On this Day in History ... 19th October

19 Oct is in October.

1216 Death of King John

1330 Edward III arrests Roger Mortimer

1398 Thomas Mowbray Duel

1592 Gunpowder Plot

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1663 Great Plague of London

1705 Siege of Barcelona

1781 Battle of Yorktown

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 19th October

On 19 Oct 993 Conrad I King Burgundy (age 68) died. His son Rudolph "Idle" III King Burgundy (age 22) succeeded III King Burgundy.

On 19 Oct 1216 King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) died at Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire [Map]. His son King Henry III of England (age 9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth (age 34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 - 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? - 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl of Derby (age 48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172-1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 - 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? - 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? - 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

After 19 Oct 1216 King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) was buried in the Lady Chapel of Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Originally his effigy would have covered his coffin at floor level. Sometime around 1500 his tomb was moved to the Choir in front of the High Altar - the Chest Tomb similar to that of Prince Arthur's nearby. The Purbeck Marble effigy is the earliest of a King in England. Unusually carved to be life-like. His head supported by St Oswald and St Wulfstan, the two patron saints of Worcester. The base constructed in the 16th Century. The tomb was opened again on Monday 17 Jul 1797 at the instigation of Valentine Green (1739-1813). Inside the tomb chest, a stone coffin was discovered, containing the royal remains - see Monumental Effigies.

On 19 Oct 1330 John Neville 1299-1335, William Eland, William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 20), William Clinton 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 26) and William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 29), friends of King Edward III of England (age 17) secretly entered Nottingham Castle [Map] through tunnels, met with King Edward III of England (age 17), and arrested Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) and his son Geoffrey Mortimer (age 21) in the presence of Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35).

On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (age 31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (age 31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30). the future Henry IV (age 31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 25) and Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (age 31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (age 31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. The future Henry IV (age 31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) forever.

On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) left England never to return.

See The Chronicles of Froissart Book 4 Chapter 94.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The duke of Lancaster (age 58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his son (age 31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the earl of Derby (age 31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, - "Earl of Derby (age 31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (age 31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anything can, at his leisure, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (age 31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham [Map]. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of Lancaster (age 58) and York (age 57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (age 56), Salisbury (age 48) and Huntingdon (age 46). The earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (age 31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,- "Well then, I order that the earl marshal (age 30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (age 31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (age 30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (age 31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's1, he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (age 25) and of Portugal (age 38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be happily to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (age 31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (age 30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without hope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by him and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. - Ed.

Froissart. After 19 Oct 1398. When the day of his exile drew near, he went to Eltham where the king (age 31) resided. He found there his father (age 58), the duke of York (age 57) his uncle, and with them the earl of Northumberland (age 56), sir Henry Percy (age 34) his son, and a great many barons and knights of England, vexed that his ill fortune should force him out of England. The greater part of them accompanied him to the presence of the king (age 31), to learn his ultimate pleasure as to this banishment. The king (age 31) pretended that he was very happy to see these lords: he entertained them well, and there was a full court on the occasion. The earl of Salisbury (age 48), and the earl of Huntingdon (age 46), who had married the duke of Lancaster's (age 58) daughter (age 35), were present, and kept near to the earl of Derby (age 31), whether through dissimulation or not I am ignorant. When the time for the earl of Derby's (age 31) taking leave arrived, the king (age 31) addressed his cousin with great apparent humility, and said, "that as God might help him, the words which had passed between him and the lord marshal had much vexed him; and that he had judged the matter between them to the best of his understanding, and to satisfy the people, who had murmured greatly at this quarrel. Wherefore, cousin," he added, "to relieve you somewhat of your pain, I now remit four years of the term of your banishment, and reduce it to six years instead often. Make your preparations, and provide accordingly." "My lord," replied the earl, "I humbly thank you; and, when it shall be your good pleasure, you will extend your mercy." The lords present were satisfied with the answer, and for this time were well pleased with the king's (age 31) behaviour, for he received them kindly. Some of them returned with the earl of Derby (age 31) to London. The earl's baggage had been sent forward to Dover, and he was advised by his father, on his arrival at Calais, to go straight to Paris, and wait on the king of France (age 29) and his cousins the princes of France, for by their means he would be the sooner enabled to shorten his exile than by any other. Had not the duke of Lancaster earnestly pressed this matter, like a father anxious to console his son, he would have taken the direct road to the count d'Ostrevant in Hainault.

Froissart. After 19 Oct 1398. The day the earl of Derby (age 31) mounted his horse to leave London, upwards of forty thousand men were in the streets, bitterly lamenting his departure: "Ah, gentle earl! will you then quit us? This country will never be happy until your return, and the days until then will be insufferably long. Through envy, treachery and fear, are you driven out of a kingdom where you are more worthy to reside than those which cause it. You are of such high birth and gallantry, that none others can be compared to you. Why then will you leave us, gentle earl? You have never done wrong by thought or deed, and are incapable of so doing." Thus did men and women so piteously complain, that it was grievous to hear them. The earl of Derby (age 31) was not accompanied by trumpets, nor the music of the town, but with tears and lamentations. Some of the knights who attended him whispered each other-'See the conduct of the people, how readily they complain for trifles! Whoever is inclined to stir up the Londoners against the king may soon effect it, and force the king to seek another country, and the earl of Derby (age 31) to remain: but this is not the moment, for, since my lord of Lancaster suffers it, we must be patient."

On 19 Oct 1469 Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 17) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 18) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon. She the daughter of John II King Castile and Isabella Aviz Queen Consort Castile (age 41). He the son of John II King Aragon (age 71) and Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon. They were second cousins. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Around 19 Oct 1469 Bishop John Fisher was born to Robert Fisher in Beverley [Map].

On 19 Oct 1505 Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 53) and Germaine Foix Queen Consort Aragon (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon. The difference in their ages was 35 years. She the daughter of Jean Foix Count Étampes and Marie Valois Viscountess Narbonne. He the son of John II King Aragon and Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon. They were great uncle and niece.

Letters and Papers 1535. 19 Oct 1535. R.O. 639. Sir Francis Brian to Cromwell.

Sends a letter which he has received from Dr. Neckam, who has got the rule of the priory of Worcester. Neckam and his brethren are still troubled by the cellarer, notwithstanding Cromwell's letter, and Brian requests Cromwell to write again. The King's Grace is "mery;" he and the Queen (age 34) remove from the Vyne to Mr. Comptroller's to-day, and on Thursday to Bramsell House, on Friday to Esthamsted, and on Tuesday to Windsor. From the Vyne, 19 Oct. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Oct 1559. The xix day of October the prynche of Swaythen (age 25) whent to the court agayn, for my lord Robart Dudley (age 27) gave ym a grett bankett [banquet].

On 19 Oct 1592 Anthony Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montagu (age 18) inherited Cowdray House [Map]. During his tenure Guy Fawkes was briefly employed as a footman and, as a consequence, Anthony Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montagu (age 18) was briefly imprisoned for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot.

After 19 Oct 1592. St Mary's Church Easebourne Midhurst [Map]. Monument to Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montagu (deceased), Jane Radclyffe and Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 54). The monument was originally in Midhurst but was subsequently moved. As there was less room, it was re-arranged, with Lord Montague kneeling behind and above the two recumbent effigies of his wives, instead of having a wife on either side, with obelisks at the corners.

Jane Radclyffe: she was born to Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex and Margaret Stanley Countess Sussex. Before 22 Jul 1552 Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montagu and she were married. She the daughter of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex and Margaret Stanley Countess Sussex. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 19 Oct 1605 Thomas Browne was born to Thomas Browne of Upton in Cheshire (age 45).

On 19 Oct 1610 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde was born to Thomas Butler Viscount Thurles (age 29) and Elizabeth Poyntz (age 23).

On 19 Oct 1633 Benedetto Gennari II was born.

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn [Map] ...

Daniel Axtell (age 38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall [Map].

Francis Hacker was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1660. Office in the morning. This morning my dining-room was finished with green serge hanging and gilt leather, which is very handsome. This morning Hacker and Axtell (age 38) were hanged and quartered, as the rest are. This night I sat up late to make up my accounts ready against to-morrow for my Lord. I found him to be above £80 in my debt, which is a good sight, and I bless God for it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1663. After being a little with the Duke (age 30), and being invited to dinner to my Lord Barkeley's (age 61), and so, not knowing how to spend our time till noon, Sir W. Batten (age 62) and I took coach, and to the Coffee-house in Cornhill [Map]1; where much talk about the Turk's proceedings, and that the plague is got to Amsterdam, brought by a ship from Argier; and it is also carried to Hambrough. The Duke says the King (age 33) purposes to forbid any of their ships coming into the river. The Duke also told us of several Christian commanders (French) gone over to the Turks to serve them; and upon inquiry I find that the King of France (age 25) do by this aspire to the Empire, and so to get the Crown of Spayne also upon the death of the King (age 33), which is very probable, it seems.

Note 1. This may be the Coffee House in Exchange Alley, which had for a sign, Morat the Great, or The Great Turk, where coffee was sold in berry, in powder, and pounded in a mortar. There is a token of the house, see "Boyne's Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., p. 592.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1666. After a little more discourse, I left them, and to White Hall, where I met with Sir Robert Viner (age 35), who told me a little of what, in going home, I had seen; also a little of the disorder and mutiny among the seamen at the Treasurer's office, which did trouble me then and all day since, considering how many more seamen will come to towne every day, and no money for them. A Parliament sitting, and the Exchange [Map] close by, and an enemy to hear of, and laugh at it1. Viner (age 35) too, and Backewell, were sent for this afternoon; and was before the King (age 36) and his Cabinet about money; they declaring they would advance no more, it being discoursed of in the House of Parliament for the King (age 36) to issue out his privy-seals to them to command them to trust him, which gives them reason to decline trusting. But more money they are persuaded to lend, but so little that (with horrour I speake it), coming after the Council was up, with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), Sir W. Coventry (age 38), Lord Bruncker (age 46), and myself, I did lay the state of our condition before the Duke of York (age 33), that the fleete could not go out without several things it wanted, and we could not have without money, particularly rum and bread, which we have promised the man Swan to helpe him to £200 of his debt, and a few other small sums of £200 a piece to some others, and that I do foresee the Duke of York (age 33) would call us to an account why the fleete is not abroad, and we cannot answer otherwise than our want of money; and that indeed we do not do the King (age 36) any service now, but do rather abuse and betray his service by being there, and seeming to do something, while we do not. Sir G. Carteret (age 56) asked me (just in these words, for in this and all the rest I set down the very words for memory sake, if there should be occasion) whether £50 or £60 would do us any good; and when I told him the very rum man must have £200, he held up his eyes as if we had asked a million. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) told the Duke of York (age 33) plainly he did rather desire to have his commission called in than serve in so ill a place, where he cannot do the King (age 36) service, and I did concur in saying the same. This was all very plain, and the Duke of York (age 33) did confess that he did not see how we could do anything without a present supply of £20,000, and that he would speak to the King (age 36) next Council day, and I promised to wait on him to put him in mind of it. This I set down for my future justification, if need be, and so we broke up, and all parted, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) being not very well, but I believe made much worse by this night's sad discourse. So I home by coach, considering what the consequence of all this must be in a little time. Nothing but distraction and confusion; which makes me wish with all my heart that I were well and quietly settled with what little I have got at Brampton, where I might live peaceably, and study, and pray for the good of the King (age 36) and my country.

Note 1. The King of Denmark (age 57) was induced to conclude a treaty with the United Provinces, a secret article of which bound him to declare war against England. The order in council for the printing and publishing a declaration of war against Denmark is dated "Whitehall, Sept. 19, 1666"; annexed is "A True Declaration of all transactions between his Majesty of Great Britain and the King of Denmark, with a declaration of war against the said king, and the motives that obliged his Majesty thereunto" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 140).

On 19 Oct 1667 The Black Prince was staged first by The King's Company at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane Convent Garden. The opening performance was attended by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37).

Edward Kynaston (age 27) played The Black Prince.

On 19 Oct 1682 Thomas Browne (age 77) died.

On 19 Oct 1704 Elizabeth Gell died. St Mary's Church, Wirksworth [Map]. Monument to Elizabeth Gell.

Elizabeth Gell: she was born to John Gell 2nd Baronet and Katherine Packer of Shelingford Lady Gell.

Between 14 Sep 1705 and 19 Oct 1705 a multinational Grand Alliance army led by Lord Peterborough (age 47) captured the city of Barcelona from its Spanish defenders, most of whom then joined the Grand Aliance army.

On 13 Sep 1705 Prince George of Hesse Darmstadt (age 36) was killed.

On 01 May 1714 Henry Paget 1st Earl Uxbridge (age 51) was appointed Envoy Extraordinary to the Elector of Hanover (age 53), the future King George I. He requested he be made an Earl but Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49) declined his request. After George's succession Henry (age 51) was created 1st Earl Uxbridge on 19 Oct 1714. Mary Catesby Countess Uxbridge by marriage Countess Uxbridge.

On 19 Oct 1723 Godfrey Kneller (age 77) died.

Between 28 Sep 1781 and 19 Oct 1781 the 1781 Battle of Yorktown was fought was a decisive victory by a combined force of the American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington (age 49) and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, and French Army troops led by Comte de Rochambeau over British Army troops commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis (age 42).

Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis (age 42) and Charles Gould aka Morgan 2nd Baronet (age 21) were captured.

On 19 Oct 1839 Jane Morris nee Burden was born to Robert Burden Stableman (age 29) and Ann Maizey Domestic Servant (age 33) at St Helen's Passage.

On 19 Oct 1859 Andrea Carlo Lucchesi was born.

On 19 Oct 1867 Bishop John Lonsdale (age 79) died at Eccleshall Castle, Staffordshire [Map] of a rupture of a blood-vessel in the brain. He was buried at Holy Trinity Church, Eccleshall [Map].

On 19 Oct 1923 Adolfo Polloni (age 68) died.

On 19 Oct 1957 Vere Gordon Childe (age 65) died.

19 Oct 2000. St Vincent's Church, Caythorpe [Map]. The Arnhem Oak.

Births on the 19th October

Before 19 Oct 1275 Samson Habsburg was born to Rudolph I King Romans (age 57) and Gertrude Hohenburg (age 50).

On 19 Oct 1373 Elizabeth Bradeston was born to Thomas Bradeston (age 21).

Around 19 Oct 1469 Bishop John Fisher was born to Robert Fisher in Beverley [Map].

On 19 Oct 1537 John Habsburg Spain was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 37) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 33). Coefficient of inbreeding 10.98%.

On 19 Oct 1538 Dorothie Beaupré was born to Edmonde Beaupré of Beaupré Hall Norfolk.

On 19 Oct 1605 Thomas Browne was born to Thomas Browne of Upton in Cheshire (age 45).

On 19 Oct 1606 Garrard Napier 1st Baronet was born.

On 19 Oct 1610 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde was born to Thomas Butler Viscount Thurles (age 29) and Elizabeth Poyntz (age 23).

On 19 Oct 1624 Robert Wright aka Villiers aka Danvers was born illegitimately to Robert Howard (age 40) and Frances Coke Viscountess Purbeck (age 22) in Cripplegate Ward. Illegitimate. His father probably Robert Howard (age 40) with whom his mother was having a long term affair. His mother was married to John Villiers 1st Viscount Purbeck (age 33). He was baptised Robert Wright.

On 19 Oct 1626 Miles Stapleton 1st Baronet was born to Gilbert Stapleton (age 31) and Helen Gascoigne (age 31).

On 19 Oct 1633 Benedetto Gennari II was born.

On or before 19 Oct 1649 John Wolstenholme 3rd Baronet was born to Thomas Wolstenholme 2nd Baronet (age 27). He was baptised on 19 Oct 1649.

On or before 19 Oct 1653 Francis Stonehouse was born.

On 19 Oct 1716 Alice Astley Countess Tankerville was born to John Astley 2nd Baronet (age 29).

On or before 19 Oct 1725 John Saunders Sebright 6th Baronet was born to Thomas Saunders Sebright 4th Baronet (age 33) and Henrietta Dashwood Lady Sebright (age 40). He was baptised on 19 Oct 1725.

On 19 Oct 1739 Cecil Parker Perceval was born to John Perceval 2nd Earl Egmont (age 28) and Catherine Cecil Countess Egmont (age 17).

On 19 Oct 1744 John Leslie 11th Earl Rothes was born to John Leslie 10th Earl Rothes (age 46) and Hannah Cole Countess Rothes.

On 19 Oct 1766 George Pigot 3rd Baronet was born.

On 19 Oct 1767 William Flower 3rd Viscount Ashbrook was born to William Flower 2nd Viscount Ashbrook (age 23) and Elizabeth Ridge Viscountess Ashbrook (age 21).

On 19 Oct 1770 Anna Maria Denison Baroness Wenlock was born to Joseph Denison (age 44).

On 19 Oct 1774 Charles Cornwallis 2nd Marquess Cornwallis was born to Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis (age 35) and Jemima Tullekin Jones Marchioness Cornwallis.

On 19 Oct 1774 Anne Sara Thellusson was born.

On 19 Oct 1784 Reverend Henry Moore was born to Ponsonby Moore (age 48).

On 19 Oct 1796 Thomas Moreton FitzHardinge Berkeley 6th Earl of Berkeley was born to Frederick Augustus Berkeley 5th Earl Berkeley (age 51) and Mary Cole. He was the first of their children to be born after their recognised legal marriage on 16 May 1796. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 19 Oct 1820 Admiral Reginald John Macdonald of Clanranald was born to Reginald George Macdonald of Clanranald and Benbecula and Caroline Edgecumbe.

On 19 Oct 1826 Ralph Tollemache was born to Hugh Francis Tollemache (age 24).

On 19 Oct 1828 Emily Charlotte Burgh Countess Cork was born to Ulick Burgh 1st Marquess Clanricarde (age 25) and Harriet Canning Marchioness Clanricarde (age 24).

On 19 Oct 1829 James Walker 2nd Baronet was born to James Walker 1st Baronet (age 26).

On 19 Oct 1832 Allen Bathurst 6th Earl Bathurst was born to Thomas Seymour Bathurst (age 37) and Julia Hankey.

On 19 Oct 1839 Jane Morris nee Burden was born to Robert Burden Stableman (age 29) and Ann Maizey Domestic Servant (age 33) at St Helen's Passage.

On 19 Oct 1859 Andrea Carlo Lucchesi was born.

On 19 Oct 1871 Mary Elizabeth Brinsley Sheridan Lady Stracey was born to Algernon Thomas Brinsley Sheridan (age 26).

On 19 Oct 1874 Cecil Walter Paget was born.

On 19 Oct 1949 Anthony Dysart Grey 7th Baronet was born to Edward Elton Grey (age 29).

On 19 Oct 1979 Frederick Hervey 8th Marquess of Bristol was born to Victor Hervey 6th Marquess of Bristol (age 64) and Yvonne Marie Sutton Marchioness Bristol (age 34).

Marriages on the 19th October

On 19 Oct 1378 Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk and Marjory Stewart (age 33) were married.

Before 19 Oct 1401 John Charleton 4th Baron Cherleton (age 39) and Alice Fitzalan Baroness Cherleton were married. She by marriage Baroness Cherleton. She the daughter of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel and Elizabeth Bohun Countess Arundel and Surrey. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

After 19 Oct 1418, and before 1427, Thomas Fettiplace (age 35) and Beatrice Aviz Duchess Exeter (age 36) were married. She the illegitmate daughter of King John I of Portugal (age 66) and Ines Peres.

On 19 Oct 1469 Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 17) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 18) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon. She the daughter of John II King Castile and Isabella Aviz Queen Consort Castile (age 41). He the son of John II King Aragon (age 71) and Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon. They were second cousins. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 19 Oct 1505 Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 53) and Germaine Foix Queen Consort Aragon (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon. The difference in their ages was 35 years. She the daughter of Jean Foix Count Étampes and Marie Valois Viscountess Narbonne. He the son of John II King Aragon and Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon. They were great uncle and niece.

Before 19 Oct 1626 Gilbert Stapleton (age 31) and Helen Gascoigne (age 31) were married. He the son of Richard Stapleton and Elizabeth Pierrepont Countess Kellie (age 58).

On 19 Oct 1637 David Carnegie 2nd Earl Northesk and Jean Maule were married. She the daughter of Patrick Maule 1st Earl Panmure (age 52) and Frances Stanhope. He the son of John Carnegie 1st Earl Northesk (age 58).

After 19 Oct 1646 John Glynne (age 44) and Anne Manning Lady Lawley were married.

On 19 Oct 1670 Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Clarendon and Flower Backhouse Countess Clarendon were married. She being the sole heir of her father William Backhouse brought Swallowfield House to the marriage which Henry had rebuilt. He the son of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 61) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon.

On 19 Oct 1692 Hugh Fortescue (age 27) and Bridget Boscawen were married. They were second cousins.

On or after 19 Oct 1693, on which day the license is dated, James Darcy 1st Baron Darcy of Navan (age 43) and Mary Hicks were married.

On 19 Oct 1731 Joseph Banks (age 40) and Catherine Collingwood were married. They had two sons.

On 19 Oct 1777 John Cotes and Lucy Courtenay were married. She the daughter of William Courtenay 7th Earl Devon and Frances Finch Countess Devon.

On 19 Oct 1799 John Rodney (age 34) and Louisa Martha Stratford (age 20) were married. She the daughter of John Stratford 3rd Earl Aldborough (age 59) and Elizabeth Hamilton Countess Aldborough (age 42).

On 19 Oct 1807 Peter Drummond Burrell 2nd Baron Gwydyr 22nd Baron Willoughby (age 25) and Clementina Sarah Drummond Baroness Gwydyr and Willoughby (age 21) were married. She the daughter of James Drummond 11th Earl Perth and Clementia Elphinstone Countess Perth (age 58).

On 19 Oct 1819 William Verner 1st Baronet (age 36) and Harriet Wingfield were married.

On 19 Oct 1826 Frederick Vincent 11th Baronet (age 28) and Louisa Norris (age 24) were married.

On 19 Oct 1826 Henry Murray and Catherine Otway (age 17) were married.

On 19 Oct 1833 Edward Crofton 2nd Baron Crofton (age 27) and Georgina Paget Lady Crofton (age 33) were married. She the daughter of Henry William Paget 1st Marquess Anglesey (age 65) and Caroline Elizabeth Villiers Duchess Argyll (age 58).

On 19 Oct 1841 Thomas Neville Abdy 1st Baronet (age 30) and Harriet Alston were married. They had at least two daughters and three sons each of which succeeded to the Baronetcy.

On 19 Oct 1860 Charles Villiers (age 30) and Florence Mary Tyssen-Amherst were married.

On 19 Oct 1866 Evelyn Boscawen 7th Viscount Falmouth (age 19) and Kathleen Douglas-Pennant Viscount Falmouth (age 5) were married.

On 19 Oct 1880 Frederick George Milner 7th Baronet (age 30) and Adeline Gertrude Denison Beckett-Denison (age 21) were married.

On 19 Oct 1886 Montagu Curzon (age 40) and Esmé Fitzroy (age 27) were married. He the son of Richard William Penn Curzon Howe 1st Earl Howe and Anne Gore Countess Howe. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 19 Oct 1887 Edward Albert Sassoon 2nd Baronet (age 31) and Aline Caroline de Rothschild (age 19) were married two days before her twentieth birthday in a ceremony in the synagogue at the Rue de la Victoire in Paris. The couple set up home at 25 Kensington Gore, where Aline, a talented artist, set up her own studio.

On 19 Oct 1889 Robert Gilmour 1st Baronet (age 32) and Susan Lygon (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Frederick Lygon 6th Earl Beauchamp (age 58) and Mary Catherine Stanhope Countess Beauchamp.

On 19 Oct 1897 Edward Harvey Williams (age 32) and Annie Caroline-Molesworth-St Aubyn were married.

On 19 Oct 1914 Herbert Hervey 5th Marquess of Bristol (age 44) and Jean Cochrane (age 27) were married.

On 19 Oct 1916 Hugh Lloyd Thomas and Guendaline Ada Bellew were married.

On 19 Oct 1951 John Spencer-Churchill 11th Duke of Marlborough (age 25) and Susan Mary Hornby (age 22) were married. He the son of John Albert William Spencer-Churchill 10th Duke of Marlborough (age 54) and Alexandra Mary Cadogan Duchess of Marlborough (age 51).

Deaths on the 19th October

On 19 or 20 Oct 1765 Amalie von Wendt Countess of Yarmouth (age 61) died.

On 19 Oct 993 Conrad I King Burgundy (age 68) died. His son Rudolph "Idle" III King Burgundy (age 22) succeeded III King Burgundy.

On 19 Oct 1103 Humbert "Fat" Savoy II Count Savoy (age 38) died. His son Amadeus Savoy III Count Savoy (age 8) succeeded III Count Savoy.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 19 Oct 1122. Ralph, the twenty-fifth archbishop of Canterbury, departed this life at Canterbury, Kent [Map] on Thursday the fourteenth of the calends of November (19th October).

On 19 Oct 1175 Guy Count of Nevers died.

On 19 Oct 1216 King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) died at Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire [Map]. His son King Henry III of England (age 9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth (age 34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 - 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? - 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl of Derby (age 48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172-1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 - 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? - 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? - 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

On 19 Oct 1271 Philip Basset (age 87) died.

On 19 Oct 1356 Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville (age 70) died. She was buried at Wigmore Abbey [Map].

On 19 Oct 1362 Alfonso Ivrea (age 3) died.

On 19 Oct 1398 Katharine de la Plaunche (age 58) died.

On 19 Oct 1401 John Charleton 4th Baron Cherleton (age 39) died. On 19 Oct 1401 His brother Edward Charleton 5th Baron Cherleton (age 31) succeeded 5th Baron Cherleton. Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster (age 31) by marriage Baroness Cherleton.

On 19 Oct 1414 John Lovell 6th Baron Lovel (age 39) died. His son William Lovell 7th Baron Lovel 4th Baron Holand (age 17) succeeded 7th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh.

On 19 Oct 1419 Archbishop Richard Talbot (age 36) died.

On 19 Oct 1432 John Mowbray 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 40) died at Epworth. His son John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 17) succeeded 3rd Duke Norfolk, 6th Earl Norfolk, 4th Earl Nottingham, 9th Baron Mowbray, 10th Baron Segrave and Earl Marshal.

On 19 Oct 1479 Joan aka Jane Beaufort (age 77) died.

On 19 Oct 1501 Amalia of Saxony (age 65) died.

Before 19 Oct 1523 John Warburton (age 64) died.

On 19 Oct 1543 Thomas Astley of Hilmorton and Melton Constable (age 74) died.

On 19 Oct 1543 John Wood aka Wode (age 74) died.

On 19 Oct 1543 Thomas Astley (age 74) died.

On 19 Oct 1556 Bishop Henry Man died. He was buried at St Andrew Undershaft, Aldgate Ward.

On 19 Oct 1576 George Gordon 5th Earl Huntley died. His son George Gordon 1st Marquess Huntly (age 14) succeeded 6th Earl Huntley.

On 19 Oct 1577 Philip Copley (age 51) died in Sprotbrough, South Yorkshire.

On 19 Oct 1587 Francesco I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany (age 46) died.

On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl of Arundel (age 38) died of dysentery at Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map], reburied at Arundel Cathedral, Sussex [Map] and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel Castle [Map]. Earl Arundel Sussex, Earl Surrey, Baron Maltravers, Baron Arundel, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

He had been imprisoned for ten years and had never seen his son and heir Thomas Howard 21st Earl of Arundel 4th Earl of Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk (age 10) who had been born three months after he was imprisoned.

On 19 Oct 1607 Andrew Noel (age 49) died at Brooke, Leicestershire.

On 19 Oct 1608 Geoffrey Fenton (age 69) died.

On 19 Oct 1646 Thomas Lawley 1st Baronet (age 65) died. His son Francis Lawley 2nd Baronet (age 16) succeeded 2nd Baronet Lawley of Spoonhill in Shropshire.

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn [Map] ...

Daniel Axtell (age 38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall [Map].

Francis Hacker was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

On 19 Oct 1667 Hugh Hare 1st Baron Coleraine (age 61) died. His son Henry Hare 2nd Baron Coleraine (age 31) succeeded 2nd Baron Coleraine. Constantia Lucy Baroness Coleraine by marriage Baroness Coleraine.

On 19 Oct 1681 Randal Beresford 2nd Baronet (age 45) died. His son Tristram Beresford 3rd Baronet (age 12) succeeded 3rd Baronet Beresford of Coleraine in Londonderry.

On 19 Oct 1682 Thomas Browne (age 77) died.

On 19 Oct 1683 Mary Goodyer (age 23) died.

On or before 19 Oct 1702 Thomas Nightingale 2nd Baronet (age 73) died. He was buried on 19 Oct 1702. His nephew Bridges Nightingale 3rd Baronet succeeded 3rd Baronet Nightingale of Newport Pond in Essex.

On 19 Oct 1704 Elizabeth Gell died. St Mary's Church, Wirksworth [Map]. Monument to Elizabeth Gell.

Elizabeth Gell: she was born to John Gell 2nd Baronet and Katherine Packer of Shelingford Lady Gell.

Between 14 Sep 1705 and 19 Oct 1705 a multinational Grand Alliance army led by Lord Peterborough (age 47) captured the city of Barcelona from its Spanish defenders, most of whom then joined the Grand Aliance army.

On 13 Sep 1705 Prince George of Hesse Darmstadt (age 36) was killed.

On 19 Oct 1721 Randal MacDonnell 4th Earl of Antrim (age 41) died. His son Alexander MacDonnell 5th Earl of Antrim (age 8) succeeded 5th Earl Antrim 1C.

On 19 Oct 1723 Godfrey Kneller (age 77) died.

On 19 Oct 1725 Richard Anguish aka Allin 1st Baronet (age 66) died. His son Thomas Allin 2nd Baronet (age 14) succeeded 2nd Baronet Allin of Somerleyton in Suffolk.

On 19 Oct 1733 Thomas Molyneux 1st Baronet (age 72) died. His son Daniel Molyneux 2nd Baronet (age 25) succeeded 2nd Baronet Molyneux of Castle Dillon in Armagh.

On 19 Oct 1736 Simon Biddulph (age 75) died.

On 19 Oct 1736 Margaret Culpepper (age 70) died.

On 19 Oct 1739 John Lawson 3rd Baronet (age 50) died. His son Henry Lawson 4th Baronet (age 27) succeeded 4th Baronet Lawson of Brough Hall in Yorkshire.

On 19 Oct 1753 Richard Leveson-Gower (age 27) died.

On 19 Oct 1758 Francis Fane (age 62) died.

On 19 Oct 1765 Edward Blount 5th Baronet (age 41) died. His brother Walter Blount 6th Baronet (age 40) succeeded 6th Baronet Blount of Sodington.

On 19 Oct 1766 William Evelyn Evelyn (age 79) died.

On 19 Oct 1768 Thomas Archer 1st Baron Archer (age 73) died. His son Andrew Archer 2nd Baron Archer (age 32) succeeded 2nd Baron Archer of Umberslade. Sarah West Baroness Archer by marriage Baroness Archer of Umberslade.

On 19 Oct 1789 Francis Samuel Drake 1st Baronet (age 60) died without issue. Baronet Drake of Prospect in Devon extinct.

On 19 Oct 1793 Mary Panton Duchess Ancaster and Kesteven died.

On 19 Oct 1800 John Meade 1st Earl of Clanwilliam (age 56) died at St Stephen's Green, Dublin.

On 19 Oct 1816 Walter Campbell of Shawfield (age 74) died.

On 19 Oct 1816 Walter Campbell 3rd of Islay (age 74) died.

On 19 Oct 1819 Julia Gaskarth (age 82) died.

On 19 Oct 1830 William Anson (age 29) died.

On 19 Oct 1832 Emily Charlotte Lennox (age 68) died.

On 19 Oct 1838 John Cheney (age 73) died at Greene County Georgia.

On 19 Oct 1841 Caroline Mallet Giffard (age 41) died.

On 19 Oct 1851 Duchess Marie-Thérèse Duchess of Angoulême (age 72) died.

On 19 Oct 1863 James Haughton Langston (age 67) died.

On 19 Oct 1864 Kenelm Somerville (age 76) died.

On 19 Oct 1867 Bishop John Lonsdale (age 79) died at Eccleshall Castle, Staffordshire [Map] of a rupture of a blood-vessel in the brain. He was buried at Holy Trinity Church, Eccleshall [Map].

On 19 Oct 1871 Captain Henry James Ramsden (age 71) died.

On 19 Oct 1872 John Knight aka Bruce aka Bruce-Pryce (age 88) died.

On 19 Oct 1872 Admiral Thomas John Cochrane (age 83) died.

On 19 Oct 1883 Egerton Vernon-Harcourt (age 80) died.

On 19 Oct 1887 George Leicester aka Warren 2nd Baron Tabley (age 75) died. His son John Warren 3rd Baron Tabley (age 52) succeeded 3rd Baron Tabley.

On 19 Oct 1887 George Warren 2nd Baron de Tabley (age 75) died.

On 19 Oct 1889 Luis I King Portugal (age 50) died.

On 19 Oct 1906 Major-General George Allgood (age 78) died at Blindburn [Map].

On 19 Oct 1907 Major Paulyn Abney-Hastings (age 50) died.

On 19 Oct 1911 Alexander Francis Bowes-Lyon (age 24) died.

On 19 Oct 1914 Captain Francis Percy Campbell Pemberton (age 29) was killed in action at Moorslede, near Roulers, Belgium whilst serving with "C" Section. He was buried at Dadizeele New British Cemetery, Belgium, Grave VI. D. 17.

On 19 Oct 1918 Edward Fry (age 90) died.

On 19 Oct 1922 Gavin Campbell 1st Marquess Breadalbane (age 71) died.

On 19 Oct 1923 Adolfo Polloni (age 68) died.

On 19 Oct 1935 Frank Meyer 2nd Baronet (age 49) was killed whilst hunting. His son Anthony Meyer 3rd Baronet (age 14) succeeded 3rd Baronet Meyer of Shortgrove.

On 19 Oct 1937 Ernest Rutherford 1st Baron Rutherford Physicist (age 66) died.

On 19 Oct 1944 Alexandra Harriet Paget (age 79) died.

On 19 Oct 1957 Vere Gordon Childe (age 65) died.

On 19 Oct 1964 Christopher Vane 10th Baron Barnard (age 75) died. His son Harry John Neville Vane 11th Baron Barnard (age 41) succeeded 11th Baron Barnard. Davina Mary Cecil Baroness Barnard (age 33) by marriage Baroness Barnard.

On 19 Oct 1977 Geoffrey Hope-Morley 2nd Baron Hollenden (age 92) died without male issue. His nephew Gordon Hope Hope-Morley 3rd Baron Hollenden (age 63) succeeded 3rd Baron Hollenden of Leigh in Kent.

On 19 Oct 1996 Charles Edward Pevensey Tennant (age 39) died of Hepatitis C.