On this Day in History ... 12th October

12 Oct is in October.

633 Battle of Hatfield Chase

1428 Siege of Orléans

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1665 Great Plague of London

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 12th October

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 633. This year King Edwin (age 47) was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October [Note. Some sources say 12 Oct 633]. He reigned seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga (age 28), the relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of Rochester, where he continued to his death.

On 12 Oct 633 King Penda's alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia defeated the Northumbrians at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.

Eadfrith Deira was captured.

King Edwin of Northumbria (age 47) was killed. He was buried at Whitby Abbey [Map] - see Bede. His first cousin Osric King Deira succeeded King Deira. His nephew Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

Edwin's son Osfrith Deira was killed.

After 12 Oct 633Eadfrith Deira was killed. His half first cousin Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

On 12 Oct 638 Pope Honorius I died.

On 12 Oct 1328 Clementia Hungary Queen Consort France (age 35) died.

On 12 Oct 1428 the Siege of Orléans commenced at Orléans. During the course of the siege Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 40) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles (age 38) were wounded. William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 31) commanded the English forces during some of the siege.

Chronicle of Robert Fabyan 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Where of hearing the said Duke, then being with his people near unto the town of Ludlow, picked there a sure and strong field, that none of his foes might upon any part enter. Where he so lying, came to him from Calais, the Earl of Warwick with a strong band of men, among the which was Andrew Trollope, and many other of the best soldiers of Calais. The Duke thus keeping his field upon that one party, and the king with his people upon that other, upon the night preceeding the day that both houses should have met, the forenamed Andrewe Trollope, with all the cheif soldiers of Calais, secretly departed from the Duke's host and went unto the kings, where they were joyously received. When this thing to the Duke and the other lords was ascertained, they were therewith sore dismayed, and especially, for the said lordes had to the said Andrew showed the whole of their entities, which then they knew well should be clearely discovered unto their enemies: wherefore, after counsel for a remedie taken, they concluded to flee, and to leave the field standing as they had been present and still abidyng. And so incontently the saide Duke with his two sons, and a few other persons, fled towarde Wales, and from thence passed safely into Irelande. And the earls of Salesbury, of Marche, and of Warwick, and other, with a secret company also departed and took the way into Devonshire, where a squire named John Dynham (age 26), which after was a lorde and High Treasurer of England, and so lastly in Henry the VII's days and sixteenth year of his reign died, [which John Dynham foresaid]1 bought a ship for aa hundredn and ten markys, or eleven score nobles; and in the same ship the said lords went, and so sailed into Gernesey. And when they had a season there sojourned and refreshed themselves, they departed thence, as in the beginning of the next mayor's year shall be clearly shown. Upon the morrow, when all this couyne was known to the kyng and the lords upon his party, there was sending and running with all speed toward every coast to take these lords, but none might be found. And forthwith the King rode unto Ludlow and despoiled the town and castle, and sent the Duchess of York, with her children, unto the Duchesse of Buckingham her sister, where she rested long after.

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow [Map]. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37) who was present.

The Yorkist Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 48), the future King Edward IV of England (age 17), Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 26) and Thomas Parr (age 52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 41).

Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 22) was present on the Yorkist side for which he was subsequently attainted. Earl Tankerville forfeit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande this same year there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the King (age 37) and the Duke of Yorke (age 48), the Erle of Salusbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwyke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but his party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo then xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the King. And thenne the duke (age 48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr him that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and his yong sonys [King Edward V of England and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York] were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne (age 25) [Note. Husband of Edward's sister Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 13)], and they were full welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The Erle of Saulysbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwycke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17), Syr John Wenlocke (age 59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham (age 26), and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham (age 26); and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey [Map], ande from Garnesaye unto Calys [Map], for fere of dethe that they said was ymagenyde by the kyng and his lordys, and of her owne housolde mayny for her dystruccyon, the counselle and consent of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd out of Ingelonde on Synt Edward is evyn, Synt Edward bothe King and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys.

Note a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.

After 12 Oct 1477. Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet [Map]. Monument to Humphrey Blount (deceased) and Elizabeth Winnington. Fluted Period. He wearing a Suns and Roses Collar. She wearing a fine Horned Headdress with large flap as also detailed in the weepers. Dress Folds at Feet. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Chest with Weepers holding Shields.

Humphrey Blount: In 1421 he was born to John Blount and Alice Bere at Rock, Worcestershire. In 1446 William Lichfield died. The estates at Kinlet, Cleobury Mortimer were inherited by Humphrey Blount who was the grandson of John Blount of Sodington who had married Isabella Cornwall who was the aunt of William's wife Elizabeth Cornwall. In or before 1447 Humphrey Blount and Elizabeth Winnington were married. On 12 Oct 1477 Humphrey Blount died at Kinlet, Cleobury Mortimer.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter XXXIX. 12 Oct 1514. Mary Queen of France (age 18) to King Henry the Eighth (age 23).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vi. fol. 253. Orig.]

MY good Brother (age 23) as hertly as I can I recomaund me unto your Grace, mervelynge moch that I never herd from you syns ... re depertynge, so often as I have sent and wrytten to you. And now am I left post a lone in effect; for on the morn next after . . e maryage my chambirlayn with all other men servants wer dischargd and in lyke wyse my mother Guldeford (age 51) with other my women and maydyns, except such as never had experiens nor knowlech how to advertyse or gyfe me counsell yn any tyme of nede, which is to be fered more schortly then your Grace thought at the tyme of my depertynge, as my mother Guldeford (age 51) can more playnly schew your Grace then I cann wryt; to whom I beseche you to gyve credens. And yf hit may be by eny meane possible, I humbly requyr you to cause my seyd mother Guldeford (age 51) to repayr hither once agayn. For ells if any chauns happe other then weale I schall not knowe wher nor of whom to aske any good counsell to your pleasur, nor yet to myn own proffit. I merveill moche that my Lord of Northfolke (age 41) wold at all tymes so lyghtly graunt every thynge at ther reqwests here. I am weale assured that when ze know the trouth of every thyng as my mother Guideford can schew you, ze wold full lyttyll have thowght I schold have ben thus intreated: that wold God my Lord of Zorke (age 41) had com with me yn the rome of Northfolke (age 41): for then am I sure I schuld have bene left moch more at my herti .... then I am now.

And thus I byd your Grace fare weale with .... as ever had Prince; and more herds ease then I have now ... a Abvile [Map] the xijth . day of October.

.... gef gredens to my mowder Geldeford.

Note B. your lowyng syster MARY QUENE OF FRANCE.

Note a. From.

Henry the Eighth and his Court accompanied the young Queen to Dover, whence on the second of October she sailed to Boulogne. She reached Abbeville on the 8th and was married on the 9th of that month. The original List of the persons who went in her retinue, signed by Louis himself, is still preserved among the Cottonian Manuscriptsb; though strange as it may seem, almost the whole were dismissed the morning after her marriage. "The Tewesdaye, being the x. daye of October," says Hall, "all th'Englishmen except a fewe that were officers with the sayde Quene, were discharged; whiche was a great sorowe for theim, for some had served her long in hope of prefermente, and some, that had honest romes, lefte them to serve her; and now they were with out service; which caused them to take thought, in so much that some dyed by the way returning, and some fell mad; but ther was no remedy." The Queen's own account of this Transaction will be found in this, and the following Letter. Mother Guldeford (age 51) who is so particularly mentioned in these Letters, was apparently the Governess, or, as she was sometimes called, the Mother to the Maids of Honor.

Note b. It was as follows:

"Premierement

Mons. le Conte de Nrushere.

Maistre docteur Denton aumosmer.

Messe. Richard Blounte escuyer de scuierie.

Enffans d'onneur: Le filz de Mons. Roos, Le filz de Mons. Cobham, Le filz de Messe. Seymor,

Evrard frere du Marquis.

Arthus Polle (age 12), frere de Monsr. de Montagu.

Le Poulayn.

Francoye Buddis, huissier de Chambre.

Maistre Guille, Medicin.

Henry Calays varler des robes.

Robert Wast.

Madamoyselle Grey, seur du Marquis. [Note. Possibly Elizabeth Grey Countess Kildare (age 17)]

Madamoyselle Marie finis fille de Monsr. Dacres. [Note. Possibly Mary Dacre (age 12)]

Madamoyselle Elizabet seur de Monsr. Grey.

Madamoyselle BOLEYNE. [Note. Unclear as to whether this is Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 13) or Mary Boleyn (age 15)]

Maistres Anne Jenyngham (age 10). femme de Chambre.

Johanue Daruossc, chamberiere."

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter XL. 12 Oct 1514. Mary Queen of France (age 18) to Thomas Wolsey (age 41), then Archbishop of York.

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vi. fol. 143. Orig.]

... I recomaund me un to you as hertly as I can, and as schoth .... intreated as the kynge (age 23) and you thought I schuld have ben, for .... the morn next after the maryage, all my servants, both men and women . . a dyscharged. Insomoch that my mother Guldeford (age 51) was also dischargyd, whom as ze knowe the kynge and zou willed me in eny wyse to be cowncelled. But for eny thynge I myght do, yn no wyse myght I have any graunt for her abode here, which I assure you my lord is moch to my discomffort; besyd meny other discomffortis that ze wold full lyttyll have thought. I have not zet seen yn Fraunce eny lady or jentill woman so necessary for me as sche ys nor zet so mete to do the kynge my brother service as sche ys. And for my part my lord, as ze love the kynge my broder and me, fynd the meanes that sche may yn all hast com hither agayn, for I had as lefe lose the wynnynge I schall have yn France as to lose her counsell when I schall lacke it, which is not like long to be required, as I am sure the nobill men and jentillmen can schew you more then becometh me to wryte yn this matter. I pray you my Lord gyf credens forther to my moder Guldeford (age 51) yn every thyng concernynge thys matter. And albehit my Lord of Northfollke (age 41) h .. b nethyr deled best with me nor zet with her at thys tyme: zet I pray you allwayes to be good lord unto her. And wold to God my had ben so good o have had zou with me hither when I ha . . rd c of Northfolke. And thus fare ze weale

My Lord. Wryt ile a the xij the . daye of Octobr.

My Lord I pray you gyve credens to my .... ord yn my sorows she have delyve ... Yowr on whyl I lefe

MARY

To my lovynge frend Th'archebischop of Zorke.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 12 Oct 1537. And the morrowe after, being Fridaie and the eaven of Sainct Edwarda, sometime King of Englande, at tow of the clocke in the mominge the Quecne [was] delivered of a man chieldeb at Hampton Court beside Kingston. And the same daie, at eight of the clocke in the morning, Te Deum was songe in everie parish church throughout Londonc, with all the bells ringing in everie church, and great fiars made in everie streete; and at 9 of the clocke their was assembled at Ponies all the orders of friars, monkes, channons, priestes, and clarkes about London, standing all about Paules in rich copes, with the best crosses and candlestickes of everie parrishe church in London; the Bishopp of London, the Bishopp of Chichestre, Deane of Poules, and the Abbott of West- minster being mitred, the said Bishopp and Deane of Paules making a collation to the people at the quire dore of Poules, the French Kinges embassadour being present, the Lord Chauncelor of Englande, the Lord Privie Scale, the Lorde Marques Dorsett, with all the judges and serjeantes of the lawe; the Major of London, with the orderman [aldermen] and sherives, with all the craftes of London, standing in their liveries: and after the said collation Poules quire song an attempncd of the Trinitie, with Te Deum, and the 9th responde of the Trinitie, with the colect of the same. Then the Kinges waites and the waites of London plaied with the shalmes; and after that a great peale of gonnea were shott at the Tower of London, all which solempnitie was donne to give laude and prayse to God for joy of our prince.

October 12th. Circular letters, in the Queen's name and under her signet, were prepared, announcing the birth of Prince Edward. One of them, addressed to the Lord Privy Seal, and dated on that day at Hampton Court, is now in the British Museum, Nero, C. x. leaf 7.

Note b. The story of Edward's being brought into the world by surgical art, and at the sacrifice jof his mother's life, seems to haye been invented by Nicolas Sanders, the Jesuit, from whom it was borrowed by Sir John Hayward, and adopted in his life of Edward VI. - See Kennett's Hist. Engl. vol. ii. p. 273. From this source it found its way into various historical books. The error apparently originated through the Queen's death having been assigned to the 14th, only two days after her deliyery, instead of to the 24th. - See p. 69 of this Chronicle.

Note c. As the King had caused his two daughters by his former marriages to be declared illegitimate, nothing could be more acceptable than the birth of a son which put the succession of the Crown out of all dispute.

Note d. Anthem.

On 12 Oct 1537 King Edward VI of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 46) and Queen Jane Seymour (age 28) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. George Owen (age 38) assisted as Physician.

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 12 Oct 1537. In October on Saint Edward’s eve was borne at Hampton court [Map] the noble Impe Prince Edward, whose Godfathers at the Christening were the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 48), and the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and his Godmother the Lady Mary (age 21) the King’s daughter, and at the bishoping was Godfather the Duke of Suffolk (age 53). At the birth of this noble Prince was great fires made through the whole realm and great joy made with thanks giving to almighty God, which had sent so noble a prince to succeed in the crown of this realm.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 12 Oct 1537. Also this yere the 12th day of October was born the Prince Edward at Hampton Court [Map], the 29th year of King Henry the VIII.

On 12 Oct 1555 Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby was born to Richard Bertie Baron Willoughby (age 38) and Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 36) at Wesel, Wesel. He was named for his parents peregrinations through Germany avoiding religious persecution.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Oct 1559. The xij day of October whent by water unto the court the kyng of Sweythen('s) (age 63) sune (age 25), and ys gard, and ther he was honorabull reseyvyd with mony honorabull men at the hall-dore, wher the gard stod in ther ryche cottes, unto the quen('s) chambur, and ther he was reseyvyd of the Quen('s) (age 26) grace, and after he had grett chere as cold be had.

On 12 Oct 1576 Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 49) died. His son Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor (age 24) succeeded II Holy Roman Emperor.

On 03 Mar 1626 William Cavendish 1st Earl Devonshire (age 73) died. His son William Cavendish 2nd Earl Devonshire (age 36) succeeded 2nd Earl Devonshire, 2nd Baron Cavendish Hardwick. Christian Bruce Countess Devonshire by marriage Countess Devonshire. On 12 Oct 1616 Henry Cavendish (age 65) died. Both were buried at St Peter's Church, Edensor [Map].

The monument was behind the altar in the original church but moved to a separate chapel in the new church.

Monument formed two bodies under a low four-poster with black Ionic columns and black covering slab. The monument has been attributed to Maximilian Colt (age 51).

Extremely grand architecture above the two martial flanking figures, then arches with, on the left armour, and on the right purple, coronet, and sword hung up, and in the middle an angel holding the black inscription tablet and blowing a trumpet. The whole is surmounted by a big broken pediment.

Henry appears as a skeleton on a straw mat.

William (age 36) in his shroud with his face exposed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1663. Up (though slept well) and made some water in the morning [as] I used to do, and a little pain returned to me, and some fears, but being forced to go to the Duke (age 29) at St. James's, I took coach and in my way called upon Mr. Hollyard (age 54) and had his advice to take a glyster. At St. James's we attended the Duke all of us. And there, after my discourse, Mr. Coventry (age 35) of his own accord begun to tell the Duke how he found that discourse abroad did run to his prejudice about the fees that he took, and how he sold places and other things; wherein he desired to appeal to his Highness, whether he did any thing more than what his predecessors did, and appealed to us all. So Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did answer that some fees were heretofore taken, but what he knows not; only that selling of places never was nor ought to be countenanced. So Mr. Coventry (age 35) very hotly answered to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and appealed to himself whether he was not one of the first that put him upon looking after this taking of fees, and that he told him that Mr. Smith should say that he made £5000 the first year, and he believed he made £7000. This Sir G. Carteret (age 53) denied, and said, that if he did say so he told a lie, for he could not, nor did know, that ever he did make that profit of his place; but that he believes he might say £2500 the first year. Mr. Coventry (age 35) instanced in another thing, particularly wherein Sir G. Carteret (age 53) did advise with him about the selling of the Auditor's place of the stores, when in the beginning there was an intention of creating such an office. This he confessed, but with some lessening of the tale Mr. Coventry (age 35) told, it being only for a respect to my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 33). In fine, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did put into the Duke's hand a list of above 250 places that he did give without receiving one farthing, so much as his ordinary fees for them, upon his life and oath; and that since the Duke's establishment of fees he had never received one token more of any man; and that in his whole life he never conditioned or discoursed of any consideration from any commanders since he came to the Navy. And afterwards, my Lord Barkeley merrily discoursing that he wished his profit greater than it was, and that he did believe that he had got £50,000 since he came in, Mr. Coventry (age 35) did openly declare that his Lordship, or any of us, should have not only all he had got, but all that he had in the world (and yet he did not come a beggar into the Navy, nor would yet be thought to speak in any contempt of his Royall Highness's bounty), and should have a year to consider of it too, for £25,000. The Duke's answer was, that he wished we all had made more profit than he had of our places, and that we had all of us got as much as one man below stayres in the Court, which he presently named, and it was Sir George Lane (age 43)! This being ended, and the list left in the Duke's hand, we parted, and I with Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 64), and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to the Exchange [Map], and there a while, and so home, and whether it be the jogging, or by having my mind more employed (which I believe is a great matter) I know not, but.... I begin to be suddenly well, at least better than I was.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1663. So home and to dinner, and thence by coach to the Old Exchange [Map], and there cheapened some laces for my wife, and then to Mr.---the great laceman in Cheapside, and bought one cost me £4. more by 20s. than I intended, but when I came to see them I was resolved to buy one worth wearing with credit, and so to the New Exchange, and there put it to making, and so to my Lord's lodgings and left my wife, and so I to the Committee of Tangier, and then late home with my wife again by coach, beginning to be very well, and yet when I came home.... The little straining which I thought was no strain at all at the present did by and by bring me some pain for a good while. Anon, about 8 o'clock, my wife did give me a clyster which Mr. Hollyard (age 54) directed, viz., a pint of strong ale, 4 oz. of sugar, and 2 oz. of butter. It lay while I lay upon the bed above an hour, if not two, and then thinking it quite lost I rose, and by and by it began with my walking to work, and gave me three or four most excellent stools and carried away wind, put me in excellent ease, and taking my usual walnut quantity of electuary at my going into bed I had about two stools in the night....

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1665. Being overjoyed at this I to write my letters, and at it very late. Good newes this week that there are about 600 less dead of the plague than the last. So home to bed.

On 12 Oct 1709 Anne Hamilton was born to James Hamilton Duke Hamilton, 1st Duke Brandon (age 51) and Elizabeth Gerard Duchess Brandon (age 29) in St James' Square. He was named after his godmother Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44). His other godparents were John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough (age 59) and Charles Spencer 3rd Earl of Sunderland (age 34).

On 12 Oct 1730 Frederick IV King Denmark and Norway (age 59) died. His son Christian VI King Denmark and Norway (age 30) succeeded VI King Denmark and Norway.

On 12 Oct 1772 Samuel Scott (age 70) died.

Journals of Caroline Fox Chapter XIII 1847. 12 Oct 1847. Burnard tells amusing stories of his brother sculptors, and their devices to hide their ignorance on certain questions. Chantrey, after sustaining a learned conversation with Lord Melbourne (age 68) to his extremest limits, saved his credit by, "Would your Lordship kindly turn your head on the other side and shut your mouth." Spoke of Bacon (age 70), the sculptor, after having given up his craft for twenty-five years, resuming it, at the request of his dying daughter, to make her monument, and finding himself as much at home with his tools as ever.

On 12 Oct 1881 Mary "Molly" Katherine Bell Lady Trevelyan was born to Thomas Hugh Bell 2nd Baronet (age 37) and Florence Eveleen Eleanore Olliffe Lady Bell (age 30).

After 12 Oct 1901. All Saints Church, West Acre [Map]. Memorials to Edward Lewis Birkbeck (deceased) and Gillian Mary Birkbeck (age 18).

Edward Lewis Birkbeck: On 16 Jun 1860 he was born to Henry Birkbeck of Stoke Holy Cross and Mary Anne Hamond. On 21 Apr 1891 Edward Lewis Birkbeck and Emily Augusta Seymour were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland. On 12 Oct 1901 Edward Lewis Birkbeck died.

Gillian Mary Birkbeck: On 25 Oct 1882 she was born to Henry Birkbeck. On 15 May 1909 Gillian Mary Birkbeck died at Kobe Japan whilst working as a Missionary.

The erecting of Lytham St Anne’s War memorial [Map] in 1924 was made possible by a gift of £10000, donated by Lord Ashton. The memorial commemorates the fallen of the Municipal Borough of Lytham St Anne’s, formed in 1922 by the merger of Lytham and St Anne’s urban district councils. It was unveiled on 12 October 1924 by Alderman Charles Critchley, whose son Burton 'Plum' Critchley was killed in 1918 while serving in the RAF. The ceremony was attended by the Rt Hon Stephen Walsh (Minister for War), Maj Gen Sir Cecil Lothian Nicholson KCB CMG (whose son was killed at Arras), Lt Gen Sir Richard Butler KCB KCMG and 1000 ex-servicemen. The unveiling was also attended by nine children of fallen servicemen, who were later presented with gold medals inscribed with the coat of arms of the borough. Sculpted by Walter Marsden (age 41).

Births on the 12th October

On 12 Oct 1449 John Iwardby was born.

On 12 Oct 1454 John Kennedy 2nd Lord Kennedy was born to Gilbert Kennedy 1st Lord Kennedy (age 49) and Catherine Maxwell Lady Kennedy (age 46).

On 12 Oct 1531 Jacques of Savoy 2nd Duke of Nemours was born to Philip of Savoy Duke Nemours (age 41) and Charlotte Valois (age 19).

On 12 Oct 1537 Edward Seymour was born to Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) and Anne Stanhope Duchess Somerset (age 40).

On 12 Oct 1537 King Edward VI of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 46) and Queen Jane Seymour (age 28) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. George Owen (age 38) assisted as Physician.

On 12 Oct 1555 Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby was born to Richard Bertie Baron Willoughby (age 38) and Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 36) at Wesel, Wesel. He was named for his parents peregrinations through Germany avoiding religious persecution.

On 12 Oct 1558 Maximilian King Poland was born to Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 31) and Maria of Spain Holy Roman Empress (age 30). Coefficient of inbreeding 10.03%.

On 12 Oct 1576 Thomas Dudley was born to Roger Dudley (age 36) and Susannah Thorne (age 16).

Before 1577 John Bullock of Norton was born to John Bullock of Darley Abbey (age 43) and Elizabeth Peirson. Date since his younger brother Francis was baptised 12 Oct 1577.

On or before 12 Oct 1577 Francis Bullock was born to John Bullock of Darley Abbey (age 44) and Elizabeth Peirson.

On 12 Oct 1595 Robert Lowther was born to Christopher Lowther (age 38).

On 12 Oct 1599 Elisabeth Sofie was born to John Adolph Oldenburg (age 24).

On 12 Oct 1617 Francis Gerard 2nd Baronet was born to Gilbert Gerard 1st Baronet (age 29) and Mary Barrington.

On 12 Oct 1631 George Saunderson 5th Viscount Castleton was born to Nicholas Saundeson 2nd Viscount Castleton and Frances Manners (age 31) in Fillingham Linconsolshire.

On or before 12 Oct 1635 Philippa Hobart was born to John Hobart 2nd Baronet (age 42) and Frances Egerton Lady Hobart. She was bvaptised on 12 Oct 1635 at St Andrew's Church, Blickling [Map].

On 12 Oct 1655 Richard Neville was born to Richard Neville (age 40).

On 12 Oct 1709 Anne Hamilton was born to James Hamilton Duke Hamilton, 1st Duke Brandon (age 51) and Elizabeth Gerard Duchess Brandon (age 29) in St James' Square. He was named after his godmother Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44). His other godparents were John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough (age 59) and Charles Spencer 3rd Earl of Sunderland (age 34).

On 12 Oct 1738 George Rochfort 2nd Earl Belvedere was born to Robert Rochfort 1st Earl of Belvedere (age 30) and Mary Molesworth.

On 12 Oct 1770 Harriet Kerr was born to William John Kerr 5th Marquess Lothian (age 33) and Elizabeth Fortescue 5th Marchioness Lothian (age 25).

On 12 Oct 1770 Thomas Fermor 4th Earl Pomfret was born to George Fermor 2nd Earl Pomfret (age 48) and Anna Maria Delagard Countess Pomfret (age 34).

On 12 Oct 1798 Reverend Walter St John Milmay was born to Henry Paulet St John-Mildmay 3rd Baronet (age 34) and Jane Mildmay.

On 12 Oct 1802 Reverend Brook George Bridges 6th Baronet was born to Brook William Bridges 4th Baronet (age 35) and Eleanor Foote (age 31).

On 12 Oct 1802 George Nugent 2nd Baronet was born to Field Marshal George Nugent 1st Baronet (age 45) and Maria Skinner (age 31).

On 12 Oct 1814 Ernest Gambart was born.

On 12 Oct 1817 Georgiana Ellice was born to Robert Charles Ellice (age 32) and Eliza Courtenay (age 25). Named after her maternal grandmother Georgiana Spencer Duchess Devonshire.

On 12 Oct 1818 John Cuffe 3rd Earl Desart was born.

On 12 Oct 1826 Jules Charles Victurnien de Noailles 7th Duke of Noailles was born.

On 12 Oct 1836 Kythe Catherine Popham was born to Christopher Wallis Popham (age 32) and Harriet Elizabeth Vyvyan (age 25).

On 12 Oct 1855 Friedrich Ferdinand Glücksburg Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg was born to Friedrich Glücksburg Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg (age 40) and Adelheid Schasumburg Lippe Duchess Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg at Kiel. He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 12 Oct 1861 Prince Friedrich of Saxe Meiningen was born to Georg II Duke of Saxe Meiningen (age 35).

On 12 Oct 1876 Cyril Vladimirovich Holstein Gottorp Romanov was born to Vladimir Holstein Gottorp Romanov (age 29) and Marie Pavlona.

On 12 Oct 1881 Mary "Molly" Katherine Bell Lady Trevelyan was born to Thomas Hugh Bell 2nd Baronet (age 37) and Florence Eveleen Eleanore Olliffe Lady Bell (age 30).

On 12 Oct 1894 Elisabeth Hohenzollern Sigmaringen Queen Consort Greece Queen Consort Hellenes was born to Ferdinand "The Unfier" Hohenzollern Sigmaringen (age 29) and Marie Windsor (age 18) at Peleș Castle. She a great granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

Marriages on the 12th October

Before 12 Oct 1326 Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 26) and Alice Hales Countess Norfolk were married. She by marriage Countess Norfolk. He the son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England and Margaret of France Queen Consort England.

Before 12 Oct 1454 Gilbert Kennedy 1st Lord Kennedy (age 49) and Catherine Maxwell Lady Kennedy (age 46) were married. He the son of James Kennedy of Dunure The Younger and Mary Stewart Countess Angus.

Before 12 Oct 1475 Edward Blount 2nd Baron Mountjoy (age 11) and Anne Cobham 6th Baroness Cobham, Baroness Mountjoy and Strabolgi (age 8) were married. She by marriage Baroness Mountjoy. They were half second cousin twice removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

After 12 Oct 1485 Thomas Montgomery and Lora Berkeley Countess Ormonde were married.

On 12 Oct 1561 William "Younger" Welf Duke Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 26) and Dorothea Oldenburg Duchess Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 15) were married. She by marriage Duchess Brunswick Lüneburg. She the daughter of Christian III King Denmark and Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 50).

Before 12 Oct 1602 Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 29) and Bridget Morrison Countess Sussex were married. She by marriage Countess of Sussex. He the son of Henry Radclyffe 4th Earl of Sussex and Honora Pound Viscountess Fitzwalter.

On 12 Oct 1609 William Keith 6th Earl Marischal (age 24) and Mary Erskine were married. She the daughter of John Erskine 19th Earl Mar (age 47) and Mary Stewart Countess Mar (age 27). He the son of George Keith 5th Earl Marischal (age 56) and Margaret Home Countess Marischal.

In or before 12 Oct 1640 Thomas Twisden 1st Baronet (age 38) and Jane Tomlinson Lady Twysden were married.

On 12 Oct 1701 Thomas Liddell (age 20) and Jane Clavering were married.

On 12 Oct 1752 Lewis Watson 1st Baron Sondes (age 23) and Grace Pelham Baroness Sondes (age 17) were married. They were half third cousins.

On 12 Oct 1771 John Lubbock 1st Baronet (age 27) and Elizabeth Christiana Commerell were married at St Dunstan's in the East Parish.

On 12 Oct 1792 John Stuart (age 25) and Elizabeth Penelope Mcdouall Crichton (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Patrick Mcdouall Crichton 6th Earl Dumfries (age 65). He the son of John Stuart 1st Marquis of the Isle of Bute (age 48) and Charlotte Jane Windsor Marchioness Bute (age 46).

On 12 Oct 1799 Hereditary Grand Duke Frederick Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (age 21) and Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna of Russia (age 14) were married. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 12 Oct 1803 William St Julien Arabin (age 30) and Mary Meux were married.

On 12 Oct 1807 James Wandesford Butler 1st Marquess Ormonde (age 30) and Grace Louisa Staples Marchioness Ormonde were married. He the son of John Butler 17th Earl Ormonde 11th Earl Ossory and Frances Wandesford Countess Ormonde and Ossory (age 53).

On 12 Oct 1833 William Edwardes 3rd Baron Kensington (age 32) and Laura Jane Ellison (age 22) were married.

On 12 Oct 1847 Charles William Fitzgerald Fitzgerald 4th Duke Leinster (age 28) and Caroline Leveson-Gower Duchess Leinster (age 20) were married at Trentham, Staffordshire. She the daughter of George Sutherland Leveson-Gower 2nd Duke Sutherland (age 61) and Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard Duchess Sutherland (age 41). He the son of Augustus Fitzgerald 3rd Duke Leinster (age 56) and Charlotte Augusta Stanhope Duchess Leinster (age 54). He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 12 Oct 1853 Dudley Fitzgerald De Ros 23rd Baron Ros Helmsley (age 26) and Elizabeth Egerton Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 21) were married at Heaton, Lancashire. She the daughter of Thomas Grosvenor 2nd Earl Wilton (age 53) and Mary Smith-Stanley Countess Wilton (age 52). He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 12 Oct 1908 Captain James Harold Cuthbert (age 32) and Kathleen Alice Coppin-Straker were married.

On 12 Oct 1925 Sacheverell Reresby Sitwell 6th Baronet (age 27) and Georgia Doble (age 20) were married.

On 12 Oct 1946 Hugh Denis Charles Fitzroy 11th Duke Grafton (age 27) and Ann Fortune Smith Duchess Grafton (age 26) were married. He the son of Charles Alfred Euston Fitzroy 10th Duke Grafton (age 54) and Doreen Buxton Duchess Grafton.

On 12 Oct 1947 Luis Martínez de Irujo y Artázcoz (age 28) and María del Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart 18th Duchess of Alba 11th Duke of Berwick (age 21) were married. She the daughter of Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart 17th Duke of Alba 10th Duke of Berwick (age 68) and María del Rosario de Silva Duchess of Alba.

Deaths on the 12th October

On 12 Oct 633 King Penda's alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia defeated the Northumbrians at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.

Eadfrith Deira was captured.

King Edwin of Northumbria (age 47) was killed. He was buried at Whitby Abbey [Map] - see Bede. His first cousin Osric King Deira succeeded King Deira. His nephew Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

Edwin's son Osfrith Deira was killed.

After 12 Oct 633Eadfrith Deira was killed. His half first cousin Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

On 12 Oct 638 Pope Honorius I died.

On 12 Oct 1292 Margaret Jülich (age 52) died.

On 12 Oct 1328 Clementia Hungary Queen Consort France (age 35) died.

Before 12 Oct 1330 Alice Hales Countess Norfolk died.

On 12 Oct 1343 Reginald "Black" II Duke Guelders (age 48) died from a fall from a horse at Arnhem [Map]. His son Reginald III Duke Guelders (age 10) succeeded III Duke Guelders. His wife acted as Regent to her nine year old son for two years.

On 12 Oct 1394 Edmund Missenden (age 39) died.

On 12 Oct 1436 Nicholas Griffin (age 53) died.

On 12 Oct 1439 Anglesia Visconti (age 71) died.

On 12 Oct 1453 Thomas Bedingfield (age 25) died.

On 12 Oct 1460 Richard Aske (age 40) died.

On 12 Oct 1465 Margaret Ughtred (age 64) died.

On 12 Oct 1475 Edward Blount 2nd Baron Mountjoy (age 11) died. His uncle John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Mountjoy.

On 12 Oct 1477 Humphrey Blount (age 56) died at Kinlet, Cleobury Mortimer [Map].

On 12 Oct 1483 Thomas Bedingfield (age 34) died. Changed from 1453 to 1483 given son Philip's birth in 1483.

On 12 Oct 1485 John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35) died. His son William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 7) succeeded 4th Baron Mountjoy.

On 12 Oct 1516 Isabel Neville (age 59) died.

On 12 Oct 1517 Catherine Babington (age 39) died.

On 12 Oct 1554 Anne Strelley (age 59) died.

On 12 Oct 1556 John Fisher died.

On 12 Oct 1556 John Fisher (age 56) died.

On 12 Oct 1558 Robert Constable (age 64) died.

On 12 Oct 1568 William Radclyffe of Ordsall (age 66) died.

On 12 Oct 1576 Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 49) died. His son Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor (age 24) succeeded II Holy Roman Emperor.

On 12 Oct 1598 Robert Southwell (age 29) died at Woodrising, Norfolk. He was buried at Woodrising, Norfolk.

Around 12 Oct 1604 Thomas Culpepper (age 55) died.

On 12 Oct 1612 Edmund D'Oyly (age 52) died.

On 03 Mar 1626 William Cavendish 1st Earl Devonshire (age 73) died. His son William Cavendish 2nd Earl Devonshire (age 36) succeeded 2nd Earl Devonshire, 2nd Baron Cavendish Hardwick. Christian Bruce Countess Devonshire by marriage Countess Devonshire. On 12 Oct 1616 Henry Cavendish (age 65) died. Both were buried at St Peter's Church, Edensor [Map].

The monument was behind the altar in the original church but moved to a separate chapel in the new church.

Monument formed two bodies under a low four-poster with black Ionic columns and black covering slab. The monument has been attributed to Maximilian Colt (age 51).

Extremely grand architecture above the two martial flanking figures, then arches with, on the left armour, and on the right purple, coronet, and sword hung up, and in the middle an angel holding the black inscription tablet and blowing a trumpet. The whole is surmounted by a big broken pediment.

Henry appears as a skeleton on a straw mat.

William (age 36) in his shroud with his face exposed.

On 12 Oct 1628 Mary Curzon (age 75) died.

On 12 Oct 1633 Mary Capell (age 73) died.

Around 12 Oct 1650 Henry Bellingham 1st Baronet died. His son James Bellingham 2nd Baronet (age 27) succeeded 2nd Baronet Bellingham of Hilsington. He died two weeks later.

On 12 Oct 1655 William Craven died.

On 05 Oct 1667 William Batten (age 66) died. He was buried 12 Oct 1667 at Walthamstow [Map].

On 12 Oct 1670 James Thynne (age 65) died.

On 12 Oct 1673 Anne Kingsmill died. She was buried at the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Aldermaston [Map].

On 12 Oct 1674 Francis Molyneux 2nd Baronet (age 72) died. His son John Molyneux 3rd Baronet (age 51) succeeded 3rd Baronet Molyneux of Teversall in Nottinghamshire.

On 12 Oct 1678 Major Trevor Wheler (age 25) died unmarried.

On 12 Oct 1679 Edmund Berry Godfrey (age 57) was murdered. He was found dead in a ditch at Primrose Hill lying face down on his own sword. The investigation concluded he had been strangled and subsequently moved.

On 12 Oct 1683 Thomas Peyton (age 67) died.

On 12 Oct 1684 William Croone FRS (age 51) died.

On 12 Oct 1687 Thomas Foote 1st Baronet (age 89) died. He was buried at All Saints Church. His son-in-law Arthur Onslow 1st and 2nd Baronet (age 63) succeeded 2nd Baronet Foote of London according to the special remainder added to the creation.

On 12 Oct 1693 Christopher Conyers 2nd Baronet (age 72) died. His son John Conyers 3rd Baronet (age 49) succeeded 3rd Baronet Conyers of Horden in County Durham.

On 12 Oct 1694 Charles Boyle 3rd Baron Clifford (age 54) died. His son Charles Boyle 2nd Earl Burlington (age 26) succeeded 4th Baron Clifford.

On 12 Oct 1714 Edward Smythe 1st Baronet (age 94) died. His son Richard Smythe 2nd Baronet (age 5) succeeded 2nd Baronet Smythe.

On 12 Oct 1718 William Gee (age 70) died.

On 12 Oct 1729 Elizabeth Herne Lady Blackwell (age 51) died.

On 12 Oct 1730 Frederick IV King Denmark and Norway (age 59) died. His son Christian VI King Denmark and Norway (age 30) succeeded VI King Denmark and Norway.

On 12 Oct 1731 Mary Eure (age 80) died. Baron Scrope of Bolton abeyant.

On 12 Oct 1738 Bridget Bennet Viscountess Lymington (age 42) died. She was buried at St John's Church, Farleigh Wallop.

On 12 Oct 1745 James Bertie (age 10) was killed in a fire at Rycote, Oxfordshire [Map].

On 12 Oct 1753 Danvers Osborn 3rd Baronet (age 37) committed suicide at New York. His body was found in the garden of the house in which he was lodged, which belonged to a local councilman. The body presented evidence of strangulation. His son George Osborn 4th Baronet (age 11) succeeded 4th Baronet Osborn of Chicksands in Bedfordshire.

On 12 Oct 1754 Richard Hoare (age 45) died.

On 12 Oct 1758 Richard Molesworth 3rd Viscount Molesworth (age 78) died.

On 12 Oct 1768 James Douglas 14th Earl Morton (age 66) died. His son Sholto Charles Douglas 15th Earl Morton (age 37) succeeded 15th Earl Morton.

On 12 Oct 1772 Samuel Scott (age 70) died.

On 12 Oct 1772 John St Aubyn 4th Baronet (age 45) died. His son John St Aubyn 5th Baronet (age 14) succeeded 5th Baronet St Aubyn of Clowance in Cornwall.

On 12 Oct 1772 Edith Phelips (age 78) died in Queen Camel, Somerset. She was buried in Church of St Barnabus, Queen Camel.

On 12 Oct 1819 William East 1st Baronet (age 81) died. He was buried at St Nicholas Church, Witham. His son Gilbert East 2nd Baronet (age 55) succeeded 2nd Baronet East of Hall Place in Maidenhead in Berkshire.

On 12 Oct 1842 Georgina Elizabeth Moncrieffe Countess Bradford (age 52) died.

On 12 Oct 1851 Augusta Maria Byron (age 68) died.

On 12 Oct 1863 John Singleton Copley 1st Baron Lyndhurst (age 91) died.

On 12 Oct 1893 William David Murray (age 58) died.

On 12 Oct 1895 Henry Windsor Villiers-Stuart (age 68) died.

On 12 Oct 1896 William Fitzherbert 4th Baronet (age 88) died. His son Richard Fitzherbert 5th Baronet (age 50) succeeded 5th Baronet Fitzherbert of Tissington in Derbyshire. Mary Anne Arkwright Lady Fitzherbert (age 46) by marriage Lady Fitzherbert of Tissington in Derbyshire.

On 12 Oct 1901 Edward Lewis Birkbeck (age 41) died.

On 12 Oct 1905 Isabel Innes-Kerr (age 26) died in childbirth.

On 12 Oct 1917 Henry Quentin Ridley (age 35) was killed in action near Zonnebeke in Flanders. He was buried at the Passchendaele New British Cemetery, Passchendaele, Flanders, Belgium.

On 12 Oct 1923 Nathaniel Charles Rothschild (age 46) died.

On 12 Oct 1927 Seymour Egerton 6th Earl Wilton (age 31) died. His son Seymour Egerton 7th Earl Wilton (age 6) succeeded 7th Earl Wilton, 7th Viscount Grey de Wilton.

On 12 Oct 1929 Lionel Cust (age 70) died.

On 12 Oct 1934 Mary Caroline L'Estrange Countess of Erroll died.

On 12 Oct 1938 Mary Eleanor Fortescue (age 89) died.

On 12 Oct 1938 Cyril Vladimirovich Holstein Gottorp Romanov (age 62) died at Neuilly.

On 12 Oct 1965 Edward Gwynne Eardley-Wilmot (age 88) died.

On 12 Oct 1985 Theodore Phinney Grosvenor (age 88) died.