On this Day in History ... 21 January

21 Jan is in January.

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1560 Consecration of new Bishops

1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1667 Poll Bill

1793 Execution of Louis XVI

1876 Abbots Ripton Railway Disaster

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 21 Jan 1140. Thurstan, Archbishop of York, retires to Pontefract. Thurstan (age 70), the twenty-sixth archbishop of York in succession, a man advanced in years and full of days, put off the old man and put on the new, retiring from worldly affairs, and becoming a monk at Pontefract, on the twelfth of the ides of February (21st January), and departing this life in a good old age, on the nones [the 5th] of February, he lies buried there.

On 21 Jan 1264 Alexander Dunkeld Prince Scotland was born to Alexander III King Scotland (age 22) and Margaret Queen of Scotland (age 23) at Jedburgh. He a grandson of King Henry III of England.

On 21 Jan 1397 Albert Wittelsbach II Duke Bavaria Straubing (age 28) died.

On 21 Jan 1398 Frederick Hohenzollern V Burgrave Nuremburg (age 64) died. His son John Hohenzollern Burgrave Nuremburg (age 29) succeeded III Burgrave Nuremberg.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 21 Jan 1437. And that yere the kynge (age 15) ordaynyde the Parlyment to be holde at Cambridge [Map] Caumbryge, but aftyr warde by goode counselle hyt was tornyde and holde att Westemyster; the whyche Parlyment be ganne the xxj day of Janyver. And to that Parlyment come the Byschoppe of Tyrwynne [Thérouanne] ande the counselle of the Erle of Armanacke (age 40).

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. The Queen (deceased) died two hours after midday, and eight hours afterwards she was opened by command of those who had charge of it on the part of the King, and no one was allowed to be present, not even her confessor or physician, but only the candle-maker of the house and one servant and a "compagnon," who opened her, and although it was not their business, and they were no surgeons, yet they have often done such a duty, at least the principal, who on coming out told the Bishop of Llandaff, her confessor, but in great secrecy as a thing which would cost his life, that he had found the body and all the internal organs as sound as possible except the heart, which was quite black and hideous, and even after he had washed it three times it did not change color. He divided it through the middle and found the interior of the same color, which also would not change on being washed, and also some black round thing which clung closely to the outside of the heart. On my man asking the physician if she had died of poison he replied that the thing was too evident by what had been said to the Bishop her confessor, and if that had not been disclosed the thing was sufficiently clear from the report and circumstances of the illness.

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Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

The good Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.

The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. 141. You could not conceive the joy that the King and those who favor this concubinage have shown at the death of the good Queen, especially the earl of Wiltshire (age 59) and his son (age 33), who said it was a pity the Princess (age 19) did not keep company with her. The King, or the Saturday he heard the news, exclaimed "God be praised that we are free from all suspicion of war"; and that the time had come that he would manage the French better than he had done hitherto, because they would do now whatever he wanted from a fear lest he should ally himself again with your Majesty, seeing that the cause which disturbed your friendship was gone. On the following day, Sunday, the King was clad all over in yellow, from top to toe, except the white feather he had in his bonnet, and the Little Bastard (age 2) was conducted to mass with trumpets and other great triumphs. After dinner the King entered the room in which the ladies danced, and there did several things like one transported with joy. At last he sent for his Little Bastard (age 2), and carrying her in his arms he showed her first to one and then to another. He has done the like on other days since, and has run some courses (couru quelques lances) at Greenwich.From all I hear the grief of the people at this news is incredible, and the indignation they feel against the King, on whom they lay the blame of her death, part of them believing it was by poison and others by grief; and they are the more indignant at the joy the King has exhibited. This would be a good time, while the people are so indignant, for the Pope to proceed to the necessary remedies, by which these men would be all the more taken by surprise, as they have no suspicion of any application being made for them now that the Queen is dead, and do not believe that the Pope dare take upon him to make war especially while a good part of Germany and other Princes are in the same predicament. Nevertheless, now that the Queen is dead, it is right for her honor and that of all her kin that she be declared to have died Queen, and it is right especially to proceed to the execution of the sentence, because it touches the Princess, and to dissolve this marriage which is no wise rendered valid by the Queen's death, and, if there be another thing, that he cannot have this woman to wife nor even any other during her life according to law, unless the Pope give him a dispensation; and it appears that those here have some hope of drawing the Pope to their side, for only three days ago Cromwell said openly at table that a legate might possibly be seen here a few days hence, who would come to confirm all their business, and yesterday commands were issued to the curates and other preachers not to preach against purgatory, images, or adoration of the saints, or other doubtful questions until further orders. Perhaps by this means and others they hope to lull his Holiness to sleep until your Majesty has parted from him, which would be a very serious and irremediable evil. I think those here will have given charge to the courier, whom they despatched in great haste to give the news of the Queen's death in France, to go on to Rome in order to prevent the immediate publication of censures.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. Great preparation is made for the Queen's burial, which, as Cromwell sent to inform me, will be so magnificent that even those who see it all will hardly believe it. It is to take place on the 1st February. The chief mourner will be the King's niece (age 17), daughter of the Duke of Suffolk (age 52); the Duchess of Suffolk (age 16) will be the second; the third will be the wife of the Duke of Norfolk's son. of others there will be a great multitude; I think they mean to dress in mourning about 600 persons. Nothing is said yet of the lords who are to be present. Cromwell again, since I wrote to your Majesty, has twice sent to press on my acceptance the mourning cloth which the King wished to give me, and would gladly by this means bind me to be present at the interment, which the King greatly desires, but following the advice of the Queen Regent in Flanders, of the Princess, and of several good personages, I will not go, since they do not mean to bury her as Queen. I have refused the said cloth, saying simply that I did not do it of any ill intention, but only because I was already provided. The King had intended, or those of his Council, that solemn exequies should be made at the Cathedral Church of this city, and a number of carpenters and others had already been set to work to make preparations, but, since then, the whole thing has been broken off; I do not know if it was ever sincerely intended, or if it was only a pretence for the satisfaction of the people, to remove sinister opinions.

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Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Jan 1560. The xxj day of January by ix of the cloke my lord mare (age 64) and the althermen whent by water to the cowrt in skarlett, and ther he was mad knyght by the quen (age 26).

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1560 Consecration of new Bishops

On 21 Jan 1560 two Bishops were consecrated ...

Bishop Nicholas Bullingham (age 40) was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln.

Archbishop Thomas Young (age 53) was consecrated Bishop of St David's at Lambeth Palace [Map] by Archbishop Matthew Parker (age 55).

On 21 Jan 1640 Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport (age 43) participated with King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) in the extravagant masque on the theme of Philogenes, royal Lover of the People.

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On 21 Jan 1653 John Digby 1st Earl Bristol (age 72) died in Paris [Map]. His son George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol (age 40) succeeded 2nd Earl Bristol 1C 1622. Anne Russell Countess Bristol (age 33) by marriage Countess Bristol.


Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60), the Comptroller (age 50) and I to Westminster, to the Commissioners for paying off the Army and Navy, where the Duke of Albemarle (age 52) was; and we sat with our hats on, and did discourse about paying off the ships and do find that they do intend to undertake it without our help; and we are glad of it, for it is a work that will much displease the poor seamen, and so we are glad to have no hand in it. From thence to the Exchequer, and took £200 and carried it home, and so to the office till night, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), whither came my Lady Batten and her daughter, and then I sent for my wife, and so we sat talking till it was late. So home to supper and then to bed, having eat no dinner to-day. It is strange what weather we have had all this winter; no cold at all; but the ways are dusty, and the flyes fly up and down, and the rose-bushes are full of leaves, such a time of the year as was never known in this world before here. This day many more of the Fifth Monarchy men were hanged.

Poll Bill

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1667. Here spoke with my Lord Bellasses (age 52) about getting some money for Tangier, which he doubts we shall not be able to do out of the Poll Bill, it being so strictly tied for the Navy. He tells me the Lords have passed the Bill for the accounts with some little amendments.

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On 22 Oct 1691 Lucius Knightley (age 68) died in Fawsley. On 21 Jan 1710 Elizabeth Dent (age 77) died. They were buried in St Mary's Church, Fawsley [Map].

Lucius Knightley: On 03 Apr 1623 he was born to Richard Knightley (age 43) in Fawsley. Before 22 Oct 1691 Lucius Knightley (age 68) and Elizabeth Dent (age 58) were married.

Elizabeth Dent: On 02 Nov 1632 she was born.

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Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries. 21 Jan 1719. The Society by Balloting ordered that two prints of King Richard II should be delivered to the Monthly Contributors paying their Arrears the said Monthly Contribution having been applyed by the Society to the Expense of that Plate.

At the same time it was ordered that three Prints more of the Font should be delivered to each of the Subscribers thereto.

On 21 Jan 1722 Charles Paulet 2nd Duke Bolton (age 61) died. His son Charles Powlett 3rd Duke Bolton (age 36) succeeded 3rd Duke Bolton, 8th Marquess Winchester, 8th Earl Wiltshire, 8th Baron St John 1C 1539. Anne Vaughan Duchess Bolton by marriage Duchess Bolton.

On 21 Jan 1733 William Digby was born to Edward Digby (age 40).


Execution of Louis XVI

On 21 Jan 1793 Louis XVI King France (age 38) was guillotined in Paris [Map]. His son Louis XVII King France (age 7) de jure XVII King France: Capet Valois Bourbon.


Archaeologia Volume 25 Section VI. Proclamation of Henry the Eighth on his Marriage with Queen Anne Boleyn; in the possession of the Corporation of Norwich: Communicated by Hudson Gurney, Esg. V.P., in a Letter to Henry Ellis (age 54), Esq., F.R.S., Secretary.

Read 29th March, 1832.

Keswick, January 21, 1832.


Abbots Ripton Railway Disaster

On 21 Jan 1876 Isabella Williamson (age 42), and her two sons James Charles Allgood (age 13) and David Williamson Allgood (age 11) died in a railway accident at Abbots Ripton.

On 21 Jan 1876 Herbert Noble (age 19) died in a railway accident at Abbots Ripton. The Special Scotch Express train from Edinburgh to London was involved in a collision, during a blizzard, with a coal train. An express travelling in the other direction then ran into the wreckage.

On 21 Jan 1894 Emma Barnett died one week after the death of her husband William John Butler (deceased).

On 21 Jan 1900 Francis Teck (age 62) died. His son Adolphus Cambridge Duke Teck (age 31) succeeded Duke Teck. Margaret Evelyn Grosvenor Duchess Teck (age 26) by marriage Duchess Teck.

On 21 Jan 1923 Major-General Hugh Richard Dawnay 8th Viscount Downe (age 78) died. succeeded 9th Viscount Downe 2C 1685.

On 21 Jan 1940 Henry Robin Ian Russell 14th Duke Bedford was born to John Ian Robert Russell 13th Duke Bedford (age 22) and Clare Bridgman (age 37) at Ritz Hotel.

After 21 Jan 1946. Monument to Warrant Office Basil Thomas Parsons. Royal Air Force Service Number: 357411. Son of Thomas and Jane Parsons; husband of A. Kenwyn E. (Bridget) Parsons, of Fulbeck. Passed away suddenly at Rauceby R.A.F. Hospital.