On this Day in History ... 16 April

16 Apr is in April.

1130 Battle of Stracathro

1200 Council of Reims

1399 Richard II's Last Will

1533 Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1746 Battle of Culloden

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. This year came King Harold (age 44) from York to Westminster, on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward) died. Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of May. Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever saw before. Some men said that it was the comet-star, which others denominate the long-hair'd star. It appeared first on the eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the calends off May; and so shone all the week. Soon after this came in Earl Tosty (age 40) from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight [Map], with as large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with money and provisions. Thence he proceeded, and committed outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until he came to Sandwich [Map]. When it was told King Harold (age 44), who was in London, that his brother Tosty (age 40) was come to Sandwich [Map], he gathered so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from Normandy (age 38), King Edward's (age 63) cousin, would come hither and gain this land; just as it afterwards happened. When Tosty (age 40) understood that King Harold (age 44) was on the way to Sandwich [Map], he departed thence, and took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered in Lindsey [Map], and there slew many good men. When the Earls Edwin and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from the land. And the boatmen forsook him. Then he went to Scotland with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him, and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer. There met him Harold, King of Norway (age 51), with three hundred ships. And Tosty (age 40) submitted to him, and became his man.87 Then came King Harold (age 44)88 to Sandwich [Map], where he awaited his fleet; for it was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he went into the Isle of Wight [Map], and there lay all the summer and the autumn. There was also a land-force every where by the sea, though it availed nought in the end. It was now the nativity of St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man could keep them there any longer. They therefore had leave to go home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London; but many perished ere they came thither.

Note 87. These facts, though stated in one MS. only, prove the early cooperation of Tosty with the King of Norway. It is remarkable that this statement is confirmed by Snorre, who says that Tosty was with Harald, the King of Norway, in all these expeditions. Vid "Antiq. Celto-Scand." p. 204.

Note 88. i.e. Harold, King of England; "our" king, as we find him. Afterwards called in B iv., to distinguish him from Harald, King of Norway.

Before 16 Apr 1118 William Normandy I Count Évreux and Helvise de Nevers were married. She the daughter of William I of Nevers and Ermengarde of Tonnerre. He the son of Richard Normandy 2nd Count Évreux and Adelaide or Godehildis Ramon.

On 16 Apr 1118 William Normandy I Count Évreux died without issue. His nephew Amaury Montfort Count Évreux (age 47) succeeded Count Évreux.

1130 Battle of Stracathro

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 16 Apr 1130. This year was Angus slain by the army of the Scots, and there was a great multitude slain with him. There was God's fight sought upon him, for that he was all forsworn.

16 Apr 1130. The Battle of Brechin took place around three miles north of Brechin. The rebellion was led by two pretenders to the Scottish crown, Malcolm Mac Alexander illegitimate son of Alexander I of Scotland, and Angus of Moray who was the grandson of King Lulach who had been deposed and killed by David (age 46) taking advantage of King David I of Scotland (age 46) being in England.

Council of Reims

Before 1200. Choir Aisle at Hereford Cathedral [Map] left to right ...

In 1198 Bishop William de Vere died.

On 09 May 1186 Bishop Gilbert Foliot died.

On 16 Apr 1148 Bishop Robert de Bethune died in Reims just after the closure of the Council of Reims. His remains were brought to Hereford Cathedral [Map] where he was buried. See Chronicle of Wigmore.

On 27 Feb 1167 Robert Melun Bishop of Hereford (age 67) died.

On 16 Apr 1234 Richard Marshal 3rd Earl Pembroke (age 43) died from wounds at Kilkenny Castle, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny. His brother Gilbert Marshal 4th Earl Pembroke (age 37) succeeded 4th Earl Pembroke 2C 1199.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the following day, the 16th of April [1358], Isabella (age 63) set out on a journey from Hertford, and the movements of her household are recorded to have been - on the 16th to Tottenham; on the 17th to London; on the 20th to Shene [Map]; on the 21st to Upton ( near Windsor ), the Queen herself going, it is stated, to Chertsey; on the 26th to Shene again; and on the 30th to London, where it remained till the 13th of May.

Richard II's Last Will

On 16 Apr 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) wrote his Last Will from which the following extracts are taken … Also we bequeath to our beloved nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25) ten thousand marks and to our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) two thousand marks and to our beloved brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) three thousand marks and to our faithful and beloved William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) two thousand marks ... we ordain and set aside for the fulfilment of all and singular the premises the sum of ninety-one thousand marks, of which sixty-five thousand marks are in the keeping of Sir John Ikelyngton and twenty-four thousand marks in the hands and keeping of our dear nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25).

Of this our royal testament we nominate make and depute executors the venerable fathers in Christ Richard Mitford Bishop, Bishop Edmund Stafford (age 55), Robert Tideman of Winchcombe Bishop, Bishop Thomas Merke and Bishop Guy Mone Aka Mohun; our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26), our nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25), our brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) and William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) to each of whom we bequeath a gold cup of the value of twenty pounds and our beloved and faithful clerks Master Bishop Richard Boteville Keeper of our Privy Seal, Master Richard Maudeleyn, Master William Fereby and Master John Painter Ikelyngton clerks and John Lufwyk and William Serle laymen, to each of whom we will shall be paid their expenses and necessary costs while it shall happen that they or any of them are employed about the execution of our present last will, but according to the discretion of their said co-executors ...

Whom all and singular we have charged and charge that they shall do as much as in them is for the due execution and fulfilment of this our last will as they shall wish to answer before God. We create ordain depute and make overseers of this our will the reverend fathers in Christ Archbishop Roger Walden and Archbishop Richard Scrope (age 49), William bishop of Winchester and William abbot of the monastery of Westminster Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) our uncle and Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 57) our cousin.

The Life and Times of Cardinal Wolsey Volume 2. 16 Apr 1515. On the 16th of April after they had taken a suitable leave of the French Court, they departed from Paris attended by all the English in their Retinue (except Anna Bulleyn (age 14), who remained in France); on the 2d of May they landed in England and soon arriyed at Court when they had made proper Submission to the King, they were received into Favour, and, on the 13th of the same Month, they were publickly married at Greenwich in the Presence of his Majesty, the Archbishops and Bishops, and a great Concourse of the Nobility and Gentry, and then received the Compliments and Congratulations upon the happy Union. The Account the learned Bishop Burnet gives us of the Duke1 is, "That he never meddled much in Business and, by all that appears, he was a better Courtier than Statesman."

Note 1. The Duke had issue by the VIII's youngest sister two Queen Mary of France sons, Henry and Charles, who died, in the year 1551, of the Sweating Sickness, at Cambridge, within twelve Hours of each other; and two Daughters, the Ladies Frances and Eleanor. (See Dugd. Bar. Vol. II. p. 300.) The eldest, Frances, married Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset, afterwards created Duke of Suffolk. It is said, the principal Noblemen and Ladies that sprung from the Lady Frances, Viscountess of Weymouth, who had the Honour to be descended from this illustrious Branch of the said Queen and Duke's Family, are the present Right Honourable Thomas, Earl of Ailesbury, arid his Aunt, the Countess of Cardigan ; the late Earl of Winchelsea's Sister, and the Earl himselff, whose Successor is the present Right Honourable Daniel, Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham, first Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, &c. whose Sister, the Lady Betty Finch, married the eminent Lawyer, and excellent Orator, the Honourable William Murray, Esq; his Majesty's Sollcitor General. Eleanor, the youngest Daughter, of the said Queen and Duke, married Henry, Lord Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, which title is extinct : But the illustrious Name of Clifford will never die, in regard the Blood of that noble House now runs in the Veins of the present Right Honourable Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington, &c. who will ever be renowned for his popular Spirit, in encouraging all Liberal Arts and Sciences, particularly Architecture, in which he is allowed to have a most sublime Taste ; and it may be truly said of this Nobleman, that he has been blest with Riches, and a Soul to enjoy it. The Right Honourable Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery, is of this noble Family; as was also the late Lord Shannon. In short, they have, for several Generations, shone as well in the Senatorial as Marital Capacity.


Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Wednesday the said Duke (age 60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the Queen (age 47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of Queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (age 41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (age 47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (age 55), the Queen's (age 47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called Queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (age 41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (age 47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself Queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (age 41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.NOTEXT

Though the King (age 41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (age 32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with Queen Catharine (age 47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (age 47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the Princess (age 17).

On 16 Apr 1533, Wednesday, Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England (age 47) was demoted from Queen to Princess.

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Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 Apr 1561. The xvj day of Aprell wher all the alters in Westmynster taken downe, [in] the chapell [Map] wher the kyng Henry the vijth was bered, and wher kyng Edward the vjth, and the stones cared wher quen Mare was bered.

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On 16 Apr 1622 Christopher Roper 2nd Baron Teynham (age 61) died. His son John Roper 3rd Baron Teynham (age 30) succeeded 3rd Baron Teynham of Teynham in Kent.

On 16 Apr 1640 William Sherard 1st Baron Sherard (age 51) died. His son Bennet Sherard 2nd Baron Sherard (age 18) succeeded 2nd Baron Sherard of Leitrim.

After 16 Apr 1641 Francis Lennard 14th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21) and Elizabeth Bayning Baroness Dacre Gilsland were married. She by marriage Baroness Dacre Gilsland.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Apr 1665. Then home to dinner, where Creed dined with us, and so after dinner he and I walked to the Rolls' Chappell, expecting to hear the great Stillingfleete (age 29) preach, but he did not; but a very sorry fellow, which vexed me. The sermon done, we parted, and I home, where I find Mr. Andrews, and by and by comes Captain Taylor, my old acquaintance at Westminster, that understands musique very well and composes mighty bravely; he brought us some things of two parts to sing, very hard; but that that is the worst, he is very conceited of them, and that though they are good makes them troublesome to one, to see him every note commend and admire them. He supped with me, and a good understanding man he is and a good scholler, and, among other things, a great antiquary, and among other things he can, as he says, show the very originall Charter to Worcester, of King Edgar's, wherein he stiles himself, Rex Marium Brittanniae, &c.; which is the great text that Mr. Selden and others do quote, but imperfectly and upon trust. But he hath the very originall, which he says he will shew me. He gone we to bed.

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On 16 Apr 1677 George Sondes 1st Earl Feversham (age 77) died. His son-in-law Louis Duras 2nd Earl Feversham (age 36) succeeded 2nd Earl Feversham 1C 1676. Mary Sondes Countess Feversham (age 20) by marriage Countess Feversham.

PAINTINGS/RILEY/Thomas_Otway.jpgBefore 16 Apr 1685. John Riley (age 39). Portrait of Thomas Otway (deceased).

Thomas Otway: On 03 Mar 1652 he was born in Trotton. In 1669 Thomas Otway (age 16) entered Christ Church College, Oxford University where he first learned to love books througth his aquaintence with Anthony Carey 5th Viscount Falkland (age 12). In 1675 Thomas Betterton produced Otway's (age 22) first play Alcibades at the Dorset Garden Theatre. In 1678 Thomas Otway (age 25) obtained a commission through Charles, Earl of Plymouth (age 21) in a regiment serving in the Netherlands. The English troops were disbanded in 1679, but were left to find their way home as best they could. They were paid with depreciated paper, and Otway arrived in London late in the year, ragged and dirty. On 14 Apr 1685 Thomas Otway (age 33) died. One account of his death states ... He is said to have emerged from his retreat at the Bull on Tower Hill to beg for bread. A passer-by, learning who he was, gave him a guinea, with which Otway hastened to a baker's shop. He ate too hastily, and choked on the first mouthful. On 16 Apr 1685 Thomas Otway (deceased) was buried at St Clement Danes.


In 16 Apr 1743 Archbishop William Beresford 1st Baron Decies was born to Marcus Beresford 1st Earl Tyrone (age 48) and Catherine Power Countess Tyrone (age 41).

On 16 Apr 1745 Noel Hill 1st Baron Berwick was born to Thomas Hill at 3 Cleveland Court.

Battle of Culloden

On 16 Apr 1746 an English army commanded by William Augustus Hanover 1st Duke Cumberland (age 24) and John Mordaunt (age 37) defeated the Scottish army of Charles Edward "Bonnie Prince Charlie" Stewart (age 25) at the Battle of Culloden bring to an end the Jacobite Rising of 1745.

Bluett Wallop (age 19) fought.

Robert Kerr was killed.

William Boyd 4th Earl Kilmarnock (age 40) was captured.

Alexander Bannerman 3rd Baronet fought and escapted to France where he died a year later.

After 16 Apr 1757. St Michael's Church, Stowe Nine Churches [Map]. Monument to John Daye 1679-1757. Sculpted by Middleton of Towcester.

On 16 Apr 1767 Richard Barry 6th Earl Barrymore (age 22) and Amelia Stanhope Countess Barrymore (age 17) were married at St Martin in the Fields [Map]. She the daughter of William Stanhope 2nd Earl of Harrington (age 47) and Caroline Fitzroy Countess Harrington (age 45). He the son of James Barry 5th Earl Barrymore. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 16 Apr 1767 Thomas Ralph Maude 2nd Viscount Hawarden was born to Cornwallis Maude 1st Viscount Hawarden (age 37) and Mary Allen.

On 16 Apr 1780 or 11 Jul 1780 Antoine 8th Duke Gramont (age 24) and Aglae de Polignac "Guichette" Duchess Gramont (age 11) were married at the Palace of Versailles. She the daughter of Jules 1st Duke of Polignac (age 33) and Yolande Martine Gabrielle Polastron Duchess Gramont (age 30). He the son of Antoine 7th Duke Gramont (age 58).


On 16 Apr 1815 Henry Bruce 1st Baron Aberdare was born to John Knight aka Bruce aka Bruce-Pryce (age 30).

On 16 Apr 1816 Albert Woods Howard was born to William Woods Howard (age 30).NOTEXT

On 16 Apr 1838 Henry Brand 1st Viscount Hampden (age 23) and Eliza Ellice (age 20) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.


On 16 Apr 1842 George Ludlow 3rd Earl Ludlow (age 83) died.

On 16 Apr 1857 George Edward Thicknesse-Touchet 21st Baron Audley (age 40) and Emily Mitchell Baroness Audley were married at Sydney. She by marriage Baroness Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire.

On 16 Apr 1868 Hugh de Grey Seymour-Conway 6th Marquess Hertford (age 24) and Mary Hood Marchioness Hertford (age 21) were married. He the son of Francis George Hugh Seymour-Conway 5th Marquess Hertford (age 56) and Frances Elizabeth Anson Marchioness Hertford (age 58). He a great x 5 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 16 Apr 1871 John Span Plunket 3rd Baron Plunket (age 77) died. His son Archbishop William Plunket 4th Baron Plunket (age 42) succeeded 4th Baron Plunket of Newtown in County Cork. Anne Lee Guiness Baroness Plunket (age 32) by marriage Baroness Plunket of Newtown in County Cork.

On 16 Apr 1872 John Manners-Sutton 3rd Viscount Canterbury (age 57) and Georgiana Tompson Viscountess Centerbury were married.

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After 16 Apr 1877. St Conan aka Petroc's Church, Egloshayle [Map]. Monument to Mary Brown Lady Molesworth, wife of Arscott Ourry Molesworth 7th Baronet.

Mary Brown Lady Molesworth: On 07 Jul 1809 Arscott Ourry Molesworth 7th Baronet (age 20) and Mary Brown were married. She by marriage Lady Molesworth of Pencarrow in Cornwall. On 16 Apr 1877 she died.

Arscott Ourry Molesworth 7th Baronet: In 1789 he was born to William Molesworth 6th Baronet (age 30). On 22 Feb 1798 William Molesworth 6th Baronet (age 39) died. His son Arscott Ourry Molesworth 7th Baronet (age 9) succeeded 7th Baronet Molesworth of Pencarrow in Cornwall. On 26 Dec 1823 Arscott Ourry Molesworth 7th Baronet (age 34) died at Pencarrow House, Cornwall. His son William Molesworth 8th Baronet (age 13) succeeded 8th Baronet Molesworth of Pencarrow in Cornwall.


After 16 Apr 1898. St Peter's Church, Edensor [Map]. Memorials to Peverill Hall and the Reverend Joseph Hall.


Evelyn Maud Keppel Countess Lichfield: On 15 Apr 1887 she was born to Edward George Keppel (age 39). On 11 Jul 1911 Thomas Edward Anson 4th Earl Lichfield (age 27) and Evelyn Maud Keppel Countess Lichfield (age 24) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square. He the son of Thomas Francis Anson 3rd Earl Lichfield (age 55) and Mildred Coke Countess Lichfield (age 57). She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland. On 29 Jul 1918 Thomas Francis Anson 3rd Earl Lichfield (age 62) died. He was buried at St Stephen's Church, Great Heywood. His son Thomas Edward Anson 4th Earl Lichfield (age 34) succeeded 4th Earl Lichfield 3C 1831, 5th Viscount Anson of Shugborough and Orgrave and 5th Baron Soberton of Soberton in Hampshire. Evelyn Maud Keppel Countess Lichfield (age 31) by marriage Countess Lichfield. On 16 Apr 1945 Evelyn Maud Keppel Countess Lichfield (age 58) died. She was buried at St Stephen's Church, Great Heywood.

On 16 Apr 1981 George Cambridge 2nd Marquess Cambridge (age 85) died without male issue at Little Abington. He was buried at Royal Burial Ground Frogmore Estate Home Park Windsor. Marquess Cambridge extinct.

Time Team Series 1 Episode 1: The Guerrilla Base of the King was filmed between 16 Apr 1993 and 18 Apr 1993. It was originally shown on 16 Jan 1994.

Location: Athelney Abbey [Map].

Category: Time Team Early Medieval.

Time Team:

Tony Robinson (age 46), Presenter

Mick Aston (age 46), Bristol University Landscape Archaeologist

Gerry Barber, Bristol University Environmental Archaeologist

Phil Harding (age 43), Wessex Archaeological Trust Field Archaeologist

Carenza Lewis (age 29), Royal Commission on Historic Monuments

Robin Bush (age 50), Archivist

Victor Ambrus (age 57), Historical Illustrator

John Gator, Chris Gaffney, Geophysics

Gerry McDonnell, Archeaological Scientist.

Base: George Hotel [Map] in Wedmore.

Techniques: Field Walking, Excavations, Magnetometry, Resistivity, Soil Coring

Sources: Life of Alfred by Asser, Assers Life of Alfred 878.

Historical Figures: King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex, Guthrum Viking.

Events: Battle of Edington.

Outcomes: Plan of Athelney Abbey [Map], possible site of original Saxon church, Anglo-Saxon iron slag indicating iron working; the furthest west found at the time.

Channel 4 Episode