19 Oct is in October.
On 19 Oct 1175 Guy Count of Nevers died.
John Monmouth (age 34) was present.
On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).
King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:
I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.
In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.
The signatories were:
Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 - 1227) Papal Legate.
Bishop Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester.
Richard le Poer (? - 1237), Bishop of Chichester.
Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.
Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.
William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).
William Ferrers 4th Earl of Derby (age 48).
William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.
Walter de Lacy (ca 1172-1241) Lord of Meath.
John: (1182 - 1248) Lord of Monmouth.
Savaric de Mauléon (? - 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.
Falkes de Bréauté (? - 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.
After 19 Oct 1216 King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) was buried in the Lady Chapel of Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Originally his effigy would have covered his coffin at floor level. Sometime around 1500 his tomb was moved to the Choir in front of the High Altar - the Chest Tomb similar to that of Prince Arthur's nearby. The Purbeck Marble effigy is the earliest of a King in England. Unusually carved to be life-like. His head supported by St Oswald and St Wulfstan, the two patron saints of Worcester. The base constructed in the 16th Century. The tomb was opened again on Monday 17 Jul 1797 at the instigation of Valentine Green (1739-1813). Inside the tomb chest, a stone coffin was discovered, containing the royal remains - see Monumental Effigies.
On 19 Oct 1330 John Neville 1299-1335, William Eland, William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 20), William Clinton 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 26) and William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 29), friends of King Edward III of England (age 17) secretly entered Nottingham Castle [Map] through tunnels, met with King Edward III of England (age 17), and arrested Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) and his son Geoffrey Mortimer (age 21) in the presence of Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35).
On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (age 31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (age 31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30). the future Henry IV (age 31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 25) and Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (age 31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (age 31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. The future Henry IV (age 31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) forever.
On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) left England never to return.
Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The duke of Lancaster (age 58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his son (age 31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the earl of Derby (age 31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, - "Earl of Derby (age 31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (age 31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anything can, at his leisure, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.
Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (age 31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham [Map]. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of Lancaster (age 58) and York (age 57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (age 56), Salisbury (age 48) and Huntingdon (age 46). The earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (age 31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,- "Well then, I order that the earl marshal (age 30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (age 31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (age 30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (age 31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's1, he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (age 25) and of Portugal (age 38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be happily to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (age 31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (age 30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without hope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by him and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30).
Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. - Ed.
Before 19 Oct 1401 John Charleton 4th Baron Cherleton (age 39) and Alice Fitzalan Baroness Cherleton were married. Alice Fitzalan Baroness Cherleton by marriage Baroness Cherleton. She the daughter of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel and Elizabeth Bohun Countess Arundel and Surrey. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.
On 19 Oct 1419 Gilbert Talbot 8th Baron Strange Blackmere 5th Baron Talbot (age 36) died. His daughter Ankaret Talbot 9th Baroness Strange Blackmere 6th Baroness Talbot (age 3) succeeded 9th Baroness Strange Blackmere, 6th Baroness Talbot.
On 19 Oct 1469 Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 17) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 18) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon. She the daughter of John II King Castile and Isabella Aviz Queen Consort Castile (age 41). He the son of John II King Aragon (age 71) and Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon. They were second cousins. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.
On 19 Oct 1505 Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 53) and Germaine Foix Queen Consort Aragon (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon. The difference in their ages was 35 years. She the daughter of Jean Foix Count Étampes and Marie Valois Viscountess Narbonne. He the son of John II King Aragon and Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon. They were great uncle and niece.
On 19 Oct 1526 William Willoughby 11th Baron Willoughby (age 44) died at Parham [Map]. He was buried at All Saints Church Mettingham Bungay [Map]. His daughter Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 7) succeeded 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 7) became a ward of Henry VIII (age 35).
After 19 Oct 1592. St Mary's Church Easebourne Midhurst [Map]. Monument to Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague (deceased), Jane Radclyffe and Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 54). The monument was originally in Midhurst but was subsequently moved. As there was less room, it was re-arranged, with Lord Montague kneeling behind and above the two recumbent effigies of his wives, instead of having a wife on either side, with obelisks at the corners.
Jane Radclyffe: She was born to Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex and Margaret Stanley Countess Sussex. Before 22 Jul 1552 Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague (age 23) and she were married. She the daughter of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex and Margaret Stanley Countess Sussex. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.
On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel (age 38) died of dysentery at Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map], reburied at Arundel Cathedral, Sussex [Map] and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel Castle [Map]. Earl Arundel Sussex, Earl Surrey 3C 1483, Baron Maltravers 1C 1330, Baron Arundel 1C 1377, Baron Mowbray 1C 1129, Baron Segrave 1C 1283 forfeit.NOTEXT
He had been imprisoned for ten years and had never seen his son and heir Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk (age 10) who had been born three months after he was imprisoned.NOTEXT
Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1660. Office in the morning. This morning my dining-room was finished with green serge hanging and gilt leather, which is very handsome. This morning Hacker and Axtell (age 38) were hanged and quartered, as the rest are. This night I sat up late to make up my accounts ready against to-morrow for my Lord. I found him to be above £80 in my debt, which is a good sight, and I bless God for it.
Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1663. After being a little with the Duke (age 30), and being invited to dinner to my Lord Barkeley's (age 61), and so, not knowing how to spend our time till noon, Sir W. Batten (age 62) and I took coach, and to the Coffee-house in Cornhill [Map]1; where much talk about the Turk's proceedings, and that the plague is got to Amsterdam, brought by a ship from Argier; and it is also carried to Hambrough. The Duke says the King (age 33) purposes to forbid any of their ships coming into the river. The Duke also told us of several Christian commanders (French) gone over to the Turks to serve them; and upon inquiry I find that the King of France (age 25) do by this aspire to the Empire, and so to get the Crown of Spayne also upon the death of the King (age 33), which is very probable, it seems.
Note 1. This may be the Coffee House in Exchange Alley, which had for a sign, Morat the Great, or The Great Turk, where coffee was sold in berry, in powder, and pounded in a mortar. There is a token of the house, see "Boyne's Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., p. 592.
Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1666. After a little more discourse, I left them, and to White Hall, where I met with Sir Robert Viner (age 35), who told me a little of what, in going home, I had seen; also a little of the disorder and mutiny among the seamen at the Treasurer's office, which did trouble me then and all day since, considering how many more seamen will come to towne every day, and no money for them. A Parliament sitting, and the Exchange [Map] close by, and an enemy to hear of, and laugh at it1. Viner (age 35) too, and Backewell, were sent for this afternoon; and was before the King (age 36) and his Cabinet about money; they declaring they would advance no more, it being discoursed of in the House of Parliament for the King (age 36) to issue out his privy-seals to them to command them to trust him, which gives them reason to decline trusting. But more money they are persuaded to lend, but so little that (with horrour I speake it), coming after the Council was up, with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), Sir W. Coventry (age 38), Lord Bruncker (age 46), and myself, I did lay the state of our condition before the Duke of York (age 33), that the fleete could not go out without several things it wanted, and we could not have without money, particularly rum and bread, which we have promised the man Swan to helpe him to £200 of his debt, and a few other small sums of £200 a piece to some others, and that I do foresee the Duke of York (age 33) would call us to an account why the fleete is not abroad, and we cannot answer otherwise than our want of money; and that indeed we do not do the King (age 36) any service now, but do rather abuse and betray his service by being there, and seeming to do something, while we do not. Sir G. Carteret (age 56) asked me (just in these words, for in this and all the rest I set down the very words for memory sake, if there should be occasion) whether £50 or £60 would do us any good; and when I told him the very rum man must have £200, he held up his eyes as if we had asked a million. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) told the Duke of York (age 33) plainly he did rather desire to have his commission called in than serve in so ill a place, where he cannot do the King (age 36) service, and I did concur in saying the same. This was all very plain, and the Duke of York (age 33) did confess that he did not see how we could do anything without a present supply of £20,000, and that he would speak to the King (age 36) next Council day, and I promised to wait on him to put him in mind of it. This I set down for my future justification, if need be, and so we broke up, and all parted, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) being not very well, but I believe made much worse by this night's sad discourse. So I home by coach, considering what the consequence of all this must be in a little time. Nothing but distraction and confusion; which makes me wish with all my heart that I were well and quietly settled with what little I have got at Brampton, where I might live peaceably, and study, and pray for the good of the King (age 36) and my country.
Note 1. The King of Denmark (age 57) was induced to conclude a treaty with the United Provinces, a secret article of which bound him to declare war against England. The order in council for the printing and publishing a declaration of war against Denmark is dated "Whitehall, Sept. 19, 1666"; annexed is "A True Declaration of all transactions between his Majesty of Great Britain and the King of Denmark, with a declaration of war against the said king, and the motives that obliged his Majesty thereunto" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 140).
The Black Prince. On 19 Oct 1667 was staged first by The King's Company at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane Convent Garden. The opening performance was attended by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37).
Edward Kynaston (age 27) played The Black Prince.
On 19 Oct 1670 Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Clarendon and Flower Backhouse Countess Clarendon were married. She being the sole heir of her father William Backhouse Philosopher brought Swallowfield House to the marriage which Henry had rebuilt. He the son of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 61) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon.
Before 1690. John Riley (age 43). Portrait of Mary Lake (age 21). Frequently described as 'Mary Lake Duchess of Chandos' Mary died two years before her husband James Brydges 1st Duke Chandos (age 16) was created Duke on 19 Oct 1714.
Mary Lake: On 18 Jul 1668 she was born to Thomas Lake (age 38) and Rebecca Langham. On 02 Feb 1695 James Brydges 1st Duke Chandos (age 22) and Mary Lake (age 26) were married. On 15 Sep 1712 Mary Lake (age 44) died. She was buried at Chandos Mausoleum Church of St Lawrence Whitchurch Lane Little Stanmore.
Between 14 Sep 1705 and 19 Oct 1705 a multinational Grand Alliance army led by Lord Peterborough (age 47) captured the city of Barcelona from its Spanish defenders, most of whom then joined the Grand Aliance army.
On 13 Sep 1705 Prince George of Hesse Darmstadt (age 36) was killed.
On 01 May 1714 Henry Paget 1st Earl Uxbridge (age 51) was appointed Envoy Extraordinary to the Elector of Hanover (age 53), the future King George I. He requested he be made an Earl but Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49) declined his request. After George's succession Henry (age 51) was created 1st Earl Uxbridge 1C 1714 on 19 Oct 1714. Mary Catesby Countess Uxbridge by marriage Countess Uxbridge.
On 19 Oct 1777 Robert Fulke Greville (age 26) and Louisa Cathcart 2nd Countess Mansfield (age 19) were married. He the son of Francis Greville 1st Earl Brooke Warwick Castle 1st Earl Warwick and Elizabeth Hamilton Countess Brooke Warwick Castle and Warwick (age 57).
Between 28 Sep 1781 and 19 Oct 1781 the 1781 Battle of Yorktown was fought was a decisive victory by a combined force of the American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington (age 49) and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, and French Army troops led by Comte de Rochambeau over British Army troops commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis (age 42).
On 19 Oct 1796 Thomas Moreton FitzHardinge Berkeley 6th Earl of Berkeley was born to Frederick Augustus Berkeley 5th Earl Berkeley (age 51) and Mary Cole. He was the first of their children to be born after their recognised legal marriage on 16 May 1796. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.
On 19 Oct 1807 Peter Drummond Burrell 2nd Baron Gwydyr 22nd Baron Willoughby (age 25) and Clementina Sarah Drummond Baroness Gwydyr Baroness Willoughby Eresby (age 21) were married. She the daughter of James Drummond 11th Earl Perth and Clementia Elphinstone Countess Perth (age 58).
On 19 Oct 1862 John Dutton 2nd Baron Sherborne (age 83) died. His son James Henry Legge Dutton 3rd Baron Sherborne (age 58) succeeded 3rd Baron Sherborne. Elizabeth Howard Baroness Sherborne by marriage Baroness Sherborne. He was buried in Saint Mary Magdalene's Church, Sherborne [Map]. Monument to John Dutton 2nd Baron Sherborne (age 83) and Mary Bilson Legge Baroness Sherborne.NOTEXT
On 19 Oct 1883 George Philip Stanhope 8th Earl Chesterfield (age 60) died without issue. His half fourth cousin Henry Edwyn Chandos Scudamore Stanhope 9th Earl of Chesterfield (age 62) succeeded 9th Earl Chesterfield 1C 1628, 9th Baron Stanhope of Shelford in Nottinghamshire.
On 19 Oct 1887 George Leicester aka Warren 2nd Baron Tabley (age 75) died. His son John Warren 3rd Baron Tabley (age 52) succeeded 3rd Baron Tabley.
On 19 Oct 1914 Herbert Hervey 5th Marquess Bristol (age 44) and Jean Cochrane (age 27) were married.
On 19 Oct 1922 Gavin Campbell 1st Marquess Breadalbane (age 71) died.
On 19 Oct 1935 John Scott 7th Duke Buccleuch 9th Duke Queensberry (age 71) died at Bowhill House, Bowhill. His son Walter Scott 8th Duke Buccleuch 10th Duke Queensberry (age 40) succeeded 8th Duke Buccleuch, 10th Duke Queensberry, 8th Earl Doncaster, 8th Baron Scott of Tynedale. Vreda Lascelles Duchess Buccleuch and Queensbury (age 35) by marriage Duchess Buccleuch Duchess Queensberry.
On 19 Oct 1951 John Spencer-Churchill 11th Duke of Marlborough (age 25) and Susan Mary Hornby (age 22) were married. He the son of John Albert William Spencer-Churchill 10th Duke Marlborough (age 54) and Alexandra Mary Cadogan Duchess Marlborough (age 51).
On 19 Oct 1964 Christopher Vane 10th Baron Barnard (age 75) died.