River Thames

 River Thames River Cherwell River Churn River Coln River Cray River Hogsmill River Kennet River Lea River Loddon River Mole River Wey River Windrush

River Thames is in Thames Estuary.

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1667 Raid on the Medway

1683 Frost Fair

Chronica Majora. 10 Feb 1236. About the same time, for two months and more, namely, in January, February, and part of March, such deluges of rain fell as had never been seen before in the memory of any one. About the feast of St. Scholastica, when the moon was new, the sea became so swollen by the river torrents which fell into it, that all the rivers, especially those which fell into the sea, rendered the fords impassable, overflowing their banks, hiding the bridges from sight, carrying away mills and dams, and overwhelming the cultivated lands, crops, meadows, and marshes. Amongst other unusual occurrences, the River Thames overflowed its usual bounds, and entered the grand palace at Westminster [Map], where it spread and covered the whole area, so that small boats could float there, and people went to their apartments on horseback. The water also forcing its way into the cellars could with difficulty be drained off. The signs of this storm which preceded it, then gave proofs of their threats; for on the day of St. Damasus, thunder was heard, and on the Friday next after the conception of St. Mary, a spurious sun was seen by the side of the true sun.

Around 1250. Newbridge, Oxfordshire [Map] is a 13th Century bridge over the River Thames one of three bridges built on the orders of King John to facilitate the wool trade; the other two being St John's Bridge Lechlade [Map] and Radcot Bridge [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1440. 1440. Ande that year was the Parlyment concludyd, and ordaynyd that Lumbardys sholde goo to hoste. And that same year alyens were putte to her fynaunce to pay a certayne a year to the King. Also in the same year there were ij traytours hangyde on a payre of galowys that were made in Temys for the same purposse, be syde Syn Kateryns.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 1445. And yn the same year a schippe y-namyde Grace de Dyeu1, whyche was chargyd of goode of Sprusse, sche was loste a lytylle whythe yn Temys.

Note 1. This entry somewaht confusing since the Grace Dieu had been laid up in the River Hamble around 1430 and, having been struck by lightning burned to the water-line in 1439?

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 05 Jul 1450. And uppon the morowe the Sonday at hyghe mas tyme a lette to be heddyd a man of Hampton, a squyer, the whyche was namyd Thomas Mayne. And that same evyn Londyn dyd a rysse and cam out uppon them at x [of] a the belle, beyng that tyme her captaynys the goode olde lorde Schalys (age 53) and Mathewe Goughe. Ande from that tyme unto the morowe viij of belle they were ever fyghtynge uppon London Brygge [Map], ande many a man was slayne and caste in Temys, harnys, body, and alle; and monge the presse was slayne Mathewe Goughe and John Sutton aldyrman. And the same nyght, a-non aftyr mydnyght, the Captayneof Kentte dyde fyre the draught brygge of London; and be-fore that tyme he breke bothe Kyngys Bynche [Map] ande the Marchelsy [Map], and lete out alle the presoners that were yn them.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. Dec 1536. This year in December was the Thames of London all frozen over wherefore the King’s Majesty with his beautiful spouse Queen Jane (age 27), rode throughout the City of London to Greenwich. And this Christmas the King by his messengers and heralds sent down into the North his general pardons to all capital offenders and shortly after came Aske (age 36) to London, and so to the court to the King. This Aske was the chief captain of the last rebellion in the North, and now both pardoned of the King, and his grace received him into his favour and gave unto him apparel and great rewards, but as after you shall perceive Aske (age 36) enjoyed not the King his new friends kindness a year and a day, and pity it was that he had any favour at all, for there lived not a veriar [?] wretch as well in person as in conditions and deeds, especially against his anointed governor and sovereign Lord.

Henry Machyn's Diary. After 04 Mar 1558. The (blank) day of Marche ther was never so low a nebe [an ebb tide], that men myght stand in the mydes [midst] of Tames, and myght a' gone from the brygys to Belynggatt, for the tyd kept not ys course; the wyche was never sene a-fore that tyme.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Apr 1559. The xxv day of April, was sant Markes day, the Quen('s) (age 25) grace supt at Beynard castyll [Map] at my lord of Penproke('s) (age 58) P[lace,] and after supper the Quen('s) grace rowed up and downe Temes, and [a] C [100] bottes [boats] at bowte here grace, with trumpettes and drumes and flutes and gones, and sqwybes horlyng on he [high] to and fro, tyll x at nyght, or her grace depertyd, and all the water-syd st ... with a M [1000] pepull lokyng one here grace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 May 1559. The furst day of May ther was ij [4] pennys [pinnaces] was dekyd with stremars, baners, and flages, and trumpetes and drumes and gones, gahyng a Mayng [going a Maying], and a-ganst the Quen('s) plasse at Westmynster, and ther they shott and thruw eges [eggs] and oregns [against] on a-gaynst a-nodur, and with sqwybes, and by chanse on fell on a bage of gune-powdur and sett dyvers men a'fyre, and so the men drue to on syd of the penus [pinnaces], and yt dyd over-swelmed the pennus [pinnaces], and mony fell in the Temes, butt, thanke be God, ther was but on man drownyd, and a C [100] bottes [boats] abowtt here, and the Quen('s) (age 25) grace and her lordes and lades lokyng out of wyndows; thys was done by ix [4] of the cloke on May evyn last.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1649. I went through a course of chemistry, at Sayes Court, Deptford [Map]. Now was the Thames frozen over, and horrid tempests of wind.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1651. I went with my wife (age 16) to St. Germains, to condole with Mr. Waller's (age 45) loss. I carried with me and treated at dinner that excellent and pious person the Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Stewart, and Sir Lewis Dives (age 52) (half-brother to the Earl of Bristol (age 38)) [Note. Beatrice Walcott was mother to Lewis Dyve (age 52) and George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol (age 38) by her first and second husbands respectively. At the time of writing, 1651, the Earl of Bristol was John Digby 1st Earl Bristol (age 71); a case of Evelyn writing hi sdiary retrospectively], who entertained us with his wonderful escape out of prison in Whitehall [Map], the very evening before he was to have been put to death, leaping down out of a jakes two stories high into the Thames at high water, in the coldest of winter, and at night; so as by swimming he got to a boat that attended for him, though he was guarded by six musketeers. After this, he went about in women's habit, and then in a small-coal-man's, traveling 200 miles on foot, embarked for Scotland with some men he had raised, who coming on shore were all surprised and imprisoned on the Marquis of Montrose's score; he not knowing anything of their barbarous murder of that hero. This he told us was his fifth escape, and none less miraculous; with this note, that the charging through 1,000 men armed, or whatever danger could befall a man, he believed could not more confound and distract a man's thoughts than the execution of a premeditated escape, the passions of hope and fear being so strong. This knight was indeed a valiant gentleman; but not a little given to romance, when he spoke of himself. I returned to Paris the same evening.

In 1656 Edward Ford (age 51) was employed, with Oliver Cromwell's encouragement, and at the request of the citizens of London, in devising an engine for raising the River Thames water into all the higher streets of the city, a height of ninety-three feet. This he accomplished in a year's time, and at his own expense; and the same "rare engine" was later employed for draining mines and lands.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jun 1658. A large whale was taken between my land abutting on the Thames and Greenwich, Kent [Map], which drew an infinite concourse to see it, by water, horse, coach, and on foot, from London, and all parts. It appeared first below Greenwich, Kent [Map] at low water, for at high water it would have destroyed all the boats, but lying now in shallow water encompassed with boats, after a long conflict, it was killed with a harping iron, struck in the head, out of which spouted blood and water by two tunnels; and after a horrid groan, it ran quite on shore, and died. Its length was fifty-eight feet, height sixteen; black skinned, like coach leather; very small eyes, great tail, only two small fins, a peaked snout and a mouth so wide, that divers men might have stood upright in it; no teeth, but sucked the slime only as through a grate of that bone which we call whalebone; the throat yet so narrow, as would not have admitted the least of fishes. The extremes of the cetaceous bones hang downward from the upper jaw, and are hairy toward the ends and bottom within side: all of it prodigious; but in nothing more wonderful than that an animal of so great a bulk should be nourished only by slime through those grates.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Dec 1662. Having seen the strange and wonderful dexterity of the sliders on the new canal in St James' Park [Map], performed before their Majesties [Note. King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 24)] by divers gentlemen and others with skates, after the manner of the Hollanders, with what swiftness they pass, how suddenly they stop in full career upon the ice; I went home by water, but not without exceeding difficulty, the Thames being frozen, great flakes of ice encompassing our boat.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1665. Up, and was trimmed, but not time enough to save my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach or Sir J. Minnes's (age 66), and so was fain to walk to Lambeth, Surrey [Map] on foot, but it was a very fine frosty walke, and great pleasure in it, but troublesome getting over the River for ice. I to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), whither my brethren were all come, but I was not too late. There we sat in discourse upon our Navy business an houre, and thence in my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach alone, he walking before (while I staid awhile talking with Sir G. Downing (age 40) about the Act, in which he is horrid troublesome) to the Old Exchange [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1665. But I was more at a letter from my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 57) to-day, pressing us to continue our meetings for all Christmas, which, though every body intended not to have done, yet I am concluded in it, who intended nothing else. But I see it is necessary that I do make often visits to my Lord Duke, which nothing shall hinder after I have evened my accounts, and now the river is frozen I know not how to get to him.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1666. I went therefore to Mr. Boreman's for pastime, and there staid an houre or two talking with him, and reading a discourse about the River of Thames, the reason of its being choked up in several places with shelfes; which is plain is, by the encroachments made upon the River, and running out of causeways into the River at every wood-wharfe; which was not heretofore when Westminster Hall [Map] and White Hall were built, and Redriffe [Map] Church, which now are sometimes overflown with water. I had great satisfaction herein.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor (age 58), Monsieur Kiviet's (age 40) undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple [Map] to the Tower [Map], as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and ornamental.-Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

1667 Raid on the Medway

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, Kent [Map], by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Lord Middleton (age 59), Prince Rupert (age 47), and the Duke (age 33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, Kent [Map], fortifying Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Dec 1670. It was the thickest and darkest fog on the Thames that was ever known in the memory of man, and I happened to be in the very midst of it. I supped with Monsieur Zulestein, late Governor of to the late Prince of Orange.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Feb 1683. I made my court at St. James's [Map], when I saw the sea charts of Captain Collins (age 40), which that industrious man now brought to show the Duke (age 49), having taken all the coasting from the mouth of the Thames, as far as Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, island, rock, soundings, harbors, sands, and tides, intending next spring to proceed till he had finished the whole island, and that measured by chains and other instruments: a most exact and useful undertaking. He affirmed, that of all the maps put out since, there are none extant so true as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the first in Queen Elizabeth's time; all since him are erroneous.

Frost Fair

In Dec 1683 the River Thames froze for a period of six weeks during which a great Frost Fair took place on the frozen surface.

The printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day (ten times a labourer's weekly wage). King Charles II (age 53) bought one.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 May 1687. To London. Lord Sunderland (age 45) being Lord President and Secretary of State, was made Knight of the Garter and Prime favorite. This day there was such a storm of wind as had seldom happened, being a sort of hurricane. It kept the flood out of the Thames, so that people went on foot over several places above bridge. Also an earthquake in several places in England about the time of the storm.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Jan 1689. A long frost and deep snow; the Thames almost frozen over.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Jul 1689. I dined at Lord Clarendon's, it being his lady's wedding day, when about three in the afternoon there was an unusual and violent storm of thunder, rain, and wind; many boats on the Thames were overwhelmed, and such was the impetuosity of the wind as to carry up the waves in pillars and spouts most dreadful to behold, rooting up trees and ruining some houses.

John Ashton Edmund Elliot Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (age 41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (age 41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham, Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (age 40) and Queen (age 28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France, agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend [Map], but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.

After this the Evidence for the King (age 40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower [Map]: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend [Map] they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jan 1695. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The King (age 44) and Princess Anne (age 29) reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House [Map]; she was desired to take into her family divers servants of the late Queen; to maintain them the King (age 44) has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Oct 1695. The Archbishop (age 59) and myself went to Hammersmith, Middlesex [Map], to visit Sir Samuel Morland (age 70), who was entirely blind; a very mortifying sight. He showed us his invention of writing, which was very ingenious; also his wooden calendar, which instructed him all by feeling; and other pretty and useful inventions of mills, pumps, etc., and the pump he had erected that serves water to his garden, and to passengers, with an inscription, and brings from a filthy part of the Thames near it a most perfect and pure water. He had newly buried £200 worth of music books six feet under ground, being, as he said, love songs and vanity. He plays himself psalms and religious hymns on the theorbo. Very mild weather the whole of October.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Mar 1699. After an extraordinary storm, there came up the Thames a whale which was fifty-six feet long. Such, and a larger of the spout kind, was killed there forty years ago (June 1658). That year died Cromwell.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1699. There happened this week so thick a mist and fog, that people lost their way in the streets, it being so intense that no light of candles, or torches, yielded any (or but very little) direction. I was in it, and in danger. Robberies were committed between the very lights which were fixed between London and Kensington on both sides, and while coaches and travelers were passing. It began about four in the afternoon, and was quite gone by eight, without any wind to disperse it. At the Thames, they beat drums to direct the watermen to make the shore.

Putney Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames. The first bridge, slightly downstream from the current position, was opened on 29 Nov 1729 being the only bridge between, upstream, Kingston Bridge [Map] and, downstream, London Bridge [Map]. The bridge was badly damaged by the collision of a river barge in 1870 after which it was repaired but subsequently demolished for replacement.

Around 1746. Canaletto (age 48). The City of Westminster from River Thames near the York Water Gate [Map] with Westminster Bridge [Map] under construction.

Around 1747. Canaletto (age 49). View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey [Map] and Westminster Hall [Map].

Around 1747. Canaletto (age 49). Westminster Bridge [Map], with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the Thames.

1747. Walton on Thames Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames first opened in 1747.

Around 1752. Canaletto (age 54). Greenwich Hospital [Map] from the North Bank of the Thames.

Around 1754. Canaletto (age 56). View across the River Thames to Eton College [Map] with the new Eton College Chapel [Map] visible in white stone and the original Tudor buildings in red brick.

01 Jun 1759. Kew Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames. The original bridge was constructed before 1759. The first bridge was built by Robert Tunstall of Brentford who previously owned the ferry on the site. The bridge was inaugurated on 1 June 1759 by the Prince of Wales (age 20) driving over it with his mother (age 39) and a number of other royals, and was opened to the public three days later.

Richmond Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames opened in Sep 1777.

1789. Swinford Bridge, Oxfordshire [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames in Oxfordshire which opened in 1789.

1805. Joseph Mallord William Turner (age 29). Kew Bridge [Map] and the River Thames, with Brentford Eyot in the Foreground and Strand-on-Green Seen through the Arches: Low Tide. From the Thames sketchbooks c.1804-14.

Hammersmith Bridge [Map] is a bridge on the River Thames designed by Joseph Bazalgette (age 8) opened on 06 Oct 1827.

Kingston Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames opened on 17 Jul 1828 by the future Queen (age 35) then Duchess of Clarence.

Cliveden, Buckinghamshire [Map] is an estate and house on the banks of the River Thames.

Lechlade Bridge [Map] is over the River Thames.

Gildas. 11. The first of these martyrs, St. Alban, for charity's sake saved another confessor who was pursued by his persecutors, and was on the point of being seized, by hiding him in his house, and then by changing clothes with him, imitating in this the example of Christ, who laid down his life for his sheep, and exposing himself in the other's clothes to be pursued in his stead. So pleasing to God was this conduct, that between his confession and martyrdom, he was honoured with the performance of wonderful miracles in presence of the impious blasphemers who were carrying the Roman standards, and like the Israelites of old, who trod dry-foot an unfrequented path whilst the Ark of the Covenant stood some time on the sands in the midst of Jordan; so also the martyr, with a thousand others, opened a path across the noble river Thames, whose waters stood abrupt like precipices on either side; and seeing this, the first of his executors was stricken with awe, and from a wolf became a lamb; so that he thirsted for martyrdom, and boldly underwent that for which he thirsted. The other holy martyrs were tormented with divers sufferings, and their limbs were racked in such unheard of ways, that they, without delay, erected the trophies of their glorious martyrdom even in the gates of the city of Jerusalem. For those who survived, hid themselves in woods and deserts, and secret caves, waiting until God, who is the righteous judge of all, should reward their persecutors with judgment, and themselves with protection of their lives.

Windsor, Berkshire [Map] and Eton [Map] are separated by the River Thames.

Goring, Oxfordshire [Map] is on the left bank of the River Thames in the Goring Gap between the Berkshire Downs and Chiltern Hills.

Bisham Abbey [Map] is on the south bank of the River Thames.

Taplow, Buckinghamshire [Map] is on the River Thames.

Chiswick Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames.

Marlow Bridge [Map] is over the River Thames.

Hampton Court Bridge [Map] is a bridge on the River Thames.

Battersea Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames.

Survey London Volume 4 Chelsea Part II. The Site of Beaufort House [Map].

In the whole history of Chelsea, a history which is indeed famous, so many notable men and women has this little village known-the chief interest has centred about Beaufort House [Map]. From those early days in the 16th century, when it was the well-loved home of Sir Thomas More, until the 18th, when it was the seat of the Duke of Beaufort, it yielded to no other house in importance, not to King Henry VIII's manor house in Cheyne Walk, nor to the Earl of Shrewsbury's mansion, nor to the old manor house with which it shared the dignity of a proprietary chapel in the old Church. It did not carry with it the lordship of the manor, but its property was extensive, including practically the frontage of the Thames between Milman Street and Church Street, and its gardens stretched northwards as far as the King's Road [Map].

Radcot Bridge [Map] is two adajcent bridges over the River Thames.

Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map] is on the River Thames.

Chertsey Bridge [Map] is on the River Thames.

Henley Bridge [Map] is over the River Thames.

Twickenham Bridge [Map] is a bridge over the River Thames.

Gildas. 3. The island of Britain, situated on almost the utmost border of the earth, towards the south and west, and poised in the Divine balance, as is said, which supports the whole world, stretches out from the southwest towards the North Pole, and is eight hundred miles long and two hundred broad, except where the headlands of sundry promontories stretch farther into the sea. It is surrounded by the ocean, which forms winding bays, and is strongly defended by this ample and, if I may so call it, impassable barrier, save on the south side, where the narrow sea affords a passage to Belgic Gaul. It is enriched by the mouths of two noble rivers, the Thames and the Severn, as it were two arms, by which foreign luxuries were of old imported, and by other streams of less importance. It is famous for eightand-twenty cities, and is embellished by certain castles, with walls, towers, well-barred gates, and houses with threatening battlements built on high, and provided with all requisite instruments of defence. Its plains are spacious, its hills are pleasantly situated, adapted for superior tillage, and its mountains are admirably calculated for the alternate pasturage of cattle, where flowers of various colours, trodden by the feet of man, give it the appearance of a lovely picture. It is decked, like a man's chosen bride, with divers jewels, with lucid fountains, and abundant brooks wandering over the snowwhite sands; with transparent rivers, flowing in gentle murmurs, and offering a pledge of sweet slumber to those who recline upon their banks, whilst it is irrigated by abundant lakes, which pour forth cool torrents of refreshing water.

Cricklade, Wiltshire [Map] is on the River Thames.

Runnymede [Map] is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames.

Culture, Rivers and River Systems in England and Wales, Thames Estuary, River Thames, River Churn

The River Churn is a tributary of the River Thames that rises at Seven Springs [Map] in Gloucestershire. Some consider this to be the source of the River Thames since its is further from the mouth of the Thames than the official source Thameshead. The River Churn joins the River Thames near Cricklade.

Thameshead, Gloucestershire [Map] is considered to the source of the River Thames although the head of the River Churn at Seven Springs [Map] is further away from the mouth of the Thames than Thameshead, Gloucestershire [Map].

Culture, Rivers and River Systems in England and Wales, Thames Estuary, River Thames, River Coln

Culture, Rivers and River Systems in England and Wales, Thames Estuary, River Thames, River Cray

The River Cray joins the River Thames at Dartford, Kent [Map].

Culture, Rivers and River Systems in England and Wales, Thames Estuary, River Thames, River Darent

The River Darent joins the River Thames at Dartford, Kent [Map].

Culture, Rivers and River Systems in England and Wales, Thames Estuary, River Thames, River Hogsmill

The River Hogsmill rises at Ewell, Surrey [Map] from where it flows to Kingston Upon Thames, Surrey [Map] where it joins the River Thames.

1851 to 1852. John Everett Millais 1st Baronet (age 21). "Ophelia". Hamlet Act IV Scene 7 Part IV in which Queen Gertrude describes Ophelia's death to Laertes. Millais painted the scene near Tolworth, Surrey [Map] using the River Hogsmill. Elizabeth Siddal (age 21) modelled in a bath-tub at 7 Gower Street, Camden [Map]. The initials PRB bottom right next to his signature. See Ophelia by John Everett MIllais.

Culture, Rivers and River Systems in England and Wales, Thames Estuary, River Thames, River Lea