On this Day in History ... 13 July

13 Jul is in July.

1174 Battle of Alnwick

1643 Battle of Roundway Down

1665 Great Plague of London

1683 Rye House Plot

1789 Storming of the Bastille

1985 Live Aid

On 15 Jun 923 Robert I King West Francia (age 57) died. On 13 Jul 923 his son-in-law Rudolph aka Raoul I King West Francia (age 33) was elected I King West Francia.

Battle of Alnwick

On 13 Jul 1174 an army commanded by Duncan II Earl of Fife entered Warkworth and set fire to the town, killing 300 of the inhabitants who had taken refuge in the church [Map].

On 13 Jul 1174 a small army commanded by Ranulf Glanville (age 62) with Hugh de Kevelioc Gernon 5th Earl Chester (age 27) surprised William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214's army in a dawn raid known as the Battle of Alnwick near Alnwick [Map]. William "Lion" I King Scotland (age 31) was captured and imprisoned initially in Newcastle on Tyne Castle [Map]. He was subsequently moved to the more remote, and secure, Falaise Castle [Map].

On 13 Jul 1205 Archbishop Hubert Walter (age 45) died.

On 13 Jul 1249 Alexander III King Scotland (age 7) was crowned III King Scotland at Scone Abbey [Map].

Before 13 Jul 1316 Roger Moels 3rd Baron Moels (age 26) died. His brother John Moels 4th Baron Moels succeeded 4th Baron Moels although he was never summoned to Parliament. Joan Lovel Baroness Maynard (age 19) by marriage Baroness Moels.

On 13 Jul 1374 John Charleton 3rd Baron Cherleton (age 38) died. His son John Charleton 4th Baron Cherleton (age 12) succeeded 4th Baron Cherleton.

On 13 Jul 1426 Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick was born to Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 44) and Isabel Despencer Countess Warwick and Worcester (age 25) at Caversham Castle [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 13 Jul 1465 James Harrington (age 35) assisted with the capture of the fugitive King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 43) by being the instrument of persuasion that induced Sir Thomas Talbot of Bashall, and Sir Richard Tempest of Bracewell, who were sheltering the King, to betray him, and received £66 and £100 for expenses and reward.

After 13 Jul 1494 Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire (age 24) and Margaret Grey Countess Wiltshire were married. She by marriage Earl Wiltshire. He the son of John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire and Constance Green Countess Wiltshire. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 09 Jun 1511 William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 36) died of pleurisy. His son Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 15) succeeded 2nd Earl Devon 4C 1511. His widow Catherine York Countess Devon (age 31) subsequently took a vow of celibacy in the presence of Bishop Richard Fitzjames on 13 Jul 1511.

Diary of Edward VI. 13 Jul 1550. Sir Jhon Gatis sent into Essex to stope the going away of the ladie Marie (age 34), bicause it was credibly informed that Scipperus4 shuld stele her away to Antwerp, divers of her gentlemen were there, and Scipperus a litle befor came to see the landing placis.

Note 4. Scipperus (mentioned again by the King under the dates of the 27th July and 14th August) must have been a naval commander in the emperor's service. Sir John Hayward, misinterpreting the present passage, translates it, "Divers of her gentlemen departed thither (to Antwerp) before, and certain shippers (as they are termed) were discovered to view the English coast." (Life and Reign of King Edward VI.) "The emperor privately sent to England in July a certain Scepper, one of his principal councillors, for the purpose of carrying away the King's eldest sister, Mary (age 34); but, by God's blessing, the thing was discovered and prevented. Unless God had watched over his people, it would have been all over with them." Martin Micronius to Henry Bullinger, from London, Aug. 18, 1550, in Zurich Letters, ui. 568.

PAINTINGS/MOR/Mary_I_of_England.jpg PAINTINGS/EWORTH/Mary1_Eworth_1556.jpg

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. The xiij th daie ther cam dyverse gentyllmen with ther powers to quene Maries (age 37) suckour.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. By this tyme worde was broughte to the quene (age 17) at the Tower [Map] that sir Edmonde Peckham (age 58), sir Edward Hastings (age 32), and the lorde Windsore (age 54), with others, were upp proclayming quene Mary (age 37) in Buckinghamshire.a

Note a. See the commissions addressed to several commanders to suppress the rebellion in Buckinghamshire, in the Catalogue of State Papers of the reign of queen Jane in the Appendix.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. After the dyner the duke (age 49) went into the quene (age 17), wher his comyssion was by that tyme sealed for his liefetenantship of the armye, and ther he tooke his leave of hir; and so dyd certayn other lordes also. Then, as the duke cam thoroughe the counsayle chamber, he tooke his leave of the erle of Arundell (age 41), who praied God be with his grace; saying he was very sory yt was not his chaunce to go with him and beare him companye, in whose presence he coulde fynde in his harte to spende his bloode, even at his foote. Then my lorde of Arundell (age 41) tooke also my lordes boy Thomas Lovell (age 27) by the hande, and saide, "Farewell, gentyll Thomas (age 27), with all my harte." Then the duke cam downe, and the lorde marques (age 41),a my lorde Grey, with diverse other, and went out of the Tower and tooke their boote and went to Dyrrame Place or Whithall, wher that night they musteryd their company in names, and the next day in the morning the duke departed, to the nomber of vj c men or theraboutes. And as they went thoroughe Shordyshe [Map], saieth the duke to one that rid by him,b "The people precec to se us, but not one sayeth God spede us."

Note a. The marquess of Northampton (age 41).

Note b. Stowe has altered this to the lord Grey.

Note c. presse in Stowe.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. About this tyme or therabouts the vj. shippes that were sent to lie befor Yarmothe [Map], that if she had fled to have taken hir, was by force of wether dreven into the haven, w(h)er about that quarters one maister Gerningham was ray sing power on quene Maryes (age 37) behalfe, and hering therof came thether. Wherupon the captaynes toke a bote and went to their shipes. Then the marynours axed maister Gernyngham what he wolde have, and wether he wolde have their captaynes or no; and he said, "Yea, mary." Saide they, "Ye shall have theym, or els we shall throwe theym to the bottom of the sea." The captaynes, seing this perplexity, saide furthwith they wolde serve quene Mary gladlie; and so cam fourthe with their men, and convayed certeyn great ordenaunce; of the which comyng in of the shipes the lady Mary and hir company were wonderfull joyous, and then afterwarde doubted smaly the duke's puisance. And as the comyng of the shipes moche rejoyced quene Mary's party, even so was it as great a hart-sore to the duke (age 49), and all his campe, whose hartes wer all-redy bent agaynst him. But after once the submyssyon of the shipes was knowne in the Tower [Map]a eche man then began to pluck in his homes; and, over that, worde of a greater mischief was brought to the Tower the noblemen's tenauntes refused to serve their lordes agaynst quene Mary. The duke he thought long for his succours, and writ somewhat sharplie to the counsayll here in that behalfe, aswell for lacke of men as munytion: but a slender answer he had agayn.

Note a. This passage, together with those that follow, shows that the Chronicler was still writing in the Tower of London.

On 13 Jul 1585 Edmund Cornwall 10th Baron Burford (age 50) died unmarried. His brother Thomas Cornwall 11th Baron Burford (age 47) succeeded 11th Baron Burford. Katherine Harley Baroness Cornwall (age 46) by marriage Baroness Burford.

PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Robert_Sidney.jpg PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Robert_Sidney_2nd.jpg

After 13 Jul 1640 James Home 3rd Earl of Home (age 25) and Jean Douglas Countess Home were married. She the daughter of Robert Douglas 8th Earl Morton (age 24).

Battle of Roundway Down

On 13 Jul 1643 a Royalist cavalry force under Lord Wilmot (age 30) won a crushing victory over the Parliamentarian Army of the West under Sir William Waller (age 46) at Roundway Down Devizes, Wiltshire.

Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 22) fought.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1665. There come to dinner, they haveing dined, but my Lady caused something to be brought for me, and I dined well and mighty merry, especially my Lady Slaning and I about eating of creame and brown bread, which she loves as much as I Thence after long discourse with them and my Lady alone, I and [my] wife, who by agreement met here, took leave, and I saw my wife a little way down (it troubling me that this absence makes us a little strange instead of more fond), and so parted, and I home to some letters, and then home to bed. Above 700 died of the plague this week.

On 13 Jul 1671 Vere Fane 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 26) and Rachel Bence Countess of Westmoreland were married. He the son of Mildmay Fane 2nd Earl of Westmoreland and Mary Vere Countess of Westmoreland.

PAINTINGS/HUYSMANS/Robert_Long.jpgBefore 13 Jul 1673 Jacob Huysmans (age 40). Portrait of Robert Long 1st Baronet (age 73).

On 13 Jul 1683 Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex (age 51) committed suicide at the Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. He was said to have been discovered in his chamber with his throat cut whilst awaiting execution for treason. His son Algernon Capell 2nd Earl Essex (age 12) succeeded 2nd Earl Essex 9C 1641.

Rye House Plot

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden [Map], the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (age 51) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower [Map], and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (age 43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (age 51) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King (age 53). It is certain the King (age 53) and Duke (age 49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (age 51) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.

On 13 Jul 1683 James Cecil 4th Earl Salisbury (age 17) and Frances Bennett Countess of Salisbury (age 12) were married. She by marriage Countess Salisbury. Her father had left his daughters £20,000 in his will, subject to their not marrying before the age of sixteen or without the consent of those he named, with the proviso that the legacy of a daughter doing so was to be reduced to £10,000. Frances Bennett married Salisbury before she was sixteen, but with the consent of the Executors to the will, and this later led to litigation. He the son of James Cecil 3rd Earl Salisbury and Margaret Manners Countess of Salisbury.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1693. I saw the Queen's (age 31) rare cabinets and collection of china; which was wonderfully rich and plentiful, but especially a large cabinet, looking-glass frame and stands, all of amber, much of it white, with historical bas-reliefs and statues, with medals carved in them, esteemed worth £4,000, sent by the Duke of Brandenburgh, whose country, Prussia, abounds with amber, cast up by the sea; divers other China and Indian cabinets, screens, and hangings. In her library were many books in English, French, and Dutch, of all sorts; a cupboard of gold plate; a cabinet of silver filagree, which I think was our Queen Mary's, and which, in my opinion, should have been generously sent to her.


On 13 Jul 1721 William Villiers 2nd Earl Jersey (age 39) died. His son William Villiers 3rd Earl Jersey (age 14) succeeded 3rd Earl Jersey, 3rd Viscount Villiers, 3rd Baron Villiers.

On 13 Jul 1751 George Mason Villiers 2nd Earl Grandison was born to Alan Mason Viscount Grandison and Elizabeth Fitzgerald Villiers 1st Countess Grandison.

On 13 Jul 1765 Richard Cavendish 2nd Baron Waterpark was born to Henry Cavendish 2nd Baronet (age 32) and Sarah Bradshaw 1st Baroness Waterpark (age 24).

On 13 Jul 1784 Bishop George Henry Law (age 22) and Jane Adeane were married.

On 13 Jul 1784 George Waldegrave 5th Earl Waldegrave was born to George Waldegrave 4th Earl Waldegrave (age 32) and Elizabeth Laura Waldegrave Countess Waldegrave (age 24). He a great x 3 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland. Coefficient of inbreeding 6.27%.


1789 Storming of the Bastille

On 13 Jul 1789 Clotworthy Skeffington 2nd Earl Massereene (age 47) was freed when a mob freed the prisoners at La Force Prison a day before the Storming of the Bastille.

On 13 Jul 1795 Arthur Hill-Trevor 2nd Viscount Dungannon (age 31) and Charlotte Fitzroy Viscountess Dungannon (age 28) were married at her father's house on Stanhope Street. She by marriage Viscountess Dungannon. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.


On 13 Jul 1807 Cardinal Henry Benedict Stewart (age 82) died.

On 13 Jul 1836 Henry Cadogan 4th Earl Cadogan (age 24) and Mary Sarah Wellesley Countess Cadogan (age 27) were married at Durham Cathedral [Map]. He the son of George Cadogan 3rd Earl Cadogan (age 53). They were first cousins.

On 13 Jul 1837 William Hare 1st Earl Listowel (age 85) died. His grandson William Hare 2nd Earl Listowel (age 35) succeeded 2nd Earl Listowel in County Kerry. Maria Augusta Windham Countess Listowel (age 32) by marriage Countess Listowel in County Kerry.


End Low. On the 13th of July we re-opened the large barrow at End Low [Map], which was first attempted in 1843, without our finding the primary interment. Our researches this time resulted in the discovery of the remains of the original occupant, which were, after the expenditure of much labour, found in a cist cut down in the rock to the depth of six feet beneath the natural surface, and upwards of ten feet from the top of the barrow. The skeleton was that of a finely proportioned man, rather above the middle size, and was in good preservation, with the exception of the head, which was decayed at the left side, from contact with the floor of the grave. The bones lay apparently without much regularity, which was attribute able to the settling down of the stones upon the body during the process of decay. At a small distance from them was a bronze dagger and spear head of flint, of a grey colour. The grave was bounded on three sides by rock, and the remaining one was walled up to a level with them with loose limestones. The skull is engraved in the Crania Britannica, and is described by the learned writer as "a well-formed head, presenting very clearly the conformation of the true ancient British cranium, of which it may be regarded as belonging to the typical scries." The femur measures 18.8 inches.

On 13 Jul 1869 Henry Labouchere 1st Baron Taunton (age 70) died at Belgrave Square Belgravia. He was buried at Over Stowey.

On 13 Jul 1880 Emma Howard (age 61) died. She was buried at St Lawrence's Church, Denton.

Emma Howard: On 20 Sep 1818 she was born to John Howard (age 37) and Elizabeth m Howard (age 36).


On 13 Jul 1927 Peter Waldo Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 10th Baron Calthorpe was born to Frederick Somerset Gough-Calthorpe (age 35) and Rose Mary Dorothy Vernon-Harcourt.

On 13 Jul 1943 Timothy Byng 11th Viscount Torrington was born to George Byng (age 25).

On 13 Jul 1965 George Wentworth Warwick Bampfylde 4th Baron Poltimore (age 83) died. He was buried at Benwell, Southern Rhodesia, Africa. A memorial stone bench exists in the Bampfylde Memorial Garden created for his son in the churchyard of All Saints' Church, North Molton, next to Court House, his manor house, to which is affixed a tablet inscribed: "In loving memory of George Wentworth Warwick Bampfylde the 4th Baron Poltimore 1882–1965 and his wife Cynthia Rachael 1885–1961 who were laid to rest at Benwell Southern Rhodesia". His brother Arthur Blackett Warwick Bampfylde 5th Baron Poltimore (age 82) succeeded 5th Baron Politmore, 10th Baronet Bampfylde of Poltimore in Devon.

Live Aid

On 13 Jul 1985 Live Aid was two Concerts held in London and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania which raised around £150 million for famine relief.