On this Day in History ... 12 October

12 Oct is in October.

633 Battle of Hatfield Chase

1428 Siege of Orléans

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1665 Great Plague of London

Battle of Hatfield Chase

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 633. This year King Edwin (age 47) was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October [Note. Some sources say 12 Oct 633]. He reigned seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga (age 28), the relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of Rochester, where he continued to his death.

On 12 Oct 633 King Penda's alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia defeated the Northumbrians at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.

Eadfrith Deira was captured.

King Edwin of Northumbria (age 47) was killed. His half first cousin Osric King Deira succeeded King Deira. His nephew Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

Edwin's son Osfrith Deira was killed.

After 12 Oct 633Eadfrith Deira was killed. His half first cousin Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

On 12 Oct 638 Pope Honorius I died.

Before 12 Oct 1326 Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 26) and Alice Hales Countess Norfolk were married. She by marriage Countess Norfolk. He the son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England and Margaret of France Queen Consort England.

On 12 Oct 1343 Reginald "Black" II Duke Guelders (age 48) died from a fall from his horse at Arnhem. His son Reginald III Duke Guelders (age 10) succeeded III Duke Guelders. His wife acted as Regent to her nine year old son for two years.

Siege of Orléans

On 12 Oct 1428 the Siege of Orléans commenced at Orléans. During the course of the siege Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 40) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles (age 38) were wounded. William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 31) commanded the English forces during some of the siege.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow [Map]. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37) who was present.

The Yorkist Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 48), the future King Edward IV of England (age 17), Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 26) and Thomas Parr (age 52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel (age 41).

Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 22) was present on the Yorkist side for which he was subsequently attainted. Earl Tankerville 1C 1418 forfeit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande thys same yere there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the kynge (age 37) and the Duke of Yorke (age 48), the Erle of Salusbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwyke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but hys party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo thenn xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the kynge. And thenne the duke (age 48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr hym that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and hys yong sonys [King Edward V of England and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York] were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne (age 25) [Note. Husband of Edward's sister Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 13)], and they were fulle welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The Erle of Saulysbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwycke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17), Syr John Wenlocke (age 59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham (age 26), and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham (age 26); and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey [Map], ande from Garnesaye unto Calys [Map], for fere of dethe that they sayde was ymagenyde by the kyng and hys lordys, and of hyr owne housolde mayny for hyr dystruccyon, the counselle and consent of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd owte of Ingelonde on Synt Edwarde ys evyn, Synt Edwarde bothe kynge and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys.

Note a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.

Before 12 Oct 1475 Edward Blount 2nd Baron Mountjoy (age 11) and Anne Cobham 6th Baroness Cobham, Baroness Mountjoy and Baroness Strabolgi (age 8) were married. She by marriage Baroness Mountjoy. They were half second cousin twice removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 12 Oct 1475 Edward Blount 2nd Baron Mountjoy (age 11) died. His uncle John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Mountjoy 1C 1465.

After 12 Oct 1477. Church of St John The Baptist Kinlet [Map]. Monument to Humphrey Blount (deceased) and Elizabeth Winnington. Fluted Period. He wearing a Suns and Roses Collar. She wearing a fine Horned Headdress with large flap as also detailed in the weepers. Dress Folds at Feet. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Chest with Weepers holding Shields.

Humphrey Blount: In 1421 he was born to John Blount (age 44) and Alice Bere at Rock, Worcestershire. In 1446 William Lichfield died. The estates at Kinlet were inherited by Humphrey Blount (age 25) who was the grandson of John Blount of Sodington who had married Isabella Cornwall who was the aunt of William's wife Elizabeth Cornwall (age 36). In or before 1447 Humphrey Blount (age 26) and Elizabeth Winnington were married. On 12 Oct 1477 Humphrey Blount (age 56) died at Kinlet.

On 12 Oct 1485 John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35) died. His son William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 7) succeeded 4th Baron Mountjoy 1C 1465.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter XXXIX. 12 Oct 1514. Mary Queen of France (age 18) to King Henry the Eighth (age 23).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vi. fol. 253. Orig.]

MY good Brother (age 23) as hertly as I can I recomaund me unto your Grace, mervelynge moch that I never herd from you syns ... re depertynge, so often as I have sent and wrytten to you. And now am I left post a lone in effect; for on the morn next after . . e maryage my chambirlayn with all other men servants wer dischargd and in lyke wyse my mother Guldeford (age 51) with other my women and maydyns, except such as never had experiens nor knowlech how to advertyse or gyfe me counsell yn any tyme of nede, which is to be fered more schortly then your Grace thought at the tyme of my depertynge, as my mother Guldeford (age 51) can more playnly schew your Grace then I cann wryt; to whom I beseche you to gyve credens. And yf hit may be by eny meane possible, I humbly requyr you to cause my seyd mother Guldeford (age 51) to repayr hither once agayn. For ells if any chauns happe other then weale I schall not knowe wher nor of whom to aske any good counsell to your pleasur, nor yet to myn own proffit. I merveill moche that my Lord of Northfolke (age 41) wold at all tymes so lyghtly graunt every thynge at ther reqwests here. I am weale assured that when ze know the trouth of every thyng as my mother Guideford can schew you, ze wold full lyttyll have thowght I schold have ben thus intreated: that wold God my Lord of Zorke (age 41) had com with me yn the rome of Northfolke (age 41): for then am I sure I schuld have bene left moch more at my herti .... then I am now.NOTEXT

And thus I byd your Grace fare weale with .... as ever had Prince; and more herds ease then I have now ... a Abvile [Map] the xijth . day of October.

.... gef gredens to my mowder Geldeford.

Note B. your lowyng syster MARY QUENE OF FRANCE.

Note a. From.

Henry the Eighth and his Court accompanied the young Queen to Dover, whence on the second of October she sailed to Boulogne. She reached Abbeville on the 8th and was married on the 9th of that month. The original List of the persons who went in her retinue, signed by Louis himself, is still preserved among the Cottonian Manuscriptsb; though strange as it may seem, almost the whole were dismissed the morning after her marriage. "The Tewesdaye, being the x. daye of October," says Hall, "all th'Englishmen except a fewe that were officers with the sayde Quene, were discharged; whiche was a great sorowe for theim, for some had served her long in hope of prefermente, and some, that had honest romes, lefte them to serve her; and now they were with out service; which caused them to take thought, in so much that some dyed by the way returning, and some fell mad; but ther was no remedy." The Queen's own account of this Transaction will be found in this, and the following Letter. Mother Guldeford (age 51) who is so particularly mentioned in these Letters, was apparently the Governess, or, as she was sometimes called, the Mother to the Maids of Honor.

Note b. It was as follows:


Mons. le Conte de Nrushere.

Maistre docteur Denton aumosmer.

Messe. Richard Blounte escuyer de scuierie.

Enffans d'onneur: Le filz de Mons. Roos, Le filz de Mons. Cobham, Le filz de Messe. Seymor,

Evrard frere du Marquis.

Arthus Polle (age 12), frere de Monsr. de Montagu.

Le Poulayn.

Francoye Buddis, huissier de Chambre.

Maistre Guille, Medicin.

Henry Calays varler des robes.

Robert Wast.

Madamoyselle Grey, seur du Marquis. [Note. Possibly Elizabeth Grey Countess Kildare (age 17)]

Madamoyselle Marie finis fille de Monsr. Dacres. [Note. Possibly Mary Dacre (age 12)]

Madamoyselle Elizabet seur de Monsr. Grey.

Madamoyselle BOLEYNE. [Note. Unclear as to whether this is Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 13) or Mary Boleyn (age 15)]

Maistres Anne Jenyngham (age 10). femme de Chambre.

Johanue Daruossc, chamberiere."

Birth and Christening Edward VI

On 12 Oct 1537 King Edward VI of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 46) and Queen Jane Seymour (age 28) at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. George Owen (age 38) assisted as Physician.


Wriothesley's Chronicle. 12 Oct 1537. And the morrowe after, being Fridaie and the eaven of Sainct Edwarda, sometime King of Englande, at tow of the clocke in the mominge the Quecne [was] delivered of a man chieldeb at Hampton Court beside Kingston. And the same daie, at eight of the clocke in the morning, Te Deum was songe in everie parish church throughout Londonc, with all the bells ringing in everie church, and great fiars made in everie streete; and at 9 of the clocke their was assembled at Ponies all the orders of friars, monkes, channons, priestes, and clarkes about London, standing all about Paules in rich copes, with the best crosses and candlestickes of everie parrishe church in London; the Bishopp of London, the Bishopp of Chichestre, Deane of Poules, and the Abbott of West- minster being mitred, the said Bishopp and Deane of Paules making a collation to the people at the quire dore of Poules, the French Kinges embassadour being present, the Lord Chauncelor of Englande, the Lord Privie Scale, the Lorde Marques Dorsett, with all the judges and serjeantes of the lawe; the Major of London, with the orderman [aldermen] and sherives, with all the craftes of London, standing in their liveries: and after the said collation Poules quire song an attempncd of the Trinitie, with Te Deum, and the 9th responde of the Trinitie, with the colect of the same. Then the Kinges waites and the waites of London plaied with the shalmes; and after that a great peale of gonnea were shott at the Tower of London, all which solempnitie was donne to give laude and prayse to God for joy of our prince.

October 12th. Circular letters, in the Queen's name and under her signet, were prepared, announcing the birth of Prince Edward. One of them, addressed to the Lord Privy Seal, and dated on that day at Hampton Court, is now in the British Museum, Nero, C. x. leaf 7.

Note b. The story of Edward's being brought into the world by surgical art, and at the sacrifice jof his mother's life, seems to haye been invented by Nicolas Sanders, the Jesuit, from whom it was borrowed by Sir John Hayward, and adopted in his life of Edward VI. - See Kennett's Hist. Engl. vol. ii. p. 273. From this source it found its way into various historical books. The error apparently originated through the Queen's death having been assigned to the 14th, only two days after her deliyery, instead of to the 24th. - See p. 69 of this Chronicle.

Note c. As the King had caused his two daughters by his former marriages to be declared illegitimate, nothing could be more acceptable than the birth of a son which put the succession of the Crown out of all dispute.

Note d. Anthem.

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 12 Oct 1537. In October on Saint Edward’s eve was borne at Hampton court [Map] the noble Impe Prince Edward, whose Godfathers at the Christening were the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 48), and the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and his Godmother the Lady Mary (age 21) the King’s daughter, and at the bishoping was Godfather the Duke of Suffolk (age 53). At the birth of this noble Prince was great fires made through the whole realm and great joy made with thanks giving to almighty God, which had sent so noble a prince to succeed in the crown of this realm.NOTEXT

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Oct 1559. The xij day of October whent by water unto the court the kyng of Sweythen('s) (age 63) sune (age 25), and ys gard, and ther he was honorabull reseyvyd with mony honorabull men at the hall-dore, wher the gard stod in ther ryche cottes, unto the quen('s) chambur, and ther he was reseyvyd of the Quen('s) (age 26) grace, and after he had grett chere as cold be had.

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On 12 Oct 1561 William "Younger" Welf Duke Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 26) and Dorothea Oldenburg Duchess Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 15) were married. She by marriage Duchess Brunswick Lüneburg. She the daughter of Christian III King Denmark and Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 50).

On 12 Oct 1576 Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 49) died. His son Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor (age 24) succeeded II Holy Roman Emperor.


Before 12 Oct 1602 Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 29) and Bridget Morrison Countess Sussex were married. She by marriage Countess of Sussex. He the son of Henry Radclyffe 4th Earl of Sussex and Honora Pound Viscountess Fitzwalter.


On 12 Oct 1609 William Keith 6th Earl Marischal (age 24) and Mary Erskine were married. She the daughter of John Erskine 19th Earl Mar (age 47) and Mary Stewart Countess Mar (age 27). He the son of George Keith 5th Earl Marischal (age 56) and Margaret Home Countess Marischal.

On 03 Mar 1626 William Cavendish 1st Earl Devonshire (age 73) died. His son William Cavendish 2nd Earl Devonshire (age 36) succeeded 2nd Earl Devonshire 2C 1618. Christian Bruce Countess Devonshire by marriage Countess Devonshire. On 12 Oct 1616 Henry Cavendish (age 65) died. Both were buried at St Peter's Church, Edensor [Map].

The monument was behind the altar in the original church but moved to a separate chapel in the new church.

Monument formed two bodies under a low four-poster with black Ionic columns and black covering slab. The monument has been attributed to Maximilian Colt (age 51).

Christian Bruce Countess Devonshire: She was born to Edward Bruce 1st Lord Kinloss. On 10 Apr 1608 William Cavendish 2nd Earl Devonshire (age 18) and she were married. He the son of William Cavendish 1st Earl Devonshire (age 55) and Anne Keighley (age 45). In 1625 Robert Heath Lord Chief Justice (age 49) brought a case against the miners of the High Peak. Through the offices of Heath the tithe right was eventually transferred, in a possibly corrupt way, to Christian Cavendish, Countess of Devonshire. Evelyn's Diary. 04 Aug 1662. Came to see me the old Countess of Devonshire, with that excellent and worthy person, my Lord her son (age 44), from Roehampton, Surrey. In 1675 she died. She was buried at Derby Cathedral.

Henry Cavendish: Henry Cavendish and Grace Talbot were married. The marriage, unhappy, produced no issue. She the daughter of George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury and Gertrude Manners Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford. On 17 Dec 1550 he was born to William Cavendish (age 45) and Bess of Hardwick Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 23). In 1609 Henry Cavendish (age 58) sold Chatsworth House to his younger brother William Cavendish 1st Earl Devonshire (age 56) for £10,000.

Extremely grand architecture above the two martial flanking figures, then arches with, on the left armour, and on the right purple, coronet, and sword hung up, and in the middle an angel holding the black inscription tablet and blowing a trumpet. The whole is surmounted by a big broken pediment.

Henry appears as a skeleton on a straw mat.

William (age 36) in his shroud with his face exposed.


On 12 Oct 1631 George Saunderson 5th Viscount Castleton was born to Nicholas Saundeson 2nd Viscount Castleton and Frances Manners (age 31) in Fillingham Linconsolshire.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1665. Being overjoyed at this I to write my letters, and at it very late. Good newes this week that there are about 600 less dead of the plague than the last. So home to bed.

On 12 Oct 1694 Charles Boyle 3rd Baron Clifford (age 54) died. His son Charles Boyle 2nd Earl Burlington (age 26) succeeded 4th Baron Clifford 2C 1628.

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On 12 Oct 1730 Frederick IV King Denmark and Norway (age 59) died. His son Christian VI King Denmark and Norway (age 30) succeeded VI King Denmark and Norway.

On 12 Oct 1731 Mary Eure (age 80) died. Baron Scrope of Bolton abeyant.

On 12 Oct 1738 George Rochfort 2nd Earl Belvedere was born to Robert Rochfort 1st Earl of Belvedere (age 30) and Mary Molesworth.

On 12 Oct 1752 Lewis Watson 1st Baron Sondes (age 23) and Grace Pelham Baroness Sondes (age 17) were married. They were half third cousins.


On 12 Oct 1758 Richard Molesworth 3rd Viscount Molesworth (age 78) died.

On 12 Oct 1768 James Douglas 14th Earl Morton (age 66) died. His son Sholto Charles Douglas 15th Earl Morton (age 37) succeeded 15th Earl Morton.


On 12 Oct 1770 Thomas Fermor 4th Earl Pomfret was born to George Fermor 2nd Earl Pomfret (age 48) and Anna Maria Delagard Countess Pomfret (age 34).

PAINTINGS/HUDSON/Samuel_Scott.jpgBefore 12 Oct 1772 Thomas Hudson (age 71). Portrait of Samuel Scott (age 70).

On 12 Oct 1807 James Wandesford Butler 1st Marquess Ormonde (age 30) and Grace Louisa Staples Marchioness Ormonde were married. He the son of John Butler 17th Earl Ormonde 11th Earl Ossory and Frances Wandesford Countess Ormonde and Ossory (age 53).

On 12 Oct 1833 William Edwardes 3rd Baron Kensington (age 32) and Laura Jane Ellison (age 22) were married.

On 12 Oct 1847 Charles William Fitzgerald Fitzgerald 4th Duke Leinster (age 28) and Caroline Leveson-Gower Duchess Leinster (age 20) were married at Trentham, Staffordshire. She the daughter of George Sutherland Leveson-Gower 2nd Duke Sutherland (age 61) and Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard Duchess Sutherland (age 41). He the son of Augustus Fitzgerald 3rd Duke Leinster (age 56) and Charlotte Augusta Stanhope Duchess Leinster (age 54). He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland. NOTEXT

On 12 Oct 1853 Dudley Fitzgerald De Ros 23rd Baron Ros Helmsley (age 26) and Elizabeth Egerton Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 21) were married at Heaton. She the daughter of Thomas Grosvenor 2nd Earl Wilton (age 53) and Mary Smith-Stanley Countess Wilton (age 52). He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 12 Oct 1855 Friedrich Ferdinand Glücksburg Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg was born to Friedrich Glücksburg Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg (age 40) and Adelheid Schasumburg Lippe Duchess Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg at Kiel. He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 12 Oct 1863 John Singleton Copley 1st Baron Lyndhurst (age 91) died.

After 12 Oct 1901. All Saints Church, West Acre [Map]. Memorials to Edward Lewis Birkbeck (deceased) and Gillian Mary Birkbeck (age 18).

Edward Lewis Birkbeck: On 16 Jun 1860 he was born to Henry Birkbeck of Stoke Holy Cross (age 39) and Mary Anne Hamond. On 21 Apr 1891 Edward Lewis Birkbeck (age 30) and Emily Augusta Seymour (age 24) were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland. On 12 Oct 1901 Edward Lewis Birkbeck (age 41) died.

Gillian Mary Birkbeck: On 25 Oct 1882 she was born to Henry Birkbeck of Stoke Holy Cross (age 61) and Mary Anne Hamond. On 15 May 1909 Gillian Mary Birkbeck (age 26) died at Kobe Japan whilst working as a Missionary.

The erecting of Lytham St Anne’s War memorial [Map] in 1924 was made possible by a gift of £10000, donated by Lord Ashton. The memorial commemorates the fallen of the Municipal Borough of Lytham St Anne’s, formed in 1922 by the merger of Lytham and St Anne’s urban district councils. It was unveiled on 12 October 1924 by Alderman Charles Critchley, whose son Burton 'Plum' Critchley was killed in 1918 while serving in the RAF. The ceremony was attended by the Rt Hon Stephen Walsh (Minister for War), Maj Gen Sir Cecil Lothian Nicholson KCB CMG (whose son was killed at Arras), Lt Gen Sir Richard Butler KCB KCMG and 1000 ex-servicemen. The unveiling was also attended by nine children of fallen servicemen, who were later presented with gold medals inscribed with the coat of arms of the borough. Sculpted by Walter Marsden (age 41).

On 12 Oct 1927 Seymour Egerton 6th Earl Wilton (age 31) died. His son Seymour Egerton 7th Earl Wilton (age 6) succeeded 7th Earl Wilton, 7th Viscount Grey de Wilton.

On 12 Oct 1946 Hugh Denis Charles Fitzroy 11th Duke Grafton (age 27) and Ann Fortune Smith Duchess Grafton (age 26) were married. He the son of Charles Alfred Euston Fitzroy 10th Duke Grafton (age 54) and Doreen Buxton Duchess Grafton.

On 12 Oct 1947 Luis Martínez de Irujo y Artázcoz (age 28) and María del Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart 18th Duchess of Alba 11th Duke of Berwick (age 21) were married. She the daughter of Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart 17th Duke of Alba 10th Duke of Berwick (age 68) and María del Rosario de Silva Duchess of Alba.