On this Day in History ... 10 June

10 Jun is in June.

1540 Arrest and Attainder of Thomas Cromwell

1541 Executions

1640 Attack on Lambeth Palace

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Four Days' Battle

1667 Raid on the Medway

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 729. This year appeared the comet-star, and St. Egbert (age 90) died in Iona. This year also died the Oswald Aetheling; and Osric King Northumbria was slain, who was eleven winters king of Northumberland; to which kingdom Ceolwulf succeeded, and held it eight years. The said Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, Cutha Northumbria of Cuthwin, Cuthwin Northumbria of Leodwald Northumbria, Leodwald of Egwald Northumbria, Egwald of Ealdhelm Northumbria, Ealdhelm of Occa Northumbria, Occa of Ida, Ida of Eoppa Bernicia. Archbishop Bertwald died this year on the ides of January. He was bishop thirty-seven winters, and six months, and fourteen days. The same year Tatwine (age 59), who was before a priest at Bredon in Mercia, was consecrated archbishop by Daniel Bishop of Winchester, Ingwald Bishop of London, Aldwin Bishop of Lichfield, and Aldulf Bishop of Rochester, on the tenth day of June. He enjoyed the archbishopric about three years.

On 10 Jun 1128 Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy (age 14) was knighted by King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 60) in preparation for his wedding to Henry's daughter Empress Matilda (age 26).

On 10 Jun 1190 Frederick "Barbarossa" Hohenstaufen I Holy Roman Emperor (age 68) died. His son Henry Hohenstaufen VI Holy Roman Emperor (age 24) succeeded VI Holy Roman Emperor and King Italy.

Before 10 Jun 1380 Thomas Morley 5th Baron Marshal 4th Baron Morley (age 26) and Elizabeth Unknown Baroness Marshal Baroness Morley were married. She by marriage Baroness Marshal, Baroness Morley. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 10 Jun 1424 Ernest "The Iron" Habsburg I Duke Austria (age 47) died.

Before 10 Jun 1451 Richard West 7th Baron De La Warr 4th Baron West (age 20) and Katherine Hungerford Baroness De La Warr Baroness West were married. She by marriage Baroness De La Warr, Baroness West. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry III of England.

Around 10 Jun 1538 Thomas Cornwall 11th Baron Burford was born to Richard Cornwall 9th Baron Burford (age 45) and Janet Wogan (age 45) at Burford [Map].

Arrest and Attainder of Thomas Cromwell

On 10 Jun 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 55) attended a Meeting of the Privy Council where he was arrested. It isn't entirely clear why he was arrested but his role in the King's recent failed marriage to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24) is likely to have played a part. Either Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 67) or William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 50) tore off Cromwell's (age 55) St George of the Order of the Garter; the source of this story unknown? He was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].NOTEXT

Earl Essex 6C 1540 and Baron Cromwell of Wimbledon in Surrey forfeit.

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Letters and Papers 1540. After 10 Jun 1540. Burnet, iv. 415. 60. Not printed in the Statutes at Large. [c. 62]. Attainder of Thomas Crumwell, Earl of Essex (age 55), whom the King has raised from a very base and low degree to the state of an earl, and who nevertheless, as is proved by many "personages of great honor, worship, and discretion," has been the most detestable traitor that has been seen during the King's reign, and has of his own authority set at liberty divers persons convicted of misprision of treason and others apprehended upon suspicion of treason; and also has, for sums of money, granted licences for the export of money, corn, &c., contrary to the King's proclamations; and also has appointed commissioners in important affairs without the King's knowledge; and also "being a person of as poor and low degree as few be" within this realm, has said publicly, "That he was sure of you" (i.e. the King), and it is detestable that any subject should speak so of his sovereign; and also has give passports to divers persons to go over sea without search; and also, being a detestable heretic, has dispersed into all shires false and erroneous books, many of which were printed beyond seas, tending to the discredit of the blessed sacrament of the altar and other articles of religion declared by the King by the authority of Parliament, and has caused parts of the said books to be translated into English, and although the report made by the translator thereof has been that the matter was expressly against the sacrament of the altar, has, after reading the translation, affirmed the heresy so translated to be good; and also has obstinately maintained that every Christian may be a minister of the said sacrament as well as a priest; and also, being the King's vicegerent to reform errors and direct ecclesiastical causes, has, without the King's knowledge, licensed heretics to preach and teach, and has actually written to sheriffs in sundry shires, as if it were the King's pleasure, to set at large many false heretics; and also upon complaints being made to him of heretics, has defended the said heretics, and rebuked the credible persons, their accusers, &c.; and moreover, 31 March 30 Henry VIII., in the parish of St. Peter the Poor in London, upon information made to him against certain new preachers, as Robert Barnes and other, whereof part be now in the Tower for preaching against the King's proclamations, did arrogantly say in defence of their preaching, "That if the King would turn from it, yet I would not turn; and if the King did turn and all his people I would fight in the field in my own person with my sword in my hand against him and all other," and held up his dagger saying, "Or else this dagger thrust me to the heart if I would not die in that quarrel against them all; and I trust if I live one year or two it shall not lie in the King's power to resist or let it if he would," and affirming the words by a great oath, &c.; and moreover by bribery and extortion he obtained innumerable sums of money, and, being so enriched, has held the nobles of the Realm in great disdain, "and being put in remembrance of others of his estate which your Highness hath called him unto offending in like treasons," said, 31 Jan. 31 Henry VIII., in the parish of St. Martin in the Fields, Midd., "That if the lords would handle him so, that he would give them such a breakfast as never was made in England, and that the proudest of them should know." To suffer as a heretic or traitor, at the King's pleasure, and forfeit all property held since 31 March 30 Henry VIII. Saving clause excepting the deanery of Wells from forfeiture.

1541 Executions

Letters and Papers 1541. 10 Jun 1541. 897. Chapuys (age 51) to the Queen of Hungary.

If the affair is mentioned, will follow her instructions in her letter of the 28th ult. Expects to be summoned before the King (age 49) two days hence. Is vexed at not having received the copy of her answer to the King, referred to in his despatch of 26 May. The news since that date is that on the 27th three of the chief conspirators in the North - an abbot and two gentlemen - were hung and quartered. About the same time took place the lamentable execution of the countess of Salisbury (deceased) at the Tower [Map] in presence of the Lord Mayor and about 150 persons. When informed of her sentence she found it very strange, not knowing her crime; but she walked to the space in front of the Tower, where there was no scaffold but only a small block. She there commended her soul to God, and desired those present to pray for the King, Queen, Prince, and Princess. The ordinary executioner being absent, a blundering "garçonneau" was chosen, who hacked her head and shoulders to pieces. A most virtuous lady nearly 90 years of age. When her death was resolved on her nephew (grandson) (age 21), the son of lord Montague, who had been allowed occasionally to go about within the Tower, was more strictly guarded. It is to be supposed he will soon follow his father and grandmother. London, 10 June 1541. Original at Vienna.

On 10 Jun 1554 Walter Hungerford (age 27) and Anne Bassett (age 34) were married. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20) attended.

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Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1557. The x day of Junij the Kyng (age 30) and the Quen (age 41) toke ther jorney toward Hamtun [Map] courte for to hunt and to kyll a grett hartt, with serten of the consell; and so the howswold tared at the Whytthalle, tylle the Saterday folowhyng they cam a-gayne to Whytthalle.


Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (age 27) came by water] unto the Towre of London [Map] by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (age 35) had on, and my lord marques of [Northampton,] (age 49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll [Map] unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [Map] [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (age 65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (age 35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

On 10 Jun 1563 William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 57) died. His son Henry Paget 2nd Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 24) succeeded 2nd Baron Paget Beaudasert.


On 10 Jun 1584 Francis Valois Duke Anjou (age 29) died of malaria unmarried.


On or before 10 Jun 1596 Thomas Knyvet 5th Baron Berners was born to Thomas Knyvet of Ashwellthorpe in Norfolk (age 36) and Elizabeth Bacon (age 21).

On 10 Jun 1604 John Manners 8th Earl of Rutland was born to George Manners (age 32) and Grace Pierrepont (age 29) at Haddon Hall [Map].

On 10 Jun 1632 Jerome Weston 2nd Earl of Portland (age 26) and Frances Stewart Countess Portland (age 15) were married. She the daughter of Esmé Stewart 3rd Duke Lennox and Katherine Clifton Duchess Lennox (age 40). He the son of Richard Weston 1st Earl of Portland (age 55) and Frances Waldegrave Countess Portland (age 55).

Attack on Lambeth Palace

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1640. London, and especially the Court, were at this period in frequent disorders, and great insolences were committed by the abused and too happy City: in particular, the Bishop of Canterbury's (age 66) Palace [Map] at Lambeth was assaulted by a rude rabble from Southwark, Surrey [Map], my Lord Chamberlain (age 55) imprisoned and many scandalous libels and invectives scattered about the streets, to the reproach of Government, and the fermentation of our since distractions: so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to Wotton, Surrey [Map], and the 27th after, my father's (age 53) indisposition augmenting, by advice of the physicians he repaired to the Bath [Map].

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Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1661. Early to my Lord's, who privately told me how the King had made him Embassador in the bringing over the Queen (age 22)1. That he is to go to Algier, &c., to settle the business, and to put the fleet in order there; and so to come back to Lisbone with three ships, and there to meet the fleet that is to follow him. He sent for me, to tell me that he do intrust me with the seeing of all things done in his absence as to this great preparation, as I shall receive orders from my Lord Chancellor (age 52) and Mr. Edward Montagu. At all which my heart is above measure glad; for my Lord's honour, and some profit to myself, I hope.

Note 1. Katherine of Braganza (age 22), daughter of John IV. of Portugal, born 1638, married to Charles II, May 21st, 1662. After the death of the king she lived for some time at Somerset House [Map], and then returned to Portugal, of which country she became Regent in 1704 on the retirement of her brother Don Pedro. She died December 31st, 1705.


Battle of Lowestoft

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Came news of his highness's (age 35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester [Map] this evening. Next day I lay at Deal [Map], where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover [Map], and returned to Deal [Map]; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham [Map], and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (age 35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (age 31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War"..


Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1665. In the evening home to supper; and there, to my great trouble, hear that the plague is come into the City (though it hath these three or four weeks since its beginning been wholly out of the City); but where should it begin but in my good friend and neighbour's, Dr. Burnett, in Fanchurch Street [Map]: which in both points troubles me mightily.

Four Days' Battle

Before 10 Jun 1666 Vice-Admiral Christopher Myngs (age 40) died of wounds received at the Four Days' Battle. He was buried at St Mary's Church.


The Loyal London was built by Captain John Taylor Shipbuilder. It was given to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 36)by the City of London. Launched 10 Jun 1666.

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1667 Raid on the Medway

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1667. Up; and news brought us that, the Dutch are come up as high as the Nore; and more pressing orders for fireships. W. Batten (age 66), W. Pen (age 46), and I to St. James's; where the Duke of York (age 33) gone this morning betimes, to send away some men down to Chatham [Map].


On 10 Jun 1685 Henry Grey 3rd Earl Stamford was born to John Grey (age 60) and Catherine Ward (age 22).

On 10 Jun 1760 Willoughby Bertie 3rd Earl Abingdon (age 67) died. His son Willoughby Bertie 4th Earl Abingdon (age 20) succeeded 4th Earl Abingdon.

On 10 Jun 1766 Cornwallis Maude 1st Viscount Hawarden (age 36) and Mary Allen were married.


On 10 Jun 1772 Abraham Crichton 1st Baron Erne (age 68) died. His son John Crichton 1st Earl Erne (age 41) succeeded 2nd Baron Erne of Crom Castle in Fermanagh.

On 10 Jun 1806 George Brodrick 5th Viscount Midleton was born to George Brodrick 4th Viscount Midleton (age 51) and Maria Benyon Viscountess Midleton.

On 10 Jun 1810 Edmund Parker 2nd Earl Morley was born to John Parker 1st Earl Morley (age 38) and Frances Talbot Countess Morley (age 28).

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On 10 Jun 1830 Edward Adolphus Seymour 12th Duke Somerset (age 25) and Jane Georgiana Sheridan Duchess Somerset (age 20) were married at Grosvenor Square, Belgravia. He the son of Edward Seymour 11th Duke Somerset (age 55) and Charlotte Hamilton Duchess Somerset.

On 10 Jun 1846 George Spencer-Churchill 6th Duke Marlborough (age 52) and Charlotte Augusta Flower Duchess Marlborough (age 28) were married. She by marriage Duchess Marlborough. The difference in their ages was 24 years. He the son of George Spencer-Churchill 5th Duke Marlborough and Susan Stewart Duchess Marlborough.


On 10 Jun 1854 Robert Stewart 2nd Earl Castle Stewart (age 69) died.

On 10 Jun 1856 John Weld-Forester 2nd Baron Forester (age 54) and Alexandrina Julia Gräfin von Maltzan were married at St John the Evangelist Paddington.

On 10 Jun 1862 Lieutenant-General Arthur Cavendish Bentinck (age 43) and Augusta Mary Elizabeth Browne 1st Baroness Bolsover (age 27) were married.

On 10 Jun 1863 Prince Alfred Windsor (age 18) was appointed 736th Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 44).

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After 10 Jun 1863 George Leveson-Gower 3rd Duke Sutherland (age 34) was appointed 738th Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 44).

After 10 Jun 1863 Henry George Grey 3rd Earl Grey (age 60) was appointed 737th Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 44).

On 10 Jun 1885 Fitzroy Somerset 4th Baron Raglan was born to George Somerset 3rd Baron Raglan (age 27) and Ethel Jemima Ponsonby Baroness Raglan (age 28). Coefficient of inbreeding 1.58%.

On 10 Jun 1906 Harry Chichester 2nd Baron Templemore (age 84) died. His son Arthur Henry Chichester Chichester 3rd Baron Templemore (age 52) succeeded 3rd Baron Templemore of Templemore in Donegal. Alice Elizabeth Dawkins Baroness Templemore by marriage Baroness Templemore of Templemore in Donegal.

On 10 Jun 1920 Denzil George Fortescue 6th Earl Fortescue (age 26) and Marjorie Ellinor Trotter Countess Fortescue (age 26) were married. They were divorced before 08 Aug 1941. He the son of Hugh Fortescue 4th Earl Fortescue (age 66) and Emily Ormsby-Gore Countess Fortescue (age 60).

On 10 Jun 1921 Philip Mountbatten Duke Edinburgh was born to Andrew Glücksburg (age 39) and Princess Alice of Battenburg (age 36) at Mon Repos. He a great x 2 grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

On 10 Jun 1933 Gervase Disney Alexander 15th Baron Cobham (age 53) died. Baron Cobham 1C 1313 abeyant.

On 10 Jun 1958 Margaret Helen Beaumont Countess Fortescue (age 65) died. Her husband Hugh William Fortescue 5th Earl Fortescue (age 69) died four days later.


After 10 Jun 1974. Memorials to Henry Windsor 1st Duke Gloucester (deceased) who lived nearby and worshipped at St Andrews Church, Barnwell [Map].