On this Day in History ... 14th April

14 Apr is in April.

978 Coronation of King Æthelred

1322 Trial and Execution of Lord Badlesmere

1470 Execution of John Tiptoft

1471 Margaret Anjou lands at Weymouth

1471 Battle of Barnet

1556 Dudley Plot against Mary I

1589 Trial of Philip Earl of Arundel

1711 Smallpox Epidemic

1814 Battle of Bayonne

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 14th April

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 14 Apr 978. His brother Ethelred (age 12), the illustrious etheling, a youth of graceful manners, handsome countenance, and fine person, was on the Sunday after Easter, the eighteenth of the calends of May in the sixth indiction, crowned and consecrated king by archbishops Dunstan (age 69) and Oswald, and ten bishops, at Kingston [Map].

On 14 Apr 1109 Fulk "Réchin" Anjou 4th Count Anjou (age 66) died. In 1109 His son Fulk "Young" King Jerusalem (age 20) succeeded V Count Anjou.

On 14 Apr 1118 Baldwin II King Jerusalem (age 43) was crowned King Jerusalem.

On 14 Apr 1204 Henry I King Castile was born to Alfonso VIII King Castile (age 48) and Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile (age 42). He a grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 62) at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars. His nephew Henry Burghesh's (age 30) lands were also seized. These were restored around 1326.

On 14 Apr 1445 Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 20) was created 1st Duke Warwick by his third cousin King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23). Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick (age 21) by marriage Duchess Warwick.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1471. 14 Apr 1471. And Quene Marget, and Prince Edwarde hire sonne, with other knygtes, squyres, and other menne of the Kyng of Fraunce, hade navy to brynge them to Englond: whiche, whenne they were schipped in Fraunce, the wynde was so contrary unto them xvij. dayes and nyghtes, that [thei] might not come from Normandy with unto England, whiche withe a wynd might have seylede it in xij. oures; whiche at the xvij. dayes ende one Ester day at the evyne the [i] landed at Weymouthe, and so by lande from Weymouthe the[i] roode to Excetre; and mette withe hire, at Weymouth, Edmunde Duke of Somersett, the Lorde Jhon his brother, brother to Herry Duke of Somerset slayne at Exham, and Curteney the Earl of Devynschyre, and many othere.

History of the Arrival of Edward IV Part I Introduction. 14 Apr 1471. Whilst every thing seemed thus secure and prosperous, Queen Margaret and the Prince of Wales prepared to pass into England. Warwick (age 42) went to the sea coast to receive them; and, if they had landed at that time, their progress to the capital would have resembled a triumph. Detained on the coast of Normandy from February until April by the unusual boisterousness of the weather, they at length, with some difficulty, secured a landing at Weymouth; and what were the tidings with which they were greeted? That, amidst the tempests by which they had been detained, Edward and a small band of followers had landed in the north amongst a people up in arms to oppose him, but whom he had deceived by false respresentations of the purpose of his coming; that he had obtained possession of the metropolis and the person of the King; that Clarence--"false, fleeting, perjured Clarence"--had deserted the cause of Lancaster; that a great battle had been fought; and that Warwick (age 42), the centre of all their hopes, had been defeated and killed. "When," says Hall, paraphrasing the words of Polydore Vergil, "when she harde all these miserable chaunces and misfortunes, so sudainly, one in another's necke, to have taken effect, she, like a woman all dismaied for feare, fell to the ground, her harte was perced with sorowe, her speache was in a manner passed, all her spirits were tomented with malencholy."10

Note 10. Part II: Landing through the Reconciliation with Clarence

Memoirs of Philip de Commines Book 3 Chapter VII. 14 Apr 1471. The Prince of Wales (of whom I have spoken before) had landed in England before this battle, and had joined his forces with those of the Dukes of Exeter and Somerset, and several others of their family and party; so that in all (as I have been informed by those who were in that army) they amounted to above 40,000 men. If the Earl of Warwick had stayed till he had been joined by those forces, in all probability they had won the day. But the fear he had of the Duke of Somerset, whose father and brother he had put to death1, and the hatred he bore to Queen Margaret, mother to the Prince of Wales, induced him to fight alone, without waiting for them. By this example we may observe how long old animosities last, how highly they are to be feared in themselves, and how destructive and dangerous they are in their consequences.

Note 1. The Earl of Warwick was not personally the cause of their death. Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, lost his life at the battle of St. Albans, on the 23rd of May, 1455, commanding the army opposed to that of which Warwick was the leader. The two sons of this Duke of Somerset, Edmund and John, were slain in the battle of Tewkesbury.

History of the Arrival of Edward IV Part 3. 14 Apr 1471. On the morow, betymes, The Kynge, undarstandinge that the day approched nere, betwyxt four and five of the cloke, nawithstandynge there was a greate myste33 and letted the syght of eithar othar, yet he commytted his cawse and qwarell to Allmyghty God, avancyd bannars, dyd blowe up trumpets, and set upon them, firste with shotte, and, than and sone, they34 joyned and came to hand-strokes, wherein his enemies manly and coragiously receyved them, as well in shotte as in hand-stroks, whan they ioyned; whiche ioynynge of theyr bothe batteyls was nat directly frount to frount, as they so shulde have ioyned ne had be the myste, whiche suffred neythar party to se othar, but for a litle space, and that of lyklyhod cawsed the bataile to be the more crewell and mortall; for, so it was, that the one ende of theyr batayle ovarrechyd th'end of the Kyngs battayle, and so, at that end, they were myche myghtyar than was the Kyngs bataile at the same [end] that ioyned with them, whiche was the west ende, and, therefore, upon that party of the Kyngs battayle, they had a gretar distres upon the Kyngs party, wherefore many flede towards Barnet, and so forthe to London, or evar they lafte; and they fell in the chace of them, and dyd moche harme. But the other parties, and the residewe of neithar bataile, might se that distrese, ne the fleinge, ne the chace, by cawse of [the] great myste that was, whiche wolde nat suffre no man to se but a litle from hym; and so the Kyngs battayle, which saw none of all that, was therby in nothing discoragyd, for, save only a fewe that were nere unto them, no man wiste thereof; also the othar party by the same distres, flyght or chace, were therefore nevar the gretlyar coragyd. And, in lykewise, at the est end, the Kyngs batayle, whan they cam to ioyninge, ovarrechyd theyr batayle, and so distresyd them theyr gretly, and soo drwe nere towards the Kynge, who was abowt the myddest of the battayle, and susteygned all the myght and weight thereof. Netheles upon the same litle distresse at the west end anon ranne to Westmynstar, and to London, and so forthe furthar to othar contries, that the Kynge was distressed, and his fielde loste, but, the lawde be to Almyghty God! it was otharwyse; for the Kynge, trusing verely in God's helpe, owr blessyd ladyes, and Seynt George, toke to hym great haries and corage for to supprese the falcehode of all them that so falcely and so traytorowsly had conspired agaynst hym, wherethrwghe, with the faythefull, wellbelovyd, and myghty assystaunce of his felawshipe, that in great nombar deseveryd nat from his parson, and were as well asswred unto hym, as to them was possyble, he mannly, vigorowsly, and valliantly assayled them, in the mydst and strongest of theyr battaile, where he, with great violence, bett and bare down afore hym all that stode in hys way, and, than, turned to the range, first on that one hand, and than on that othar hand, in lengthe, and so bet and bare them downe, so that nothing myght stande in the syght of hym and the welle asswred felowshipe that attendyd trewly upon hym; so that, blessed be God! he wan the filde there, the perfite victory remayned unto hym, and to his rebells the discomfiture of xxxm men, s they nombrid them selves.

Note 33. there was a great miste. -- Fabyan writes in the following very prudent manner respecting this mist. "Of the mystes and other impedimentes which fell upon the lordes partye by reason of the incantacyons wrought by fryer Bungey, as the fame went, me lyst nat to wryte." (P.661)

Note 34. sone they, sone ther, in MS.

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (age 28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers George (age 21) and Richard (age 18), John Babington (age 48), Wiliam Hastings (age 40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings, William Norreys (age 30), William Parr (age 37), John Savage (age 49), William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 41), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40), John Scott Comptroller (age 48) and Thomas Strickland.

The Yorkists William Blount (age 29), Humphrey Bourchier (age 40), Humphrey Bourchier (age 36), Henry Stafford (age 46) and Thomas Parr were killed.

The Lancastrians ...

Warwick the Kingmaker (age 42) was killed. Earl Salisbury forfeit on the assumption he was attainted either before or after his death; the date of his attainder is unknown. If not attainted the Earldom may be in abeyance. Baron Montagu and Baron Montagu abeyant between his two daughters Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 19) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14).

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 40) was killed. Marquess Montagu extinct. He was buried at Bisham Abbey [Map].

William Tyrrell was killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford (age 46) and John Paston (age 27) were wounded, John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 28) commanded, and John Paston (age 29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 33) fought.

Robert Harleston (age 36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury (age 62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham (age 51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

Memoirs of Philip de Commines Book 3 Chapter VII. 14 Apr 1471. He stayed but two days in the town, for on Easter-eve he marched with all the forces he could collect to give the Earl of Warwick battle: the next day, being Easterday, they met1, and as they were drawn up, and stood in order of battle one against the other, the Duke of Clarence went over to his brother King Edward, and carried with him near 12,000 men, which was a great discouragement to the Earl of Warwick, and a mighty strengthening to King Edward, who before was but weak.

You have already heard how the negotiation with the Duke of Clarence was managed; yet, for all this, the battle was sharp and bloody: both sides fought on foot; and the king's vanguard suffered extremely in this action, and the earls main battle advanced against his, and so near, that the king himself was engaged in person, and behaved himself as bravely as any man in either army. The Earl of Warwick's custom was never to fight on foot, but when he had once led his men to the charge, he mounted on horseback iiimself, and if he found victory inclined to his side, he charged boldly among them; if otherwise, he took care of himself in time, and provided for his escape. But now at the importunity of his brother, the Marquis of Montague (who was a person of great courage), he fought on foot, and sent away his horses. The conclusion of all was, that the earl, the Marquis of Montague, and many other brave officers, were killed, for the slaughter was very great. King Edward had resolved, at his departure from Flanders, to call out no more to spare the common soldiers, and kill only the gentlemen, as he had formerly done; for he had conceived a mortal hatred against the commons of England, for having favoured the Earl of Warwick so much, and for other reasons besides, so that he spared none of them at that time. This battle was bravely fought, and on the king's side there were killed 1500 men.

Note 1. The battle was fought upon a plain near Barnet, between London and St. Albaas, known by the name of Gladsmore Heath,

Memoirs of Oliver La Marche. [14 Apr 1471] ... and as for the Earl of Warwick, he remained in France for quite some time, until he came down with Queen Margaret, daughter of the King of Sicily, and with her son, who claimed to be the Prince of Wales. But King Edward defeated them in battle, and in it died the Earl of Warwick, the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of Somerset, along with several other great personages; and thus that war was concluded, and King Edward was assured both of the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Clarence, and of his other principal enemies.

et au regard du conte de Warvich, il demoura en France assez longuement, et jusques ad ce qu'il descendit avecques la Royne Marguerite, fille du Roy de Cecile, et avecques son filz, qui se disoit prince de Galles. Mais le Roy Edouart les desconfit en bataille, et la mourut le conte de Warvich, le prince de Galles et le duc de Sombresset, et plusieurs aultres grans personnaiges; et ainsi fut celle guerre achevée et le Roy Edouart asseuré tant du prince de Galles que du duc de Clairence, et de ses aultres principaulx ennemis.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1471. 14 Apr 1471. But it happenede that he withe his oste were enterede into the toune of Barnet, before the Earl of Warwick (age 42) and his host. And so the Earl of Warwick (age 42) and his host lay witheoute the towne alle nyght, and eche of them loosede gonnes at othere, alle the nyght. And on Ester day in the mornynge, the xiiij. day of Apryl, ryght erly, eche of them came uppone othere; and ther was suche a grete myste, that nether of them might see othere perfitely; ther they faughte, from iiij. of clokke in the mornynge unto x. of clokke the fore-none. And dyverse times the Earl of Warwick (age 42) party hade the victory, and supposede that they hade wonne the felde. But it hapenede so, that the Earl of Oxenfordes men hade uppon them ther lordes lyvery, bothe before and behynde, which was a sterre withe stremys, wiche [was] myche lyke Kynge Edwardes lyvery, the sunne with stremys1; and the myste was so thycke, that a manne mighte not profytely juge one thynge from anothere; so the Earl of Warwikes menne schott and faughte ayens the Earl of Oxenfordes menne, wetynge and supposynge that they hade bene Kynge Edwardes menne; and anone the Earl of Oxenforde and his menne cryed " treasoune! treasoune! " and fledde awaye from the felde withe viij. c. menne. The Lorde Markes Montagu (age 40) was agreyde and apoyntede with Kynge Edwarde, and put uppone hym Kynge Edwardes lyvery; and a manne of the Earls of Warwick sawe that, and felle uppone him, and kyllede hym. And whenne the Earl of Warwick (age 42) sawe his brothere dede, and the Earl of Oxenforde fledde, he lepte one horse-backe, and flede to a wode by the felde of Barnett, where was no waye forthe; and one of Kynge Edwardes menne hade espyede him, and one came uppone hym and kylled hym, and dispolede him nakede. And so Kynge Edwarde gate that felde.

And ther was slayne2 of the Earl of Warwick (age 42)s party, the Earl hym self, Markes Montagu (age 40), Sere William Tyrelle, knyghte, and many other. The Duke of Excetre (age 40) faugth manly ther that day, and was gretely despolede and woundede, and lefte nakede for dede in the felde, and so lay ther from vij. of clokke tille iiij. after none; whiche was take up and brought to a house by a manne of his owne; and a leche brought to hym, and so afterwarde brought in to sancuarij at Westmynster.

And one Kynge Edwardes party was slayne the Lorde Crowmwelle (age 40), sonne and heyre to the Earl of Essex (age 67), Lord Barnes (age 55) sonne and heyre (age 36)3, Lorde Say (age 43)4, and dyverse other, to the nombre (of bothe partys) iiij. Ml menne. And, after that the felde was don, Kynge Edwarde commaundyd bothe the Earl of Warwikes body and the Lord Markes (age 40) body to be putt in a carte, and returned hym with alle his oste ageyne to Londone; and there commaundede the seide ij. bodyes to be layede in the chyrche of Paulis, one the pavement, that every manne mighte see them; and so they lay iij. or iiij. days, and afterwarde where buryede. And Kynge Herry, beynge in the forwarde durynge the bataylle, was not hurt; but he was broughte ageyne to the Toure of Londone, ther to be kept.

Note 1. The sunne with stremys. The crest of the Kynaston coat is supposed to have been assumed from this time, and in allusion to this event.

Note 2. And ther was slayne. A very comprehensive list is given in MS. Arundel, Mus. Brit. 28, fol. 25, vº. The brass matrix of the seal of the Earl of Warwick, taken from him when he was slain, is in the British Museum; an impression may be seen among the charters, xxxiv. 33.

Note 3. Lord Barnes sonne and heyre. Sir Humphrey Bourchier (age 36). His gravestone remains in Westminster Abbey, denuded of his figure in brass plate, but retaining an epitaph of fourteen Latin hexameters, commemorative of his prowess and the scene of his death. They commence:

Hic pugil ecce jacens, Bernett fera bella cupiscens, [Here lies a fighter, Bernett, desiring fierce wars]

Certat ut Eacides, &c. &c. [Striving like Achilles.]

See engravings in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, vol. II. pl. LXXXVI; Harding's Antiquities in Westminster Abbey, pl. VIII. It may be remarked that the word in the eighth line read parvulus by Gough, &c. is really pimulus, i. e. primulus, used instead of primus for the sake of the metre. - J.G.N.

Note 4. Lord Say. This nobleman [William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 43)] was formerly on the Lancastrian side, but received Edward's pardon on the 5th of May, 1462; Chart. Antiq. Mus. Brit. VIII. 13.

After 14 Apr 1471 Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 41) was imprisoned at Wallingford Castle [Map] then the Tower of London [Map].

Letters 1536. 14 Apr 1536. R.O. 669. Thomas Warley to Lady Lisle (age 42).

I have not seen Mr. Receiver since getting your letter. Mrs. Margery asked when you were coming to Court, for she longed to see you. I answered that you were as desirous to see the Queen (age 35) and her ladies and gentlewomen. Today the Countess of Wiltshire (age 56) asked me when I heard from your Ladyship, and thanked you heartily for the hosen. She is sore diseased with the cough, which grieves her sore. Mr. Lypyngkot delivered my Lord's letter to the King on Shere Thursday. Mr. Page says it is not yet opened, but he gives attendance for an answer. Mr. Basset is in good health and merry. I was with him yesterday at Lincoln's Inn. I fear Leonard Snowden has the worst end of the staff, for Whettell and his father have made such suit by means of Mr. Heneage. The Parliament is clearly dissolved. I am sorry to hear of the sickness in Calais. I beg you to get me a favorable letter from my Lord, as I mentioned in my last letter by Goodale. Today Sir Edward Ryngeley showed me that the King will be at Dover in three weeks at the farthest, whither I intend to follow him, unless I am sooner dispatched. I would write more, but have no leisure, as the bearer, Worsley, the Mayor's officer, can inform you. Greenwich, Good Friday. Hol., p.1. Add.: At Calais. Endd.

On 14 Apr 1556 Anthony Kingston (age 48) died at Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map]. Possibly suicide. he had been implicated in the Dudley Plot against Mary I and was on his way from Gloucester to London when he died.

On 14 Apr 1585 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 57) was appointed 367th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 51).

After 14 Apr 1587. Elizabethan Period monument to Edward Manners 3rd Earl of Rutland (deceased) and Isabel Holcroft Countess Rutland (age 37) sculpted by Gerard Johnson The Elder (age 37) in the Chancel of St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Leicestershire [Map].

Isabel Holcroft Countess Rutland: In 1550 she was born to Thomas Holcroft. On 06 Jun 1573 Edward Manners 3rd Earl of Rutland and she were married. She by marriage Countess of Rutland, Baroness Ros Helmsley. He the son of Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland and Margaret Neville Countess Rutland. Around 16 Jan 1606 she died.

Both wearing a @@Ruff.

Detail of the sculpture of their only child Elizabeth Manners 15th Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 12).

His feet resting on a Bulls Head with a chained coronet around its neck - a change from the Unicorn seen on earlier Manners effigies.

Detail of his Leg Garter and his Poleyn and Shoulder Garter.

Detail of her Ermine lined mantle and hands clasped in prayer.

Her arms quarterd 1&4 Holcroft 2 Unknown? A squirrel, possibly fox, eating what may be a nut. 3 A black bird and an infant wrapped in swaddling clothes.

On 14 Apr 1589 Philip Howard 20th Earl of Arundel (age 31) was condemned to death. He was attainted and his titles Earl Arundel Sussex, Earl Surrey, Baron Maltravers and Baron Arundel forfeit. Elizabeth I never signed the death warrant; Howard was never told. Henry Stanley 4th Earl of Derby (age 57) was present.

On 14 Apr 1629 Christian Huygens was born.

On 14 Apr 1698 Captain John Smith (age 36) died at Purton.

On 14 Apr 1720 Thomas Hollis was born.

On 14 Apr 1748 Elizabeth Tatton was born to William Tatton (age 44).

On 14 Apr 1814 was a sortie by the French garrison of Bayonne led by General of Division Pierre Thouvenot against a besieging force of British, Portuguese, and Spanish troops commanded by Lieutenant General John Hope. The fighting marked the last major battle of the Peninsular War.

In 14 Apr 1824 Henry Ainslie Hoare 5th Baronet was born to Henry Charles Hoare (age 36).

On 11 Apr 1836 Reverend Edward Royds (age 45) died. On 14 Apr 1836 Reverend Edward Royds (deceased) was buried in the Chancel of St Oswald's Church, Brereton [Map]

On 14 Apr 1842 Joseph Theakston (age 70) died at Belgrave Place Belgravia.

After 14 Apr 1848. Memorial at Lincoln Cathedral [Map] to Air Vice-Marshal Sir Edward Arthur Beckton Rice.

After 14 Apr 1860. Monument to Fanny Elizabeth Hopkins-Northey Baroness Boston (deceased) at St Nicholas Church, Whiston [Map].

Fanny Elizabeth Hopkins-Northey Baroness Boston: On 02 May 1808 she was born. In 1830 George Ives Irby 4th Baron Boston and she were married. On 12 Mar 1856 George Irby 3rd Baron Boston died. His son George Ives Irby 4th Baron Boston succeeded 4th Baron Boston, 5th Baronet Irby of Whaplode and Boston. She by marriage Baroness Boston. On 14 Apr 1860 she died. She was buried at St Nicholas Church, Whiston.

On 14 Apr 1892 Vere Gordon Childe was born.

On 14 Apr 1904 Arthur John Gielgud was born to Frank Henry Gielgud (age 44) and Kate Terry-Lewis (age 36).

Archaeologia Volume 84 1935 Section VI. 14 Apr 1914. Plate XXX. Fig. 1. View of Avebury, looking SE., in which the following stones are seen: two standing and three prostrate of the outer circle of the southern inner group, two of the great outer circle, and a stone of the Kennet Avenue.

Archaeologia Volume 84 1935 Section VI. 14 Apr 1914. Plate XXXI. Fig. 1. The E. earthworks of Avebury, looking NW.

On 14 Apr 1925 John Singer Sargent (age 69) died suddenly at his home in Chelsea.

Births on the 14th April

On 14 Apr 1204 Henry I King Castile was born to Alfonso VIII King Castile (age 48) and Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile (age 42). He a grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

Around 14 Apr 1470 Anne York was born to George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 20) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 18). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.41%.

On 14 Apr 1606 Johanna Wettin was born to Johann Wettin II Duke Saxe Weimar and Dorothea Maria Anhalt at Weimar.

On 14 Apr 1616 Grizel Douglas was born to William Douglas 1st Marquess Douglas (age 27) and Margaret Hamilton Countess Angus (age 31).

On 14 Apr 1629 Christian Huygens was born.

On 14 Apr 1634 John Reresby 2nd Baronet was born to John Reresby 1st Baronet (age 23) and Frances Yarburgh at Thrybergh.

On 14 Apr 1676 Devereux Knightley was born to Devereux Knightley (age 58) and Elizabeth Crewe.

On 14 Apr 1689 William Murray was born to John Murray 1st Duke Atholl (age 29) and Catherine Hamilton Duchess Atholl (age 27).

On 14 Apr 1696 Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born to Louis Rudolph (age 24).

On 14 Apr 1699 Duke Frederick III of Saxe Coburg Altenburg III was born to Frederick Saxe Coburg Altenburg II Duke Saxe Gotha Altenburg (age 22) and Magdalena Augusta Anhalt Zerbst Anhaltzerbst Duchess Saxe Gotha Altenburg at Gotha.

On 26 Mar 1703 Charles Knollys 5th Earl Banbury was born to Charles Knollys 4th Earl Banbury (age 40) and Mary Woods (age 19). He was baptised on 14 Apr 1703 at St James' Church, Piccadilly.

On 14 Apr 1711 John Murray was born to John Murray 1st Duke Atholl (age 51) and Mary Ross Duchess Atholl (age 23).

On 14 Apr 1720 Thomas Hollis was born.

On 14 Apr 1748 Elizabeth Tatton was born to William Tatton (age 44).

On 14 Apr 1754 Mary Catherine Bertie was born to Peregrine Bertie 3rd Duke Ancaster and Kesteven (age 40) and Mary Panton Duchess Ancaster and Kesteven.

On 14 Apr 1754 Samuel Smith was born to Abel Smith (age 37).

On 14 Apr 1755 Editha Rhoda Astley was born to Edward Astley 4th Baronet (age 25) and Rhoda Delaval (age 29). She died before 12 May 1755 when she was buried at St Matthew's Church Widcombe.

On 14 Apr 1769 Gregory Eardley-Twisleton-Fiennes 8th or 14th Baron Saye and Sele was born to Major-General Thomas Twisleton 7th or 13th Baron Saye and Sele (age 34).

On 14 Apr 1777 Mary Sparrow Countess Gosford was born to Robert Sparrow (age 35).

On or before 14 Apr 1784 Henrietta Anne Bourne Lady Haselrigge was born. She was baptised on 14 Apr 1784.

Around 14 Apr 1802 John Morritt was born.

On 14 Apr 1802 George Baillie-Hamilton 10th Earl of Haddington was born to George Bailie (age 38).

On 14 Apr 1811 Sophia Frances Cust was born to John Cust 1st Earl Brownlow (age 31) and Amelia Sophia Hume Countess Brownlow (age 22).

In 14 Apr 1824 Henry Ainslie Hoare 5th Baronet was born to Henry Charles Hoare (age 36).

On 14 Apr 1827 Arthur Walsh 2nd Baron Ormathwaite was born to John Benn Walsh 1st Baron Ormathwaite (age 28) and Jane Grey Baroness Ormathwaite (age 24).

On 14 Apr 1838 John Charles Thynne was born to John Thynne (age 39) and Anne Constantia Beresford (age 32).

On 14 Apr 1857 Princess Beatrice was born to Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha (age 37) and Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 37). Coefficient of inbreeding 7.16%.

On 14 Apr 1860 Henry Boteville Thynne was born to Henry Frederick Thynne (age 27).

On 14 Apr 1860 John Page Wood 5th Baronet was born to Francis Wood 3rd Baronet (age 26).

On 14 Apr 1867 Christian Victor Oldenburg was born to Prince Frederick Christian Oldenburg (age 36) and Helena Windsor (age 20). He a grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

On 14 Apr 1869 Myrtle Mabel Muriel Mostyn was born to George Charles Mostyn (age 39).

On 14 Apr 1872 Geoffrey Head was born to Henry Head (age 37).

On 14 Apr 1876 Cecil Herbert Edward Chubb 1st Baronet was born to Alfred Chubb at Shrewton, Wiltshire [Map]. He attended Christ's College, Cambridge University [Map] where he was awarded a double first in Science and Law, leaving with Master of Arts and Bachelor of Law degrees.

On 14 Apr 1876 Almina Wombwell Countess Carnarvon was born illegitimately to Alfred de Rothschild (age 33) and Marie "Mina" Wombwell. Her name being a combination of Alfred and Mina.

On 14 Apr 1883 Francis Gerald Agar-Robartes 7th Viscount Clifden was born to Thomas Agar-Robartes 6th Viscount Clifden (age 39) and Mary Dickinson Viscountess Clifden.

On 14 Apr 1892 Vere Gordon Childe was born.

On 14 Apr 1904 Arthur John Gielgud was born to Frank Henry Gielgud (age 44) and Kate Terry-Lewis (age 36).

On 14 Apr 1922 Richard Fortescue 7th Earl Fortescue was born to Denzil George Fortescue 6th Earl Fortescue (age 28) and Marjorie Ellinor Trotter Countess Fortescue (age 28).

On 14 Apr 1933 Alexander Hesse Darmstadt was born to Georg Donatus Hesse Darmstadt Grand Duke (age 26) and Cecilie Glücksburg Grand Duchess (age 21). He a great x 2 grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.81%.

On 14 Apr 1944 John Pelham 9th Earl Chichester was born to John Pelham 8th Earl of Chichester posthumously his father having been killed in a car accident around eight weeks before. At birth he succeeded his father as 9th Earl Chichester, 10th Baron Pelham of Stanmer in Sussex and 14th Baronet Pelham of Laughton.

Marriages on the 14th April

Before 14 Apr 1205 Louis Blois I Count Blois (age 33) and Catherine Countess Blois and Clermont en Beauvais were married. She by marriage Countess Blois. She the daughter of Raoul I Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. He the son of Theobald "Good" Blois V Count Blois and Alix Capet Countess Blois. He a great x 2 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

After 14 Apr 1241 Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex (age 37) and Maud Avenbury Countess Essex and Hereford were married. She by marriage Countess Essex, Countess Hereford. He the son of Henry Bohun 1st Earl Hereford and Maud Mandeville Countess Hereford.

Before 14 Apr 1447 Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 41) and Joan or Cecily Waterton were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 14 Apr 1447 Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 41) and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 37) were married. She by marriage Baroness Welles. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 14 Apr 1502 John Gage (age 22) and Philippa Guildford (age 22) were married.

On 14 Apr 1558 Thomas Gell (age 26) and Millicent Sacheverell were married in Kirk Ireton [Map].

On 14 Apr 1616 Robert Sutton 1st Baron Lexinton (age 21) and Elizabeth Manners Baroness Lexington (age 21) were married. She by marriage Baroness Lexinton.

After 14 Apr 1616 Robert Sutton 1st Baron Lexinton (age 21) and Anne Palmes Baroness Lexington were married.

Before 14 Apr 1634 John Reresby 1st Baronet (age 23) and Frances Yarburgh were married. They had at least 7 sons and 2 daughters.

On 14 Apr 1657 Charles Louis Palatinate Simmern (age 39) and Charlotte Hesse-Kassel (age 29) were divorced.

On 14 Apr 1659 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine (age 25) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 18) were married. She the daughter of William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison and Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey (age 36).

On 14 Apr 1664 William Williams 1st Baronet (age 30) and Margaret Kyffin were married. They had four sons and one daughter.

On 14 Apr 1702 John Paulett 1st Earl Paulett (age 34) and Bridget Bertie Countess Paulett were married. They were fourth cousins.

On 14 Apr 1721 Henry Hoghton 5th Baronet (age 43) and Elizabeth Lloyd Lady Hoghton were married. She by marriage Lady Hoghton of Hoghton Tower in Lancashire.

On 14 Apr 1737 Henry Reginald Courtenay (age 22) and Catherine Bathurst were married. He the son of William Courtenay 6th Earl Devon and Anne Bertie Countess Devon.

On 14 Apr 1762 Patrick Blake 1st Baronet (age 20) and Annabella Bunbury (age 17) were married.

On 14 Apr 1764 Lucius Knightley (age 22) and Catherine Dashwood were married.

On 14 Apr 1766 William Digby (age 33) and Charlotte Cox (age 23) were married.

On 14 Apr 1794 Thomas Thynne 2nd Marquess of Bath (age 29) and Isabella Elizabeth Byng Marchioness Bath (age 20) were married. He the son of Thomas Thynne 1st Marquess of Bath (age 59) and Elizabeth Bentinck Marchioness Bath (age 58).

Before 14 Apr 1807 William Courtenay 10th Earl Devon (age 29) and Henrietta Leslie Pepys Countess Devon (age 29) were married. She the daughter of Lucas Pepys 1st Baronet (age 64) and Jane Elizabeth Leslie 12th Countess of Rothes (age 56). He the son of Bishop Reginald Courtenay and Elizabeth Howard.

On 14 Apr 1814 George Taylour aka Quin (age 22) and Georgiana Spencer (age 20) were married. She the daughter of George John Spencer 2nd Earl Spencer (age 55) and Lavinia Bingham Countess Spencer (age 52). He the son of Thomas Taylour 1st Marquess of Headfort (age 56) and Mary Quin Marchioness of Headfort.

On 14 Apr 1823 William Henry Francis Petre 11th Baron Petre (age 30) and Emma Agnes Howard (age 19) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Before 14 Apr 1867 Prince Frederick Christian Oldenburg (age 36) and Helena Windsor (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha and Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 47). He the son of Christian August Oldenburg II Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg (age 68) and Louise Sophie Danneskiold Samsøe Duchess Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 14 Apr 1868 Henry Brand 2nd Viscount Hampden (age 26) and Susan Henrietta Cavendish Viscountess Hampden (age 21) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Hampden. He a great x 5 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 14 Apr 1874 Walter Campbell (age 25) and Olivia Milns were married. He the son of George Douglas Campbell 8th Duke Argyll (age 50) and Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower Duchess Argyll.

On 14 Apr 1910 William Amherst Cecil (age 24) and Gladys Evelyn Baggallay (age 26) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square.

On 14 Apr 1910 Charles Alexander Souter and Charlotte Dorothy Jesson were married.

Deaths on the 14th April

On 14 Apr 1070 Gerard Metz I Duke Lorraine (age 40) died. His son Theodoric "Valiant" Metz II Duke Lorraine (age 15) succeeded II Duke Lorraine.

On 14 Apr 1109 Fulk "Réchin" Anjou 4th Count Anjou (age 66) died. In 1109 His son Fulk "Young" King Jerusalem (age 20) succeeded V Count Anjou.

On 14 Apr 1205 Stephen Chateaudun was killed.

On 14 Apr 1205 Louis Blois I Count Blois (age 33) died. His son Theobald Blois VI Count Blois succeeded VI Count Blois.

On 14 Apr 1236 Walter Beauchamp (age 41) died at Elmley Castle, Worcestershire.

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 62) at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars. His nephew Henry Burghesh's (age 30) lands were also seized. These were restored around 1326.

On 14 Apr 1345 Bishop Richard de Bury (age 58) died.

On 14 Apr 1345 Hawise Tiptoft (age 75) died at Costessey, Norfolk [Map].

On 14 Apr 1406 Isabel Grandison (age 66) died at Herefordshire.

On 14 Apr 1409 Roger Giffard of Twyford (age 42) died.

On 14 Apr 1424 Lucia Visconti Countess Kent (age 44) died.

Around 14 Apr 1470 Anne York died.

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (age 28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers George (age 21) and Richard (age 18), John Babington (age 48), Wiliam Hastings (age 40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings, William Norreys (age 30), William Parr (age 37), John Savage (age 49), William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 41), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40), John Scott Comptroller (age 48) and Thomas Strickland.

The Yorkists William Blount (age 29), Humphrey Bourchier (age 40), Humphrey Bourchier (age 36), Henry Stafford (age 46) and Thomas Parr were killed.

The Lancastrians ...

Warwick the Kingmaker (age 42) was killed. Earl Salisbury forfeit on the assumption he was attainted either before or after his death; the date of his attainder is unknown. If not attainted the Earldom may be in abeyance. Baron Montagu and Baron Montagu abeyant between his two daughters Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 19) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14).

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 40) was killed. Marquess Montagu extinct. He was buried at Bisham Abbey [Map].

William Tyrrell was killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford (age 46) and John Paston (age 27) were wounded, John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 28) commanded, and John Paston (age 29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 33) fought.

Robert Harleston (age 36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury (age 62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham (age 51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

On 14 Apr 1486 Ralph Assheton (age 65) died.

On 14 Apr 1521 Carlos Aviz (age 1) died.

On 14 Apr 1522 John Spencer (age 67) died at Kenilworth. He was buried at St Mary the Virgin Church, Great Brington, Northamptonshire.

On 14 Apr 1524 William Conyers 1st Baron Conyers (age 55) died at Hornby Castle [Map]. His son Christopher Conyers 2nd Baron Conyers (age 33) succeeded 2nd Baron Conyers. Anne Dacre Baroness Conyers (age 23) by marriage Baroness Conyers.

On 14 Apr 1537 Edward Granville died.

On 14 Apr 1537 Manuel Aviz (age 5) died.

On 14 Apr 1545 Thomas Clere died. He left everything to his fiancé Mary Shelton (age 35) who subsequently married Anthony Heveningham (age 44).

On 14 Apr 1556 Anthony Kingston (age 48) died at Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map]. Possibly suicide. he had been implicated in the Dudley Plot against Mary I and was on his way from Gloucester to London when he died.

On 14 Apr 1569 Maud Vaux died.

On 14 Apr 1574 Christof Palatinate Simmern (age 22) died.

On 14 Apr 1587 Edward Manners 3rd Earl of Rutland (age 37) died at his home Ivy Bridge on the Strand [Map] or at Puddle Wharf aka Dock [Map]. He was buried at St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Leicestershire [Map]. His daughter Elizabeth Manners 15th Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 12) succeeded 15th Baroness Ros Helmsley. His brother John Manners 4th Earl of Rutland (age 36) succeeded 4th Earl of Rutland. Elizabeth Charlton Countess Rutland (age 34) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He would be Earl for ten months only dying on 24 Feb 1588.

On 14 Apr 1597 Henry Brydges (age 60) died.

On 14 Apr 1599 Henry Wallop (age 59) died at Guisnes.

On 14 Apr 1623 John Scudamore (age 81) died.

Between 14 Apr 1628 and 06 May 1628 James Elphinstone of Barnes (age 47) died.

On 14 Apr 1632 Arthur Forbes 1st Baronet (age 62) died.

On 14 Apr 1636 Robert Baynard died.

On 14 Apr 1659 Chaloner Chute of The Vyne died.

On 14 Apr 1671 Margaret Lovelace (age 31) died.

On 14 Apr 1672 Friedrich Wilhelm 3rd Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (age 14) died.

On 12 Apr 1681 or 14 Apr 1681 Thomas Littleton 2nd Baronet (age 60) died. His son Thomas Littleton 3rd Baronet (age 34) succeeded 3rd Baronet Littleton of Stoke Milburgh in Suffolk

In Apr 1683 Theophilus Biddulph 1st Baronet (age 71) died at Greenwich, Kent [Map]. On 14 Apr 1683 he was buried at Stow Church Lichfield. His son Michael Biddulph 2nd Baronet (age 29) succeeded 2nd Baronet Biddulph of Westcombe in Kent.

On 14 Apr 1685 Thomas Otway (age 33) died. One account of his death states ... He is said to have emerged from his retreat at the Bull on Tower Hill to beg for bread. A passer-by, learning who he was, gave him a guinea, with which Otway hastened to a baker's shop. He ate too hastily, and choked on the first mouthful.

On 14 Apr 1698 Captain John Smith (age 36) died at Purton.

On 14 Apr 1726 Thomas Chudleigh (age 38) died.

On 14 Apr 1740 Catherine Jones (age 68) died.

On 14 Apr 1750 Fitzroy Henry Lee (age 50) died.

On 14 Apr 1754 Robert Temple (age 60) died at Somerville, Middlesex County.

On 14 Apr 1761 Anne Ellis (age 53) died.

On 14 Apr 1763 Evelyn Leveson-Gower Countess Upper Ossory (age 38) died.

On 14 Apr 1768 John Bristow (age 66) died at Lisbon.

On 14 Apr 1779 Jemima Tullekin Jones Marchioness Cornwallis died.

On 14 Apr 1782 John Parnell 1st Baronet (age 62) died. His son John Parnell 2nd Baronet (age 37) succeeded 2nd Baronet Parnell of Rathleague Queen's County.

On 14 Apr 1807 Henry Seymour (age 77) died.

On 14 Apr 1812 Jane Maxwell Duchess Gordon (age 64) died.

On 14 Apr 1823 John Howard (age 12) died.

On 14 Apr 1826 Harriet Courtenay Baroness Carteret (age 54) died.

On 14 Apr 1828 Philip Bouverie Pusey (age 81) died.

On 14 Apr 1829 Captain George Marlay (age 81) died. On 22 Apr 1729 he was buried at St Mary's Church Twickenham, Richmond [Map].

On 14 Apr 1829 William Davenport (age 83) died.

On 11 Apr 1836 Reverend Edward Royds (age 45) died. On 14 Apr 1836 Reverend Edward Royds (deceased) was buried in the Chancel of St Oswald's Church, Brereton [Map]

On 14 Apr 1842 Joseph Theakston (age 70) died at Belgrave Place Belgravia.

On 14 Apr 1845 Catherine Pollok (age 66) died.

On 14 Apr 1856 George Lionel Dawson-Damer (age 67) died.

On 14 Apr 1860 Fanny Elizabeth Hopkins-Northey Baroness Boston (age 51) died. She was buried at St Nicholas Church, Whiston [Map].

On 14 Apr 1863 Thomas Bannerman (age 67) died.

On 14 Apr 1866 Henry Charles Sturt (age 70) died.

On 14 Apr 1866 Frances Elizabeth Villiers Viscountess Ponsonby (age 80) died.

On 14 Apr 1871 Anne Byam Stapleton died.

On 10 Apr 1880 Ella Molyneux (age 45) died. She was buried in the churchyard of Holy Trinity Church, Wavertree [Map] on 14 Apr 1880.

On 14 Apr 1883 John Bell William Mansel 11th Baronet (age 76) died without surviving male issue. His half first cousin once removed Richard Mansel 12th Baronet (age 33) succeeded 12th Baronet Mansel of Muddlescombe. His elder brother Edward Berkeley Mansel 12th Baronet (age 44) was barred from the succession since his parents were considered to have married after his birth.

John Bell William Mansel 11th Baronet (age 76) devised his real estate to his daughters; Maria, the only daughter who married, was wife of Sir Edward Bradford Medlycott (age 51), 4th Baronet.

On 14 Apr 1905 Henry Pitt Cholmondeley (age 84) died. He was buried at St Mary Magdalene's Church, Adlestrop.

On 14 Apr 1924 Arthur Algernon de Vere Capell (age 55) died.

On 14 Apr 1924 Roland Napoléon Bonaparte 6th Prince of Canino and Musignano (age 65) died.

On 14 Apr 1925 John Singer Sargent (age 69) died suddenly at his home in Chelsea.

On 14 Apr 1938 Henry Lopes 1st Baron Roborough (age 79) died. His son Massey Lopes 2nd Baron Roborough (age 34) succeeded 2nd Baron Roborough of Maristow in Devon, 5th Baronet Lopes of Maristow-House in Devon.

On 14 Apr 1956 Maurice Anthony Wingfield (age 72) died.

On 14 Apr 1992 Pamela Louisa Dillon Baroness Onslow (age 76) died.