him, with command to imprison the footmen, and dismiss them out of his service, which put an end to the present disturbance. These footmen were also commanded to make their submission to the Court of Claims, which was accordingly done by them the 30th April following, and the canopy then delivered back to the said Barons". Whilst this disturbance happened, the upper end of the first table, which had been appointed for the Barons of the Cinque Ports, was taken up by the Bishops, judges, &c., probably nothing loth to take precedence of them; and the poor Barons, naturally unwilling to lose their dinner, were necessitated to eat it at the bottom of the second table, below the Masters of Chancery and others of the long robe.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. And a Generall Pardon also was read by the Lord Chancellor (age 52), and meddalls flung up and down by my Lord Cornwallis (age 50), of silver, but I could not come by any. But so great a noise that I could make but little of the musique; and indeed, it was lost to every body. But I had so great a lust to.... that I went out a little while before the King had done all his ceremonies, and went round the Abbey to Westminster Hall [Map], all the way within rayles, and 10,000 people, with the ground covered with blue cloth; and scaffolds all the way. Into the Hall I got, where it was very fine with hangings and scaffolds one upon another full of brave ladies; and my wife in one little one, on the right hand. Here I staid walking up and down, and at last upon one of the side stalls I stood and saw the King come in with all the persons (but the soldiers) that were yesterday in the cavalcade; and a most pleasant sight it was to see them in their several robes. And the King came in with his crown on, and his sceptre in his hand, under a canopy borne up by six silver staves, carried by Barons of the Cinque Ports1, and little bells at every end. And after a long time, he got up to the farther end, and all set themselves down at their several tables; and that was also a brave sight: and the King's first course carried up by the Knights of the Bath.

Note 1. Pepys was himself one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at the Coronation of James II.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1661. All the morning almost at home, seeing my stairs finished by the painters, which pleases me well. So with Mr. Moore to Westminster Hall [Map], it being term, and then by water to the Wardrobe, where very merry, and so home to the office all the afternoon, and at night to the Exchange [Map] to my uncle Wight about my intention of purchasing at Brampton. So back again home and at night to bed. Thanks be to God I am very well again of my late pain, and to-morrow hope to be out of my pain of dirt and trouble in my house, of which I am now become very weary. One thing I must observe here while I think of it, that I am now become the most negligent man in the world as to matters of news, insomuch that, now-a-days, I neither can tell any, nor ask any of others.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1661. To Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked up and down, it being Term time. Spoke with several, among others my cozen Roger Pepys (age 44), who was going up to the Parliament House, and inquired whether I had heard from my father since he went to Brampton, which I had done yesterday, who writes that my uncle is by fits stupid, and like a man that is drunk, and sometimes speechless.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1661. From thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where it was expected that the Parliament was to have been adjourned for two or three months, but something hinders it for a day or two. In the lobby I spoke with Mr. George Montagu (age 38), and advised about a ship to carry my Lord Hinchingbroke and the rest of the young gentlemen to France, and they have resolved of going in a hired vessell from Rye [Map], and not in a man of war. He told me in discourse that my Lord Chancellor (age 52) is much envied, and that many great men, such as the Duke of Buckingham (age 33) and my Lord of Bristoll (age 48), do endeavour to undermine him, and that he believes it will not be done; for that the King (though he loves him not in the way of a companion, as he do these young gallants that can answer him in his pleasures), yet cannot be without him, for his policy and service.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1661. After my singing-master had done with me this morning, I went to White Hall and Westminster Hall [Map], where I found the King expected to come and adjourn the Parliament. I found the two Houses at a great difference, about the Lords challenging their privileges not to have their houses searched, which makes them deny to pass the House of Commons' Bill for searching for pamphlets and seditious books.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1661. I landed at Blackfriars and so to the Wardrobe and dined, and then back to Whitehall with Captain Ferrers, and there walked, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where we met with Mr. Pickering, and so all of us to the Rhenish wine house (Prior's), where the master of the house is laying out some money in making a cellar with an arch in his yard, which is very convenient for him. Here we staid a good while, and so Mr. Pickering and I to Westminster Hall [Map] again, and there walked an hour or two talking, and though he be a fool, yet he keeps much company, and will tell all he sees or hears, and so a man may understand what the common talk of the town is, and I find by him that there are endeavours to get my Lord out of play at sea, which I believe Mr. Coventry (age 33) and the Duke do think will make them more absolute; but I hope, for all this, they will not be able to do it. He tells me plainly of the vices of the Court, and how the pox is so common there, and so I hear on all hands that it is as common as eating and swearing.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1661. To the Privy Seal in the morning, but my Lord did not come, so I went with Captain Morrice at his desire into the King's Privy Kitchen to Mr. Sayres, the Master Cook, and there we had a good slice of beef or two to our breakfast, and from thence he took us into the wine cellar where, by my troth, we were very merry, and I drank too much wine, and all along had great and particular kindness from Mr. Sayres, but I drank so much wine that I was not fit for business, and therefore at noon I went and walked in Westminster Hall [Map] a while, and thence to Salisbury Court, Fleet Street play house, where was acted the first time "'Tis pity Shee's a Whore", a simple play and ill acted, only it was my fortune to sit by a most pretty and most ingenious lady, which pleased me much.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1661. This morning up early, and to my Lord Chancellor's (age 52) with a letter to him from my Lord, and did speak with him; and he did ask me whether I was son to Mr. Talbot Pepys or no (with whom he was once acquainted in the Court of Requests), and spoke to me with great respect. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] (it being Term time) and there met with Commissioner Pett (age 51), and so at noon he and I by appointment to the Sun [Map] in New Fish Street, where Sir J. Minnes (age 62), Sir W. Batten (age 60), and we all were to dine, at an invitation of Captain Stoaks and Captain Clerk, and were very merry, and by discourse I found Sir J. Minnes (age 62) a fine gentleman and a very good scholler.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1661. To Westminster Hall [Map] by water in the morning, where I saw the King (age 31) going in his barge to the Parliament House; this being the first day of their meeting again. And the Bishops, I hear, do take their places in the Lords House this day. I walked long in the Hall, but hear nothing of news, but what Ned Pickering (age 43) tells me, which I am troubled at, that Sir J. Minnes (age 62) should send word to the King (age 31), that if he did not remove all my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) captains out of this fleet, he believed the King (age 31) would not be master of the fleet at its coming again: and so do endeavour to bring disgrace upon my Lord. But I hope all that will not do, for the King (age 31) loves him.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1661. To Westminster Hall [Map] in the morning with Captain Lambert, and there he did at the Dog [Map] give me and some other friends of his, his foy, he being to set sail to-day towards the Streights. Here we had oysters and good wine. Having this morning met in the Hall with Mr. Sanchy, we appointed to meet at the play this afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1661. I lay long in bed, till Sir Williams both sent me word that we were to wait upon the Duke of York (age 28) to-day; and that they would have me to meet them at Westminster Hall [Map], at noon: so I rose and went thither; and there I understand that they are gone to Mr. Coventry's (age 33) lodgings, in the Old Palace Yard, to dinner (the first time I knew he had any); and there I met them two and Sir G. Carteret (age 51), and had a very fine dinner, and good welcome, and discourse; and so, by water, after dinner to White Hall to the Duke, who met us in his closet; and there he did discourse to us the business of Holmes, and did desire of us to know what hath been the common practice about making of forrayne ships to strike sail to us, which they did all do as much as they could; but I could say nothing to it, which I was sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1661. Lay long in bed, and then to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked, and then with Mr. Spicer, Hawly, Washington, and little Mr. Ashwell (my old friends at the Exchequer) to the Dog [Map], and gave them two or three quarts of wine, and so away to White Hall, where, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 51), Sir Williams both and I dined very pleasantly; and after dinner, by appointment, came the Governors of the East India Company, to sign and seal the contract between us1 (in the King's (age 31) name) and them.

Note 1. Charles II's charter to the Company, confirming and extending the former charter, is dated April 3rd, 1661. Bombay, India, just acquired as part of Queen Katherine's dowry, was made over to the Company by Letters Patent dated March 27th, 1669.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1661. And so back again to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) lodging, where I met my wife (who had been to see Mrs. Hunt who was brought to bed the other day of a boy), and got a joint of meat thither from the Cook's, and she and I and Sarah dined together, and after dinner to the Opera, where there was a new play ("Cutter of Coleman Street")1, made in the year 1658, with reflections much upon the late times; and it being the first time, the pay was doubled, and so to save money, my wife and I went up into the gallery, and there sat and saw very well; and a very good play it is. It seems of Cowly's (age 43) making. From thence by coach home, and to bed.

Note 1. Cutter, an old word for a rough swaggerer: hence the title of Cowley's (age 43) play. It was originally called "The Guardian", when acted before Prince Charles at Trinity College, Cambridge, on March 12th, 1641.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1661. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] (having by the way drank with Mrs. Sarah and Mrs. Betty at my Lord's lodgings), and thence taken by some Exchequer men to the Dogg [Map], where, being St. Thomas's day, by custom they have a general meeting at dinner. There I was and all very merry, and there I spoke to Mr. Falconberge to look whether he could out of Domesday Book, give me any thing concerning the sea, and the dominion thereof; which he says he will look after.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1662. At home most of the morning hanging up pictures, and seeing how my pewter sconces that I have bought will become my stayres and entry, and then with my wife by water to Westminster, whither she to her father's and I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked a turn or two with Mr. Chetwin (who had a dog challenged of him by another man that said it was his, but Mr. Chetwin called the dog, and the dog at last would follow him, and not his old master, and so Chetwin got the dog) and W. Symons, and thence to my wife, who met me at my Lord's lodgings, and she and I and old East to Wilkinson's to dinner, where we had some rost beef and a mutton pie, and a mince pie, but none of them pleased me.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1662. I rose and went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked up and down upon several businesses, and among others I met with Sir W. Pen (age 40), who told me that he had this morning heard Sir G. Carteret (age 52) extremely angry against my man Will that he is every other day with the Commissioners of Parliament at Westminster, and that his uncle was a rogue, and that he did tell his uncle every thing that passes at the office, and Sir William, though he loves the lad, did advise me to part with him, which did with this surprise mightily trouble me, though I was already angry with him, and so to the Wardrobe by water, and all the way did examine Will about the business, but did not tell him upon what score, but I find that the poor lad do suspect something.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1662. With him to Westminster Hall [Map], where I walked till noon talking with one or other, and so to the Wardrobe to dinner, where tired with Mr. Pickering's company I returned to Westminster, by appointment, to meet my wife at Mrs. Hunt's to gossip with her, which we did alone, and were very merry, and did give her a cup and spoon for my wife's god-child, and so home by coach, and I late reading in my chamber and then to bed, my wife being angry that I keep the house so late up.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1662. To Westminster Hall [Map], where it was full term. Here all the morning, and at noon to my Lord Crew's, where one Mr. Tempter (an ingenious man and a person of honour he seems to be) dined; and, discoursing of the nature of serpents, he told us some that in the waste places of Lancashire do grow to a great bigness, and that do feed upon larks, which they take thus: They observe when the lark is soared to the highest, and do crawl till they come to be just underneath them; and there they place themselves with their mouths uppermost, and there, as is conceived, they do eject poyson up to the bird; for the bird do suddenly come down again in its course of a circle, and falls directly into the mouth of the serpent; which is very strange. He is a great traveller; and, speaking of the tarantula, he says that all the harvest long (about which times they are most busy) there are fidlers go up and down the fields every where, in expectation of being hired by those that are stung.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1662. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map]; and there walked up and down and heard the great difference that hath been between my Lord Chancellor (age 53) and my Lord of Bristol (age 49), about a proviso that my Lord Chancellor (age 53) would have brought into the Bill for Conformity, that it shall be in the power of the King (age 31), when he sees fit, to dispense with the Act of Conformity; and though it be carried in the House of Lords, yet it is believed it will hardly pass in the Commons.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1662. So home again, and took water with them towards Westminster; but as we put off with the boat Griffin came after me to tell me that Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and the rest were at the office, so I intended to see them through the bridge [Map] and come back again, but the tide being against us, when we were almost through we were carried back again with much danger, and Mrs. Pierce was much afeard and frightened. So I carried them to the other side and walked to the Beare [Map], and sent them away, and so back again myself to the office, but finding nobody there I went again to the Old Swan [Map], and thence by water to the New Exchange [Map], and there found them, and thence by coach carried my wife to Bowes to buy something, and while they were there went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there bought Mr. Grant's (age 41) book of observations upon the weekly bills of mortality, which appear to me upon first sight to be very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1662. So to Whitehall and there met Mr. Moore, and I walked long in Westminster Hall [Map], and thence with him to the Wardrobe to dinner, where dined Mrs. Sanderson, the mother of the maids, and after dinner my Lady and she and I on foot to Pater Noster Row [Map] to buy a petticoat against the Queen's (age 23) coming for my Lady, of plain satin, and other things; and being come back again, we there met Mr. Nathaniel Crew (age 29)1 at the Wardrobe with a young gentleman, a friend and fellow student of his, and of a good family, Mr. Knightly, and known to the Crews, of whom my Lady privately told me she hath some thoughts of a match for my Lady Jemimah. I like the person very well, and he hath £2000 per annum.

Note 1. Nathaniel Crew (age 29), born 1633, fifth son of John, first Lord Crew; he himself became third Lord Crew in 1697. Sub-Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, 1659. Took orders in 1664, and was Rector of Lincoln College in 1668; Dean of Chichester, 1669; Bishop of Oxford, 1671; Bishop of Durham, 1674; sworn of the Privy Council in 1676. He was very subservient to James II, and at the Revolution was excepted from the general pardon of May, 1690, but he was allowed to keep possession of the bishopric of Durham.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jul 1662. Thence by water, and by and by landing at the riverside somewhere among the reeds, we walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where to Cocke's house again and walked in the garden, and then in to his lady, who I find is still pretty, but was now vexed and did speak very discontented and angry to the Captain for disappointing a gentleman that he had invited to dinner, which he took like a wise man and said little, but she was very angry, which put me clear out of countenance that I was sorry I went in. So after I had eat still some more fruit I took leave of her in the garden plucking apricots for preserving, and went away and so by water home, and there Mr. Moore coming and telling me that my Lady goes into the country to-morrow, I carried my wife by coach to take her leave of her father, I staying in Westminster Hall [Map], she going away also this week, and thence to my Lady's, where we staid and supped with her, but found that my Lady was truly angry and discontented with us for our neglecting to see her as we used to do, but after a little she was pleased as she was used to be, at which we were glad. So after supper home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1662. By and by comes my Lord Peterborough (age 40) in, with whom we talked a good while, and he is going tomorrow towards Tangier again. I perceive there is yet good hopes of peace with Guyland1, which is of great concernment to Tangier. And many other things I heard which yet I understand not, and so cannot remember. My Lord and Lord Peterborough (age 40) going out to the Solicitor General about the drawing up of this Commission, I went to Westminster Hall [Map] with Mr. Moore, and there meeting Mr. Townsend, he would needs take me to Fleet Street, to one Mr. Barwell, squire sadler to the King, and there we and several other Wardrobe-men dined. We had a venison pasty, and other good plain and handsome dishes; the mistress of the house a pretty, well-carriaged woman, and a fine hand she hath; and her maid a pretty brown lass. But I do find my nature ready to run back to my old course of drinking wine and staying from my business, and yet, thank God, I was not fully contented with it, but did stay at little ease, and after dinner hastened home by water, and so to my office till late at night.

Note 1. A Moorish usurper, who had put himself at the head of an army for the purpose of attacking Tangier. B.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1662. Then by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there I hear that old Mr. Hales did lately die suddenly in an hour's time. Here I met with Will Bowyer, and had a promise from him of a place to stand to-morrow at his house to see the show.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1662. Thence with Mr. Creed to Westminster Hall [Map], and by and by thither comes Captn. Ferrers, upon my sending for him, and we three to Creed's chamber, and there sat a good while and drank chocolate. Here I am told how things go at Court; that the young men get uppermost, and the old serious lords are out of favour; that Sir H. Bennet (age 44), being brought into Sir Edward Nicholas's place, Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32) is made Privy Purse; a most vicious person, and one whom Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, to-day (at which I laugh to myself), did tell me that he offered his wife £300 per annum to be his mistress. He also told me that none in Court hath more the King's ear now than Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32), and Sir H. Bennet (age 44), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), whose interest is now as great as ever and that Mrs. Haslerigge1, the great beauty, is got with child, and now brought to bed, and lays it to the King (age 32) or the Duke of York (age 29)2. He tells me too that my Lord St. Albans' is like to be Lord Treasurer: all which things do trouble me much. Here I staid talking a good while, and so by water to see Mr. Moore, who is out of bed and in a way to be well, and thence home, and with ComMr. Pett (age 52) by water to view Wood's masts that he proffers to sell, which we found bad, and so to Deptford, Kent [Map] to look over some businesses, and so home and I to my office, all our talk being upon Sir J. M. and Sir W. B.'s base carriage against him at their late being at Chatham, Kent [Map], which I am sorry to hear, but I doubt not but we shall fling Sir W. B. upon his back ere long.

Note 1. TT. Not clear which Mrs Haselbrigge this refers to. There are two possible Mrs Haselrigge's but neither appear to have married their resppective Haselrigge husbands before 1664: Elizabeth Fenwick (age 37) and Bridget Rolle.

Note 2. The child was owned by neither of the royal brothers. B.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked long with Mr. Creed, and then to the great half-a-crown ordinary, at the King's Head, near Charing Cross, where we had a most excellent neat dinner and very high company, and in a noble manner.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1662. Up betimes and to set my workmen to work, and then a little to the office, and so with Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir W. Batten (age 61), and myself by coach to White Hall, to the Duke (age 29), who, after he was ready, did take us into his closett. Thither come my Lord General Monk (age 53), and did privately talk with the Duke (age 29) about having the life-guards pass through the City today only for show and to fright people, for I perceive there are great fears abroad; for all which I am troubled and full of doubt that things will not go well. He being gone, we fell to business of the Navy. Among other things, how to pay off this fleet that is now come from Portugall; the King (age 32) of Portugall sending them home, he having no more use for them, which we wonder at, that his condition should be so soon altered. And our landmen also are coming back, being almost starved in that poor country. Having done here I went by my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who was not at home, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where full of term, and here met with many about business, among others my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), who is all for a composition with my uncle Thomas, which upon any fair terms I am for also and desire it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall [Map] and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple [Map] and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change [Map], and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt [Map], and we had excellent places, and saw the King (age 32), Queen (age 23), Duke of Monmouth (age 13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1662. Up and walked to Whitehall, where the Duke and Mr. Coventry (age 34) being gone forth I went to Westminster Hall [Map], where I staid reading at Mrs. Mitchell's shop, and sent for half a pint of sack for her. Here she told me what I heard not of before, the strange burning of Mr. De Laun, a merchant's house in Loathbury, and his lady (Sir Thomas Allen's (age 29) daughter) and her whole family; not one thing, dog nor cat, escaping; nor any of the neighbours almost hearing of it till the house was quite down and burnt. How this should come to pass, God knows, but a most strange thing it is!

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. Lay pretty long in bed, and then I up and to Westminster Hall [Map], and so to the Swan [Map], sending for Mr. W. Bowyer, and there drank my morning draft, and had some of his simple discourse. Among other things he tells me how the difference comes between his fair cozen Butler and Collonell Dillon (age 35), upon his opening letters of her brother's from Ireland, complaining of his knavery, and forging others to the contrary; and so they are long ago quite broke off.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1663. Up and by water with Sir W. Batten (age 62) to White Hall, drinking a glass of wormewood wine at the Stillyard [Map], and so up to the Duke, and with the rest of the officers did our common service; thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), but he was in bed, and had a bad fit last night, and so I went to, Westminster Hall [Map], it being Term time, it troubling me to think that I should have any business there to trouble myself and thoughts with. Here I met with Monsieur Raby, who is lately come from France. (he) tells me that my Lord Hinchingbroke (age 15) and his brother do little improve there, and are much neglected in their habits and other things; but I do believe he hath a mind to go over as their tutour, and so I am not apt to believe what he says therein. But I had a great deal of very good discourse with him, concerning the difference between the French and the Pope, and the occasion, which he told me very particularly, and to my great content; and of most of the chief affairs of France, which I did enquire: and that the King (age 32) is a most excellent Prince, doing all business himself; and that it is true he hath a mistress, Mademoiselle La Valiere (age 18), one of the Princess Henriette's women, that he courts for his pleasure every other day, but not so as to make him neglect his publique affairs. He tells me how the King (age 32) do carry himself nobly to the relations of the dead Cardinall1, and will not suffer one pasquill to come forth against him; and that he acts by what directions he received from him before his death.

Note 1. Cardinal Mazarin died March 9th, 1661.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1663. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and there find great expectation what the Parliament will do, when they come two days hence to sit again, in matters of religion. The great question is, whether the Presbyters will be contented to have the Papists have the same liberty of conscience with them, or no, or rather be denied it themselves: and the Papists, I hear, are very busy designing how to make the Presbyters consent to take their liberty, and to let them have the same with them, which some are apt to think they will. It seems a priest was taken in his vests officiating somewhere in Holborn the other day, and was committed by Secretary Morris, according to law; and they say the Bishop of London did give him thanks for it.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who though he has been abroad again two or three days is falling ill again, and is let blood this morning, though I hope it is only a great cold that he has got. It was a great trouble to me (and I had great apprehensions of it) that my Lord desired me to go to Westminster Hall [Map], to the Parliament-house door, about business; and to Sir Wm. Wheeler (age 52), which I told him I would do, but durst not go for fear of being taken by these rogues; but was forced to go to White Hall and take boat, and so land below the Tower at the Iron-gate [Map]; and so the back way over Little Tower Hill [Map]; and with my cloak over my face, took one of the watermen along with me, and staid behind a wall in the New-buildings behind our garden, while he went to see whether any body stood within the Merchants' Gate, under which we pass to go into our garden, and there standing but a little dirty boy before the gate, did make me quake and sweat to think he might be a Trepan1. But there was nobody, and so I got safe into the garden, and coming to open my office door, something behind it fell in the opening, which made me start. So that God knows in what a sad condition I should be in if I were truly in the condition that many a poor man is for debt: and therefore ought to bless God that I have no such reall reason, and to endeavour to keep myself, by my good deportment and good husbandry, out of any such condition.

Note 1. TT. Trickster.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1663. So I left him, and Creed and I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked a good while. He told me how for some words of my Baroness Gerard's1 against my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) to the Queen (age 24), the King (age 32) did the other day affront her in going out to dance with her at a ball, when she desired it as the ladies do, and is since forbid attending the Queen (age 24) by the King (age 32); which is much talked of, my Lord her husband being a great favourite.

Note 1. Jane, wife of Lord Gerard (age 45) (see ante, January 1st, 1662-63). The King (age 32) had previously put a slight upon Baroness Gerard, probably at the instigation of Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), as the two ladies were not friends. On the 4th of January of this same year Baroness Gerard had given a supper to the King (age 32) and Queen (age 24), when the King (age 32) withdrew from the party and proceeded to the house of Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and remained there throughout the evening (see Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", 1871, p. 47).

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1663. Up by very betimes and to my office, where all the morning till towards noon, and then by coach to Westminster Hall [Map] with Sir W. Pen (age 41), and while he went up to the House I walked in the Hall with Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, that I met there, talking about my business the other day with Holmes, whom I told my mind, and did freely tell how I do depend upon my care and diligence in my employment to bear me out against the pride of Holmes or any man else in things that are honest, and much to that purpose which I know he will make good use of. But he did advise me to take as few occasions as I can of disobliging Commanders, though this is one that every body is glad to hear that he do receive a check.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1663. At noon we rose, Sir W. Batten (age 62) ashamed and vexed, and so home to dinner, and after dinner walked to the old Exchange [Map] and so all along to Westminster Hall [Map], White Hall, my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, and going by water back to the Temple [Map] did pay my debts in several places in order to my examining my accounts tomorrow to my great content. So in the evening home, and after supper (my father at my brother's) and merrily practising to dance, which my wife hath begun to learn this day of Mr. Pembleton1, but I fear will hardly do any great good at it, because she is conceited that she do well already, though I think no such thing.

Note 1. Pembleton, the dancing-master, made Pepys very jealous, and there are many allusions to him in the following pages. His lessons ceased on May 27th.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1663. So to bed. At Westminster Hall [Map], this day, I buy a book lately printed and licensed by Dr. Stradling (age 43), the Bishop of London's chaplin, being a book discovering the practices and designs of the papists, and the fears of some of our own fathers of the Protestant church heretofore of the return to Popery as it were prefacing it. The book is a very good book; but forasmuch as it touches one of the Queenmother's (age 53) fathers confessors, the Bishop, which troubles many good men and members of Parliament, hath called it in, which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1663. Thence to my Lord's lodging, and thither came Creed to me, and he and I walked a great while in the garden, and thence to an alehouse in the market place to drink fine Lambeth ale, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and after walking there a great while, home by coach, where I found Mary gone from my wife, she being too high for her, though a very good servant, and my boy too will be going in a few days, for he is not for my family, he is grown so out of order and not to be ruled, and do himself, against his brother's counsel, desire to be gone, which I am sorry for, because I love the boy and would be glad to bring him to good.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1663. Thence I to Westminster Hall [Map], where Term and Parliament make the Hall full of people; no further news yet of the King of France (age 24), whether he be dead or not. Here I met with my cozen Roger Pepys (age 46), and walked a good while with him, and among other discourse as a secret he hath committed to nobody but myself, and he tells me that his sister Claxton now resolving to give over the keeping of his house at Impington, he thinks it fit to marry again, and would have me, by the help of my uncle Wight or others, to look him out a widow between thirty and forty years old, without children, and with a fortune, which he will answer in any degree with a joynture fit for her fortune. A woman sober, and no high-flyer, as he calls it. I demanded his estate. He tells me, which he says also he hath not done to any, that his estate is not full £800 per annum, but it is £780 per annum, of which £200 is by the death of his last wife, which he will allot for a joynture for a wife, but the rest, which lies in Cambridgeshire, he is resolved to leave entire for his eldest son. I undertook to do what I can in it, and so I shall. He tells me that the King (age 32) hath sent to them to hasten to make an end by midsummer, because of his going into the country; so they have set upon four bills to dispatch: the first of which is, he says, too devilish a severe act against conventicles; so beyond all moderation, that he is afeard it will ruin all: telling me that it is matter of the greatest grief to him in the world, that he should be put upon this trust of being a Parliament-man, because he says nothing is done, that he can see, out of any truth and sincerity, but mere envy and design.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1663. So I bade him good morrow, he being out of order to speak anything of our office business, and so away to Westminster Hall [Map], where I hear more of the plot from Ireland; which it seems hath been hatching, and known to the Lord Lieutenant (age 52) a great while, and kept close till within three days that it should have taken effect. The term ended yesterday, and it seems the Courts rose sooner, for want of causes, than it is remembered to have done in the memory of man.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1663. Up betimes, and my wife and Ashwell and I whiled away the morning up and down while they got themselves ready, and I did so watch to see my wife put on drawers, which poor soul she did, and yet I could not get off my suspicions, she having a mind to go into Fenchurch Street [Map] before she went out for good and all with me, which I must needs construe to be to meet Pembleton, when she afterwards told me it was to buy a fan that she had not a mind that I should know of, and I believe it is so. Specially I did by a wile get out of my boy that he did not yesterday go to Pembleton's or thereabouts, but only was sent all that time for some starch, and I did see him bringing home some, and yet all this cannot make my mind quiet. At last by coach I carried her to Westminster Hall [Map], and they two to Mrs. Bowyer to go from thence to my wife's father's and Ashwell to hers, and by and by seeing my wife's father in the Hall, and being loth that my wife should put me to another trouble and charge by missing him to-day, I did employ a porter to go from a person unknown to tell him his daughter was come to his lodgings, and I at a distance did observe him, but, Lord! what a company of questions he did ask him, what kind of man I was, and God knows what. So he went home, and after I had staid in the Hall a good while, where I heard that this day the Archbishop of Canterbury, Juxon, a man well spoken of by all for a good man, is dead; and the Bishop of London is to have his seat.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1663. Thence home and at my office all the morning, and then by water to St. James's, but no meeting to-day being holy day, but met Mr. Creed in the Park, and after a walk or two, discoursing his business, took leave of him in Westminster Hall [Map], whither we walked, and then came again to the Hall and fell to talk with Mrs. Lane, and after great talk that she never went abroad with any man as she used heretofore to do, I with one word got her to go with me and to meet me at the further Rhenish wine-house, where I did give her a lobster and do so touse her and feel her all over, making her believe how fair and good a skin she has, and indeed she has a very white thigh and leg, but monstrous fat. When weary I did give over and somebody, having seen some of our dalliance, called aloud in the street, "Sir! why do you kiss the gentlewoman so?" and flung a stone at the window, which vexed me, but I believe they could not see my touzing her, and so we broke up and I went out the back way, without being observed I think, and so she towards the Hall and I to White Hall, where taking water I to the Temple [Map] with my cozen Roger (age 46) and Mr. Goldsborough to Gray's Inn to his counsel, one Mr. Rawworth, a very fine man, where it being the question whether I as executor should give a warrant to Goldsborough in my reconveying her estate back again, the mortgage being performed against all acts of the testator, but only my own, my cozen said he never heard it asked before; and the other that it was always asked, and he never heard it denied, or scrupled before, so great a distance was there in their opinions, enough to make a man forswear ever having to do with the law; so they agreed to refer it to Serjeant Maynard. So we broke up, and I by water home from the Temple [Map], and there to Sir W. Batten (age 62) and eat with him, he and his lady and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) having been below to-day upon the East India men that are come in, but never tell me so, but that they have been at Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, and done great deal of business. God help them.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1663. I to St. James's, and there discoursed a while with Mr. Coventry (age 35), between whom and myself there is very good understanding and friendship, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and being in the Parliament lobby, I there saw my Lord of Bristol (age 50) come to the Commons House to give his answer to their question, about some words he should tell the King (age 33) that were spoke by Sir Richard Temple (age 29), a member of their House. A chair was set at the bar of the House for him, which he used but little, but made an harangue of half an hour bareheaded, the House covered. His speech being done, he came out and withdrew into a little room till the House had concluded of an answer to his speech; which they staying long upon, I went away. And by and by out comes Sir W. Batten (age 62); and he told me that his Lordship had made a long and a comedian-like speech, and delivered with such action as was not becoming his Lordship. He confesses he did tell the King (age 33) such a thing of Sir Richard Temple (age 29), but that upon his honour they were not spoke by Sir Richard, he having taken a liberty of enlarging to the King (age 33) upon the discourse which had been between Sir Richard and himself lately; and so took upon himself the whole blame, and desired their pardon, it being not to do any wrong to their fellow-member, but out of zeal to the King (age 33). He told them, among many other things, that as to his religion he was a Roman Catholique, but such a one as thought no man to have right to the Crown of England but the Prince that hath it; and such a one as, if the King (age 33) should desire his counsel as to his own, he would not advise him to another religion than the old true reformed religion of this country, it being the properest of this kingdom as it now stands; and concluded with a submission to what the House shall do with him, saying, that whatever they shall do, says he, "thanks be to God, this head, this heart, and this sword (pointing to them all), will find me a being in any place in Europe". The House hath hereupon voted clearly Sir Richard Temple (age 29) to be free from the imputation of saying those words; but when Sir William Batten (age 62) came out, had not concluded what to say to my Lord, it being argued that to own any satisfaction as to my Lord from his speech, would be to lay some fault upon the King (age 33) for the message he should upon no better accounts send to the impeaching of one of their members.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1663. Up and he home, and I with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to Westminster, to St. James's, thinking to meet Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and to attend the Duke (age 29), but he not coming we broke up, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there meeting with Mr. Moore he tells me great news that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is fallen from Court, and this morning retired. He gives me no account of the reason of it, but that it is so: for which I am sorry: and yet if the King (age 33) do it to leave off not only her but all other mistresses, I should be heartily glad of it, that he may fall to look after business. I hear my Lord Digby (age 50) is condemned at Court for his speech, and that my Chancellor (age 54) grows great again.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1663. Up late and by water to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Pierce the chirurgeon, who tells me that for certain the King (age 33) is grown colder to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) than ordinary, and that he believes he begins to love the Queen (age 24), and do make much of her, more than he used to do.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1663. So to the Temple [Map], Wardrobe, and lastly to Westminster Hall [Map], where I expected some bands made me by Mrs. Lane, and while she went to the starchers for them, I staid at Mrs. Howlett's, who with her husband were abroad, and only their daughter (which I call my wife) was in the shop, and I took occasion to buy a pair of gloves to talk to her, and I find her a pretty spoken girl, and will prove a mighty handsome wench. I could love her very well.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1663. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and there at Mrs. Michell's shop sent for beer and sugar and drink, and made great cheer with it among her and Mrs. Howlett, her neighbour, and their daughters, especially Mrs. Howlett's daughter, Betty, which is a pretty girl, and one I have long called wife, being, I formerly thought, like my own wife.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1663. So over the water to Westminster Hall [Map], and not finding Mrs. Lane, with whom I purposed to be merry, I went to Jervas's and took him and his wife over the water to their mother Palmer's (the woman that speaks in the belly, and with whom I have two or three years ago made good sport with Mr. Mallard), thinking because I had heard that she is a woman of that sort that I might there have lit upon some lady of pleasure (for which God forgive me), but blest be God there was none, nor anything that pleased me, but a poor little house that she has set out as fine as she can, and for her singing which she pretends to is only some old body songs and those sung abominably, only she pretends to be able to sing both bass and treble, which she do something like, but not what I thought formerly and expected now; nor do her speaking in her belly take me now as it did then, but it may be that is because I know it and see her mouth when she speaks, which should not be.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1663. So to the Exchange [Map], and thence home to dinner with my brother, and in the afternoon to Westminster Hall [Map], and there found Mrs. Lane, and by and by by agreement we met at the Parliament stairs (in my way down to the boat who should meet us but my lady Jemimah, who saw me lead her but said nothing to me of her, though I ought to speak to her to see whether she would take notice of it or no) and off to Stangate and so to the King's Head at Lambeth marsh, and had variety of meats and drinks, but I did so towse her and handled her, but could get nothing more from her though I was very near it; but as wanton and bucksome as she is she dares not adventure upon the business, in which I very much commend and like her. Staid pretty late, and so over with her by water, and being in a great sweat with my towsing of her durst not go home by water, but took coach, and at home my brother and I fell upon Des Cartes, and I perceive he has studied him well, and I cannot find but he has minded his book, and do love it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1663. Up betimes, and an hour at my viall, and then abroad by water to White Hall and Westminster Hall [Map], and there bought the first newes-books of L'Estrange's (age 46)1 writing; he beginning this week; and makes, methinks, but a simple beginning.

Note 1. Roger L'Estrange (age 46), a voluminous writer of pamphlets and periodical papers, and translator of classics, &c. Born 1616. He was Licenser of the Press to Charles II and James II; and M.P. for Winchester in James II's parliament. L'Estrange (age 46) was knighted in the reign of James II, and died 1704. In 1663 L'Estrange set up a paper called "The Public Intelligencer", which came out on August 31st, and continued to be published twice a week till January 19th, 1665, when it was superseded by the scheme of publishing the "London Gazette", the first number of which appeared on February 4th following.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1663. Thence to Sir W. Warren's again, and there drew up a contract for masts which he is to sell us, and so home to dinner, finding my poor wife busy. I, after dinner, to the office, and then to White Hall, to Sir G. Carteret's (age 53), but did not speak with him, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], God forgive me, thinking to meet Mrs. Lane, but she was not there, but here I met with Ned Pickering (age 45), with whom I walked 3 or 4 hours till evening, he telling me the whole business of my Lord's folly with this Mrs. Becke, at Chelsey, of all which I am ashamed to see my Lord so grossly play the beast and fool, to the flinging off of all honour, friends, servants, and every thing and person that is good, and only will have his private lust undisturbed with this common.... his sitting up night after night alone, suffering nobody to come to them, and all the day too, casting off Pickering, basely reproaching him with his small estate, which yet is a good one, and other poor courses to obtain privacy beneath his honour, and with his carrying her abroad and playing on his lute under her window, and forty other poor sordid things, which I am grieved to hear; but believe it to no purpose for me to meddle with it, but let him go on till God Almighty and his own conscience and thoughts of his lady and family do it. So after long discourse, to my full satisfaction but great trouble, I home by water and at my office late, and so to supper to my poor wife, and so to bed, being troubled to think that I shall be forced to go to Brampton the next Court, next week.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Sep 1663. After dinner, and long discourse, he went away to meet on Monday morning, and I to my office, and thence by water to White Hall and Westminster Hall [Map] about several businesses, and so home, and to my office writing a laborious letter about our last account to my Lord Treasurer (age 56), which took me to one o'clock in the morning,

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1663. Thence walked to several places about business and to Westminster Hall [Map], thinking to meet Mrs. Lane, which is my great vanity upon me at present, but I must correct it. She was not in the way.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1663. In the afternoon telling my wife that I go to Deptford, I went, by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there finding Mrs. Lane, took her over to Lambeth, where we were lately, and there, did what I would with her, but only the main thing, which she would not consent to, for which God be praised.... But, trust in the Lord, I shall never do so again while I live. After being tired with her company I landed her at White Hall, and so home and at my office writing letters till 12 at night almost, and then home to supper and bed, and there found my poor wife hard at work, which grieved my heart to see that I should abuse so good a wretch, and that is just with God to make her bad with me for my wrongin of her, but I do resolve never to do the like again. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1663. Thence home and after dinner my wife and I, by Mr. Rawlinson's (age 49) conduct, to the Jewish Synagogue: where the men and boys in their vayles, and the women behind a lattice out of sight; and some things stand up, which I believe is their Law, in a press to which all coming in do bow; and at the putting on their vayles do say something, to which others that hear him do cry Amen, and the party do kiss his vayle. Their service all in a singing way, and in Hebrew. And anon their Laws that they take out of the press are carried by several men, four or five several burthens in all, and they do relieve one another; and whether it is that every one desires to have the carrying of it, I cannot tell, thus they carried it round about the room while such a service is singing. And in the end they had a prayer for the King (age 33), which they pronounced his name in Portugall; but the prayer, like the rest, in Hebrew. But, Lord! to see the disorder, laughing, sporting, and no attention, but confusion in all their service, more like brutes than people knowing the true God, would make a man forswear ever seeing them more and indeed I never did see so much, or could have imagined there had been any religion in the whole world so absurdly performed as this. Away thence with my mind strongly disturbed with them, by coach and set down my wife in Westminster Hall [Map], and I to White Hall, and there the Tangier Committee met, but the Duke and the Africa Committee meeting in our room, Sir G. Carteret (age 53); Sir Wm. Compton (age 38), Mr. Coventry (age 35), Sir W. Rider, Cuttance and myself met in another room, with chairs set in form but no table, and there we had very fine discourses of the business of the fitness to keep Sally, and also of the terms of our King's paying the Portugees that deserted their house at Tangier, which did much please me, and so to fetch my wife, and so to the New Exchange about her things, and called at Thomas Pepys the turner's and bought something there, an so home to supper and to bed, after I had been a good while with Sir W. Pen (age 42), railing and speaking freely our minds against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64), but no more than the folly of one and the knavery of the other do deserve.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1663. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] with Creed, and spent the morning walking there, where, it being Terme time, I met several persons, and talked with them, among others James Pearce Surgeon, who tells me that the Queen (age 24) is in a way to be pretty well again, but that her delirium in her head continues still; that she talks idle, not by fits, but always, which in some lasts a week after so high a fever, in some more, and in some for ever; that this morning she talked mightily that she was brought to bed, and that she wondered that she should be delivered without pain and without spueing or being sicke, and that she was troubled that her boy was but an ugly boy. But the King (age 33) being by, said, "No, it is a very pretty boy".-"Nay", says she, "if it be like you it is a fine boy indeed, and I would be very well pleased with it". The other day she talked mightily of Sir H. Wood's (age 66) lady's (age 36) great belly, and said if she should miscarry he would never get another, and that she never saw such a man as this Sir H. Wood in her life, and seeing of Dr. Pridgeon, she said, "Nay, Doctor, you need not scratch your head, there is hair little enough already in the place". But methinks it was not handsome for the weaknesses of Princes to be talked of thus.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1663. Thence, meeting with Creed, walked with him to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence by coach took up Mrs. Hunt, and carried her towards my house, and we light at the 'Change [Map], and sent her to my house, Creed and I to the Coffeehouse, and then to the 'Change [Map], and so home, and carried a barrel of oysters with us, and so to dinner, and after a good dinner left Mrs. Hunt and my wife making marmalett of quinces, and Creed and I to the perriwigg makers, but it being dark concluded of nothing, and so Creed went away, and I with Sir W. Pen (age 42), who spied me in the street, in his coach home.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1663. Home to dinner, and then by coach abroad about several businesses to several places, among others to Westminster Hall [Map], where, seeing Howlett's daughter going out of the other end of the Hall, I followed her if I would to have offered talk to her and dallied with her a little, but I could not overtake her.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Mr. Pierce, chyrurgeon; and among other things he asked me seriously whether I knew anything of my Lord's being out of favour with the King (age 33); and told me, that for certain the King (age 33) do take mighty notice of my Lord's living obscurely in a corner not like himself, and becoming the honour that he is come to. I was sorry to hear, and the truth is, from my Lord's discourse among his people (which I am told) of the uncertainty of princes' favours, and his melancholy keeping from Court, I am doubtful of some such thing; but I seemed wholly strange to him in it, but will make my use of it. He told me also how loose the Court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust and gain; and how the King (age 33) is now become besotted upon Mrs. Stewart (age 16), that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an houre together kissing her to the observation of all the world; and she now stays by herself and expects it, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) did use to do; to whom the King (age 33), he says, is still kind, so as now and then he goes to have a chat with her as he believes; but with no such fondness as he used to do. But yet it is thought that this new wench is so subtle, that she lets him not do any thing than is safe to her, but yet his doting is so great that, Pierce tells me, it is verily thought if the Queene (age 53) had died, he would have married her.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1663. But, Lord! to see how near I was to have broken my oathe, or run the hazard of 20s. losse, so much my nature was hot to have gone thither; but I did not go, but having spoke with W. Howe and known how my Lord did do this kindly as I would have it, I did go to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met Hawley, and walked a great while with him. Among other discourse encouraging him to pursue his love to Mrs. Lane, while God knows I had a roguish meaning in it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1664. Thence to the Tennis Court, after I had spent a little time in Westminster Hall [Map], thinking to have met with Mrs. Lane, but I could not and am glad of it, and there saw the King (age 33) play at Tennis and others: but to see how the King's play was extolled without any cause at all, was a loathsome sight, though sometimes, indeed, he did play very well and deserved to be commended; but such open flattery is beastly.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1664. After dinner by coach I carried my wife and Jane to Westminster, leaving her at Mr. Hunt's, and I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there visited Mrs. Lane, and by appointment went out and met her at the Trumpet, Mrs. Hare's, but the room being damp we went to the Bell Tavern, and there I had her company, but could not do as I used to do (yet nothing but what was honest).... So I to talk about her having Hawley, she told me flatly no, she could not love him. I took occasion to enquire of Howlett's daughter, with whom I have a mind to meet a little to see what mettle the young wench is made of, being very pretty, but she tells me she is already betrothed to Mrs. Michell's son, and she in discourse tells me more, that Mrs. Michell herself had a daughter before marriage, which is now near thirty years old, a thing I could not have believed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1664. He being gone, I by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there did see Mrs. Lane...

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1664. Thence home and to supper, being hungry, and so to the office, did business, specially about Creed, for whom I am now pretty well fitted, and so home to bed. This day in Westminster Hall [Map] W. Bowyer told me that his father is dead lately, and died by being drowned in the river, coming over in the night; but he says he had not been drinking. He was taken with his stick in his hand and cloake over his shoulder, as ruddy as before he died. His horse was taken overnight in the water, hampered in the bridle, but they were so silly as not to look for his master till the next morning, that he was found drowned.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1664. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with diverse people, it being terme time. Among others I spoke with Mrs. Lane, of whom I doubted to hear something of the effects of our last meeting about a fortnight or three weeks ago, but to my content did not. Here I met with Mr. Pierce, who tells me of several passages at Court, among others how the King (age 33), coming the other day to his Theatre to see "The Indian Queen" (which he commends for a very fine thing), my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23) was in the next box before he came; and leaning over other ladies awhile to whisper to the King (age 33), she rose out of the box and went into the King's, and set herself on the King's right hand, between the King (age 33) and the Duke of York (age 30); which, he swears, put the King (age 33) himself, as well as every body else, out of countenance; and believes that she did it only to show the world that she is not out of favour yet, as was believed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. But at last it was quenched, and I home to dinner, and after dinner carried my wife and set her and her two mayds in Fleete Streete to buy things, and I to White Hall to little purpose, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there talked with Mrs. Lane and Howlett, but the match with Hawly I perceive will not take, and so I am resolved wholly to avoid occasion of further ill with her.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1664. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and spent till noon, it being Parliament time, and at noon walked with Creed into St. James's Parke, talking of many things, particularly of the poor parts and great unfitness for business of Mr. Povy (age 50), and yet what a show he makes in the world. Mr. Coventry (age 36) not being come to his chamber, I walked through the house with him for an hour in St. James's fields' talking of the same subject, and then parted, and back and with great impatience, sometimes reading, sometimes walking, sometimes thinking that Mr. Coventry (age 36), though he invited us to dinner with him, was gone with the rest of the office without a dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1664. At last, at past 4 o'clock I heard that the Parliament was not up yet, and so walked to Westminster Hall [Map], and there found it so, and meeting with Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and being very hungry, went over with him to the Leg, and before we had cut a bit, the House rises, however we eat a bit and away to St. James's and there eat a second part of our dinner with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and his brother Harry (age 45), Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir W. Pen (age 42). The great matter today in the House hath been, that Mr. Vaughan (age 60), the great speaker, is this day come to towne, and hath declared himself in a speech of an houre and a half, with great reason and eloquence, against the repealing of the Bill for Triennial Parliaments; but with no successe: but the House have carried it that there shall be such Parliaments, but without any coercive power upon the King (age 33), if he will bring this Act. But, Lord! to see how the best things are not done without some design; for I perceive all these gentlemen that I was with to-day were against it (though there was reason enough on their side); yet purely, I could perceive, because it was the King's mind to have it; and should he demand any thing else, I believe they would give it him. But this the discontented Presbyters, and the faction of the House will be highly displeased with; but it was carried clearly against them in the House. We had excellent good table-talke, some of which I have entered in my book of stories.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1664. I left them providing for his stay there to-night and getting a petition against tomorrow, and so away to Westminster Hall [Map], and meeting Mr. Coventry (age 36), he took me to his chamber, with Sir William Hickeman, a member of their House, and a very civill gentleman. Here we dined very plentifully, and thence to White Hall to the Duke's (age 30), where we all met, and after some discourse of the condition of the Fleete, in order to a Dutch warr, for that, I perceive, the Duke (age 30) hath a mind it should come to, we away to the office, where we sat, and I took care to rise betimes, and so by water to Halfway House, talking all the way good discourse with Mr. Wayth, and there found my wife, who was gone with her mayd Besse to have a walk. But, Lord! how my jealous mind did make me suspect that she might have some appointment to meet somebody. But I found the poor souls coming away thence, so I took them back, and eat and drank, and then home, and after at the office a while, I home to supper and to bed. It was a sad sight, me thought, to-day to see my Lord Peters (age 38) coming out of the House fall out with his lady (from whom he is parted) about this business; saying that she disgraced him. But she hath been a handsome woman, and is, it seems, not only a lewd woman, but very high-spirited.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1664. Thence, after the House was up, and I inquired what the order of the House was, I to W. Joyce,' with his brother, and told them all. Here was Kate come, and is a comely fat woman. I would not stay dinner, thinking to go home to dinner, and did go by water as far as the bridge, but thinking that they would take it kindly my being there, to be bayled for him if there was need, I returned, but finding them gone out to look after it, only Will and his wife and sister left and some friends that came to visit him, I to Westminster Hall [Map], and by and by by agreement to Mrs. Lane's lodging, whither I sent for a lobster, and with Mr. Swayne and his wife eat it, and argued before them mightily for Hawly, but all would not do, although I made her angry by calling her old, and making her know what herself is. Her body was out of temper for any dalliance, and so after staying there 3 or 4 hours, but yet taking care to have my oath safe of not staying a quarter of an hour together with her, I went to W. Joyce, where I find the order come, and bayle (his father and brother) given; and he paying his fees, which come to above £2, besides £5 he is to give one man, and his charges of eating and drinking here, and 10s. a-day as many days as he stands under bayle: which, I hope, will teach him hereafter to hold his tongue better than he used to do.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1664. So I, after discoursing with the Joyces, away by coach to the 'Change [Map]; and there, among other things, do hear that a Jew hath put in a policy of four per cent. to any man, to insure him against a Dutch warr for four months; I could find in my heart to take him at this offer, but however will advise first, and to that end took coach to St. James's, but Mr. Coventry (age 36) was gone forth, and I thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where Mrs. Lane was gone forth, and so I missed of my intent to be with her this afternoon, and therefore meeting Mr. Blagrave, went home with him, and there he and his kinswoman sang, but I was not pleased with it, they singing methought very ill, or else I am grown worse to please than heretofore.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1664. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence by water to the Temple [Map], and so walked to the 'Change [Map], and there find the 'Change [Map] full of news from Guinny, some say the Dutch have sunk our ships and taken our fort, and others say we have done the same to them. But I find by our merchants that something is done, but is yet a secret among them.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1664. Lay pretty long in bed. So up and by water to St. James's, and there attended the Duke (age 30) with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and having done our work with him walked to Westminster Hall [Map], and after walking there and talking of business met Mr. Rawlinson (age 50) and by coach to the 'Change [Map], where I did some business, and home to dinner, and presently by coach to the King's Play-house to see "The Labyrinth", but, coming too soon, walked to my Lord's to hear how my Lady do, who is pretty well; at least past all fear.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1664. Thence walked to Westminster Hall [Map]; and there, in the Lords' House, did in a great crowd, from ten o'clock till almost three, hear the cause of Mr. Roberts (age 30), my Lord Privy Seal's (age 58) son, against Win, who by false ways did get the father of Mr. Roberts's wife (age 27) (Mr. Bodvill) to give him the estate and disinherit his daughter (age 27). The cause was managed for my Lord Privy Seal (age 58) by Finch (age 42) the Solicitor [General]; but I do really think that he is truly a man of as great eloquence as ever I heard, or ever hope to hear in all my life.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1664. Thence walked to Westminster Hall [Map], where the King (age 33) was expected to come to prorogue the House, but it seems, afterwards I hear, he did not come. I promised to go again to Mr. Pierce's, but my pain grew so great, besides a bruise I got to-day in my right testicle, which now vexes me as much as the other, that I was mighty melancholy, and so by coach home and there took another glyster, but find little good by it, but by sitting still my pain of my bruise went away, and so after supper to bed, my wife and I having talked and concluded upon sending my father an offer of having Pall come to us to be with us for her preferment, if by any means I can get her a husband here, which, though it be some trouble to us, yet it will be better than to have her stay there till nobody will have her and then be flung upon my hands.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1664. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], it being term time, meeting Mr. Dickering (age 46), he tells me how my Lady last week went to see Mrs. Becke, the mother; and by and by the daughter came in, but that my Lady do say herself, as he says, that she knew not for what reason, for she never knew they had a daughter, which I do not believe. She was troubled, and her heart did rise as soon as she appeared, and seems the most ugly woman that ever she saw. This if true were strange, but I believe it is not.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1664. So home, and late at my office, and so home to bed. This evening being moonshine I played a little late upon my flageolette in the garden. But being at Westminster Hall [Map] I met with great news that Mrs. Lane is married to one Martin, one that serves Captain Marsh. She is gone abroad with him to-day, very fine. I must have a bout with her very shortly to see how she finds marriage.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1664. From thence walked toward Westminster, and being in an idle and wanton humour, walked through Fleet Alley, and there stood a most pretty wench at one of the doors, so I took a turn or two, but what by sense of honour and conscience I would not go in, but much against my will took coach and away, and away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there 'light of Mrs. Lane, and plotted with her to go over the water. So met at White's stairs in Chanel Row, and over to the old house at Lambeth Marsh, and there eat and drank, and had my pleasure of her twice, she being the strangest woman in talk of love to her husband sometimes, and sometimes again she do not care for him, and yet willing enough to allow me a liberty of doing what I would with her. So spending 5s. or 6s. upon her, I could do what I would, and after an hour's stay and more back again and set her ashore there again, and I forward to Fleet Street, and called at Fleet Alley, not knowing how to command myself, and went in and there saw what formerly I have been acquainted with, the wickedness of these houses, and the forcing a man to present expense. The woman indeed is a most lovely woman, but I had no courage to meddle with her for fear of her not being wholesome, and so counterfeiting that I had not money enough, it was pretty to see how cunning she was, would not suffer me to have to do in any manner with her after she saw I had no money, but told me then I would not come again, but she now was sure I would come again, but I hope in God I shall not, for though she be one of the prettiest women I ever saw, yet I fear her abusing me. So desiring God to forgive me for this vanity, I went home, taking some books from my bookseller, and taking his lad home with me, to whom I paid £10 for books I have laid up money for, and laid out within these three weeks, and shall do no more a great while I hope.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1664. So to Westminster Hall [Map], where by appointment I had made I met with Dr. Tom Pepys (age 43), but avoided all discourse of difference with him, though much against my will, and he like a doating coxcomb as he is, said he could not but demand his money, and that he would have his right, and that let all anger be forgot, and such sorry stuff, nothing to my mind, but only I obtained this satisfaction, that he told me about Sturbridge last was 12 months or 2 years he was at Brampton, and there my father did tell him that what he had done for my brother in giving him his goods and setting him up as he had done was upon condition that he should give my brother John (age 23) £20 per ann., which he charged upon my father, he tells me in answer, as a great deal of hard measure that he should expect that with him that had a brother so able as I am to do that for him. This is all that he says he can say as to my father's acknowledging that he had given Tom his goods. He says his brother Roger will take his oath that my father hath given him thanks for his counsel for his giving of Tom his goods and setting him up in the manner that he hath done, but the former part of this he did not speak fully so bad nor as certain what he could say. So we walked together to my cozen Joyce's, where my wife staid for me, and then I home and her by coach, and so to my office, then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1664. Thence home, and by and by in the evening took my wife out by coach, leaving her at Unthanke's while I to White Hall and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I have not been to talk a great while, and there hear that Mrs. Lane and her husband live a sad life together, and he is gone to be a paymaster to a company to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to serve at sea. She big with child.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1664. Up, and in Sir W. Batten's (age 63) coach to White Hall, but the Duke (age 31) being gone forth, I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there spent much time till towards noon to and fro with people.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1664. At noon home to dinner, Mr. Hunt and his wife with us, and very pleasant. Then in the afternoon I carried them home by coach, and I to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence to Gervas's, and there find I cannot prevail with Jane to go forth with me, but though I took a good occasion of going to the Trumpet she declined coming, which vexed me. 'Je avait grande envie envers elle, avec vrai amour et passion [I have a great desire, with true love and passion]'.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1665. Thence I to Westminster Hall [Map] and walked up and down. Among others Ned Pickering (age 47) met me and tells me how active my Lord is at sea, and that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) is now at Rome, and, by all report, a very noble and hopefull gentleman.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1665. So homeward, in my way buying a hare and taking it home, which arose upon my discourse to-day with Mr. Batten, in Westminster Hall [Map], who showed me my mistake that my hare's foote hath not the joynt to it; and assures me he never had his cholique since he carried it about him: and it is a strange thing how fancy works, for I no sooner almost handled his foote but my belly began to be loose and to break wind, and whereas I was in some pain yesterday and t'other day and in fear of more to-day, I became very well, and so continue.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1665. Up and by coach to Westminster Hall [Map] and the Parliament House, and there spoke with Mr. Coventry (age 37) and others about business and so back to the 'Change [Map], where no news more than that the Dutch have, by consent of all the Provinces, voted no trade to be suffered for eighteen months, but that they apply themselves wholly to the warr1. And they say it is very true, but very strange, for we use to believe they cannot support themselves without trade. Thence home to dinner and then to the office, where all the afternoon, and at night till very late, and then home to supper and bed, having a great cold, got on Sunday last, by sitting too long with my head bare, for Mercer to comb my hair and wash my eares.

Note 1. This statement of a total prohibition of all trade, and for so long a period as eighteen months, by a government so essentially commercial as that of the United Provinces, seems extraordinary. The fact was, that when in the beginning of the year 1665 the States General saw that the war with England was become inevitable, they took several vigorous measures, and determined to equip a formidable fleet, and with a view to obtain a sufficient number of men to man it, prohibited all navigation, especially in the great and small fisheries as they were then called, and in the whale fishery. This measure appears to have resembled the embargoes so commonly resorted to in this country on similar occasions, rather than a total prohibition of trade. B.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1665. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and up and down, doing not much; then to London, but to prevent Povy's (age 51) dining with me (who I see is at the 'Change [Map]) I went back again and to Herbert's at Westminster, there sent for a bit of meat and dined, and then to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), and there with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55), and thence to White Hall in my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber with Sir Philip Warwicke (age 55) till dark night, about fower hours talking of the business of the Navy Charge, and how Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do order business, keeping us in ignorance what he do with his money, and also Sir Philip did shew me nakedly the King's condition for money for the Navy; and he do assure me, unless the King (age 34) can get some noblemen or rich money-gentlemen to lend him money, or to get the City to do it, it is impossible to find money: we having already, as he says, spent one year's share of the three-years' tax, which comes to £2,500,000. Being very glad of this day's discourse in all but that I fear I shall quite lose Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who knows that I have been privately here all this day with Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55). However, I will order it so as to give him as little offence as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1665. That done, we walked to Cornehill [Map], and there at Mr. Cade's' stood in the balcon and saw all the funeral, which was with the blue-coat boys and old men, all the Aldermen, and Lord Mayor, &c., and the number of the company very great; the greatest I ever did see for a taverne. Hither come up to us Dr. Allen, and then Mr. Povy (age 51) and Mr. Fox (age 38). The show being over, and my discourse with Mr. Povy (age 51), I took coach and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I took the fairest flower, and by coach to Tothill Fields [Map] for the ayre till it was dark. I 'light, and in with the fairest flower to eat a cake, and there did do as much as was safe with my flower, and that was enough on my part.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1665. Thence to the Harp and Ball and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I visited "the flowers" in each place, and so met with Mr. Creed, and he and I to Mrs. Croft's to drink and did, but saw not her daughter Borroughes. I away home, and there dined and did business. In the afternoon went with my tallys, made a fair end with Colvill and Viner (age 34), delivering them £5000 tallys to each and very quietly had credit given me upon other tallys of Mr. Colvill for £2000 and good words for more, and of Mr. Viner (age 34) too.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1665. Up, and in my yesterday's new suit to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and after a turne in White Hall, and then in Westminster Hall [Map], returned, and with my taylor bought some gold lace for my sleeve hands in Pater Noster Row [Map].

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1665. After dinner to White Hall, thinking to speak with my Lord Ashly (age 43), but failed, and I whiled away some time in Westminster Hall [Map] against he did come, in my way observing several plague houses in King's Street and [near] the Palace. Here I hear Mrs. Martin is gone out of town, and that her husband, an idle fellow, is since come out of France, as he pretends, but I believe not that he hath been. I was fearful of going to any house, but I did to the Swan [Map], and thence to White Hall, giving the waterman a shilling, because a young fellow and belonging to the Plymouth.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1665. Up and to the office, where all the morning, and so to my house and eat a bit of victuals, and so to the 'Change [Map], where a little business and a very thin Exchange [Map]; and so walked through London to the Temple [Map], where I took water for Westminster to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to wait on him, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there paid for my newes-books, and did give Mrs. Michell, who is going out of towne because of the sicknesse, and her husband, a pint of wine, and so Sir W. Warren coming to me by appointment we away by water home, by the way discoursing about the project I have of getting some money and doing the King (age 35) good service too about the mast docke at Woolwich, Kent [Map], which I fear will never be done if I do not go about it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1665. So to my office a little, and then to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) about some business. The streets mighty empty all the way, now even in London, which is a sad sight. And to Westminster Hall [Map], where talking, hearing very sad stories from Mrs. Mumford; among others, of Mrs. Michell's son's family. And poor Will, that used to sell us ale at the Hall-door, his wife and three children died, all, I think, in a day.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1665. So I parted from him and walked to Westminster Hall [Map], where Sir W. Warren, who come along with me, staid for me, and there I did see Betty Howlett come after the sicknesse to the Hall. Had not opportunity to salute her, as I desired, but was glad to see her and a very pretty wench she is.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1666. I went therefore to Mr. Boreman's for pastime, and there staid an houre or two talking with him, and reading a discourse about the River of Thames, the reason of its being choked up in several places with shelfes; which is plain is, by the encroachments made upon the River, and running out of causeways into the River at every wood-wharfe; which was not heretofore when Westminster Hall [Map] and White Hall were built, and Redriffe [Map] Church, which now are sometimes overflown with water. I had great satisfaction herein.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1666. After dinner I took him by coach to White Hall, and there he and I parted, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), where coming and bolting into the dining-room, I there found Captain Ferrers going to christen a child of his born yesterday, and I come just pat to be a godfather, along with my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), and Madam Pierce, my Valentine, which for that reason I was pretty well contented with, though a little vexed to see myself so beset with people to spend me money, as she of a Valentine and little Mrs. Tooker, who is come to my house this day from Greenwich, Kent [Map], and will cost me 20s., my wife going out with her this afternoon, and now this christening. Well, by and by the child is brought and christened Katharine, and I this day on this occasion drank a glasse of wine, which I have not professedly done these two years, I think, but a little in the time of the sicknesse. After that done, and gone and kissed the mother in bed, I away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there hear that Mrs. Lane is come to town.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1666. Ash Wednesday. Up, and after doing a little business at my office I walked, it being a most curious dry and cold morning, to White Hall, and there I went into the Parke, and meeting Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 56) took a turne with him in the Pell Mall [Map], talking of the melancholy posture of affairs, where every body is snarling one at another, and all things put together looke ominously. This new Act too putting us out of a power of raising money. So that he fears as I do, but is fearfull of enlarging in that discourse of an ill condition in every thing, and the State and all. We appointed another time to meet to talke of the business of the Navy alone seriously, and so parted, and I to White Hall, and there we did our business with the Duke of Yorke (age 32), and so parted, and walked to Westminster Hall [Map], where I staid talking with Mrs. Michell and Howlett long and her daughter, which is become a mighty pretty woman, and thence going out of the Hall was called to by Mrs. Martin, so I went to her and bought two bands, and so parted, and by and by met at her chamber, and there did what I would, and so away home and there find Mrs. Knipp, and we dined together, she the pleasantest company in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1666. Thence I to Westminster, to the Chequer, about a little business, and then to the Swan [Map], and there sent for a bit of meat and dined; and after dinner had opportunity of being pleased with Sarah; and so away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there Mrs. Michell tells me with great joy how little Betty Howlett is married to her young son Michell, which is a pretty odd thing, that he should so soon succeed in the match to his elder brother that died of the plague, and to the house and trade intended for him, and more they say that the girle has heretofore said that she did love this little one more than the other brother that was intended her all along. I am mighty glad of this match, and more that they are likely to live near me in Thames Streete, where I may see Betty now and then, whom I from a girle did use to call my second wife, and mighty pretty she is.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1666. So to Westminster Hall [Map], where I purposely tooke my wife well dressed into the Hall to see and be seen; and, among others, [met] Howlet's daughter, who is newly married, and is she I call wife, and one I love mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1666. Thence to the Exchequer again to inform myself of some other points in the new Act in order to my lending Sir W. Warren £2000 upon an order of his upon the Act, which they all encourage me to. There walking with Mr. Gawden in Westminster Hall [Map], he and I to talke from one business to another and at last to the marriage of his daughter. He told me the story of Creed's pretences to his daughter, and how he would not believe but she loved him, while his daughter was in great passion on the other hand against him.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1666. After dinner I abroad to carry paper to my old woman, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there beyond my intention or design did see and speak with Betty Howlett, at her father's still, and it seems they carry her to her own house to begin the world with her young husband on Monday next, Easter Monday. I please myself with the thoughts of her neighbourhood, for I love the girl mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1666. Thence home to Mr. Pierce again; and he being gone forth, she and I and the children out by coach to Kensington, to where we were the other day, and with great pleasure stayed till night; and were mighty late getting home, the horses tiring and stopping at every twenty steps. By the way we discoursed of Mrs. Clerke, who, she says, is grown mighty high, fine, and proud, but tells me an odd story how Captain Rolt did see her the other day accost a gentleman in Westminster Hall [Map] and went with him, and he dogged them to Moorefields [Map] to a little blind bawdy house, and there staid watching three hours and they come not out, so could stay no longer but left them there, and he is sure it was she, he knowing her well and describing her very clothes to Mrs. Pierce, which she knows are what she wears. Seeing them well at home I homeward, but the horses at Ludgate Hill [Map] made a final stop; so there I 'lighted, and with a linke, it being about 10 o'clock, walked home, and after singing a Psalm or two and supped to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1666. Dined at home and took Balty (age 26) with me to Hales's (age 66) to show him his sister's picture, and thence to Westminster, and there I to the Swan [Map] and drank, and so back again alone to Hales's (age 66) and there met my wife and Mercer, Mrs. Pierce being sitting, and two or three idle people of her acquaintance more standing by. Her picture do come on well. So staid until she had done and then set her down at home, and my wife and I and the girle by coach to Islington [Map], and there eat and drank in the coach and so home, and there find a girle sent at my desire by Mrs. Michell of Westminster Hall [Map], to be my girle under the cooke-mayde, Susan. But I am a little dissatisfied that the girle, though young, is taller and bigger than Su, and will not, I fear, be under her command, which will trouble me, and the more because she is recommended by a friend that I would not have any unkindness with, but my wife do like very well of her.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1666. Thence walked to Westminster Hall [Map], and after a little stay, there being nothing now left to keep me there, Betty Howlettt being gone, I took coach and away home, in my way asking in two or three places the worth of pearles, I being now come to the time that I have long ago promised my wife a necklace.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1666. At noon home, and contrary to my expectation find my little girle Su worse than she was, which troubled me, and the more to see my wife minding her paynting and not thinking of her house business, this being the first day of her beginning the second time to paynt. This together made me froward that I was angry with my wife, and would not have Browne to think to dine at my table with me always, being desirous to have my house to myself without a stranger and a mechanique to be privy to all my concernments. Upon this my wife and I had a little disagreement, but it ended by and by, and then to send up and down for a nurse to take the girle home and would have given anything. I offered to the only one that we could get 20s. per weeke, and we to find clothes, and bedding and physique, and would have given 30s., as demanded, but desired an houre or two's time. So I away by water to Westminster, and there sent for the girle's mother to Westminster Hall [Map] to me; she came and undertakes to get her daughter a lodging and nurse at next doore to her, though she dare not, for the parish's sake, whose sexton her husband is, to [have] her into her owne house.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1666. So to Westminster Hall [Map] a little about business and so home by water, and then out with my wife, her brother, sister, and Mercer to Islington [Map], our grand tour, and there eat and drank. But in discourse I am infinitely pleased with Balty (age 26), his deportment in his business of Muster-Master, and hope mighty well from him, and am glad with all my heart I put him into this business. Late home and to bed, they also lying at my house, he intending to go away to-morrow back again to sea.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1666. So I home to dinner and back again to White Hall, and, being come thither a little too soon, went to Westminster Hall [Map], and bought a payre of gloves, and to see how people do take this late fight at sea, and I find all give over the thoughts of it as a victory and to reckon it a great overthrow.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1666. After dinner to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier, but I come a little too late, they were up, so I to several places about business, among others to Westminster Hall [Map], and there did meet with Betty Michell at her own mother's shop. I would fain have carried her home by water, but she was to sup at that end of the town. So I away to White Hall, and thence, the Council being up, walked to St. James's, and there had much discourse with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) at his chamber, who I find quite weary of the warr, decries our having any warr at all, or himself to have been any occasion of it, that he hopes this will make us shy of any warr hereafter, or to prepare better for it, believes that one overthrow on the Dutch side would make them desire peace, and that one on ours will make us willing to accept of one: tells me that Commissioner Pett (age 55) is fallen infinitely under the displeasure of the Prince and Duke of Albemarle (age 57), not giving them satisfaction in the getting out of the fleete, and that the complaint he believes is come to the King (age 36), and by Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) discourse I find he do concur in it, and speaks of his having of no authority in the place where he is, and I do believe at least it will end in his being removed to some other yarde, and I am not sorry for it, but do fear that though he deserves as bad, yet at this time the blame may not be so well deserved.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1666. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there staid a while, and then to the Swan [Map] and kissed Sarah, and so home to dinner, and after dinner out again to Sir Robert Viner (age 35), and there did agree with him to accommodate some business of tallys so as I shall get in near £2000 into my own hands, which is in the King's, upon tallys; which will be a pleasure to me, and satisfaction to have a good sum in my own hands, whatever evil disturbances should be in the State; though it troubles me to lose so great a profit as the King's interest of ten per cent. for that money.

St James' Day Battle

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1666. Up about five o'clock, and where met Mr. Gawden at the gate of the office (I intending to go out, as I used, every now and then to-day, to see how the fire is) to call our men to Bishop's-gate [Map], where no fire had yet been near, and there is now one broke out which did give great grounds to people, and to me too, to think that there is some kind of plot1 in this (on which many by this time have been taken, and, it hath been dangerous for any stranger to walk in the streets), but I went with the men, and we did put it out in a little time; so that that was well again. It was pretty to see how hard the women did work in the cannells, sweeping of water; but then they would scold for drink, and be as drunk as devils. I saw good butts of sugar broke open in the street, and people go and take handsfull out, and put into beer, and drink it. And now all being pretty well, I took boat, and over to Southwarke [Map], and took boat on the other side the bridge, and so to Westminster, thinking to shift myself, being all in dirt from top to bottom; but could not there find any place to buy a shirt or pair of gloves, Westminster Hall [Map] being full of people's goods, those in Westminster having removed all their goods, and the Exchequer money put into vessels to carry to Nonsuch [Map]; but to the Swan [Map], and there was trimmed; and then to White Hall, but saw nobody; and so home. A sad sight to see how the River looks: no houses nor church near it, to the Temple [Map], where it stopped.

Note 1. The terrible disaster which overtook London was borne by the inhabitants of the city with great fortitude, but foreigners and Roman Catholics had a bad dime. As no cause for the outbreak of the fire could be traced, a general cry was raised that it owed its origin to a plot. In a letter from Thomas Waade to Williamson (dated "Whitby, Sept. 14th") we read, "The destruction of London by fire is reported to be a hellish contrivance of the French, Hollanders, and fanatic party" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 124).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. So I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met my good friend Mr. Evelyn (age 46), and walked with him a good while, lamenting our condition for want of good council, and the King's minding of his business and servants. I out to the Bell Tavern, and thither comes Doll to me .... [Note. Other versions include 'and yo did tocar la cosa [ I did touch the thing ] of her as I pleased;'], and after an hour's stay, away and staid in Westminster Hall [Map] till the rising of the house, having told Mr. Evelyn (age 46), and he several others, of my Gazette which I had about me that mentioned in April last a plot for which several were condemned of treason at the Old Bayly for many things, and among others for a design of burning the city on the 3rd of September.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Sep 1666. We parted, and I home to dinner, and after dinner to the setting things in order, and all my people busy about the same work. In the afternoon, out by coach, my wife with me, which we have not done several weeks now, through all the ruines, to shew her them, which frets her much, and is a sad sight indeed. Set her down at her brother's, and thence I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there staid a little while, and called her home. She did give me an account of great differences between her mother and Balty's (age 26) wife. The old woman charges her with going abroad and staying out late, and painting in the absence of her husband, and I know not what; and they grow proud, both he and she, and do not help their father and mother out of what I help them to, which I do not like, nor my wife.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1666. So he gone I by water to Westminster Hall [Map] and thence to St. James's, and there found Sir W. Coventry (age 38) waiting for me, and I did give him a good account to his mind of the business he expected about extraordinaries and then fell to other talke, among others, our sad condition contracted by want of a Comptroller1 and it was his words, that he believes, besides all the shame and trouble he hath brought on the office, the King (age 36) had better have given £100,000 than ever have had him there. He did discourse about some of these discontented Parliament-men, and says that Birch (age 51) is a false rogue, but that Garraway (age 49) is a man that hath not been well used by the Court, though very stout to death, and hath suffered all that is possible for the King (age 36) from the beginning. But discontented as he is, yet he never knew a Session of Parliament but he hath done some good deed for the King (age 36) before it rose. I told him the passage Cocke (age 49) told me of his having begged a brace of bucks of the Lord Arlington for him, and when it come to him, he sent it back again. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) told me, it is much to be pitied that the King (age 36) should lose the service of a man so able and faithfull; and that he ought to be brought over, but that it is always observed, that by bringing over one discontented man, you raise up three in his room; which is a State lesson I never knew before. But when others discover your fear, and that discontent procures favour, they will be discontented too, and impose on you.

Note 1. As Sir John Minnes (age 67) performed the duties inefficiently, it was considered necessary to take the office from him: See January 21st.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1666. Up and to my office, called up by Commissioner Middleton, newly come to town, but staid not with me; so I to my office busy all the morning. Towards noon, by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there by several hear that the Parliament do resolve to do something to retrench Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) great salary; but cannot hear of any thing bad they can lay to his charge.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1666. Thence with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) when the House rose and Sir W. Batten (age 65) to St. James's, and there agreed of and signed our paper of extraordinaries, and there left them, and I to Unthanke's, where Mr. Falconbridge's girle is, and by and by comes my wife, who likes her well, though I confess I cannot (though she be of my finding out and sings pretty well), because she will be raised from so mean a condition to so high all of a sudden; but she will be much to our profit, more than Mercer, less expense. Here we bespoke anew gowne for her, and to come to us on Friday. She being gone, my wife and I home by coach, and then I presently by water with Mr. Pierce to Westminster Hall [Map], he in the way telling me how the Duke of York (age 32) and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) do not agree. The Duke of York (age 32) is wholly given up to this bitch (age 26) of Denham (age 51). The Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Prince Rupert (age 46) do less agree. So that we are all in pieces, and nobody knows what will be done the next year.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1666. This done in his chamber, I with him to Westminster Hall [Map], and there took a few turns, the Hall mighty full of people, and the House likely to be very full to-day about the money business. Here I met with several people, and do find that people have a mighty mind to have a fling at the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), if they could lay hold of anything, his place being, indeed, too much for such, they think, or any single subject of no greater parts and quality than he, to enjoy. But I hope he may weather all, though it will not be by any dexterity of his, I dare say, if he do stand, but by his fate only, and people's being taken off by other things.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. Thence he and I together to Westminster Hall [Map], in our way talking of matters and passages of state, the viciousness of the Court; the contempt the King (age 36) brings himself into thereby; his minding nothing, but doing all things just as his people about him will have it; the Duke of York (age 33) becoming a slave to this whore Denham (age 26), and wholly minds her; that there really was amours between the Duchesse (age 29) and Sidney (age 25); a that there is reason to fear that, as soon as the Parliament have raised this money, the King (age 36) will see that he hath got all that he can get, and then make up a peace.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1666. Up, and by coach to Westminster Hall [Map], there thinking to have met Betty Michell, who I heard yesterday staid all night at her father's, but she was gone. So I staid a little and then down to the bridge by water, and there overtook her and her father. So saluted her and walked over London Bridge [Map] with them and there parted, the weather being very foul, and so to the Tower by water, and so heme, where I find Mr. Caesar playing the treble to my boy upon the Theorbo, the first time I heard him, which pleases me mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1666. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where the term is begun, and I did take a turn or two, and so away by coach to Sir R. Viner's (age 35), and there received some money, and then home and to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1666. Dined at home, and busy again after dinner, and then abroad by water to Westminster Hall [Map], where I walked till the evening, and then out, the first time I ever was abroad with Doll Lane, to the Dog tavern [Map], and there drank with her, a bad face, but good bodied girle. Did nothing but salute and play with her and talk, and thence away by coach, home, and so to do a little more in my accounts, and then to supper and to bed. Nothing done in the House yet as to the finishing of the bill for money, which is a mighty sad thing, all lying at stake for it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1666. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and, it being fast day, there was no shops open, but meeting with Doll Lane, did go with her to the Rose taverne, and there drank and played with her a good while. She went away, and I staid a good while after, and was seen going out by one of our neighbours near the office and two of the Hall people that I had no mind to have been seen by, but there was no hurt in it nor can be alleged from it. Therefore I am not solicitous in it, but took coach and called at Faythorne's (age 50), to buy some prints for my wife to draw by this winter, and here did see my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 25) picture, done by him from Lilly's (age 48), in red chalke and other colours, by which he hath cut it in copper to be printed. The picture in chalke is the finest thing I ever saw in my life, I think; and did desire to buy it; but he says he must keep it awhile to correct his copper-plate by, and when that is done he will sell it me.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1666. At noon home to dinner and then to the office awhile, and so home for my sword, and there find Mercer come to see her mistresse. I was glad to see her there, and my wife mighty kind also, and for my part, much vexed that the jade is not with us still. Left them together, designing to go abroad to-morrow night to Mrs. Pierce's to dance; and so I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met Mr. Grey (age 41), who tells me the House is sitting still (and now it was six o'clock), and likely to sit till midnight; and have proceeded fair to give the King (age 36) his supply presently; and herein have done more to-day than was hoped for.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1666. After dinner I carried and set my wife down at her brother's, and then to Barkeshire-house, where my Chancellor (age 57) hath been ever since the fire, but he is not come home yet, so I to Westminster Hall [Map], where the Lords newly up and the Commons still sitting. Here I met with Mr. Robinson, who did give me a printed paper wherein he states his pretence to the post office, and intends to petition the Parliament in it.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1666. Being mightily satisfied with his civility, I away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked with several people, and all the discourse is about some trouble in Scotland I heard of yesterday, but nobody can tell the truth of it. Here was Betty Michell with her mother. I would have carried her home, but her father intends to go with her, so I lost my hopes.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1666. Thence with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to Westminster Hall [Map], and there parted, he having told me how Sir J. Minnes (age 67) do disagree from the proposition of resigning his place, and that so the whole matter is again at a stand, at which I am sorry for the King's sake, but glad that Sir W. Pen (age 45) is again defeated, for I would not have him come to be Comptroller if I could help it, he will be so cruel proud.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1666. So my wife and I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I left her a little, and to the Exchequer, and then presently home again, calling at our man-cooke's for his help to-morrow, but he could not come.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1666. Having writ my letter, I home to supper and to bed, the world being mightily troubled at the ill news from Barbadoes, and the consequence of the Scotch business, as little as we do make of it. And to shew how mad we are at home, here, and unfit for any troubles: my Lord St. John (age 68) did, a day or two since, openly pull a gentleman in Westminster Hall [Map] by the nose, one Sir Andrew Henly (age 44), while the judges were upon their benches, and the other gentleman did give him a rap over the pate with his cane, of which fray the judges, they say, will make a great matter: men are only sorry the gentle man did proceed to return a blow; for, otherwise, my Lord would have been soundly fined for the affront, and may be yet for his affront to the judges.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1666. Here I had a noble and costly dinner for them, dressed by a man-cooke, as that the other day was, and pretty merry we were, as I could be with this company and so great a charge. We sat long, and after much talk of the plenty of her country in fish, but in nothing also that is pleasing, we broke up with great kindness, and when it begun to be dark we parted, they in one coach home, and I in another to Westminster Hall [Map], where by appointment Mrs. Burroughs and I were to meet, but did not after I had spent the whole evening there. Only I did go drink at the Swan [Map], and there did meet with Sarah, who is now newly married, and there I did lay the beginnings of a future 'amour con elle' [Note. Love with her] ....

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1666. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and the Abbey, thinking as I had appointed to have met Mrs. Burroughs there, but not meeting her I home, and just overtook my cozen Roger Pepys (age 49), Mrs. Turner (age 43), Dicke, and Joyce Norton, coming by invitation to dine with me. These ladies I have not seen since before the plague. Mrs. Turner (age 43) is come to towne to look after her things in her house, but all is lost. She is quite weary of the country, but cannot get her husband to let her live here any more, which troubles her mightily. She was mighty angry with me, that in all this time I never writ to her, which I do think and take to myself as a fault, and which I have promised to mend.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning. At home to dinner, and then abroad walking to the Old Swan [Map], and in my way I did see a cellar in Tower Streete [Map] in a very fresh fire, the late great winds having blown it up1. It seemed to be only of log-wood, that Hath kept the fire all this while in it. Going further, I met my late Lord Mayor Bludworth (age 46), under whom the City was burned, and went with him by water to White Hall. But, Lord! the silly talk that this fellow had, only how ready he would be to part with all his estate in these difficult times to advance the King's service, and complaining that now, as every body did lately in the fire, every body endeavours to save himself, and let the whole perish: but a very weak man he seems to be. I left him at White Hall, he giving 6d. towards the boat, and I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I was again defeated in my expectation of Burroughs.

Note 1. The fire continued burning in some cellars of the ruins of the city for four months, though it rained in the month of October ten days without ceasing (Rugge's "Diurnal"). B.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1666. Thence at noon home, and there find Kate Joyce, who dined with me: Her husband and she are weary of their new life of being an Innkeeper, and will leave it, and would fain get some office; but I know none the foole is fit for, but would be glad to help them, if I could, though they have enough to live on, God be thanked! though their loss hath been to the value of £3000 W. Joyce now has all the trade, she says, the trade being come to that end of the towne. She dined with me, my wife being ill of her months in bed. I left her with my wife, and away myself to Westminster Hall [Map] by appointment and there found out Burroughs, and I took her by coach as far as the Lord Treasurer's (age 59) and called at the cake house by Hales's (age 66), and there in the coach eat and drank and then carried her home.... So having set her down in the palace I to the Swan [Map], and there did the first time 'baiser' the little sister of Sarah that is come into her place, and so away by coach home, where to my vyall and supper and then to bed, being weary of the following of my pleasure and sorry for my omitting (though with a true salvo to my vowes) the stating my last month's accounts in time, as I should, but resolve to settle, and clear all my business before me this month, that I may begin afresh the next yeare, and enjoy some little pleasure freely at Christmasse.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Dec 1666. So to Westminster Hall [Map], where the Lords are sitting still, I to see Mrs. Martin, who is very well, and intends to go abroad to-morrow after her childbed. She do tell me that this child did come is 'meme jour that it ought to hazer after my avoir ete con elle before her marid did venir home... [Note. 'same day that it ought after my having been with her before her husband came home'. The implication being that Pepys was the father?]

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met all the Houblons, who do laugh at this discourse of the French, and say they are verily of opinion it is nothing but to send to their plantation in the West Indys, and that we at Court do blow up a design of invading us, only to make the Parliament make more haste in the money matters, and perhaps it may be so, but I do not believe we have any such plot in our heads.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there to the conference of the Houses about the word "Nuisance"1, which the Commons would have, and the Lords will not, in the Irish Bill. The Commons do it professedly to prevent the King's dispensing with it; which Sir Robert Howard (age 41) and others did expressly repeat often: viz., "the King (age 36) nor any King ever could do any thing which was hurtful to their people". Now the Lords did argue, that it was an ill precedent, and that which will ever hereafter be used as a way of preventing the King's dispensation with acts; and therefore rather advise to pass the Bill without that word, and let it go, accompanied with a petition, to the King (age 36), that he will not dispense with it; this being a more civil way to the King (age 36). They answered well, that this do imply that the King (age 36) should pass their Bill, and yet with design to dispense with it; which is to suppose the King (age 36) guilty of abusing them. And more, they produce precedents for it; namely, that against new buildings and about leather, wherein the word "Nuisance" is used to the purpose: and further, that they do not rob the King (age 36) of any right he ever had, for he never had a power to do hurt to his people, nor would exercise it; and therefore there is no danger, in the passing this Bill, of imposing on his prerogative; and concluded, that they think they ought to do this, so as the people may really have the benefit of it when it is passed, for never any people could expect so reasonably to be indulged something from a King, they having already given him so much money, and are likely to give more.

Note 1. In the "Bill against importing Cattle from Ireland and other parts beyond the Seas", the Lords proposed to insert "Detriment and Mischief" in place of "Nuisance", but the Commons stood to their word, and gained their way. The Lords finally consented that "Nuisance" should stand in the Bill.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1667. Thence with them to Westminster Hall [Map], they setting me down at White Hall, where I missed of finding Sir G. Carteret (age 57), up to the Lords' House, and there come mighty seasonably to hear the Solicitor about my Lord Buckingham's (age 38) pretence to the title of Lord Rosse. Mr. Atturny Montagu (age 49) is also a good man, and so is old Sir P. Ball; but the Solicitor and Scroggs after him are excellent men.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1667. I met this day in Westminster Hall [Map] Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir W. Pen (age 45), and the latter since our falling out the other day do look mighty reservedly upon me, and still he shall do so for me, for I will be hanged before I seek to him, unless I see I need it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1667. Thence by water to Billingsgate; thence to the Old Swan [Map], and there took boat, it being now night, to Westminster Hall [Map], there to the Hall, and find Doll Lane, and 'con elle' [Note. 'with her'] I went to the Bell Tavern, and 'ibi je' did do what I would 'con elle' [Note. 'with her'] as well as I could, she 'sedendo sobre' [Note. 'giving way'] thus far and making some little resistance. But all with much content, and 'je tenai' [Note. 'I had'] much pleasure 'cum ista' [Note. 'with her'].

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1667. So to bed. I am very well pleased this night with reading a poem I brought home with me last night from Westminster Hall [Map], of Dryden's (age 35) upon the present war; a very good poem.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], thinking to see Betty Michell, she staying there all night, and had hopes to get her out alone, but missed, and so away by coach home, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), to tell him my bad news, and then to the office, and home to supper, where Mrs. Hewer was, and after supper and she gone, W. Hewer (age 25) talking with me very late of the ill manner of Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) accounts being kept, and in what a sad condition he would be if either Fenn or Wayth should break or die, and am resolved to take some time to tell Sir G. Carteret (age 57) or my Lady of it, I do love them so well and their family.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1667. Up, lying a little long in bed, and by water to White Hall, and there find the Duke of York (age 33) gone out, he being in haste to go to the Parliament, and so all my Brethren were gone to the office too. So I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57) about my Tangier business, and then to Westminster Hall [Map], and walked up and down, and hear that the Prince (age 47) do still rest well by day and night, and out of pain; so as great hopes are conceived of him: though I did meet Dr. Clerke and Mr. Pierce, and they do say they believe he will not recover it, they supposing that his whole head within is eaten by this corruption, which appeared in this piece of the inner table.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Feb 1667. Thence with Creed to Westminster Hall [Map], and there up and down, and heard that Prince Rupert (age 47) is still better and better; and that he did tell Dr. Troutbecke expressly that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) is ordered home. I hear, too, that Prince Rupert (age 47) hath begged the having of all the stolen prize-goods which he can find, and that he is looking out anew after them, which at first troubled me; but I do see it cannot come to anything, but is done by Hayes, or some of his little people about him. Here, among other newes, I bought the King's speech at proroguing the House the other day, wherein are some words which cannot but import some prospect of a peace, which God send us! After walking a good while in the Hall, it being Term time, I home by water, calling at Michell's and giving him a fair occasion to send his wife to the New Exchange to meet my wife and me this afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1667. Up and with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) by coach to White Hall, where we attended upon the Duke of York (age 33) to complain of the disorders the other day among the seamen at the Pay at the Ticket Office, and that it arises from lack of money, and that we desire, unless better provided for with money, to have nothing more to do with the payment of tickets, it being not our duty; and the Duke of York (age 33) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did agree to it, so that I hope we shall be rid of that trouble. This done, I moved for allowance for a house for Mr. Turner, and got it granted. Then away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there to the Exchequer about my tallies, and so back to White Hall, and so with Lord Bellasses (age 52) to the Excise Office, where met by Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to consider about our business of money there, and that done, home and to dinner, where I hear Pegg Pen (age 16) is married this day privately; no friends, but two or three relations on his side and hers. Borrowed many things of my kitchen for dressing their dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1667. To Westminster Hall [Map], and there paid what I owed for books, and so by coach, took up my wife to the Exchange [Map], and there bought things for Mrs. Pierce's little daughter, my Valentine, and so to their house, where we find Knipp, who also challengeth me for her Valentine. She looks well, sang well, and very merry we were for half an hour. Tells me Harris (age 33) is well again, having been very ill, and so we home, and I to the office; then, at night, to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), and sat with my Lady, and the young couple (Sir William out of town) talking merrily; but they make a very sorry couple, methinks, though rich. So late home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall by coach, and by the way agreed to acquaint Sir W. Coventry (age 39) with the business of Mr. Carcasse, and he and I spoke to Sir W. Coventry (age 39) that we might move it to the Duke of York (age 33), which I did in a very indifferent, that is, impartial manner, but vexed I believe Lord Bruncker (age 47). Here the Duke of York (age 33) did acquaint us, and the King (age 36) did the like also, afterwards coming in, with his resolution of altering the manner of the war this year; that is, we shall keep what fleete we have abroad in several squadrons: so that now all is come out; but we are to keep it as close as we can, without hindering the work that is to be done in preparation to this. Great preparations there are to fortify Sheernesse [Map] and the yard at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and forces are drawing down to both those places, and elsewhere by the seaside; so that we have some fear of an invasion; and the Duke of York (age 33) himself did declare his expectation of the enemy's blocking us up here in the River, and therefore directed that we should send away all the ships that we have to fit out hence. Sir W. Pen (age 45) told me, going with me this morning to White Hall, that for certain the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is brought into the Tower [Map], and that he hath had an hour's private conference with the King (age 36) before he was sent thither. To Westminster Hall [Map]. There bought some news books, and, as every where else, hear every body complain of the dearness of coals, being at £4 per chaldron, the weather, too, being become most bitter cold, the King (age 36) saying to-day that it was the coldest day he ever knew in England.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1667. So to the Swan [Map], and there had three or four baisers of the little ancilla there, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where I saw Mr. Martin, the purser, come through with a picture in his hand, which he had bought, and observed how all the people of the Hall did fleer and laugh upon him, crying, "There is plenty grown upon a sudden"; and, the truth is, I was a little troubled that my favour should fall on so vain a fellow as he, and the more because, methought, the people do gaze upon me as the man that had raised him, and as if they guessed whence my kindness to him springs. So thence to White Hall, where I find all met at the Duke of York's (age 33) chamber; and, by and by, the Duke of York (age 33) comes, and Carcasse is called in, and I read the depositions and his answers, and he added with great confidence and good words, even almost to persuasion, what to say; and my Lord Bruncker (age 47), like a very silly solicitor, argued against me and us all for him; and, being asked first by the Duke of York (age 33) his opinion, did give it for his being excused. I next did answer the contrary very plainly, and had, in this dispute, which vexed and will never be forgot by my Lord, many occasions of speaking severely, and did, against his bad practices. Commissioner Pett (age 56), like a fawning rogue, sided with my Lord, but to no purpose; and Sir W. Pen (age 45), like a cunning rogue, spoke mighty indifferently, and said nothing in all the fray, like a knave as he is. But Sir W. Batten (age 66) spoke out, and did come off himself by the Duke's kindness very well; and then Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and the Duke of York (age 33) himself, flatly as I said; and so he was declared unfit to continue in, and therefore to be presently discharged the office; which, among other good effects, I hope, will make my Lord Bruncker (age 47) not 'alloquer' so high, when he shall consider he hath had such a publick foyle as this is.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1667. By and by by coach, set down Mr. Holliard (age 58) near his house at Hatton Garden [Map] and myself to Lord Treasurer's (age 60), and sent my wife to the New Exchange. I staid not here, but to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence to Martin's, where he and she both within, and with them the little widow that was once there with her when I was there, that dissembled so well to be grieved at hearing a tune that her, late husband liked, but there being so much company, I had no pleasure here, and so away to the Hall again, and there met Doll Lane coming out, and 'par contrat did hazer bargain para aller to the cabaret de vin', called the Rose, and 'ibi' I staid two hours, 'sed' she did not 'venir', 'lequel' troubled me, and so away by coach and took up my wife, and away home, and so to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where I am told that it is intended by Mr. Carcasse to pray me to be godfather with Lord Bruncker (age 47) to-morrow to his child, which I suppose they tell me in mirth, but if he should ask me I know not whether I should refuse it or no.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1667. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and there staid and talked, and then to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57), where I dined with the ladies, he not at home, and very well used I am among them, so that I am heartily ashamed that my wife hath not been there to see them; but she shall very shortly.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1667. Thence home and dined well, and then with my wife, set her at Unthanke's and I to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), where talked with the ladies a while, and my Baroness Carteret (age 65) talks nothing but sorrow and afflictions coming on us, and indeed I do fear the same. So away and met Dr. Fuller (age 59), Bishop of Limricke, and walked an hour with him in the Court talking of newes only, and he do think that matters will be bad with us. Then to Westminster Hall [Map], and there spent an hour or two walking up and down, thinking 'para avoir' got out Doll Lane, 'sed je ne' could do it, having no opportunity 'de hazer le, ainsi lost the tota' afternoon, and so away and called my wife and home, where a little at the office, and then home to my closet to enter my journalls, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] again, and there saw Betty Michell, and bought a pair of gloves of her, she being fain to keep shop there, her mother being sick, and her father gathering of the tax. I 'aimais her de toute my corazon'.

Poll Bill

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and drank at the Swan [Map], and 'baiserais the petite misse'; and so to Mrs. Martin's... I sent for some burnt wine, and drank and then away, not pleased with my folly, and so to the Hall again, and there staid a little, and so home by water again, where, after speaking with my wife, I with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir J. Minnes (age 68) to our church to the vestry, to be assessed by the late Poll Bill, where I am rated as an Esquire, and for my office, all will come to about £50. But not more than I expected, nor so much by a great deal as I ought to be, for all my offices. So shall be glad to escape so.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1667. Our business with the Duke being done, Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I towards the Exchequer, and in our way met Sir G. Downing (age 42) going to chapel, but we stopped, and he would go with us back to the Exchequer and showed us in his office his chests full and ground and shelves full of money, and says that there is £50,000 at this day in his office of people's money, who may demand it this day, and might have had it away several weeks ago upon the late Act, but do rather choose to have it continue there than to put it into the Banker's hands, and I must confess it is more than I should have believed had I not seen it, and more than ever I could have expected would have arisen for this new Act in so short a time, and if it do so now already what would it do if the money was collected upon the Act and returned into the Exchequer so timely as it ought to be. But it comes into my mind here to observe what I have heard from Sir John Bankes (age 40), though I cannot fully conceive the reason of it, that it will be impossible to make the Exchequer ever a true bank to all intents, unless the Exchequer stood nearer the Exchange [Map], where merchants might with ease, while they are going about their business, at all hours, and without trouble or loss of time, have their satisfaction, which they cannot have now without much trouble, and loss of half a day, and no certainty of having the offices open. By this he means a bank for common practise and use of merchants, and therein I do agree with him. Being parted from Sir W. Pen (age 45) and Sir G. Downing (age 42), I to Westminster Hall [Map] and there met Balty (age 27), whom I had sent for, and there did break the business of my getting him the place of going again as Muster-Master with Harman (age 42) this voyage to the West Indys, which indeed I do owe to Sir W. Pen (age 45). He is mighty glad of it, and earnest to fit himself for it, but I do find, poor man, that he is troubled how to dispose of his wife, and apparently it is out of fear of her, and his honour, and I believe he hath received some cause of this his jealousy and care, and I do pity him in it, and will endeavour to find out some way to do, it for him.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1667. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and there bought a pair of snuffers, and saw Mrs. Howlett after her sickness come to the Hall again. So by coach to the New Exchange and Mercer's and other places to take up bills for what I owe them, and to Mrs. Pierce, to invite her to dinner with us on Monday, but staid not with her. In the street met with Mr. Sanchy, my old acquaintance at Cambridge, reckoned a great minister here in the City; and by Sir Richard Ford (age 53) particularly, which I wonder at; for methinks, in his talk, he is but a mean man. I set him down in Holborne, and I to the Old Exchange [Map], and there to Sir Robert Viner's (age 36), and made up my accounts there, to my great content; but I find they do not keep them so regularly as, to be able to do it easily, and truly, and readily, nor would it have been easily stated by any body on my behalf but myself, several things being to be recalled to memory, which nobody else could have done, and therefore it is fully necessary for me to even accounts with these people as often as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], the first day of the Term, and there joyed Mrs. Michell, who is mightily pleased with my wife's work yesterday, and so away to my barber's about my periwigg, and then to the Exchange [Map], there to meet Fenn about some money to be borrowed of the office of the Ordnance to answer a great pinch.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] to hear our cause, but [it] did not come before them to-day, so went down and walked below in the Hall, and there met with Ned Pickering (age 49), who tells me the ill newes of his nephew Gilbert (age 15), who is turned a very rogue, and then I took a turn with Mr. Evelyn (age 46), with whom I walked two hours, till almost one of the clock: talking of the badness of the Government, where nothing but wickedness, and wicked men and women command the King (age 36): that it is not in his nature to gainsay any thing that relates to his pleasures; that much of it arises from the sickliness of our Ministers of State, who cannot be about him as the idle companions are, and therefore he gives way to the young rogues; and then, from the negligence of the Clergy, that a Bishop shall never be seen about him, as the King of France (age 28) hath always: that the King (age 36) would fain have some of the same gang to be Lord Treasurer (age 60), which would be yet worse, for now some delays are put to the getting gifts of the King (age 36), as that whore my Baroness Byron1, who had been, as he called it, the King's seventeenth whore abroad, did not leave him till she had got him to give her an order for £4000 worth of plate to be made for her; but by delays, thanks be to God! she died before she had it. He tells me mighty stories of the King of France (age 28), how great a Prince he is. He hath made a code to shorten the law; he hath put out all the ancient commanders of castles that were become hereditary; he hath made all the Fryers subject to the bishops, which before were only subject to Rome, and so were hardly the King's subjects, and that none shall become 'religieux' but at such an age, which he thinks will in a few, years ruin the Pope, and bring France into a patriarchate. He confirmed to me the business of the want of paper at the Council-table the other day, which I have observed; Wooly being to have found it, and did, being called, tell the King (age 36) to his face the reason of it; and Mr. Evelyn (age 46) tells me several of the menial servants of the Court lacking bread, that have not received a farthing wages since the King's coming in. He tells me the King of France (age 28) hath his mistresses, but laughs at the foolery of our King, that makes his bastards Princes2, and loses his revenue upon them, and makes his mistresses his masters and the King of France (age 28) did never grant Lavalliere (age 22)3 any thing to bestow on others, and gives a little subsistence, but no more, to his bastards.

Note 1. Eleanor, daughter of Robert Needham, Viscount Kilmurrey, and widow of Peter Warburton, became in 1644 the second wife of John Byron, first Lord Byron. Died 1663. B.

Note 2. Louis made his own bastards dukes and Princes, and legitimatized them as much as he could, connecting them also by marriage with the real blood-royal. B.

Note 3. Louise Francoise de la Baume le Blanc de la Valliere (age 22) had four children by Louis XIV., of whom only two survived - Marie Anne Bourbon, called Mademoiselle de Blois, born in 1666, afterwards married to the Prince de Conti (age 6), and the Comte de Vermandois, born in 1667. In that year (the very year in which Evelyn was giving this account to Pepys), the Duchy of Vaujour and two baronies were created in favour of La Valliere, and her daughter, who, in the deed of creation, was legitimatized, and styled Princess. B.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1667. So I with them to Westminster by coach; the Cofferer (age 63) telling us odd stories how he was dealt with by the men of the Church at Westminster in taking a lease of them at the King's coming in, and particularly the devilish covetousness of Dr. Busby. Sir Stephen Fox (age 40), in discourse, told him how he is selling some land he hath, which yields him not above three per cent., if so much, and turning it into money, which he can put out at ten per cent.; and, as times go, if they be like to continue, it is the best way for me to keep money going so, for aught I see. I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there took a turn with my old acquaintance Mr. Pechell, whose red nose makes me ashamed to be seen with him, though otherwise a good-natured man.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1667. Up and angry with my mayds for letting in watermen, and I know not who, anybody that they are acquainted with, into my kitchen to talk and prate with them, which I will not endure. Then out and by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), who continues still very ill, then to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57) house, and there did a little business about my Tangier tallies, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there to the Exchequer to consult about some way of getting our poor Creditors of the Navy (who served in their goods before the late Session of Parliament) paid out of the 11 months tax, which seems to relate only for goods to be then served in, and I think I have found out a way to bring them into the Act, which, if it do, I shall think a good service done.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1667. Up pretty betimes and out of doors, and in Fen Church street [Map] met Mr. Lovett going with a picture to me, but I could not stand to discourse or see it, but on to the next Hackney coach and so to Sir W. Coventry (age 39), where he and I alone a while discoursing of some businesses of the office, and then up to the Duke of York (age 33) to his chamber with my fellow brethren who are come, and so did our usual weekly business, which was but little to-day, and I was glad that the business of Carcasse was not mentioned because our report was not ready, but I am resolved it shall against the next coming to the Duke of York (age 33). Here was discourse about a way of paying our old creditors which did please me, there being hopes of getting them comprehended within the 11 months Tax, and this did give occasion for Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) and my going to Sir Robert Long (age 67) to discourse it, who do agree that now the King's Council do say that they may be included in the Act, which do make me very glad, not so much for the sake of the poor men as for the King (age 36), for it would have been a ruin to him and his service not to have had a way to have paid the debt. There parted with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and into Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and he and I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57) to speak a little about our Tangier business, but to little purpose, my Lord Treasurer (age 60) being so ill that no business can be done.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1667. Thence by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked a while talking at random with Sir W. Doyly (age 53), and so away to Mrs. Martin's lodging, who was gone before, expecting me, and there je hazer what je vellem cum her and drank, and so by coach home (but I have forgot that I did in the morning go to the Swan [Map], and there tumbling of la little fille, son uncle did trouver her cum su neckcloth off, which I was ashamed of, but made no great matter of it, but let it pass with a laugh), and there spent the evening with my wife at our flagelets, and so to supper, and after a little reading to bed. My wife still troubled with her cold. I find it everywhere now to be a thing doubted whether we shall have peace or no, and the captain of one of our ships that went with the Embassadors do say, that the seamen of Holland to his hearing did defy us, and called us English dogs, and cried out against peace, and that the great people there do oppose peace, though he says the common people do wish it.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1667. Up betimes, and comes my flagelette master to set me a new tune, which I played presently, and shall in a month do as much as I desire at it. He being gone, I to several businesses in my chamber, and then by coach to the Commissioners of Excise, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there spoke with several persons I had to do with. Here among other news, I hear that the Commissioners for the Treasury were named by the King (age 36) yesterday; but who they are nobody could tell: but the persons are the Chancellor (age 58), the two Secretaries, Lord Ashly (age 45), and others say Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and Sir John Duncomb (age 44), but all conclude the Duke of Albemarle (age 58); but reports do differ, but will be known in a day or two.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1667. Thence I to Westminster Hall [Map] with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to the Chequer Chamber to hear our cause of the Lindeboome prize there before the Lords of Appeal, where was Lord Ashly (age 45), Arlington (age 49), Barkely (age 65), and Sir G. Carteret (age 57), but the latter three signified nothing, the former only either minding or understanding what was said. Here was good pleading of Sir Walter Walker's and worth hearing, but little done in our business.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked a turn or two with Sir William Doyly (age 53), who did lay a wager with me, the Treasurership would be in one hand, notwithstanding this present Commission, before Christmas: on which we did lay a poll of ling, a brace of carps, and a pottle of wine; and Sir W. Pen (age 46) and Mr. Scowen to be at the eating of them.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1667. Thence to White Hall, and with Sir W. Pen (age 46), by chariot; and there in the Court met with my Lord Anglesey (age 52): and he to talk with Sir W. Pen (age 46), and told him of the masters of ships being with the Council yesterday, and that we were not in condition, though the men were willing, to furnish them with £200 of money, already due to them as earned by them the last year, to enable them to set out their ships again this year for the King (age 37): which he is amazed at; and when I told him, "my Lord, this is a sad instance of the condition we are in", he answered, that it was so indeed, and sighed: and so parted: and he up to the Council-chamber, where I perceive they sit every morning, and I to Westminster Hall [Map], where it is Term time. I met with none I knew, nor did desire it, but only past through the-Hall and so back again, and by coach home to dinner, being weary indeed of seeing the world, and thinking it high time for me to provide against the foul weather that is certainly coming upon us.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1667. So we parted, and I to White Hall, as I said before, and there met with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) and Mr. Scawen, who both confirm the news of the Parliament's meeting. Here I staid for an order for my Tangier money, £30,000, upon the 11 months' tax, and so away to my Lord Arlington's (age 49) office, and there spoke to him about Mr. Lanyon's business, and received a good answer, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, and there met with Colonell Reames (age 53), who tells me of a letter come last night, or the day before, from my Lord St. Albans (age 62), out of France, wherein he says, that the King of France (age 28) did lately fall out with him, giving him ill names, saying that he had belied him to our King, by saying that he had promised to assist our King, and to forward the peace; saying that indeed he had offered to forward the peace at such a time, but it was not accepted of, and so he thinks himself not obliged, and would do what was fit for him; and so made him to go out of his sight in great displeasure: and he hath given this account to the King (age 37), which, Colonell Reymes tells me, puts them into new melancholy at Court, and he believes hath forwarded the resolution of calling the Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1667. Thence I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there hear how they talk against the present management of things, and against Sir W. Coventry (age 39) for his bringing in of new commanders and casting out the old seamen, which I did endeavour to rectify Mrs. Michell and them in, letting them know that he hath opposed it all his life the most of any man in England. After a deal of this tittle tattle, I to Mrs. Martin's, and there she was gone in before, but when I come, contrary to my expectation, I find her all in trouble, and what was it for but that I have got her with child.... [Missing text 'for those [ her menses ] do not venir [come] upon her as they should have done'] and is in exceeding grief, and swears that the child is mine, which I do not believe, but yet do comfort her that either it cannot be so, or if it be that I will take care to send for her husband, though I do hardly see how I can be sure of that, the ship being at sea, and as far as Scotland, but however I must do it, and shall find some way or other of doing it, though it do trouble me not a little.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1667. So up to my Chancellor's (age 58), where was a Committee of Tangier in my Lord's roome, where he is to hear causes, where all the judges' pictures hang up, very fine. Here I read my letter to them, which was well received, and they did fall seriously to discourse the want of money and other particulars, and to some pretty good purpose. But to see how Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did oppose both my Chancellor (age 58) and the Duke of York (age 33) himself, about the Order of the Commissioners of the Treasury to me for not paying of pensions, and with so much reason, and eloquence so natural, was admirable. And another thing, about his pressing for the reduction of the charge of Tangier, which they would have put off to another time; "But", says he, "the King (age 37) suffers so much by the putting off of the consideration of reductions of charge, that he is undone; and therefore I do pray you, sir, to his Royal Highness, that when any thing offers of the kind, you will not let it escape you". Here was a great bundle of letters brought hither, sent up from sea, from a vessel of ours that hath taken them after they had been flung over by a Dutchman; wherein, among others, the Duke of York (age 33) did read the superscription of one to De Witt, thus "To the most wise, foreseeing and discreet, These, &c."; which, I thought with myself, I could have been glad might have been duly directed to any one of them at the table, though the greatest men in this kingdom. The Duke of York (age 33), the Chancellor (age 58), my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Arlington, Ashley, Peterborough, and Coventry (the best of them all for parts), I perceive they do all profess their expectation of a peace, and that suddenly, and do advise of things accordingly, and do all speak of it (and expressly, I remember, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58)), saying that they hoped for it. Letters were read at the table from Tangier that Guiland is wholly lost, and that he do offer Arzill to us to deliver it to us. But Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did declare his opinion that we should have nothing to do with it, and said that if Tangier were offered us now, as the King's condition is, he would advise against the taking it; saying, that the King's charge is too great, and must be brought down, it being, like the fire of this City, never to be mastered till you have brought it under you; and that these places abroad are but so much charge to the King (age 37), and we do rather hitherto strive to greaten them than lessen them; and then the King (age 37) is forced to part with them, "as", says he, "he did with Dunkirke", by my Lord Tiviott's making it so chargeable to the King (age 37) as he did that, and would have done Tangier, if he had lived: I perceive he is the only man that do seek the King's profit, and is bold to deliver what he thinks on every occasion. Having broke up here, I away with Mr. Gawden in his coach to the 'Change [Map], and there a little, and then home and dined, and then to the office, and by and by with my wife to White Hall (she to Unthanke's), and there met Creed and did a little business at the Treasury chamber, and then to walk in Westminster Hall [Map] an hour or two, with much pleasure reflecting upon our discourse to-day at the Tangier meeting, and crying up the worth of Sir W. Coventry (age 39). Creed tells me of the fray between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Duke's playhouse the last Saturday (and it is the first day I have heard that they have acted at either the King's or Duke's houses this month or six weeks) and Henry Killigrew (age 30), whom the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did soundly beat and take away his sword, and make a fool of, till the fellow prayed him to spare his life; and I am glad of it; for it seems in this business the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did carry himself very innocently and well, and I wish he had paid this fellow's coat well. I heard something of this at the 'Change [Map] to-day: and it is pretty to hear how people do speak kindly of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), as one that will enquire into faults; and therefore they do mightily favour him. And it puts me in mind that, this afternoon, Billing (age 44), the Quaker, meeting me in the Hall, come to me, and after a little discourse did say, "Well", says he, "now you will be all called to an account"; meaning the Parliament is drawing near. This done I took coach and took up my wife, and so home, and after a little at the office I home to my chamber a while, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. After dinner comes W. How and a son of Mr. Pagett's to see me, with whom I drank, but could not stay, and so by coach with cozen Roger (age 50) (who before his going did acquaint me in private with an offer made of his marrying of Mrs. Elizabeth Wiles, whom I know; a kinswoman of Mr. Honiwood's, an ugly old maid, but a good housewife; and is said to have £2500 to her portion; but if I can find that she hath but £2000, which he prays me to examine, he says he will have her, she being one he hath long known intimately, and a good housewife, and discreet woman; though I am against it in my heart, she being not handsome at all) and it hath been the very bad fortune of the Pepyses that ever I knew, never to marry an handsome woman, excepting Ned Pepys and Creed, set the former down at the Temple [Map] resolving to go to Cambridge to-morrow, and Creed and I to White Hall to the Treasury chamber there to attend, but in vain, only here, looking out of the window into the garden, I saw the King (age 37) (whom I have not had any desire to see since the Dutch come upon the coast first to Sheerness, for shame that I should see him, or he me, methinks, after such a dishonour) come upon the garden; with him two or three idle Lords; and instantly after him, in another walk, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), led by Bab. May (age 39): at which I was surprised, having but newly heard the stories of the King (age 37) and her being parted for ever. So I took Mr. Povy (age 53), who was there, aside, and he told me all, how imperious this woman is, and hectors the King (age 37) to whatever she will. It seems she is with child, and the King (age 37) says he did not get it: with that she made a slighting "puh" with her mouth, and went out of the house, and never come in again till the King (age 37) went to Sir Daniel Harvy's to pray her; and so she is come to-day, when one would think his mind should be full of some other cares, having but this morning broken up such a Parliament, with so much discontent, and so many wants upon him, and but yesterday heard such a sermon against adultery. But it seems she hath told the King (age 37), that whoever did get it, he should own it; and the bottom of the quarrel is this:-She is fallen in love with young Jermin who hath of late lain with her oftener than the King (age 37), and is now going to marry my Lady Falmouth; the King (age 37) he is mad at her entertaining Jermin, and she is mad at Jermin's going to marry from her: so they are all mad; and thus the Kingdom is governed! and they say it is labouring to make breaches between the Duke of Richmond and his lady that the King (age 37) may get her to him. But he tells me for certain that nothing is more sure than that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 33), and the Chancellor (age 58), are desirous and labouring all they can to get an army, whatever the King (age 37) says to the Parliament; and he believes that they are at last resolved to stand and fall all three together: so that he says match of the Duke of York (age 33) with the Chancellor's (age 58) daughter hath undone the nation. He tells me also that the King (age 37) hath not greater enemies in the world than those of his own family; for there is not an officer in the house almost but curses him for letting them starve, and there is not a farthing of money to be raised for the buying them bread. Having done talking with him I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there talked and wandered up and down till the evening to no purpose, there and to the Swan [Map], and so till the evening, and so home, and there to walk in the garden with my wife, telling her of my losing £300 a year by my place that I am to part with, which do a little trouble me, but we must live with somewhat more thrift, and so home to supper and to play on the flageolet, which do do very prettily, and so to bed. Many guns were heard this afternoon, it seems, at White Hall and in the Temple [Map] garden very plain; but what it should be nobody knows, unless the Dutch be driving our ships up the river. To-morrow we shall know.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. By and by up to the Duke of York's (age 33) chamber; and there all the talk was about Jordan's coming with so much indiscretion, with his four little frigates and sixteen fire-ships from Harwich [Map], to annoy the enemy. His failures were of several sorts, I know not which the truest: that he come with so strong a gale of wind, that his grapplings would not hold; that he did come by their lee; whereas if he had come athwart their hawse, they would have held; that they did not stop a tide, and come up with a windward tide, and then they would not have come so fast. Now, there happened to be Captain Jenifer by, who commanded the Lily in this business, and thus says that, finding the Dutch not so many as they expected, they did not know but that there were more of them above, and so were not so earnest to the setting upon these; that they did do what they could to make the fire-ships fall in among the enemy; and, for their lives, neither Sir J. Jordan nor others could, by shooting several times at them, make them go in; and it seems they were commanded by some idle fellows, such as they could of a sudden gather up at Harwich [Map]; which is a sad consideration that, at such a time as this, where the saving the reputation of the whole nation lay at stake, and after so long a war, the King (age 37) had not credit to gather a few able men to command these vessels. He says, that if they had come up slower, the enemy would, with their boats and their great sloops, which they have to row with a great many men, they would, and did, come and cut up several of our fireships, and would certainly have taken most of them, for they do come with a great provision of these boats on purpose, and to save their men, which is bravely done of them, though they did, on this very occasion, shew great fear, as they say, by some men leaping overboard out of a great ship, as these were all of them of sixty and seventy guns a-piece, which one of our fireships laid on board, though the fire did not take. But yet it is brave to see what care they do take to encourage their men to provide great stores of boats to save them, while we have not credit to find one boat for a ship. And, further, he told us that this new way used by Deane (age 33), and this Sir W. Coventry (age 39) observed several times, of preparing of fire-ships, do not do the work; for the fire, not being strong and quick enough to flame up, so as to take the rigging and sails, lies smothering a great while, half an hour before it flames, in which time they can get her off safely, though, which is uncertain, and did fail in one or two this bout, it do serve to burn our own ships. But what a shame it is to consider how two of our ships' companies did desert their ships for fear of being taken by their boats, our little frigates being forced to leave them, being chased by their greater! And one more company did set their ship on fire, and leave her; which afterwards a Feversham fisherman come up to, and put out the fire, and carried safe into Feversham, where she now is, which was observed by the Duke of York (age 33), and all the company with him, that it was only want of courage, and a general dismay and abjectness of spirit upon all our men; and others did observe our ill management, and God Almighty's curse upon all that we have in hand, for never such an opportunity was of destroying so many good ships of theirs as we now had. But to see how negligent we were in this business, that our fleete of Jordan's should not have any notice where Spragg was, nor Spragg of Jordan's, so as to be able to meet and join in the business, and help one another; but Jordan, when he saw Spragg's fleete above, did think them to be another part of the enemy's fleete! While, on the other side, notwithstanding our people at Court made such a secret of Jordan's design that nobody must know it, and even this Office itself must not know it; nor for my part I did not, though Sir W. Batten (age 66) says by others' discourse to him he had heard something of it; yet De Ruyter (age 60), or he that commanded this fleete, had notice of it, and told it to a fisherman of ours that he took and released on Thursday last, which was the day before our fleete came to him. But then, that, that seems most to our disgrace, and which the Duke of York (age 33) did take special and vehement notice of, is, that when the Dutch saw so many fire-ships provided for them, themselves lying, I think, about the Nore, they did with all their great ships, with a North-east wind, as I take it they said, but whatever it was, it was a wind that we should not have done it with, turn down to the Middle-ground; which the Duke of York (age 33) observed, never was nor would have been undertaken by ourselves. And whereas some of the company answered, it was their great fear, not their choice that made them do it, the Duke of York (age 33) answered, that it was, it may be, their fear and wisdom that made them do it; but yet their fear did not make them mistake, as we should have done, when we have had no fear upon us, and have run our ships on ground. And this brought it into my mind, that they managed their retreat down this difficult passage, with all their fear, better than we could do ourselves in the main sea, when the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) run away from the Dutch, when the Prince was lost, and the Royal Charles and the other great ships come on ground upon the Galloper. Thus, in all things, in wisdom, courage, force, knowledge of our own streams, and success, the Dutch have the best of us, and do end the war with victory on their side. The Duke of York (age 33) being ready, we into his closet, but, being in haste to go to the Parliament House, he could not stay. So we parted, and to Westminster Hall [Map], where the Hall full of people to see the issue of the day, the King (age 37) being come to speak to the House to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1667. So having done there I to Westminster Hall [Map] to Burges, and then walked to the New Exchange, and there to my bookseller's, and did buy Scott's Discourse of Witches; and do hear Mr. Cowley (deceased) mightily lamented his death, by Dr. Ward, the Bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Bates, who were standing there, as the best poet of our nation, and as good a man.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1667. So to Westminster Hall [Map] and there staid a while, and thence to Mrs. Martin's, and there did take a little pleasure both with her and her sister. Here sat and talked, and it is a strange thing to see the impudence of the woman, that desires by all means to have her mari come home, only that she might beat liberty to have me para toker her, which is a thing I do not so much desire.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1667. Thence with Sir Thomas Allen (age 34), in a little sorry coach which he hath set up of late, and Sir Jeremy Smith, to White Hall, and there I took water and went to Westminster Hall [Map], and there hear that the House is this day again upon the business of giving the King (age 37) the thanks of the House for his speech, and, among other things, for laying aside of my Chancellor (age 58).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked with Mr. Scowen, who tells me that it is at last carried in the House that the thanks shall be given to the King (age 37)-among other things, particularly for the removal of my Chancellor (age 58); but he tells me it is a strange act, and that which he thinks would never have been, but that the King (age 37) did insist upon it, that, since it come into the House, it might not be let fall.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1667. Up, and betimes got a coach at the Exchange [Map], and thence to St. James's, where I had forgot that the Duke of York (age 34) and family were gone to White Hall, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, finding the Parliament likely to be busy all this morning about the business of Mr. Bruncker (age 40) for advising Cox and Harman (age 42) to shorten sail when they were in pursuit of the Dutch after the first great victory. I went away to Mr. Creed's chamber, there to meet Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), about business of Mr. Yeabsly, where I was delivered of a great fear that they would question some of the orders for payment of money which I had got them signed at the time of the plague, when I was here alone, but all did pass.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1667. After dinner, I away to Westminster, and up to the Parliament-house, and there did wait with great patience, till seven at night, to be called in to the Committee, who sat all this afternoon, examining the business of Chatham, Kent [Map]; and at last was called in, and told, that the least they expected from us Mr. Wren (age 38) had promised them, and only bade me to bring all my fellow-officers thitherto attend them tomorrow, afternoon. Sir Robert Brookes (age 30) in the chair: methinks a sorry fellow to be there, because a young man; and yet he seems to speak very well. I gone thence, my cozen Pepys comes out to me, and walks in the Hall with me, and bids me prepare to answer to every thing; for they do seem to lodge the business of Chatham, Kent [Map] upon the Commissioners of the Navy, and they are resolved to lay the fault heavy somewhere, and to punish it: and prays me to prepare to save myself, and gives me hints what to prepare against; which I am obliged to him for, and do begin to mistrust lest some unhappy slip or other after all my diligence and pains may not be found (which I can [not] foresee) that may prove as fatal to a man as the constant course of negligence and unfaithfulness of other men. Here we parted, and I to White Hall to Mr. Wren's (age 38) chamber, thereto advise with him about the list of ships and commanders which he is to present to the Parliament, and took coach (little Michell being with me, whom I took with me from Westminster Hall [Map]), and setting him down in Gracious street [Map] home myself, where I find my wife and the two Mercers and Willett and W. Batelier have been dancing, but without a fidler. I had a little pleasure in talking with these, but my head and heart full of thoughts between hope and fear and doubts what will become of us and me particularly against a furious Parliament. Then broke up and to bed, and there slept pretty well till about four o'clock, and from that time could not, but my thoughts running on speeches to the Parliament to excuse myself from the blame which by other men's negligence will 'light, it may be, upon the office.!

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1667. Here mighty merry (there being a good deal of good company) for a quarter of an hour, and so I away and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I come just as the House rose; and there, in the Hall, met with Sir W. Coventry (age 39), who is in pain to defend himself in the business of tickets, it being said that the paying of the ships at Chatham, Kent [Map] by ticket was by his direction, and he hath wrote to me to find his letters, and shew them him, but I find none; but did there argue the case with him, and I think no great blame can be laid on us for that matter, only I see he is fearfull. And he tells me his mistake in the House the other day, which occasions him much trouble, in shewing of the House the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) letter about the good condition of Chatham, Kent [Map], which he is sorry for, and, owns as a mistake, the thing not being necessary to have been done; and confesses that nobody can escape from such error, some times or other. He says the House was well satisfied with my Report yesterday; and so several others told me in the Hall that my Report was very good and satisfactory, and that I have got advantage by it in the House: I pray God it may prove so! And here, after the Hall pretty empty, I did walk a few turns with Commissioner Pett (age 57), and did give the poor weak man some advice for his advantage how to better his pleading for himself, which I think he will if he can remember and practise, for I would not have the man suffer what he do not deserve, there being enough of what he do deserve to lie upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1667. Up, and at the office, my Lord Bruncker (age 47) and I close together till almost 3 after noon, never stirring, making up a report for the Committee this afternoon about the business of discharging men by ticket, which it seems the House is mighty earnest in, but is a foolery in itself, yet gives me a great deal of trouble to draw up a defence for the Board, as if it was a crime; but I think I have done it to very good purpose. Then to my Lady Williams's, with her and my Lord, and there did eat a snapp of good victuals, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where we find the House not up, but sitting all this day about the method of bringing in the charge against my Chancellor (age 58); and at last resolved for a Committee to draw up the heads, and so rose, and no Committee to sit tonight. Here Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and Lord Bruncker (age 47) and I did in the Hall (between the two Courts at the top of the Hall) discourse about a letter of Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) to Bruncker, whereon Bruncker did justify his discharging men by ticket, and insists on one word which Sir W. Coventry (age 39) would not seem very earnest to have left out, but I did see him concerned, and did after labour to suppress the whole letter, the thing being in itself really impertinent, but yet so it is that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) do not desire to have his name used in this business, and I have prevailed with Bruncker for it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1667. Thence, it being too soon, I to Westminster Hall [Map], it being now about 7 at night, and there met Mr. Gregory, my old acquaintance, an understanding gentleman; and he and I walked an hour together, talking of the bad prospect of the times; and the sum of what I learn from him is this: That the King (age 37) is the most concerned in the world against the Chancellor (age 58), and all people that do not appear against him, and therefore is angry with the Bishops, having said that he had one Bishop on his side (Crofts ), and but one: that Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) are now his only Cabinet Council1 and that, before the Duke of York (age 34) fell sick, Buckingham (age 39) was admitted to the King (age 37) of his Cabinet, and there stayed with him several hours, and the Duke of York (age 34) shut out. That it is plain that there is dislike between the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34), and that it is to be feared that the House will go so far against the Chancellor (age 58), that they must do something to undo the Duke of York (age 34), or will not think themselves safe. That this Lord Vaughan (age 28), that is so great against the Chancellor (age 58), is one of the lewdest fellows of the age, worse than Sir Charles Sidly (age 28); and that he was heard to swear, God damn him, he would do my Lord Clarendon's (age 58) business. That he do find that my Lord Clarendon (age 58) hath more friends in both Houses than he believes he would have, by reason that they do see what are the hands that pull him down; which they do not like. That Harry Coventry (age 48) was scolded at by the King (age 37) severely the other day; and that his answer was that, if he must not speak what he thought in this business in Parliament, he must not come thither. And he says that by this very business Harry Coventry (age 48) hath got more fame and common esteem than any gentleman in England hath at this day, and is an excellent and able person. That the King (age 37), who not long ago did say of Bristoll (age 55), that he was a man able in three years to get himself a fortune in any kingdom in the world, and lose all again in three months, do now hug him, and commend his parts every where, above all the world. How fickle is this man [the King (age 37)], and how unhappy we like to be! That he fears some furious courses will be taken against the Duke of York (age 34); and that he hath heard that it was designed, if they cannot carry matters against the Chancellor (age 58), to impeach the Duke of York (age 34) himself, which God forbid! That Sir Edward Nicholas (age 74), whom he served while Secretary, is one of the best men in the world, but hated by the Queen-Mother (age 57), for a service he did the old King against her mind and her favourites; and that she and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) did make the King (age 37) to lay him aside: but this man says that he is one of the most perfect heavenly and charitable men in the whole world.

Note 1. The term Cabinet Council, as stated by Clarendon, originated thus, in 1640: "The bulk and burden of the state affairs lay principally upon the shoulders of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Strafford, and the Lord Cottington; some others being joined to them, as the Earl of Northumberland for ornament, the Bishop of London for his place, the two Secretaries, Sir H. Vane and Sir Francis Windebank, for service and communication of intelligence: only the Marquis of Hamilton, indeed, by his skill and interest, bore as great a part as he had a mind to do, and had the skill to meddle no further than he had a mind. These persons made up the committee of state, which was reproachfully after called the junto, and enviously then in the Court the Cabinet Council" ("History of the Rebellion", vol. i., p. 211, edit. 1849).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1667. Up betimes, and drinking my morning draught of strong water with Betty Michell, I had not opportunity para baiser la, I by water to White Hall, and there met Creed, and thence with him to Westminster Hall [Map], where we talked long together of news, and there met with Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's Secretary, and from him learn the truth of all I heard last night; and understand further, that this stiffness of the Lords is in no manner of kindness to my Chancellor (age 58), for he neither hath, nor do, nor for the future likely can oblige any of them, but rather the contrary; but that they do fear what the consequence may be to themselves, should they yield in his case, as many of them have reason. And more, he shewed me how this is rather to the wrong and prejudice of my Chancellor (age 58); for that it is better for him to come to be tried before the Lords, where he can have right and make interest, than, when the Parliament is up, be committed by the King (age 37), and tried by a Court on purpose made by the King (age 37), of what Lords the King (age 37) pleases, who have a mind to have his head. So that my Lord [Cornbury] himself, his son, he tells me, hath moved, that if they have Treason against my Lord of Clarendon (age 58), that they would specify it and send it up to the Lords, that he might come to his trial; so full of intrigues this business is! Having now a mind to go on and to be rid of Creed, I could not, but was forced to carry him with me to the Excise Office, and thence to the Temple [Map], and there walked a good while in the Temple [Map] church, observing the plainness of Selden's tomb, and how much better one of his executors hath, who is buried by him, and there I parted with him and took coach and home, where to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and then by coach to Arundel House [Map], to the election of Officers for the next year; where I was near being chosen of the Council, but am glad I was not, for I could not have attended, though, above all things, I could wish it; and do take it as a mighty respect to have been named there. The company great, and the elections long, and then to Cary House, a house now of entertainment, next my Lord Ashly's (age 46); and there, where I have heretofore heard Common Prayer in the time of Dr. Mossum, we after two hours' stay, sitting at the table with our napkins open, had our dinners brought, but badly done. But here was good company. I choosing to sit next Dr. Wilkins (age 53), Sir George Ent, and others whom I value, there talked of several things. Among others Dr. Wilkins, talking of the universal speech, of which he hath a book coming out, did first inform me how man was certainly made for society, he being of all creatures the least armed for defence, and of all creatures in the world the young ones are not able to do anything to help themselves, nor can find the dug without being put to it, but would die if the mother did not help it; and, he says, were it not for speech man would be a very mean creature. Much of this good discourse we had. But here, above all, I was pleased to see the person who had his blood taken out. He speaks well, and did this day give the Society a relation thereof in Latin, saying that he finds himself much better since, and as a new man, but he is cracked a little in his head, though he speaks very reasonably, and very well. He had but 20s. for his suffering it, and is to have the same again tried upon him: the first sound man that ever had it tried on him in England, and but one that we hear of in France, which was a porter hired by the virtuosos. Here all the afternoon till within night. Then I took coach and to the Exchange [Map], where I was to meet my wife, but she was gone home, and so I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there took a turn or two, but meeting with nobody to discourse with, returned to Cary House, and there stayed and saw a pretty deception of the sight by a glass with water poured into it, with a stick standing up with three balls of wax upon it, one distant from the other. How these balls did seem double and disappear one after another, mighty pretty! Here Mr. Carcasse did come to me, and brought first Mr. Colwall, our Treasurer, and then Dr. Wilkins to engage me to be his friend, and himself asking forgiveness and desiring my friendship, saying that the Council have now ordered him to be free to return to the Office to be employed. I promised him my friendship, and am glad of this occasion, having desired it; for there is nobody's ill tongue that I fear like his, being a malicious and cunning bold fellow.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Dec 1667. Thence to Lord Crew's, and there dined with him; where, after dinner, he took me aside, and bewailed the condition of the nation, how the King (age 37) and his brother are at a distance about this business of the Chancellor (age 58), and the two Houses differing. And he do believe that there are so many about the King (age 37) like to be concerned and troubled by the Parliament, that they will get him to dissolve or prorogue the Parliament; and the rather, for that the King (age 37) is likely, by this good husbandry of the Treasury, to get out of debt, and the Parliament is likely to give no money. Among other things, my Lord Crew (age 69) did tell me, with grief, that he hears that the King (age 37) of late hath not dined nor supped with the Queen (age 29), as he used of late to do. After a little discourse, Mr. Caesar, he dining there, did give us some musique on his lute (Mr. John Crew being there) to my great content, and then away I, and Mr. Caesar followed me and told me that my boy Tom hath this day declared to him that he cared not for the French lute and would learn no more, which Caesar out of faithfulness tells me that I might not spend any more money on him in vain. I shall take the boy to task about it, though I am contented to save my money if the boy knows not what is good for himself. So thanked him, and indeed he is a very honest man I believe, and away home, there to get something ready for the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and so took my wife and girle and set them at Unthanke's, and I to White Hall, and there with the Commissioners of the Treasury, who I find in mighty good condition to go on in payment of the seamen off, and thence I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with my cozen Roger (age 50) and walked a good while with him; he tells me of the high vote of the Commons this afternoon, which I also heard at White Hall, that the proceedings of the Lords in the case of my Lord Clarendon (age 58) are an obstruction to justice, and of ill precedent to future times. This makes every body wonder what will be the effect of it, most thinking that the King (age 37) will try him by his own Commission. It seems they were mighty high to have remonstrated, but some said that was too great an appeale to the people. Roger is mighty full of fears of the consequence of it, and wishes the King (age 37) would dissolve them. So we parted, and I bought some Scotch cakes at Wilkinson's in King Street, and called my wife, and home, and there to supper, talk, and to bed. Supped upon these cakes, of which I have eat none since we lived at Westminster. This night our poor little dogg Fancy was in a strange fit, through age, of which she has had five or six.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1667. At the office all the morning. At noon to dinner, and presently with my wife abroad, whom and her girle I leave at Unthanke's, and so to White Hall in expectation of waiting on the Duke of York (age 34) to-day, but was prevented therein, only at Mr. Wren's chamber there I hear that the House of Lords did send down the paper which my Chancellor (age 58) left behind him, directed to the Lords, to be seditious and scandalous; and the Commons have voted that it be burned by the hands of the hangman, and that the King (age 37) be desired to agree to it. I do hear, also, that they have desired the King (age 37) to use means to stop his escape out of the nation. Here I also heard Mr. Jermin (age 31), who was there in the chamber upon occasion of Sir Thomas Harvy's (age 42) telling him of his brother's (age 34) having a child, and thereby taking away his hopes (that is, Mr. Jermin's) of £2000 a year. He swore, God damn him, he did not desire to have any more wealth than he had in the world, which indeed is a great estate, having all his uncle's, my Lord St. Alban's (age 62), and my Lord hath all the Queen-Mother's (age 58). But when Sir Thos. Harvy told him that "hereafter you will wish it more";-"By God", answers he, "I won't promise what I shall do hereafter". Thence into the House, and there spied a pretty woman with spots on her face, well clad, who was enquiring for the guard chamber; I followed her, and there she went up, and turned into the turning towards the chapel, and I after her, and upon the stairs there met her coming up again, and there kissed her twice, and her business was to enquire for Sir Edward Bishop, one of the serjeants at armes. I believe she was a woman of pleasure, but was shy enough to me, and so I saw her go out afterwards, and I took a Hackney coach, and away. I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked, and thence towards White Hall by coach, and spying Mrs. Burroughs in a shop did stop and 'light and speak to her; and so to White Hall, where I 'light and went and met her coming towards White Hall, but was upon business, and I could not get her to go any whither and so parted, and I home with my wife and girle (my wife not being very well, of a great looseness day and night for these two days).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Dec 1667. Up, and all the morning at the office, and then home with my people to dinner, and very merry, and then to my office again, where did much business till night, that my eyes begun to be sore, and then forced to leave off, and by coach set my wife at her tailor's and Willet, and I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked a good while till 8 at night, and there hear to my great content that the King (age 37) did send a message to the House to-day that he would adjourne them on the 17th instant to February; by which time, at least, I shall have more respite to prepare things on my own behalf, and the Office, against their return. Here met Mr. Hinxton, the organist, walking, and I walked with him; and, asking him many questions, I do find that he can no more give an intelligible answer to a man that is not a great master in his art, than another man. And this confirms me that it is only want of an ingenious man that is master in musique, to bring musique to a certainty, and ease in composition. Having done this, I home, taking up my wife and girle, and there to supper and to bed, having finished my letters, among which one to Commissioner Middleton, who is now coming up to town from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], to enter upon his Surveyorship.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Dec 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked most of the morning, and among others did there meet my cozen Roger Pepys (age 50), who intends to go to Impington on this day s'ennight, the Parliament break up the night before. Here I met Rolt (age 38) and Sir John Chichly (age 27), and Harris (age 33), the player, and there we talked of many things, and particularly of "Catiline", which is to be suddenly acted at the King's house; and there all agree that it cannot be well done at that house, there not being good actors enow: and Burt' acts Cicero, which they all conclude he will not be able to do well. The King (age 37) gives them £500 for robes, there being, as they say, to be sixteen scarlett robes.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1667. After dinner comes Mr. Moore, and he and I alone a while, he telling me my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) credit is like to be undone, if the bill of £200 my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) wrote to me about be not paid to-morrow, and that, if I do not help him about it, they have no way but to let it be protested. So, finding that Creed hath supplied them with £150 in their straits, and that this is no bigger sum, I am very willing to serve my Lord, though not in this kind; but yet I will endeavour to get this done for them, and the rather because of some plate that was lodged the other day with me, by my Lady's order, which may be in part of security for my money, as I may order it, for, for ought I see, there is no other to be hoped for. This do trouble me; but yet it is good luck that the sum is no bigger. He gone, I with my cozen Roger (age 50) to Westminster Hall [Map]; and there we met the House rising: and they have voted my Lord Chief Justice Keeling's (age 60) proceedings illegal; but that, out of particular respect to him, and the mediation of a great many, they have resolved to proceed no further against him. After a turn or two with my cozen, I away with Sir W. Warren, who met me here by my desire, and to Exeter House [Map], and there to counsel, to Sir William Turner, about the business of my bargain with my Lady Batten; and he do give me good advice, and that I am safe, but that there is a great many pretty considerations in it that makes it necessary for me to be silent yet for a while till we see whether the ship be safe or no; for she is drove to the coast of Holland, where she now is in the Texell, so that it is not prudence for me yet to resolve whether I will stand by the bargain or no, and so home, and Sir W. Warren and I walked upon Tower Hill [Map] by moonlight a great while, consulting business of the office and our present condition, which is but bad, it being most likely that the Parliament will change all hands, and so let them, so I may keep but what I have.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1667. Up, and all the morning at the office, and at noon with my clerks to dinner, and then to the office again, busy at the office till six at night, and then by coach to St. James's, it being about six at night; my design being to see the ceremonys, this night being the eve of Christmas, at the Queen's (age 29) chapel. But it being not begun I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there staid and walked, and then to the Swan [Map], and there drank and talked, and did banter a little Frank, and so to White Hall, and sent my coach round, I through the Park to chapel, where I got in up almost to the rail, and with a great deal of patience staid from nine at night to two in the morning, in a very great crowd; and there expected, but found nothing extraordinary, there being nothing but a high masse. The Queen (age 29) was there, and some ladies. But, Lord! what an odde thing it was for me to be in a crowd of people, here a footman, there a beggar, here a fine lady, there a zealous poor papist, and here a Protestant, two or three together, come to see the shew. I was afeard of my pocket being picked very much.... Their musique very good indeed, but their service I confess too frivolous, that there can be no zeal go along with it, and I do find by them themselves that they do run over their beads with one hand, and point and play and talk and make signs with the other in the midst of their masse. But all things very rich and beautiful; and I see the papists have the wit, most of them, to bring cushions to kneel on, which I wanted, and was mightily troubled to kneel. All being done, and I sorry for my coming, missing of what I expected; which was, to have had a child born and dressed there, and a great deal of do: but we broke up, and nothing like it done: and there I left people receiving the Sacrament: and the Queen (age 29) gone, and ladies; only my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), who looked prettily in her night-clothes, and so took my coach, which waited, and away through Covent Garden [Map], to set down two gentlemen and a lady, who come thither to see also, and did make mighty mirth in their talk of the folly of this religion. And so I stopped, having set them down and drank some burnt wine at the Rose Tavern door, while the constables come, and two or three Bellmen went by,

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1668. This being done I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there staid a little: and then home, and by the way did find with difficulty the Life of Sir Philip Sidney (the book I mentioned yesterday). And the bookseller told me that he had sold four, within this week or two, which is more than ever he sold in all his life of them; and he could not imagine what should be the reason of it: but I suppose it is from the same reason of people's observing of this part therein, touching his prophesying our present condition here in England in relation to the Dutch, which is very remarkable.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1668. Thence I, about two o'clock, to Westminster Hall [Map], by appointment, and there met my cozen Roger (age 50) again, and Mr. Jackson (age 28), who is a plain young man, handsome enough for Pall (age 27), one of no education nor discourse, but of few words, and one altogether that, I think, will please me well enough. My cozen had got me to give the odd sixth £100 presently, which I intended to keep to the birth of the first child: and let it go-I shall be eased of the care, and so, after little talk, we parted, resolving to dine together at my house tomorrow.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office, to the getting of my books in order, to carry to the Commissioners of Accounts this morning. This being done, I away first to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met my cozen, Roger Pepys (age 50), by his desire, the first time I have seen him since his coming to town, the Parliament meeting yesterday and adjourned to Monday next; and here he tells me that Mr. Jackson (age 28), my sister's servant, is come to town, and hath this day suffered a recovery on his estate, in order to the making her a settlement. The young man is gone out of the Hall, so I could not now see him, but here I walked a good while with my cozen, and among other things do hear that there is a great triall between my Lord Gerard (age 50) and Carr (age 31) to-day, who is indicted for his life at the King's Bench, for running from his colours; but all do say that my Lord Gerard (age 50), though he designs the ruining of this man, will not get any thing by it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1668. After dinner by coach away to Westminster; taking up a friend of Mr. Jackson's (age 28), a young lawyer, and parting with Creed at White Hall. They and I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met Roger Pepys (age 50), and with him to his chamber, and there read over and agreed upon the Deed of Settlement to our minds: my sister to have £600 presently, and she to be joyntured in £60 per annum; wherein I am very well satisfied.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where the Hall mighty full: and, among other things, the House begins to sit to-day, and the King (age 37) come. But, before the King's coming, the House of Commons met; and upon information given them of a Bill intended to be brought in, as common report said, for Comprehension, they did mightily and generally inveigh against it, and did vote that the King (age 37) should be desired by the House (and the message delivered by the Privy-counsellers of the House) that the laws against breakers of the Act of Uniformity should be put in execution: and it was moved in the House that, if any people had a mind to bring any new laws into the House, about religion, they might come, as a proposer of new laws did in Athens, with ropes about their necks.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Feb 1668. At noon home to dinner, where little pleasure, my head being split almost with the variety of troubles upon me at this time, and cares, and after dinner by coach to Westminster Hall [Map], and sent my wife and Deb. to see "Mustapha" acted. Here I brought a book to the Committee, and do find them; and particularly Sir Thomas Clarges (age 50), mighty hot in the business of tickets, which makes me mad to see them bite at the stone, and not at the hand that flings it, and here my Lord Brouncker (age 48) unnecessarily orders it that he is called in to give opportunity to present his report of the state of the business of paying by ticket, which I do not think will do him any right, though he was made believe that it did operate mightily, and that Sir Fresh. Hollis (age 25) did make a mighty harangue and to much purpose in his defence, but I believe no such effects of it, for going in afterward I did hear them speak with prejudice of it, and that his pleading of the Admiral's warrant for it now was only an evasion, if not an aspersion upon the Admirall, and therefore they would not admit of this his report, but go on with their report as they had resolved before. The orders they sent for this day was the first order that I have yet met with about this business, and was of my own single hand warranting, but I do think it will do me no harm, and therefore do not much trouble myself with it, more than to see how much trouble I am brought to who have best deported myself in all the King's business.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1668. Thence to the Committee, where I did deliver the several things they expected from me, with great respect and show of satisfaction, and my mind thereby eased of some care. But thence I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there spent till late at night walking to and again with many people, and there in general I hear of the great high words that were in the House on Saturday last, upon the first part of the Committee's Report about the dividing of the fleete; wherein some would have the counsels of the King (age 37) to be declared, and the reasons of them, and who did give them; where Sir W. Coventry (age 40) laid open to them the consequences of doing that, that the King (age 37) would never have any honest and wise men ever to be of his Council. They did here in the House talk boldly of the King's bad counsellors, and how they must be all turned out, and many of them, and better; brought in: and the proceedings of the Long-Parliament in the beginning of the war were called to memory: and the King's bad intelligence was mentioned, wherein they were bitter against my Lord Arlington (age 50), saying, among other things, that whatever Morrice's was, who declared he had but £750 a-year allowed him for intelligence, the King (age 37) paid too dear for my Lord Arlington's (age 50), in giving him £10,000 and a barony for it. Sir W. Coventry (age 40) did here come to his defence, in the business of the letter that was sent to call back Prince Rupert (age 48), after he was divided from the fleete, wherein great delay was objected; but he did show that he sent it at one in the morning, when the Duke of York (age 34) did give him the instructions after supper that night, and did clear himself well of it: only it was laid as a fault, which I know not how he removes, of not sending it by an express, but by the ordinary post; but I think I have heard he did send it to my Lord Arlington's (age 50); and that there it lay for some hours; it coming not to Sir Philip Honiwood's hand at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] till four in the afternoon that day, being about fifteen or sixteen hours in going; and about this, I think, I have heard of a falling out between my Lord Arlington (age 50), heretofore, and W. Coventry (age 40). Some mutterings I did hear of a design of dissolving the Parliament; but I think there is no ground for it yet, though Oliver would have dissolved them for half the trouble and contempt these have put upon the King (age 37) and his councils. The dividing of the fleete, however, is, I hear, voted a miscarriage, and the not building a fortification at Sheernesse [Map]: and I have reason every hour to expect that they will vote the like of our paying men off by ticket; and what the consequence of that will be I know not, but I am put thereby into great trouble of mind. I did spend a little time at the Swan [Map], and there did kiss the maid, Sarah.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1668. Thence walked over St. James's Park to White Hall, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked all the morning, and did speak with several Parliament-men-among others, Birch (age 52), who is very kind to me, and calls me, with great respect and kindness, a man of business, and he thinks honest, and so long will stand by me, and every such man, to the death. My business was to instruct them to keep the House from falling into any mistaken vote about the business of tickets, before they were better informed. I walked in the Hall all the morning with my Lord Brouncker (age 48), who was in great pain there, and, the truth is, his business is, without reason, so ill resented by the generality of the House, that I was almost troubled to be seen to walk with him, and yet am able to justify him in all, that he is under so much scandal for. Here I did get a copy of the report itself, about our paying off men by tickets; and am mightily glad to see it, now knowing the state of our case, and what we have to answer to, and the more for that the House is like to be kept by other business to-day and to-morrow, so that, against Thursday, I shall be able to draw up some defence to put into some Member's hands, to inform them, and I think we may [make] a very good one, and therefore my mind is mightily at ease about it. This morning they are upon a Bill, brought in to-day by Sir Richard Temple (age 33), for obliging the King (age 37) to call Parliaments every three years; or, if he fail, for others to be obliged to do it, and to keep him from a power of dissolving any Parliament in less than forty days after their first day of sitting, which is such a Bill as do speak very high proceedings, to the lessening of the King (age 37); and this they will carry, and whatever else they desire, before they will give any money; and the King (age 37) must have money, whatever it cost him. I stepped to the Dog tavern [Map], and thither come to me Doll Lane, and there we did drink together, and she tells me she is my valentine...

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office a while, and thence to White Hall by coach with Mr. Batelier with me, whom I took up in the street. I thence by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there with Lord Brouncker (age 48), Sir T. Harvy (age 42), Sir J. Minnes (age 68), did wait all the morning to speak to members about our business, thinking our business of tickets would come before the House to-day, but we did alter our minds about the petition to the House, sending in the paper to them. But the truth is we were in a great hurry, but it fell out that they were most of the morning upon the business of not prosecuting the first victory; which they have voted one of the greatest miscarriages of the whole war, though they cannot lay the fault anywhere yet, because Harman (age 43) is not come home. This kept them all the morning, which I was glad of. So down to the Hall, where my wife by agreement stayed for me at Mrs. Michell's, and there was Mercer and the girl, and I took them to Wilkinson's the cook's in King Street (where I find the master of the house hath been dead for some time), and there dined, and thence by one o'clock to the King's house: a new play, "The Duke of Lerma", of Sir Robert Howard's (age 42): where the King (age 37) and Court was; and Knepp and Nell (age 18) spoke the prologue most excellently, especially Knepp, who spoke beyond any creature I ever, heard. The play designed to reproach our King with his mistresses, that I was troubled for it, and expected it should be interrupted; but it ended all well, which salved all. The play a well-writ and good play, only its design I did not like of reproaching the King (age 37), but altogether a very good and most serious play.

Hamilton-Mohun Duel

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1668. Thence with Brouncker and T. Harvey to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with Colonel Birch (age 52) and Sir John Lowther, and did there in the lobby read over what I have drawn up for our defence, wherein they own themselves mightily satisfied; and Birch (age 52), like a particular friend, do take it upon him to defend us, and do mightily do me right in all his discourse. Here walked in the Hall with him a great while, and discoursed with several members, to prepare them in our business against to-morrow, and meeting my cozen Roger Pepys (age 50), he showed me Granger's written confession1, of his being forced by imprisonment, &c., by my Lord Gerard (age 50), most barbarously to confess his forging of a deed in behalf of Fitton (age 38), in the great case between him [Fitton] and my Lord Gerard (age 50); which business is under examination, and is the foulest against my Lord Gerard (age 50) that ever any thing in the world was, and will, all do believe, ruine him; and I shall be glad of it.

Note 1. Pepys here refers to the extraordinary proceedings which occurred between Charles, Lord Gerard (age 50), and Alexander Fitton (age 38), of which a narrative was published at the Hague in 1665. Granger was a witness in the cause, and was afterwards said to be conscience-stricken from his perjury. Some notice of this case will be found in North's "Examen", p. 558; but the copious and interesting note in Ormerod's "History of Cheshire", Vol. iii., p. 291, will best satisfy the reader, who will not fail to be struck by the paragraph with which it is closed-viz., "It is not improbable that Alexander Fitton (age 38), who, in the first instance, gained rightful possession of Gawsworth [Map] under an acknowledged settlement, was driven headlong into unpremeditated guilt by the production of a revocation by will which Lord Gerard (age 50) had so long concealed. Having lost his own fortune in the prosecution of his claims, he remained in gaol till taken out by James II to be made Chancellor of Ireland (under which character Hume first notices him), was knighted, and subsequently created Lord Gawsworth after the abdication of James, sat in his parliament in Dublin in 1689, and then is supposed to have accompanied his fallen master to France. Whether the conduct of Fitton was met, as he alleges, by similar guilt on the part of Lord Gerard (age 50), God only can judge; but his hand fell heavily on the representatives of that noble house. In less than half a century the husbands of its two co-heiresses, James, Duke of Hamilton (age 9), and Charles, Lord Mohun, were slain by each other's hands in a murderous duel arising out of a dispute relative to the partition of the Fitton estates, and Gawsworth itself passed to an unlineal hand, by a series of alienations complicated beyond example in the annals of this country". B. .

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and the lobby, and up and down there all the morning, and to the Lords' House, and heard the Solicitor-General plead very finely, as he always do; and this was in defence of the East India Company against a man that complains of wrong from them, and thus up and down till noon in expectation of our business coming on in the House of Commons about tickets, but they being busy about my Lord Gerard's (age 50) business I did give over the thoughts of ours coming on, and so with my wife, and Mercer, and Deb., who come to the Hall to me, I away to the Beare, in Drury Lane, and there bespoke a dish of meat; and, in the mean time, sat and sung with Mercer; and, by and by, dined with mighty pleasure, and excellent meat, one little dish enough for us all, and good wine, and all for 8s., and thence to the Duke's playhouse, and there saw "Albumazar", an old play, this the second time of acting. It is said to have been the ground of B. Jonson's "Alchymist"; but, saving the ridicuiousnesse of Angell's part, which is called Trinkilo, I do not see any thing extraordinary in it, but was indeed weary of it before it was done. The King (age 37) here, and, indeed, all of us, pretty merry at the mimique tricks of Trinkilo.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Feb 1668. Thence with him by coach and set him down at the Temple [Map], and I to Westminster Hall [Map], where, it being now about six o'clock, I find the House just risen; and met with Sir W. Coventry (age 40) and the Lieutenant of the Tower, they having sat all day; and with great difficulty have got a vote for giving the King (age 37) £300,000, not to be raised by any land-tax. The sum is much smaller than I expected, and than the King (age 37) needs; but is grounded upon Mr. Wren's reading our estimates the other day of £270,000, to keep the fleete abroad, wherein we demanded nothing for setting and fitting of them out, which will cost almost £200,000, I do verily believe: and do believe that the King (age 37) hath no cause to thank Wren for this motion. I home to Sir W. Coventry's (age 40) lodgings, with him and the Lieutenant of the Tower, where also was Sir John Coventry, and Sir John Duncomb (age 45), and Sir Job Charleton. And here a great deal of good discourse: and they seem mighty glad to have this vote pass, which I did wonder at, to see them so well satisfied with so small a sum, Sir John Duncomb (age 45) swearing, as I perceive he will freely do, that it was as much as the nation could beare. Among other merry discourse about spending of money, and how much more chargeable a man's living is now more than it was heretofore, Duncomb did swear that in France he did live of £100 a year with more plenty, and wine and wenches, than he believes can be done now for £200, which was pretty odd for him, being a Committee-man's son, to say. Having done here, and supped, where I eat very little, we home in Sir John Robinson's (age 53) coach, and there to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1668. Up betimes, and with Sir Prince to Sir W. Coventry's (age 40) chamber: where the first word he said to me was, "Good-morrow, Mr. Pepys, that must be Speaker of the Parliament-house:" and did protest I had got honour for ever in Parliament. He said that his brother (age 49), that sat by him, admires me; and another gentleman said that I could not get less than £1000 a-year if I would put on a gown and plead at the Chancery-bar; but, what pleases me most, he tells me that the Sollicitor-Generall did protest that he thought I spoke the best of any man in England. After several talks with him alone, touching his own businesses, he carried me to White Hall, and there parted; and I to the Duke of York's (age 34) lodgings, and find him going to the Park, it being a very fine morning, and I after him; and, as soon as he saw me, he told me, with great satisfaction, that I had converted a great many yesterday, and did, with great praise of me, go on with the discourse with me. And, by and by, overtaking the King (age 37), the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) come to me both; and he [the King (age 37)] said, "Mr. Pepys, I am very glad of your success yesterday"; and fell to talk of my well speaking; and many of the Lords there. My Lord Barkeley (age 66) did cry the up for what they had heard of it; and others, Parliament-men there, about the King (age 37), did say that they never heard such a speech in their lives delivered in that manner. Progers, of the Bedchamber, swore to me afterwards before Brouncker (age 48), in the afternoon, that he did tell the King (age 37) that he thought I might teach the Sollicitor-Generall. Every body that saw me almost come to me, as Joseph Williamson (age 34) and others, with such eulogys as cannot be expressed. From thence I went to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Mr. G. Montagu (age 45), who come to me and kissed me, and told me that he had often heretofore kissed my hands, but now he would kiss my lips: protesting that I was another Cicero, and said, all the world said the same of me. Mr. Ashburnham (age 64), and every creature I met there of the Parliament, or that knew anything of the Parliament's actings, did salute me with this honour:-Mr. Godolphin (age 33);-Mr. Sands, who swore he would go twenty mile, at any time, to hear the like again, and that he never saw so many sit four hours together to hear any man in his life, as there did to hear me; Mr. Chichly (age 53),-Sir John Duncomb,-and everybody do say that the Kingdom will ring of my abilities, and that I have done myself right for my whole life: and so Captain Cocke (age 51), and others of my friends, say that no man had ever such an opportunity of making his abilities known; and, that I may cite all at once, Mr. Lieutenant of the Tower did tell me that Mr. Vaughan (age 64) did protest to him, and that, in his hearing it, said so to the Duke of Albemarle (age 59), and afterwards to W. Coventry, that he had sat twenty-six years in Parliament and never heard such a speech there before: for which the Lord God make me thankful! and that I may make use of it not to pride and vain-glory, but that, now I have this esteem, I may do nothing that may lessen it! I spent the morning thus walking in the Hall, being complimented by everybody with admiration: and at noon stepped into the Legg with Sir William Warren, who was in the Hall, and there talked about a little of his business, and thence into the Hall a little more, and so with him by coach as far as the Temple [Map] almost, and there 'light, to follow my Lord Brouncker's (age 48) coach, which I spied, and so to Madam Williams's, where I overtook him, and agreed upon meeting this afternoon, and so home to dinner, and after dinner with W. Pen (age 46), who come to my house to call me, to White Hall, to wait on the Duke of York (age 34), where he again and all the company magnified me, and several in the Gallery: among others, my Lord Gerard (age 50), who never knew me before nor spoke to me, desires his being better acquainted with me; and [said] that, at table where he was, he never heard so much said of any man as of me, in his whole life. We waited on the Duke of York (age 34), and thence into the Gallery, where the House of Lords waited the King's coming out of the Park, which he did by and by; and there, in the Vane-room, my Lord Keeper delivered a message to the King (age 37), the Lords being about him, wherein the Barons of England, from many good arguments, very well expressed in the part he read out of, do demand precedence in England of all noblemen of either of the King's other two kingdoms, be their title what it will; and did shew that they were in England reputed but as Commoners, and sat in the House of Commons, and at conferences with the Lords did stand bare. It was mighty worth my hearing: but the King (age 37) did only say that he would consider of it, and so dismissed them.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1668. At noon home to dinner with my clerks, and after dinner comes Kate Joyce, who tells me she is putting off her house, which I am glad of, but it was pleasant that she come on purpose to me about getting a ticket paid, and in her way hither lost her ticket, so that she is at a great loss what to do.-There comes in then Mrs. Mercer, the mother, the first time she has been here since her daughter lived with us, to see my wife, and after a little talk I left them and to the office, and thence with Sir Prince to Westminster Hall [Map], thinking to have attended the Committee about the Victualling business, but they did not meet, but here we met Sir R. Brookes (age 31), who do mightily cry up my speech the other day, saying my fellow-officers are obliged to me, as indeed they are.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, at noon home, and after dinner with wife and Deb., carried them to Unthanke's, and I to Westminster Hall [Map] expecting our being with the Committee this afternoon about Victualling business, but once more waited in vain. So after a turn or two with Lord Brouncker (age 48), I took my wife up and left her at the 'Change [Map] while I to Gresham College, there to shew myself; and was there greeted by Dr. Wilkins (age 54), Whistler, and others, as the patron of the Navy Office, and one that got great fame by my late speech to the Parliament. Here I saw a great trial of the goodness of a burning glass, made of a new figure, not spherical (by one Smithys, I think, they call him), that did burn a glove of my Lord Brouncker's (age 48) from the heat of a very little fire, which a burning glass of the old form, or much bigger, could not do, which was mighty pretty. Here I heard Sir Robert Southwell (age 32) give an account of some things committed to him by the Society at his going to Portugall, which he did deliver in a mighty handsome manner1. Thence went away home, and there at my office as long as my eyes would endure, and then home to supper, and to talk with Mr. Pelling, who tells me what a fame I have in the City for my late performance; and upon the whole I bless God for it. I think I have, if I can keep it, done myself a great deal of repute. So by and by to bed.

Note 1. At the meeting of the Royal Society on March 12th, 1668, "Mr. Smethwick's glasses were tried again; and his telescope being compared with another longer telescope, and the object-glasses exchanged, was still found to exceed the other in goodness; and his burning concave being compared with a spherical burning-glass of almost twice the diameter, and held to the fire, it burnt gloves, whereas the other spherical ones would not burn at all".-"Sir Robert Southwell (age 32) being lately returned from Portugal, where he had been ambassador from the King (age 37), and being desired to acquaint the society with what he had done with respect to the instructions, which he had received from them before his departure from England, related, that he had lodged the astronomical quadrant, which the society had sent to Portugal to make observations with there, with a body of men at Lisbon, who had applied themselves among other kinds of literature to mathematics" (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., p. 256).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1668. Up very betimes, and with Jane to Levett's, there to conclude upon our dinner; and thence to the pewterer's, to buy a pewter sesterne1, which I have ever hitherto been without, and so up and down upon several occasions to set matters in order, and that being done I out of doors to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met my Lord Brouncker (age 48), who tells me that our business is put off till Monday, and so I was mighty glad that I was eased of my attendance here, and of any occasion that might put me out of humour, as it is likely if we had been called before the Parliament. Therefore, after having spoke with Mr. Godolphin (age 33) and cozen Roger (age 50), I away home, and there do find everything in mighty good order, only my wife not dressed, which troubles me. Anon comes my company, viz., my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) and his lady, Sir Philip Carteret (age 27) and his, lady, GoDolphin and my cozen Roger (age 50), and Creed: and mighty merry; and by and by to dinner, which was very good and plentifull: (I should have said, and Mr. George Montagu (age 45)), who come at a very little warning, which was exceeding kind of him. And there, among other things, my Lord had Sir Samuel Morland's (age 43) late invention for casting up of sums of L. s. d.2 which is very pretty, but not very useful. Most of our discourse was of my Lord Sandwich (age 42) and his family, as being all of us of the family; and with extraordinary pleasure all the afternoon, thus together eating and looking over my closet: and my Lady Hinchingbroke [Map] I find a very sweet-natured and well-disposed lady, a lover of books and pictures, and of good understanding. About five o'clock they went; and then my wife and I abroad by coach into Moorefields [Map], only for a little ayre, and so home again, staying no where, and then up to her chamber, there to talk with pleasure of this day's passages, and so to bed. This day I had the welcome news of our prize being come safe from Holland, so as I shall have hopes, I hope, of getting my money of my Lady Batten, or good part of it.

Note 1. A pewter cistern was formerly part of the furniture of a well- appointed dining-room; the plates were rinsed in it, when necessary, during the meal. A magnificent silver cistern is still preserved in the dining-room at Burghley House, the seat of the Marquis of Exeter. It is said to be the largest piece of plate in England, and was once the subject of a curious wager. B.

Note 2. The same as Morland's (age 43) so-called calculating machine. Sir Samuel (age 43) published in 1673 "The Description and Use of two Arithmetick Instruments, together with a short Treatise of Arithmetic, as likewise a Perpetual Almanack and severall useful tables"..

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1668. Thence to the Swan [Map] and drank, and did baiser Frank, and so down by water back again, and to the Exchange [Map] a turn or two, only to show myself, and then home to dinner, where my wife and I had a small squabble, but I first this day tried the effect of my silence and not provoking her when she is in an ill humour, and do find it very good, for it prevents its coming to that height on both sides which used to exceed what was fit between us. So she become calm by and by and fond, and so took coach, and she to the mercer's to buy some lace, while I to White Hall, but did nothing, but then to Westminster Hall [Map] and took a turn, and so to Mrs. Martin's, and there did sit a little and talk and drink, and did hazer con her, and so took coach and called my wife at Unthanke's, and so up and down to the Nursery, where they did not act, then to the New Cockpit and there missed, and then to Hide Parke, where many coaches, but the dust so great, that it was troublesome, and so by night home, where to my chamber and finished my pricking out of my song for Mr. Harris (age 34) ("It is decreed"), and so a little supper, being very sleepy and weary since last night, and so by to o'clock to bed and slept well all night. This day, at noon, comes Mr. Pelling to me, and shews me the stone cut lately out of Sir Thomas Adams' (deceased) (the old comely Alderman's) body, which is very large indeed, bigger I think than my fist, and weighs above twenty-five ounces and, which is very miraculous, he never in all his life had any fit of it, but lived to a great age without pain, and died at last of something else, without any sense of this in all his life. This day Creed at White Hall in discourse told me what information he hath had, from very good hands, of the cowardice and ill-government of Sir Jer. Smith and Sir Thomas Allen (age 35), and the repute they have both of them abroad in the Streights, from their deportment when they did at several times command there; and that, above all Englishmen that ever were there, there never was any man that behaved himself like poor Charles Wager, whom the very Moores do mention, with teares sometimes.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1668. Thence to walk a little in Westminster Hall [Map], where the Parliament I find sitting, but spoke with nobody to let me know what they are doing, nor did I enquire.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1668. Monday. Spent at Michel's 6d.; in the Folly, 1s.1 oysters, 1s.; coach to W. Coventry (age 40) about Mrs. Pett, 1s.; thence to Commissioners of Treasury, and so to Westminster Hall [Map] by water, 6d. With G. Montagu and Roger Pepys (age 50), and spoke with Birch (age 52) and Vaughan, all in trouble about the prize business.

Note 1. The Folly was a floating house of entertainment on the Thames, which at this time was a fashionable resort.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1668. Thence to Commissioners of Accounts and there examined, and so back to Westminster Hall [Map], where all the talk of committing all to the Tower, and Creed and I to the Quaker's, dined together.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1668. After playing a little upon my new little flageolet, that is so soft that pleases me mightily, betimes to my office, where most of the morning. Then by coach, 1s., and meeting Lord Brouncker (age 48), 'light at the Exchange [Map], and thence by water to White Hall, 1s., and there to the Chapel, expecting wind musick and to the Harp-and-Ball, and drank all alone, 2d. Back, and to the fiddling concert, and heard a practice mighty good of Grebus, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where all cry out that the House will be severe with Pen; but do hope well concerning the buyers, that we shall have no difficulty, which God grant! Here met Creed, and, about noon, he and I, and Sir P. Neale (age 55) to the Quaker's, and there dined with a silly Executor of Bishop Juxon's, and cozen Roger Pepys (age 50). Business of money goes on slowly in the House.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Apr 1668. So to White Hall by coach to Commissioners of [the] Treasury about certificates, but they met not, 2s. To Westminster by water. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I hear W. Pen (age 46) is ordered to be impeached, 6d. There spoke with many, and particularly with G. Montagu: and went with him and Creed to his house, where he told how W. Pen (age 46) hath been severe to Lord Sandwich (age 42); but the Coventrys both labouring to save him, by laying it on Lord Sandwich (age 42), which our friends cry out upon, and I am silent, but do believe they did it as the only way to save him. It could not be carried to commit him. It is thought the House do coole: W. Coventry's (age 40) being for him, provoked Sir R. Howard (age 42) and his party; Court, all for W. Pen (age 46).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1668. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and there find the Parliament upon the Irish business, where going into the Speaker's chamber I did hear how plainly one lawyer of counsel for the complainants did inveigh by name against all the late Commissioners there.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1668. Thence to attend the Council about the business of certificates to the Exchequer, where the Commissioners of the Treasury of different minds, some would, and my Lord Ashly (age 46) would not have any more made out, and carried it there should not. After done here, and the Council up, I by water from the Privy-stairs to Westminster Hall [Map]; and, taking water, the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) were in the new buildings; and the Duke of York (age 34) called to me whither I was going? and I answered aloud, "To wait on our maisters at Westminster"; at which he and all the company laughed; but I was sorry and troubled for it afterwards, for fear any Parliament-man should have been there; and will be a caution to me for the time to come. Met with Roger Pepys (age 50), who tells me they have been on the business of money, but not ended yet, but will take up more time.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1668. At noon home to dinner, and thence after dinner to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there saw "Sir Martin Marr-all", which, the more I see, the more I like, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with Roger Pepys (age 50); and he tells me that nothing hath lately passed about my Lord Sandwich (age 42), but only Sir Robert Carr (age 31) did speak hardly of him. But it is hoped that nothing will be done more, this meeting of Parliament, which the King (age 37) did, by a message yesterday, declare again, should rise the 4th of May, and then only adjourne for three months: and this message being only adjournment, did please them mightily, for they are desirous of their power mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1668. Up, and Captain Deane (age 34) come to see me, and he and I toward Westminster together, and I set him down at White Hall, while I to Westminster Hall [Map], and up to the Lords' House, and there saw Sir W. Pen (age 47) go into the House of Lords, where his impeachment was read to him, and he used mighty civilly, the Duke of York (age 34) being there; and two days hence, at his desire, he is to bring in his answer, and a day then to be appointed for his being heard with Counsel.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1668. Up betimes, and to Sir W. Coventry's (age 40) by water, but lost my labour, so through the Park to White Hall, and thence to my Lord Crew's (age 70) to advise again with him about my Lord Sandwich (age 42), and so to the office, where till noon, and then I by coach to Westminster Hall [Map], and there do understand that the business of religion, and the Act against Conventicles, have so taken them up all this morning, and do still, that my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business is not like to come on to-day, which I am heartily glad of. This law against Conventicles is very severe; but Creed, whom I met here, do tell me that, it being moved that Papists' meetings might be included, the House was divided upon it, and it was carried in the negative; which will give great disgust to the people, I doubt.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1668. At noon dined at home, and my clerks with me, and thence I to White Hall, and there do hear how Sir W. Pen (age 47) hath delivered in his answer; and the Lords have sent it down to the Commons, but they have not yet read it, nor taken notice of it, so as, I believe, they will by design defer it till they rise, that so he, by lying under an impeachment, may be prevented in his going to sea, which will vex him, and trouble the Duke of York (age 34). Did little business with the Duke of York (age 34), and then Lord Brouncker (age 48) and I to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there saw "Love in a Tubb"; and, after the play done, I stepped up to Harris's (age 34) dressing-room, where I never was, and there I observe much company come to him, and the Witts, to talk, after the play is done, and to assign meetings. Mine was to talk about going down to see "The Resolution", and so away, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with Mr. G. Montagu (age 45), and walked and talked; who tells me that the best fence against the Parliament's present fury is delay, and recommended it to me, in my friends' business and my own, if I have any; and is that, that Sir W. Coventry (age 40) do take, and will secure himself; that the King (age 37) will deliver up all to the Parliament; and being petitioned the other day by Mr. Brouncker (age 48) to protect him, with teares in his eyes, the King (age 37) did say he could not, and bid him shift for himself, at least till the House is up.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there I understand how the Houses of Commons and Lords are like to disagree very much, about the business of the East India Company and one Skinner; to the latter of which the Lords have awarded £5000 from the former, for some wrong done him heretofore; and the former appealing to the Commons, the Lords vote their petition a libell; and so there is like to follow very hot work.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning busy. Then to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met Sir W. Pen (age 47), who labours to have his answer to his impeachment, and sent down from the Lords' House, read by the House of Commons; but they are so busy on other matters, that he cannot, and thereby will, as he believes, by design, be prevented from going to sea this year. Here met my cozen Thomas Pepys of Deptford, Kent [Map], and took some turns with him; who is mightily troubled for this Act now passed against Conventicles, and in few words, and sober, do lament the condition we are in, by a negligent Prince and a mad Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1668. Thence with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) to Westminster Hall [Map] talking, and he crying mightily out of the power the House of Lords usurps in this business of the East India Company.

Pepy's Diary. 05 May 1668. Thence with Creed to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with cozen Roger (age 51), who tells me of the great conference this day between the Lords and Commons, about the business of the East India Company, as being one of the weightiest conferences that hath been, and managed as weightily. I am heartily sorry I was not there, it being upon a mighty point of the privileges of the subjects of England, in regard to the authority of the House of Lords, and their being condemned by them as the Supreme Court, which, we say, ought not to be, but by appeal from other Courts. And he tells me that the Commons had much the better of them, in reason and history there quoted, and believes the Lords will let it fall.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1668. Up, and to the office, and thence to White Hall, but come too late to see the Duke of York (age 34), with whom my business was, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where met with several people and talked with them, and among other things understand that my Lord St. John (age 69) is meant by Mr. Woodcocke, in "The Impertinents"1. Here met with Mrs. Washington, my old acquaintance of the Hall, whose husband has a place in the Excise at Windsor, and it seems lives well. I have not seen her these 8 or 9 years, and she begins to grow old, I perceive, visibly. So time do alter, and do doubtless the like in myself. This morning the House is upon the City Bill, and they say hath passed it, though I am sorry that I did not think to put somebody in mind of moving for the churches to be allotted according to the convenience of the people, and not to gratify this Bishop, or that College.

Note 1. "Whilst Positive walks, like Woodcock in the park, Contriving projects with a brewer's clerk". Andrew Marvell's "Instructions to a Painter", part iii., to which is subjoined the following note: "Sir Robert Howard, and Sir William Bucknell, the brewer".-Works, ed. by Capt. E. Thompson, vol. iii., p. 405. B.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I hear the Lords are up, but what they have done I know not, and so walked toward White Hall and thence by water to the Tower, and so home and there to my letters, and so to Sir W. Pen's (age 47); and there did talk with Mrs. Lowther, who is very kind to me, more than usual, and I will make use of it. She begins to draw very well, and I think do as well, if not better, than my wife, if it be true that she do it herself, what she shews me, and so to bed, and my head akeing all night with the wine I drank to-day, and my eyes ill. So lay long, my head pretty well in the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1668. Thence he and I walked to Westminster Hall [Map] and there took a turn, it being holyday, and so back again, and I to the mercer's, and my tailor's about a stuff suit that I am going to make.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1668. So home to dinner, and thence out to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there saw "The Guardian"; formerly the same, I find, that was called "Cutter of Coleman Street"; a silly play. And thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Fitzgerald; and with him to a tavern, to consider of the instructions for Sir Thomas Allen (age 35), against his going to Algiers; he and I being designed to go down to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] by the Council's order, and by and by he and I went to the Duke of York (age 34), who orders me to go down to-morrow morning. So I away home, and there bespeak a coach; and so home and to bed, my wife being abroad with the Mercers walking in the fields, and upon the water.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1668. Thence my people home, and I to Westminster Hall [Map] about a little business, and so by water home [to] supper, and my wife to read a ridiculous book I bought today of the History of the Taylors' Company1, and all the while Deb. did comb my head, and I did toker her with my main para very great pleasure, and so to bed.

Note 1. The title of this book was, "The Honour of the Merchant Taylors". Wherein is set forth the noble acts, valliant deeds, and heroick performances of Merchant Taylors in former ages; their honourable loves, and knightly adventures, their combating of foreign enemies and glorious successes in honour of the English nation: together with their pious.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and so by coach to the Old Exchange [Map], and there did several businesses, and so home to dinner, and then abroad to Duck Lane [Map], where I saw my belle femme of the book vendor, but had no opportunity para hazer con her. So away to Cooper's (age 59), where I spent all the afternoon with my wife and girl, seeing him-make an end of her picture, which he did Jo my great content, though not so great as, I confess, I expected, being not satisfied in the greatness of the resemblance, nor in the blue garment: but it is most certainly a most rare piece of work, as to the painting. He hath £30 for his work-and the chrystal, and case, and gold case comes to £8 3s. 4d.; and which I sent him this night, that I might be out of debt.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1668. Up, and by water to Sir W. Coventry (age 40) to visit him, whom I find yet troubled at the Commissioners of Accounts, about this business of Sir W. Warren, which is a ridiculous thing, and can come to nothing but contempt, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where the Parliament met enough to adjourne, which they did, to the 10th of November next, and so by water home to the office, and so to dinner, and thence at the Office all the afternoon till night, being mightily pleased with a little trial I have made of the use of a tube-spectacall of paper, tried with my right eye. This day I hear that, to the great joy of the Nonconformists, the time is out of the Act against them, so that they may meet: and they have declared that they will have a morning lecture1 up again, which is pretty strange; and they are connived at by the King (age 38) every where, I hear, in City and country.

Note 1. During the troubled reign of Charles I, the House of Commons gave parishioners the right of appointing lecturers at the various churches without the consent of rector or vicar, and this naturally gave rise to many quarrels. In the early period of the war between the King (age 38) and the parliament, a course of sermons or lectures was projected in aid of the parliamentary cause. These lectures, which were preached by eminent Presbyterian divines at seven o'clock on the Sunday mornings, were commenced in the church of St. Mary Magdalen [Map] in Milk Street, but were soon afterwards removed to St. Giles's, Cripplegate [Map]. After the Restoration the lectures were collected in four volumes, and published under the title of the "Cripplegate Morning Exercises", vol. i. in 1661; vol. ii. in 1674; vol. iii. in 1682; and vol. iv. in 1690. In addition there were two volumes which form a supplement to the work, viz., "The Morning Exercises methodized", preached at St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, edited by the Rev. Thomas Case in 1660, and the "Exercises against Popery", preached in Southwark, Surrey [Map], and published in 1675 (see Demon's "Records of St. Giles's, Crinnlegate", 1883, pp. 55-56).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1668. Could sleep but little last night, for my concernments in this business of the victualling for Sir Prince, so up in the morning and he comes to me, and there I did tell him all, and give him my advice, and so he away, and I to the office, where we met and did a little business, and I left them and by water to attend the Council, which I did all the morning, but was not called in, but the Council meets again in the afternoon on purpose about it. So I at noon to Westminster Hall [Map] and there stayed a little, and at the Swan [Map] also, thinking to have got Doll Lane thither, but elle did not understand my signs; and so I away and walked to Charing Cross [Map], and there into the great new Ordinary, by my Lord Mulgrave's, being led thither by Mr. Beale (age 36), one of Oliver's, and now of the King's Guards; and he sat with me while I had two grilled pigeons, very handsome and good meat: and there he and I talked of our old acquaintances, W. Clerke and others, he being a very civil man, and so walked to Westminster and there parted, and I to the Swan [Map] again, but did nothing, and so to White Hall, and there attended the King (age 38) and Council, who met and heard our answer. I present, and then withdrew; and they sent two hours at least afterwards about it, and at last rose; and to my great content, the Duke of York (age 34), at coming out, told me that it was carried for Prince at 6d. 8d., and 8 3/4d.; but with great difficulty, I understand, both from him and others, so much that Sir Edward Walker told me that he prays to God he may never live to need to plead his merit, for D. Gawden's sake; for that it hath stood him in no stead in this business at all, though both he and all the world that speaks of him, speaks of him as the most deserving man of any servant of the King's in the whole nation, and so I think he is: but it is done, and my heart is glad at it. So I took coach and away, and in Holborne overtook D. Gawden's coach, and stopped and went home, and Gibson to come after, and to my house, where Prince did talk a little, and he do mightily acknowledge my kindness to him, and I know I have done the King (age 38) and myself good service in it. So he gone, and myself in mighty great content in what is done, I to the office a little, and then home to supper, and the boy to read to me, and so to bed. This noon I went to my Lady Peterborough's (age 46) house, and talked with her about the money due to her Lord, and it gives me great trouble, her importunity and impertinency about it. This afternoon at Court I met with Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20), newly come out of the country, who tells me that Creed's business with Mrs. Pickering (age 26) will do, which I am neither troubled nor glad at.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, and to the Exchequer, and so home by water, and after eating a bit I to my vintner's, and there did only look upon su wife, which is mighty handsome; and so to my glove and ribbon shop, in Fenchurch Street [Map], and did the like there. And there, stopping against the door of the shop, saw Mrs. Horsfall, now a late widow, in a coach. I to her, and shook her by the hand, and so she away; and I by coach towards the King's playhouse, and meeting W. Howe took him with me, and there saw "The City Match"; not acted these thirty years, and but a silly play: the King (age 38) and Court there; the house, for the women's sake, mighty full. So I to White Hall, and there all the evening on the Queen's (age 29) side; and it being a most summerlike day, and a fine warm evening, the Italians come in a barge under the leads, before the Queen's (age 29) drawing-room; and so the Queen (age 29) and ladies went out, and heard them, for almost an hour: and it was indeed very good together; but yet there was but one voice that alone did appear considerable, and that was Seignor Joanni. This done, by and by they went in; and here I saw Mr. Sidney Montagu kiss the Queen's (age 29) hand, who was mighty kind to him, and the ladies looked mightily on him; and the King (age 38) come by and by, and did talk to him. So I away by coach with Alderman Backewell (age 50) home, who is mighty kind to me, more than ordinary, in his expressions. But I do hear this day what troubles me, that Sir W. Coventry (age 40) is quite out of play, the King (age 38) seldom speaking to him; and that there is a design of making a Lord Treasurer, and that my Lord Arlington (age 50) shall be the man; but I cannot believe it. But yet the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath it in his mind, and those with him, to make a thorough alteration in things; and, among the rest, Coventry (age 40) to be out. The Duke of York (age 34) did this day tell me how hot the whole party was in the business of GaudenGawden; and particularly, my Lord Anglesey (age 54) tells me, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), for Child against Gawden; but the Duke of York (age 34) did stand stoutly to it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1668. Thence by coach, doing several errands, home and there to dinner, and then to the Office, where all the afternoon till late at night, and so home. Deb. hath been abroad to-day with her friends, poor girle, I believe toward the getting of a place. This day a boy is sent me out of the country from Impington by my cozen Roger Pepys' (age 51) getting, whom I visited this morning at his chamber in the Strand and carried him to Westminster Hall [Map], where I took a turn or two with him and Sir John Talbot (age 38), who talks mighty high for my Lord of Ormond (age 58): and I perceive this family of the Talbots hath been raised by my Lord. When I come home to-night I find Deb. not come home, and do doubt whether she be not quite gone or no, but my wife is silent to me in it, and I to her, but fell to other discourse, and indeed am well satisfied that my house will never be at peace between my wife and I unless I let her go, though it grieves me to the heart. My wife and I spent much time this evening talking of our being put out of the Office, and my going to live at Deptford, Kent [Map] at her brother's, till I can clear my accounts, and rid my hands of the town, which will take me a year or more, and I do think it will be best for me to do so, in order to our living cheap, and out of sight.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1668. This morning up, with mighty kind words between my poor wife and I; and so to White Hall by water, W. Hewer (age 26) with me, who is to go with me every where, until my wife be in condition to go out along with me herself; for she do plainly declare that she dares not trust me out alone, and therefore made it a piece of our league that I should alway take somebody with me, or her herself, which I am mighty willing to, being, by the grace of God, resolved never to do her wrong more. We landed at the Temple [Map], and there I bid him call at my cozen Roger Pepys's (age 51) lodgings, and I staid in the street for him, and so took water again at the Strand stairs; and so to White Hall, in my way I telling him plainly and truly my resolutions, if I can get over this evil, never to give new occasion for it. He is, I think, so honest and true a servant to us both, and one that loves us, that I was not much troubled at his being privy to all this, but rejoiced in my heart that I had him to assist in the making us friends, which he did truly and heartily, and with good success, for I did get him to go to Deb. to tell her that I had told my wife all of my being with her the other night, that so if my wife should send she might not make the business worse by denying it. While I was at White Hall with the Duke of York (age 35), doing our ordinary business with him, here being also the first time the new Treasurers. W. Hewer (age 26) did go to her and come back again, and so I took him into St. James's Park, and there he did tell me he had been with her, and found what I said about my manner of being with her true, and had given her advice as I desired. I did there enter into more talk about my wife and myself, and he did give me great assurance of several particular cases to which my wife had from time to time made him privy of her loyalty and truth to me after many and great temptations, and I believe them truly. I did also discourse the unfitness of my leaving of my employment now in many respects to go into the country, as my wife desires, but that I would labour to fit myself for it, which he thoroughly understands, and do agree with me in it; and so, hoping to get over this trouble, we about our business to Westminster Hall [Map] to meet Roger Pepys (age 51), which I did, and did there discourse of the business of lending him £500 to answer some occasions of his, which I believe to be safe enough, and so took leave of him and away by coach home, calling on my coachmaker by the way, where I like my little coach mightily. But when I come home, hoping for a further degree of peace and quiet, I find my wife upon her bed in a horrible rage afresh, calling me all the bitter names, and, rising, did fall to revile me in the bitterest manner in the world, and could not refrain to strike me and pull my hair, which I resolved to bear with, and had good reason to bear it. So I by silence and weeping did prevail with her a little to be quiet, and she would not eat her dinner without me; but yet by and by into a raging fit she fell again, worse than before, that she would slit the girl's nose, and at last W. Hewer (age 26) come in and come up, who did allay her fury, I flinging myself, in a sad desperate condition, upon the bed in the blue room, and there lay while they spoke together; and at last it come to this, that if I would call Deb. whore under my hand and write to her that I hated her, and would never see her more, she would believe me and trust in me, which I did agree to, only as to the name of whore I would have excused, and therefore wrote to her sparing that word, which my wife thereupon tore it, and would not be satisfied till, W. Hewer (age 26) winking upon me, I did write so with the name of a whore as that I did fear she might too probably have been prevailed upon to have been a whore by her carriage to me, and therefore as such I did resolve never to see her more. This pleased my wife, and she gives it W. Hewer (age 26) to carry to her with a sharp message from her. So from that minute my wife begun to be kind to me, and we to kiss and be friends, and so continued all the evening, and fell to talk of other matters, with great comfort, and after supper to bed. This evening comes Mr. Billup to me, to read over Mr. Wren's alterations of my draught of a letter for the Duke of York (age 35) to sign, to the Board; which I like mighty well, they being not considerable, only in mollifying some hard terms, which I had thought fit to put in. From this to other discourse; and do find that the Duke of York (age 35) and his master, Mr. Wren (age 39), do look upon this service of mine as a very seasonable service to the Duke of York (age 35), as that which he will have to shew to his enemies in his own justification, of his care of the King's business; and I am sure I am heartily glad of it, both for the King's sake and the Duke of York's (age 35), and my own also; for, if I continue, my work, by this means, will be the less, and my share in the blame also. He being gone, I to my wife again, and so spent the evening with very great joy, and the night also with good sleep and rest, my wife only troubled in her rest, but less than usual, for which the God of Heaven be praised. I did this night promise to my wife never to go to bed without calling upon God upon my knees by prayer, and I begun this night, and hope I shall never forget to do the like all my life; for I do find that it is much the best for my soul and body to live pleasing to God and my poor wife, and will ease me of much care as well as much expense.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1669. Up, and to White Hall to the Committee of Tangier, but it did not meet. But here I do hear first that my Lady Paulina Montagu (deceased) did die yesterday; at which I went to my Lord's lodgings, but he is shut up with sorrow, and so not to be spoken with: and therefore I returned, and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I have not been, I think, in some months. And here the Hall was very full, the King (age 38) having, by Commission to some Lords this day, prorogued the Parliament till the 19th of October next: at which I am glad, hoping to have time to go over to France this year. But I was most of all surprised this morning by my Lord Bellassis (age 54), who, by appointment, met me at Auditor Wood's, at the Temple [Map], and tells me of a duell designed between the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and my Lord Halifax (age 35), or Sir W. Coventry (age 41); the challenge being carried by Harry Saville (age 27), but prevented by my Lord Arlington (age 51), and the King (age 38) told of it; and this was all the discourse at Court this day. But I, meeting Sir W. Coventry (age 41) in the Duke of York's (age 35) chamber, he would not own it to me, but told me that he was a man of too much peace to meddle with fighting, and so it rested: but the talk is full in the town of the business.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1669. Thence out, and slipped out by water to Westminster Hall [Map] and there thought to have spoke with Mrs. Martin, but she was not there, nor at home. So back again, and with W. Hewer (age 27) by coach home and to dinner, and then to the office, and out again with W. Hewer (age 27) to the Excise-Office, and to several places; among others, to Mr. Faythorne's (age 53), to have seen an instrument which he was said to have, for drawing perspectives, but he had it not: but here I did see his work-house, and the best things of his doing he had by him, and so to other places among others to Westminster Hall [Map], and I took occasion to make a step to Mrs. Martin's, the first time I have been with her since her husband went last to sea, which is I think a year since.... But, Lord! to hear how sillily she tells the story of her sister Doll's being a widow and lately brought to bed; and her husband, one Rowland Powell, drowned, sea with her husband, but by chance dead at sea, cast When God knows she hath played the whore, and forced at this time after she was brought to bed, this story.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1669. Up, and with Tom (whom, with his wife, I, and my wife, had this morning taken occasion to tell that I did intend to give him £40 for himself, and £20 to his wife, towards their setting out in the world, and that my wife would give her £20 more, that she might have as much to begin with as he) by coach to White Hall, and there having set him work in the Robe Chamber, to write something for me, I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked from 10 o'clock to past 12, expecting to have met Deb., but whether she had been there before, and missing me went away, or is prevented in coming, and hath no mind to come to me (the last whereof, as being most pleasing, as shewing most modesty, I should be most glad of), I know not, but she not then appearing, I being tired with walking went home, and my wife being all day at Jane's, helping her, as she said, to cut out linen and other things belonging to her new condition, I after dinner out again, and, calling for my coach, which was at the coachmaker's, and hath been for these two or three days, to be new painted, and the window-frames gilt against May-day, went on with my Hackney to White Hall, and thence by water to Westminster Hall [Map], and there did beckon to Doll Lane, now Mrs. Powell, as she would have herself called, and went to her sister Martin's lodgings, the first time I have been there these eight or ten months, I think, and her sister being gone to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to her Y husband, I did stay and talk and drink with Doll.... [Missing text "and hazer ella para tocar mi thing; and yo did the like para her, but [did] not the thing itself, having not opportunity enough;"] So away:; and to White Hall, and there took my own coach, which was now come, and so away home, and there to do business, and my wife being come home we to talk and to sup, there having been nothing yet like discovery in my wife of what hath lately passed with me about Deb., and so with great content to bed

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1669. Up, and to Westminster Hall [Map], where the term is, and this the first day of my being there, and here by chance met Roger Pepys (age 52), come to town the last night: I was glad to see him. After some talk with him and others, and among others Sir Charles Harbord (age 29) and Sidney Montagu (age 18), the latter of whom is to set out to-morrow towards Flanders and Italy, I invited them to dine with me to-morrow, and so to Mrs. Martin's lodging, who come to town last night, and there je did hazer her, she having been a month, I think, at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] with her husband, newly come home from the Streights. But, Lord! how silly the woman talks of her great entertainment there, and how all the gentry come to visit her, and that she believes her husband is worth £6 or £700, which nevertheless I am glad of, but I doubt they will spend it a fast.

Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1680. The signal day begun the trial (at which I was present) of my Lord Viscount Stafford (age 66), (for conspiring the death of the King (age 50), second son to my Lord Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, and grandfather to the present Duke of Norfolk (age 52), whom I so well knew, and from which excellent person I received so many favors. It was likewise his birthday, The trial was in Westminster Hall [Map], before the King (age 50), Lords, and Commons, just in the same manner as, forty years past, the great and wise Earl of Strafford (there being but one letter differing their names) received his trial for pretended ill government in Ireland, in the very same place, this Lord Stafford's father being then High Steward. The place of sitting was now exalted some considerable height from the paved floor of the hall, with a stage of boards. The throne, woolsacks for the Judges, long forms for the Peers, chair for the Lord Steward, exactly ranged, as in the House of Lords. The sides on both hands scaffolded to the very roof for the members of the House of Commons. At the upper end, and on the right side of the King's (age 50) state, was a box for his Majesty (age 50), and on the left others for the great ladies, and over head a gallery for ambassadors and public ministers. At the lower end, or entrance, was a bar, and place for the prisoner (age 66), the Lieutenant of the Tower of London, the ax-bearer and guards, my Lord Stafford's two daughters, the Marchioness of Winchester being one; there was likewise a box for my Lord to retire into. At the right hand, in another box, somewhat higher, stood the witnesses; at the left, the managers, in the name of the Commons of England, namely, Serjeant Maynard (age 76) (the great lawyer, the same who prosecuted the cause against the Earl of Strafford forty years before, being now near eighty years of age), Sir William Jones (age 49), late Attorney-General, Sir Francis Winnington (age 46), a famous pleader, and Mr. Treby, now Recorder of London, not appearing in their gowns as lawyers, but in their cloaks and swords, as representing the Commons of England: to these were joined Mr. Hampden, Dr. Sacheverell, Mr. Poule, Colonel Titus (age 57), Sir Thomas Lee (age 45), all gentlemen of quality, and noted parliamentary men. The first two days, in which were read the commission and impeachment, were but a tedious entrance into matter of fact, at which I was but little present. But, on Thursday, I was commodiously seated among the Commons, when the witnesses were sworn and examined. The principal witnesses were Mr. Oates (age 31) (who called himself Dr.), Mr. Dugdale (age 40), and Turberville (age 32). Oates (age 31) swore that he delivered a commission to Viscount Stafford (age 66) from the Pope, to be Paymaster-General to an army intended to be raised; Dugdale (age 40), that being at Lord Aston's, the prisoner dealt with him plainly to murder his Majesty (age 50); and Turberville (age 32), that at Paris he also proposed the same to him.

Popish Plot

Evelyn's Diary. 07 May 1685. I was in Westm Hall [Map] when Oates (age 35), who had made such a stir in the Kingdom, on his revealing a Plot of the Papists, and alarm'd several Parliaments, and had occasioned the execution of divers Priests, Noblemen*, &c. was tried for perjurie at the King's Bench [Map]; but being very tedious, I did not endeavour to see the issue, considering that it would be published. Aboundance of Roman Catholics were in the Hall in expectation of the most gratefull conviction and ruine of a person who* had ben so obnoxious to them, and, as I verily believe, had don much mischeife and greate injury to several by his violent and ill-grounded proceedings; whilst he was at first so unreasonably blowne up and encouraged, that his insolence was no longer sufferable. Mr. Roger L'Estrange (age 68) (a gentleman whom I had long known, and a person of excellent parts abating some affectations) appearing first against the Dissenters in several Tracts, had now for some yeares turn'd his style against those whom (by way of hateful distinction) they call'd Whiggs and Trimmers, under the title of Observator, which came out 3 or 4 days every weeke, in which sheets, under pretence to serve the Church of England, he gave suspicion of gratifying another party, by several passages which rather kept up animosities than appeas'd them, especialy now that nobody gave the least occasion.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1685. I din'd at our greate Lord Chancellor Jefferies (age 40), who us'd me with much respect. This was the late Chief Justice who had newly ben the Western Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had formerly don such severe justice amongst the obnoxious in Westmr Hall [Map], for which his Ma* (age 52) dignified him by creating him first a Baron, and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years past ben conversant at Deptford; is of an assur'd and undaunted spirit, and has serv'd the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is of nature cruel and a slave of the Court.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Feb 1686. I tooke the Test in Westminster Hall [Map], before the Lord Chief Justice. I now came to lodge at Whitehall [Map] in the Lord Privy Seal's lodgings.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Apr 1687. I had a rehearing of my great cause at the Chancery in Westminster Hall [Map], having seven of the most learned Counsel, my adversary five, among which were the Attorney General and late Solicitor Finch, son to the Lord Chancellor Nottingham. The account was at last brought to one article of the surcharge, and referred to a Master. The cause lasted two hours and more.

Coronation William III and Mary II

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey Church of Westminster [Map], with the great feast in Westminster Hall [Map], at the coronation of King William and Queen Mary. What was different from former coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Dr. Burnet (age 45), now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Hall [Map]. When the King (age 38) and Queen (age 26) had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the King and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "Ne totus absumatur": which was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean.

Around 1747. Canaletto (age 49). View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey [Map] and Westminster Hall [Map].

Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

In Apr 1761 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers was tried for murder by his peers at Westminster Hall [Map] with Attorney General Charles Pratt leading for the prosecution, found guilty and executed.

In 1776 Elizabeth Chudleigh Duchess Kingston upon Hull (age 54) was tried for bigamy at Westminster Hall [Map] and found guilty by 116 peers without dissent. Absconding with her fortune, she hurriedly left England to avoid further proceedings on the part of the Medows family.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. One of my friends has often said that to visit Deene [Map] is to step back into the past, for the place bears upon it no impression of modernity, and even the additions made to the house are thoroughly in character with the older parts.

Deene is first mentioned in the Domesday-Book, when the surveyors noted the wood of a mile long belonging to it which joined Rocking- ham Forest. It was the property of the Abbey of Westminster [Map], and was used as a hunting-box by the Abbots. It was called the Grange, and "the monks' well" is still to be seen in the park. A most interesting feature of the house is the Great Hall, 50 feet long and 50 feet high, which is a duplicate in miniature of Westminster Hall [Map], and the carved chestnut roof, the wood of which is impervious to the ravages of insects, has never had an accident since it was first erected in 1086.